PART- I

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INTRODUCTION TO RETAIL INDUSTRY
Introduction of Indian Retail Industries: Retail is India’s largest industry, accounting for over 10 per cent of the country’s GDP and around eight per cent of the employment. Retail industry in India is at the crossroads. It has emerged as one of the most dynamic and fast paced industries with several players entering the market. But because of the heavy initial investments required, break even is difficult to achieve and many of these players have not tasted success so far. However, the future is promising; the market is growing, government policies are becoming more favorable and emerging technologies are facilitating operations. Retailing in India is gradually inching its way toward becoming the next boom industry. The whole concept of shopping has altered in terms of format and consumer buying behavior, ushering in a revolution in shopping in India. Modern retail has entered India as seen in Sprawling shopping centers, multi-storied malls and huge complexes offer shopping, entertainment and food all under one roof. The Indian retailing sector is at an inflexion point where the growth of organized retailing and growth in the consumption by the Indian population is going to take a higher growth trajectory.

The Indian population is witnessing a significant change in its demographics. A large young working population with median age of 24 years, nuclear families in urban areas, along with increasing working-women population and emerging opportunities in the services sector are going to be the key growth drivers of the organized retail sector in India. Retailing is the final step in the distribution of merchandise - the last link in the Supply Chain - connecting the bulk producers of commodities to the final consumers. Retailing covers diverse products such as foot apparels, consumer goods, financial services and leisure. A retailer, typically, is someone who does not effect any significant change in the product execs breaking the bulk. He/ She are also the final stock point who makes products or services available to the consumer whenever require.

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Hence, the value proposition a retailer offers to a consumer is easy availabilities of the desired product in the desired sizes at the desired times. In the developed countries, the retail industry has developed into a fullfledged industry where more than three-fourths of the total retail trade is done by the organized sector. Huge retail chains like Wal-Mart, Carr four Group, Sears, K-Mart, McDonalds, etc. have now replaced the individual small stores. Large retail formats, with high quality ambiance and courteous. Retailing is the interface between the producer and the individual consumer buying for personal consumption. This excludes direct interface between the manufacturer and institutional buyers such as the government and other bulk customers. A retailer is one who stocks the producer’s goods and is involved in the act of selling it to the individual consumer, at a margin of profit. As Such, retailing is the last link that connects the individual consumer with the manufacturing and distribution chain. Retailing is more than selling goods: Retailing consists of the sale of goods or merchandise, from a fixed location such as a department store or kiosk, in small or individual lots for direct consumption by the purchaser. Retailing is a well recognized business function which compromises making available desired product in the desired quantity at the desired time. This creates a time, place and form utility for the consumer. The success of retailing is highly dependent on an efficient supply chain management. A well-developed supply chain reduces wastages and transaction cost thereby reducing the cost of inventories to be maintained by the producers and the traders. A reduction in the cost of inventory management leads to a reduction in the final price to the consumer. Retailing has been identified as a thrust area for promotion of textiles, processed foods, agricultural and horticultural produce. Retail Sector can be divided into organized and unorganized sectors: Unorganized Retail: Unorganized retailing is characterized by a distorted real-estate market, poor infrastructure and inefficient upstream processes, lack of modern technology,

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inadequate funding and absence of skilled manpower. Therefore, there is a need to promote organized retailing. Unorganized Retail: Unorganized retailing is characterized by a distorted real-estate market, poor infrastructure and inefficient upstream processes, lack of modern technology, inadequate funding and absence of skilled manpower. Therefore, there is a need to promote organized retailing.

Evaluation of Organized Retailing: American mass retailing began in the late 1800s with Montgomery Ward marketing its products through general merchandise mail order catalogs, which was very effective at that time for reaching a largely rural society. In the 1940s, the population began its movement to the suburbs as the economy shifted from an agricultural base to an industrialized nation. The first shopping center was opened, which would eventually be a significant factor in the decline of downtown Retailing in the 1960s and 70s. JC Penney and Sears began their national mass retailing expansion, and the use of credit cards as Major retail chains began. The 1950s witnessed the reaffirmation of the traditional family. The first planned mall and franchised food restaurant opened. As people continued to flock to the suburbs, the downtown areas began to decline. Larger suburban malls were created and anchored by traditional downtown department store merchants. Freeways were expanded and the sales of private automobiles grew, giving the consumer a wider accessible area in which to shop. Discounters were born, Korvetta being one of the firsts. The 1960s witnessed the growth of enclosed shopping centers, with department stores anchors and specialty retail chains. The baby boomers were teenagers at this point, leading to the growth of juniors-oriented stores and vendors. Women became targets not just as mothers or wives as they entered the workforce and consumers became more demanding in their expectation of quality and service.

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In the 1970s, promotional pricing started to pick up the department stores as off-price retailer emerged. The growth of retail space slowed, as sales increase came at the expense of competition, not of market growth. This competitive market led to the under performance of several retailers as gross margins experienced downtown pressure from increased competition. Retailers in large upscale markets recognized the time shortage created by dual-career families and began to offer more services to assist in saving time. The 1980s witnessed the growth of off price retailing as a distinct, enduring retail format. Retailers began to drop low profit lines. Acquisitions and mergers were actively utilized as growth strategies, private brands were redeveloped to enhance uniqueness and margins and offshore sourcing was developed to compensate for margins Broadly the organized retail sector can be divided into two segments, InStore Retailers, who operate fixed point-of-sale locations, located and designed to attract a high volume of walk-in customers, and the non-store retailers, who reach out to the customers at their homes or offices. It was only in the year 2000 that the economists put a figure to it: Rs.400,000crore (1crore = 10 million) which is expected to develop to around Rs.800,000crore by the year 2005 – an annual increase of 20 per cent. Retailing in India is unorganized with poor supply chain management perspective. According to a recent survey by some of the retail consulting bodies, an overwhelming proportion of the Rs.400,000crore retail markets are UNORGANISED. In fact, only a Rs. 20,000crore segment of the market is organized. As much as 96 per cent of the 5 million-plus outlets are smaller than 500 square feet area. This means that India per capita retailing space is about 2 square feet (compared to 16 square feet in the United States). India's per capita retailing space is thus the lowest in the world (source: KSA Technopak (I) Pvt Ltd, the India operation of the US-based Kurt Salmon Associates). Currently the retail landscape is filled with Supermarket chains with over 1000 outlets all over the country to increase to around 5000 by the 2005. The success of a couple of hyper mart’s indicating the evolution of hypermarkets in the country prominent among them is Giant, Metro, Big Bazaar models. While the average bill value at a supermarket is in the range of Rs.300 per bill, the average bill amount at a Hypermarket is in the range of Rs.7501000, indicating that the model is in tune with the global models where the average spend is increasing with the shopping experience.
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Impact of Organized Retail: Organized retailing is spreading and making its presence felt in different parts of the country. The trend in grocery retailing, however, has been slightly different with a growth concentration in the South. Though there were traditional family owned retail chains in South India such as Nilgiri’s as early as 1905, the retail revolution happened with the RPG group starting the Food world chain of food retail outlets in South India with focus on Chennai, Hyderabad and Bangalore markets, preliminarily. The experiment has reaped rich dividends and the group is now foraying into other territories as well. Owing to the success of Food world model of RPG group, several new models such as Trinethra, Subhiksha, Margin Free and others have made their foray into this sector albeit at regional levels. Today the food retail sector in India is about Rupees Ten Lakh Crores (USD 200 billions) of which the organized food retail segment is about 1 per cent and increasing at a pace of over 20% y-o-y. To be successful in food retailing in India essentially means to draw away shoppers from, the roadside hawkers and kirana stores to supermarkets. This transition can be achieved to some extent through pricing, so the success of a food retailer depends on how best he understands and squeezes his supply chain. The other major factor is that of convenience shopping which the supermarket has the edge over the traditional kirana stores. On an average a supermarket stocks up to 5000 SKU’s against few hundreds stocked at an average kirana stores. In the organized retail industry, the gestation periods are long, institutional funding is difficult, and there is none or little Government support. But the belief among top retailer chains in the country is that the industry will see large investments coming once the current ban on foreign direct investment is lifted. But that could be two-three years away. Food and grocery retailing is a tough business in India with margins being very low, and consumers not dissatisfied with existing shops where they buy. For example, The next-door grocery shopkeeper is smart and delivers good customer service, though not value. As of now, while Chennai has about five organized food and grocery retail chains, other big cities such as Delhi, Bangalore, and Mumbai average only two-three such chains. Almost all food retail players have been regionspecific as far as geographical presence is concerned in the country. To illustrate with examples, the RPG Group's Food World, Nilgiris, Margin Free, Giant, Varkey's and Subhiksha, all of which are more or less spread in the Southern region; Sabka Bazaar has a presence only in and around Delhi;
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names such as Haiko and Radhakrishna Food land are Mumbai-centric; while Adani is Ahmedabad-centric. Industry topography in India is such that spreading presence across cities is a tough call. As pointed out by many experts, organized food and grocery retailing chains going national requires significant investments. Retailing within this sector is not just about the front-end, but involves complex supply chain and logistics issues as well. The trend and mindset of the present retailer chains in India can be best understood by studying Food World as an example, which came in first in the food and grocery retailing sector. The chain has no plans to venture beyond the Southern region just yet. Current plans are to focus on the Southern markets and achieve saturation. The intention is that by 2005, they could look at the other regions. Subhiksha, a Chennai based discount chain, too wants to be the principal store of purchase for at least 40 per cent of all consumers living within 500-750 meters of the store, that is, within walking distance. This makes the point very clear that the strategy among most existing retail chains of various formats is to completely saturate the markets where they are already established players and then move on to virtually untouched areas where the challenge of sourcing resources and extending their supply chain model to best suit the size and expanse of the market would be a challenging task. It can be explained that the obstacles of looking at a pan-India model for grocery are several. Given the federal nature of the country, the weak infrastructure and the major variances in eating habits in different parts of the country, one will have to replicate the retail administration costs for at least each region and therefore the gestation period of the project becomes huge. However, if a model is in place where the upfront store revenues scale very rapidly, then it is possible. Therefore, if one is to attempt a pan-Indian grocery foray, it will have to be in the hypermarket format with its attendant investment numbers and risk profile. If a close look is taken at the nature of the Indian Retail Markets, it can be seen that there is so much potential to extract from individual regions that players are in no tearing hurry to spread out. Based on a recent study by a renowned government institution in India, in the six major metros, Delhi has the highest per capita consumption of food and grocery, among supermarkets. Chennai, “the Mecca of retailing”, comes at fourth place. This shows the high potential the sector presents. Chennai has some five supermarket chains, and each of these is doing well for themselves. So there is enough scope to expand even in one single city in India.

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Sabka Bazaar, a supermarket chain restricted to Delhi alone, is now generating sales of about Rs.11 crore from its 19 stores which best illustrates the potential of each individual city. This explains the reason for delay in intentions of retailers to spread far and wide.

Benefits of Retailing: Retailing is good for national economies where it has positive influence on influence on inflation and product availability. It also creates fortunes for its owners and is a tremendous source of employment. INDIA has been virtually the only developing country in the world that has been extremely slow in adopting this organized pattern of retailing. • • • • • • • Better quality products Employment opportunities Better social infrastructure Enhanced foreign exchange Benefit to tourism Better showcase for exports Better realization of taxes

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Indian Retail Scenario:
Retailers in India have to experiment with formats maintaining scalability in terms of segments, along with deepening penetration levels. Traditionally Indian Retail can be traced back from Weekly Markets, Melas, and Village Fairs in Small towns and villages to Kirana stores, PDS outlets, Khaki Bhandaar, co-operative stores in Urban cities. The wave of retail began with various textile manufactures like Bombay Dyeing, Raymond’s, S Kumar’s, and Grasim foraying into selling the product through their outlets and competition among FMCG players driving the forces towards retailing. The evolution of retailing lead to an emergence of various formats like Shopping malls, Super-marts, Hyper-marts, Departmental Stores, Apparel Stores, etc. catering to majority all sectors of society providing the allimportant 3Vs – Value, Variety and Volume. India is the country having the most unorganized retail market. Traditionally it is a Family’s livelihood, with their shop in the front and house at the back, while they run the Retail business. More than 99% retailers function in less than 500 square feet of shopping space. Global retail consultants KSA Technopak, have estimated that organized retailing in India is expected to touch Rs 35,000 crore in the year 2005-06. The Indian retail sector is estimated at around Rs900,000 crore, of which the organized sector accounts for a Mere 2 per cent indicating a huge potential market opportunity that is lying in the waiting for the consumer-savvy organized retailer .Purchasing power of Indian urban consumer is growing and branded merchandise in categories like Apparels, Cosmetics, Shoes, Watches, Beverages, Food and even Jewellery, are slowly becoming lifestyle products that are widely accepted by the urban Indian consumer. Indian retailers need to advantage of this growth and aiming to grow, diversify and introduce new formats have to pay more attention to the brand building process. The emphasis here is on retail as a brand rather than retailers selling brands. The focus should be on branding the retail business itself. In their preparation to face Fierce competitive pressure, Indian retailers must come to recognize the value of building their own stores as brands to reinforce their marketing positioning, to communicate quality as well as value for money. Sustainable competitive advantage will be depended on translating core values combining products, image and reputation into a coherent retail brand strategy. Growth of Organized Retail in Indian Cities:
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Organized Share of retail sector is expected to increase to 8-9 percent in 2010-11 from 6 percent in 2008. The Retail sector contributes to around 36 percent of GDP in India and is largest employment generator. The sector is dominated by small-scattered unorganized regional players, large players contributing to meager 10 percent of the total pie. Organized retail is at its nascent phase wherein the large organized retail groups are having aggressive expansion plans to penetrate the Metros and Tier I cities and establish themselves amongst rural masses of Tier I and Tier II cities. There lies a challenge for retailers to experiment with new value formats along with developing customer loyalties. Since there will be demographic shift in population growth, urbanization and migration due to transition in urban household growth and income distribution. The total retail market in the top 67 cities in India in 2006 was Rs. 2.55 trillion, which is expected to increase to Rs. 3.91 trillion in 2011. American mass retailing began in the late 1800s with Montgomery Ward marketing its products through general merchandise mail order catalogs, which was very effective at that time for reaching a largely rural society. In the 1940s, the population began its movement to the suburbs as the economy shifted from an agricultural base to an industrialized nation. The first shopping center was opened, which would eventually be a significant factor in the decline of downtown Retailing in the 1960s and 70s. JC Penney and Sears began their national mass retailing expansion, and the use of credit cards as Major retail chains began. The 1950s witnessed the reaffirmation of the traditional family. The first planned mall and franchised food restaurant opened. As people continued to flock to the suburbs, the downtown areas began to decline. Larger suburban malls were created and anchored by traditional downtown department store merchants. Freeways were expanded and the sales of private automobiles grew, giving the consumer a wider accessible area in which to shop. The 1960s witnessed the growth of enclosed shopping centers, with department stores anchors and specialty retail chains. The baby boomers were teenagers at this point, leading to the growth of juniors-oriented stores and vendors. Women became targets not just as mothers or wives as they

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entered the workforce and consumers became more demanding in their expectation of quality and service. According to CRISIL, around 87 percent of the retail opportunity comes from top 25 cities compromising Metro Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta, Mini Metros Hyderabad, Chennai, Bangalore, Mini Metros Ahmedabad and Pune, Tier I cities of Kanpur , Nagpur, Surat and Ludhiana, Tier II cities Coimbatore, Chandigarh, Lucknow, Kochi, Jaipur and Tier III cities Vadodara, Vizag, Indore, Vijaywada, Thiruvananthpuram, Bhopal, Nashik and Madurai. Organized retail has been established in Metros and Tier 1 cities, other cities having negligible level of penetration. Old Retail Formats:  Kiranas: These are food and non-food neighborhood counter stores, also called ‘mom and pop stores’ in western countries. These are big chunks forming the segregated and unorganized retail segment. These are family-owned and- run retail-outlets picking the goods from wholesalers totaling to around 12 million stores across India.  Mandis: These are the largest chunk of unorganized retail catering to urban and rural masses. Mandis are physically located at different regions to enhance convenient shopping. The sellers bring across various products like eatables, vegetables and fruits, pulses, cereals, spices etc. The most prominent of them are sabzi mandis found in most of the localities across India.  Village Haats: This form is operating in rural areas where buyers and sellers gather once in a week or month from nearby villages and small towns to cater their
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livelihood and leisure needs. These haats are a source of entertainment and socialization among rural masses.  Push Cart Vendors: The are categories of vendors roaming from door to door in various localities selling fruits, vegetables, and other eatables, from which mostly housewives makes purchases that too on credit. Upcoming Retail Formats

Modern Formats Shopping Malls Hyper marts Super marts Departmental Stores Apparel Stores Specialty format Exclusive formats

Area (sq. ft) 60,0007,00,000 50,00070,000 5,000-10,000 20,000-50,000 20,000-25,000 2,000-5,000 500-5,000

Points of Differentiation Multi-format, multi-product, multi-brands & Catering lifestyle needs. Multi-verticals. Single vertical. Single Vertical. Multi-branded single verticals, focusing on high-end customers. Multi-branded, single vertical on specific needs of customers. Owned/Franchised single product.

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COMPANY PROFILE
Introduction of Vishal Retail Ltd.: Vishal Retail Ltd, a leading player in the Indian retail industry, is a pioneer in discount retailing and is focused on tier II and III cities in the country. It has a strong presence in manufacturing and retailing of readymade garments (apparels); retailing of non-apparels and a large variety of FMCG products. The company has pan-India presence with 108 mid-sized hypermarket format stores as on April 28, 2008 covering about 2.3mn sq ft retail space area. Vishal is supported by strong manufacturing set-up in Gurgaon, Dehradun and Manesar with a capacity of 5,000 garment pieces per day in each unit. It also has 29 warehouses located in 8 key cities in India covering over 1.1mn sq ft area. Vishal started as a humble one store enterprise in 1986 in Kolkata (erstwhile, Calcutta) is today a conglomerate encompassing 117 showrooms in 75 cities / 20 states. India’s first hyper-market has also been opened for the Indian consumer by Vishal. Situated in the national capital Delhi this store boasts of the singe largest collection of goods and commodities sold under one roof in India

The group had a turnover of Rs. 1463.12 million for fiscal 2005, under the dynamic leadership of Mr. Ram Chandra Agarwal. The group had of turnover Rs 2884.43 million for fiscal 2006 and Rs. 6026.53 million for fiscal 2007. The group’s prime focus is on retailing. The Vishal stores offer affordable family fashion at prices to suit every pocket. The group’s philosophy is integration and towards this end has initiated backward integration in the field of high fashion by setting up a state of the art manufacturing facility to support its retail endeavors.

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Company Background: Vishal Retail was incorporated on July 23, 2001 as Vishal Retail Private Limited as a retailer of ready-made apparels in Kolkata in 2001. The company has acquired the business of 'M/s The Vishal Garments' and 'M/s Vishal Garments' in 2001. In 2003, the company has acquired the manufacturing facilities from Vishal Fashions Private Limited and M/s Vishal Apparels. Vishal is one of fastest growing retailing groups in India. Its outlets cater to almost all price ranges. The showrooms have over 70,000 products range which fulfills all your household needs, and can be catered to under one roof. It is covering about 2059292 lac sq. ft. in 18 states across India. Each store gives you international quality goods and prices hard to match. The cost benefits that are derived from the large central purchase of goods and services are passed on to the consumer.

Mr. Ramchandra Agarwal

Mrs. Uma Agarwal

Investment Rational:
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Vishal Retail sells ready-made apparels (including its own brands) and wide range of household merchandise and other consumer goods such as footwear, toys, watches, toiletries, grocery items, sports items, crockery, gift and novelties. Vishal is value Retail Company catering to middle and lower middle income groups. As Apparel segment contributes 63 percent; it has plans to focus more on FMCG. To reduce cost, Vishal does in-house production of apparels, Procurement of goods directly procurement of goods from the small and medium size vendors and manufacturers. Efficient Logistics and distribution system along with customized product mix at stores depending on the regional customer behavior and preferences. Plans of penetrating deeper into Tier 1 and Tier 2 cities to bank upon early mover advantage, where organized retail is yet to make a significant mark, which will help establish and build customer loyalty prior to other players. Higher margins of around 5-6 percent in private labels which account for 10 percent of sales in FY07. Future Prospective: Vishal Retail Ltd has declared that the company has opened four new Showrooms at different localities. The company has opened a store at Shree Ram Palace, Main Delhi Road, Meerut. This is the company’s second store in Meerut spreading across an area of 3,600 Sq. ft. (Approx). The company opened a store at Nauchandi Garh Road, Meerut commonly called Dreemz, Opp. Samrat Heavens, Meerut. This is the company’s third store in Meerut covering up an area of 12,000 Sq. ft. The company has opened a showroom at Enclave, Near BSNL Office, Ranipur More, Haridwar. This is the company’s first store in Haridwar spreading across an area of 9,545 Sq. ft. (Approx). The company opened its store at Arcade, Plot No. 56-58, Dumas Road, Piplad, Surat. This is company’s second store in Surat spreading across an area of 38,000 Sq. Ft (Approx).

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Vishal Retail Limited is an India-based retail company. It was established in 1986. It was formerly called Vishal Retail Private Limited and changed its name to Vishal Retail Limited in 2006. The company is based in New Delhi, India. As of August 8, 2007, the company operated 53 retail stores, including two stores that are operated by its franchisees. It sells readymade clothes, and a variety of household merchandise and other consumer goods, including toys, footwear, toiletries, sports items, watches, grocery items, crockery, novelties and gifts. Today, the stock is hovering around Rs 724 on the Bombay Stock Exchange. Vishal Retail has seen a 52-week high of 812 and low of Rs 423.

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Factors Affecting Retailing in India: Various factors affect retailing in India. However, if one were to Single out the single biggest different in the development of organized retailing in India, it would undoubtly be the cost of real estate. The high cost of real estate in India, in spite of the fact that the per capital income is one of the lowest in the world, makes the country a land of contradictions. In fact so exorbitant is the cost of property in almost every town of India that it makes the very concept of organized retailing nonviable. Obsolete rental laws have compounded the situation even further and unless immediate and serious steps are initiated in this direction it would be fairly long before the benefits of this concept reach the public at large. The rampant corruption &poor implantations of taxation laws also permit a majority of the unorganized retail fraternity with substantially large turnover to avoid paying full taxes. There are no single factors but numerous factors which have prevented organized retailing from taking off as it should have in India. Some of the leading factors that have restricted this growth are as follows. • High real estate costs • Obsolete rental laws • Lack of finance options • High interest costs • Unplanned cities • Rampant corruption • Exorbitant electricity costs

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VISION 2010: The past 2-3 years have seen a number of developments in the retailing business in India. The entries of corporate houses like RPG, Tatas and Piramals have increased the capital availability in the market. Bigger players like Shoppers Stop are in a position to take advantage of their sizes in dealing with the manufacturers. Despite a slowdown in the economy, customer queues at the stores are not decreasing. Retail sector is bound to grow in the coming years. But how much and in what direction are the questions that need to be evaluated. Various agencies have made different estimates of the size of organized market in 2010. The one thing in common amongst these estimates is that the Indian organized Retailing industry will be very big in 2010. The status of the industry will depend a lot on external factors like Government regulations and real estate prices, besides activities of the retailers and demands of the customers. Based on our analysis of present trends, and development of retailing elsewhere, we present our perspectives and snapshots of organized retailing, as it would exit in 2010.

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MAJOR COMPETITORS OF VISHAL MEGAMART Major Players of Retailing in India: Retailer Current Format New Formats. Experimenting With Shoppers' Department Store Quasi-mall Stop Ebony Department Store Quasi-mall, smaller outlets, adding food retail Corner shops

Crossword Large bookstore Pyramid

Department Store Quasi-mall, food retail

Pantaloon Own brand store Hypermarket Subhiksha Supermarket Vitan Food world Globus Bombay Bazaar E-food mart Metro Supermarket Considering moving to self service Suburban discount store

Food supermarket Hypermarket, Food world express Department Store Small fashion stores Aggregation of Kiranas Aggregation of Kiranas Cash and carry

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Major Competitors of Vishal Megamart in Lucknow City:
1. BIG-BAZAR Type Founded Headquarters Industry Parent Owner Slogan Subsidiary of Pantaloon Group 2001 Mumbai, India Retail Pantaloon Group Kishore Biyani Is se sasta aur accha kahi nahin

Big Bazaar is a chain of shopping malls in India currently with 29 outlets, owned by the Pantaloon Group. It works on same the economy model as Wal-Mart and has had considerable success in many Indian cities and small towns. The idea was pioneered by entrepreneur Kishore Biyani, the head of Pantaloon Retail India Ltd. COMPANY PROFILE OF BIG-BAZAR: Pantaloon Retail (India) Limited, is India's leading retail company with presence across multiple lines of businesses. The company owns and manages multiple retail formats that cater to a wide cross-section of the Indian society and is able to capture almost the entire consumption basket of the Indian consumer. Headquartered in Mumbai ( Bombay), the company operates through 4 million square feet of retail space, has over 140 stores across 32 cities in India and employs over 14,000 people. The company registered a turnover of Rs 2019 crore for FY 2005-06. Pantaloon Retail forayed into modern retail in 1997 with the launching of fashion retail chain, Pantaloons in Kolkata. In 2001, it launched Big Bazaar, a hypermarket chain that combines the look and feel of Indian bazaars, with aspects of modern retail, like choice, convenience and hygiene. This was followed by Food Bazaar, food and grocery chain and launch Central, a first of its kind seamless mall located in the heart of major Indian cities. Some of it's other formats include, Collection i (home improvement products), EZone (consumer electronics), Depot (books, music, gifts and stationary), aLL (fashion apparel for plus-size individuals), Shoe Factory (footwear) and Blue Sky (fashion accessories). It has recently launched its etailing venture,
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The group's subsidiary companies include, Home Solutions Retail India Ltd, Pantaloon Industries Ltd, Galaxy Entertainment and Indus League Clothing. The group also has joint venture companies with a number of partners including French retailer Etam group, Lee Cooper, Manipal Healthcare, Talwalkar's, Gini & Jony and Liberty Shoes. Planet Retail, a group company owns the franchisee of international brands like Marks & Spencer, Debenhams, Next and Guess in India. Pantaloon Retail (India) Limited, is India's leading retail company with presence across multiple lines of businesses. The company owns and manages multiple retail formats that cater to a wide cross-section of the Indian society and is able to capture almost the entire consumption basket of the Indian consumer. Headquartered in Mumbai ( Bombay), the company operates through 4 million square feet of retail space, has over 140 stores across 32 cities in India and employs over 14,000 people. The company registered a turnover of Rs 2019 crore for FY 2005-06. Pantaloon Retail forayed into modern retail in 1997 with the launching of fashion retail chain, Pantaloons in Kolkata. In 2001, it launched Big Bazaar, a hypermarket chain that combines the look and feel of Indian bazaars, with aspects of modern retail, like choice, convenience and hygiene. This was followed by Food Bazaar, food and grocery chain and launch Central, a first of its kind seamless mall located in the heart of major Indian cities. Some of it's other formats include, Collection i (home improvement products), EZone (consumer electronics), Depot (books, music, gifts and stationary), aLL (fashion apparel for plus-size individuals), Shoe Factory (footwear) and Blue Sky (fashion accessories). It has recently launched its retailing venture, The group's subsidiary companies include, Home Solutions Retail India Ltd, Pantaloon Industries Ltd, Galaxy Entertainment and Indus League Clothing. The group also has joint venture companies with a number of partners including French retailer Etam group, Lee Cooper, Manipal Healthcare, Talwalkar's, Gini & Jony and Liberty Shoes. Planet Retail, a group company owns the franchisee of international brands like Marks & Spencer, Debenhams, Next and Guess in India. Big Bazaar is not just another hypermarket. It caters to every need of your family. Where Big Bazaar scores over other stores is its value for money proposition for the Indian customers. At Big Bazaar, you will definitely get the best products at the best prices -- that’s what we guarantee. With the ever increasing array of private labels, it has opened the doors into the world of fashion and general merchandise including home furnishings, utensils, crockery, cutlery, sports goods and much more at prices that will surprise
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you. And this is just the beginning. Big Bazaar plans to add much more to complete your shopping experience. BIG BAZAAR WHOLESALE CLUB: The Big Bazaar Wholesale Club brings to you an opportunity to save in bulk as you buy in bulk. In line with the Big Bazaar tradition of providing best deals at best prices, the Big Bazaar Wholesale Club provides you bulk deals at wholesale prices. An extension of Big Bazaar, the Big Bazaar Wholesale Club offers multipacks and bulk packs of a select range of merchandise at wholesale prices. The merchandise categories range from Food & FMCG to Home Linen and many more. You will not find any merchandise being sold loose/single unit (except fresh) at a Big Bazaar Wholesale Club. A typical Big Bazaar Wholesale Club is located adjacent to a Big Bazaar in the form of a separate section. The look and feel of a wholesale market is evident in the stores from the stacking styles and use of a lot of hand written signages by chalks on black slates. Taking care of your savings, the Big Bazaar Wholesale Club will ensure that the more you buy, the more you save. If you enjoy shopping at wholesale markets for your entire family, or you have a huge circle of friends who would like to get together for their monthly shopping needs or if you are a retailer looking for wholesale offers then the Big Bazaar Wholesale Club is the place to shop at. To shop at the Big Bazaar Wholesale Club, you just need to enroll yourself as a member of the club. If you possess an Anmol card or an ICICI-Big Bazaar card then you are automatically enrolled as a member of the Big Bazaar Wholesale Club. So buy more as you save more or save more as you buy more at the Big Bazaar Wholesale Club.

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Sales Promotion Strategies By Big Bazaar: The greatest opportunity for new business is always the existing customer base. Big Bazaar totally focuses on this policy. Using creative and innovative customer communication is far more likely to be remembered than the "same old stuff" everyone does. One of your products/services? Making sure they are aware of your full range of capabilities can be a simple way to get new orders. Even the most dedicated sales person may not call at the appropriate time. A planned approach to customer communication will be most effective. Customers like to be appreciated, its human nature. So look carefully at how you can motivate your customers and build their trust.If you are not promoting your products or services you can be sure your competitors are. Look at things you can leverage to generate customer interest and buying decisions

2-FUTURE BAZAAR : FUTURE BAZAAR is owned and operated by Future Bazaar India Ltd., a subsidiary of Pantaloon Retail (India) Limited. As part of India’s largest retail chain, we enjoy the benefits of buying in bulk for the entire group and keep our margins low, so you get a great range of products at great prices. We pass these benefits on to you, so our prices are the lowest we can make – every day. About our parent company: Pantaloon Retail (India) Limited led by Kishore Biyani is the country's largest retailer. It owns and operates multiple retail formats including Pantaloons, Big Bazaar, Food Bazaar, Central, E-Zone, Fashion Station, Depot and many others. Headquartered in Mumbai, Pantaloon Retail is listed on BSE and NSE with a turnover of Rs 2,018 crores Pantaloon Retail was selected as the Best of Best Retailers in Asia by Retail Asia-Pacific Big Bazaar was awarded the CNBC-Awaaz Consumer Awards in 2006 and the Readers' Digest Platinum Brand Award 2006. The Future Bazaar promise Manufacturer’s warranties on all products

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Future Bazaar sells only original products from authorized dealers; so all applicable products carry the original manufacturer’s warranty. To service any product purchased at Future Bazaar, please visit the authorized service center of the manufacturer. The invoice accompanying the product is your warranty document, so please preserve it. Guaranteed Delivery: We guarantee to deliver the exact product you selected, without defects. In case you have received a different product, or if the product was damaged in transit, please contact us within the stipulated time period and we will ensure that we replace it or refund you for it. Please note that delivery times vary according to products. Although we deliver goods within the committed time period, but there could be occasional delays. We will contact you, in case deliveries are expected to get delayed. Real Customer Support: Our customer support is manned by real employees, not computers or contract call centre personnel. Be assured that when you call us that you are talking to someone who can take decisions and resolve your problems.

Secure Payments: We are committed to ensuring that no payment misuse happens, so we work with banks and payment gateways to ensure that your information is protected. Payments are protected both by us and by the policies of your bank, and the chances of fraud in these channels are actually very low. FutureBazaar openly publishes its office addresses and is part of India’s largest retail company with a presence all over India – so you know how to contact us in person, if required.

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Product range of Big Bazaar: 1-Apparel and Accessories for Men, Women and Children 2-Baby Accessories 3-Cosmetics. 4-Crockery. 5-Dress Materials Suiting & Shirting. 6-Electrical Accessories. 7-Electronics. 8-Footwear Toys. 9-Home Textiles. 10-Home Needs. 11-Household Appliances. 12-Household Plastics. 13Hardware. 14-Home Decor Luggage. 15-Linens. 16-Sarees. 17-Stationery. 18-Utensils & Utilities.

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2. SHOPPERS’ STOP: The foundation of Shoppers' Stop was laid on October 27, 1991 by the K. Raheja Corp. group of companies. Being amongst India's biggest hospitality and real estate players, the Group crossed yet another milestone with its lifestyle venture - Shoppers' Stop. From its inception, Shoppers' Stop has progressed from being a single brand shop to becoming a Fashion & Lifestyle store for the family. Today, Shoppers' Stop is a household name, known for its superior quality products, services and above all, for providing a complete shopping experience. With an immense amount of expertise and credibility, Shoppers’ Stop has become the highest benchmark for the Indian retail industry. In fact, the company’s continuing expansion plans aim to help Shoppers’ Stop meet the challenges of the retail industry in an even better manner than it does today.

Vision & Values Of Shoppers’ Stop Vision To be a global retailer in India and maintain its No. 1 position in the Indian market in the Department Store category. Values The following are the values that help us in achieving our mission and vision: • We shall not take what is not ours. • The Obligation to dissent (against a viewpoint that is not acceptable). • We shall have an environment conducive to openness. • We shall believe in innovation. • We shall have an environment conducive to development. • We shall have the willingness to apologise and/or forgive. • We shall respect our customers' rights. • The value of trust • We shall be fai Milestones26

Year & Events: 1991 Launched first Shoppers’ Stop store selling men’s wear at Andheri (Mumbai) 1992 Ladies apparel section added Children and non - apparel accessories sections added Disney carnival organized, with official Disney characters (Mickey, Minnie, Donald and Goofy) participating, In House Retail Management Trainee Programme started 1994 First Citizens Loyalty programme launched 1995 Second store opened (Bangalore) 1996 Festival of Britain celebrated in association with the Commercial Department of the British Consulate 1997 Shopper’s Stop as a body corporate was incorporated on June 16. Festival of Indian tradition and culture, ‘Parikrama’, launched Co-branded credit card launched for FCC members in partnership with HSBC. 1998 Third store opened (Hyderabad), the then largest with 72,287 sq. ft of retail area SSL co-opted as India’s only member to the Intercontinental Group of Department Stores (IDGS) 1999 Implemented JDA Retail ERP (a global leader in retail ERP packages) Fourth and Fifth stores launched (Jaipur & Delhi) 2000 Sixth & Seventh stores opened (Chennai & Chembur,Mumbai) Placed equity with external investors to raise Rs 600 mn Acquired Crossword, one of India’s leading book retailing chain, from India Book House in partnership with ICICI Trusteeship Services Limited (A/c ICICI Emerging Sectors Fund) 2001 Implemented Warehousing Module of JDA, Auto Replenishment and Auto Purchase Order system and business to business connectivity Eight and Ninth store launched (Pune & Bandra, Mumbai) Profit Linked Reward System (PLRS) introduced for all employees

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2002 Tenth store opened (Kandivali, Mumbai) 2003 Received various industry awards from CMAI (including Best Retailer of the Year) and from Nasscom (Best IT Practice in Retail Category) Signed Austin Reed licence for men’s outerwear for India exclusively. Three stores launched taking the total number of stores to 13 (Mulund, Mumbai, Gurgaon and Kolkata) 2004 Fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth stores launched in February 2004 (Malad, Mumbai), June 2004 (Salt Lake City, Kolkatta) and October 2004 (Bangeratta Bangalore) respectively taking total retail area to 752,848 sq ft. Received Superbrand status for 2003 and 2004 Received Images Retail award for the “Most favoured retail destination of the year” – September, 2004. Received the “Organization With Innovative HR Practices” award at the HR Excellence Awards organized by Mid - Day, Big Break & Daks – November 2004. Received Top retailer 2004 India Bronze award given by Retail AsiaPacific Top 500 awards. 2005 Seventeenth store launched in April 2005 at Nucleus Mall, Pune. Eighteenth and Nineteenth stores launched in May 2005 at Dynamix Mall, Juhu Mumbai and at Bangalore. The Company makes an Initial Public Offer of 69,46,033 Equity Shares of Rs.10 each at a premium of Rs.228 per share aggregating to Rs. 1653.16 million. The issue received overwhelming response with a subscription of more than 17 times. Twentieth Store launched at ‘Shipra Mall’, Ghaziabad, in June 2005. The Company acquired balance 49% of the Equity Share Capital of Crossword Bookstores Limited from ICICI Emerging Sectors Fund, making Crossword its Wholly Owned Subsidiary Company. 2006 Launch of BRIO at Bangalore. BRIO is a stylish, new world of gourmet coffee, specialty tea and delectable European bistro fare which promises to offer something which all the coffee connoisseurs across the country have never experienced before Launch of mothercare at the Juhu & Bandra Stores. ‘mothercare’ is the leading specialist retailer for mothers-to-be and parents of young children, offering the widest range of clothing, hardware and toys for the pre-school

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child, in the UK internationally. Launch of HyperCITY at Mumbai. We made a foray into food and general merchandise retailing through Hypercity, our 124,000 sq. ft hypermarket. The product offering includes fresh fruits and vegetables, groceries, apparels, electronic appliances etc – all under one roof. Shoppers Stop Limited is appointed as “Master Franchisee” of Crossword Bookstores Limited for conducting the business of retail book stores under the trademark “Crossword” at all existing stores (Crossword Owned Stores) wherever permissible and excluding stores which are operated by Crossword’s existing franchisees. Launch of the second HomeStop at Malad, Mumbai. The store is approx. 49,000 sq. ft. on a single floor with displays of bedrooms, living rooms, a modular kitchen and centre podium to exhibit lifestyle displays in a live atmosphere. The store has an array of brands in kitchenware and bed linen from India and abroad. Launch of our first store in the city of Nawabs, Lucknow. Measuring approx. 53,000 sq. ft. spread over three floors, it is the anchor store of the E-City Fun Republic Mall at Gomti Nagar. 2007 Shopper’s Stop Limited has forays into airport retailing through a joint venture with The Nuance Group AG of Switzerland, which is the world’s leading airport retailer. The company bags concessions for retail operations at the Terminal 1B – Departure of the Mumbai Domestic Airport and the Greenfield Bangalore International Airport for both domestic and international terminals. Shopper’s Stop Ltd. and Hypercity Retail India Pvt Ltd. sign a Memorandum of Understanding to enter into a franchise arrangement for the ARGOS formats of catalogue and internet retailing, with Home Retail Corporate Governance: The Company remains committed to the concept of good Corporate Governance practices in all its activities to ensure the ultimate goal of making the Company a value driven organization. Its philosophy on the code of Corporate Governance is:
• • •

To ensure adequate control systems to enable the Board to efficiently conduct the business and discharge its responsibilities to shareholders. To ensure that the decision making process is fair and transparent. To ensure fullest involvement and commitment of the management for maximization of shareholders value.

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• •

To imbibe the corporate values in the employees and encourage them in their conduct. To ensure the Company follows the globally recognized corporate governance practices.

The Board of Directors consists of seven Non Executive Directors and two Executive Director viz; Managing Director & Executive Director & CEO of the Company. All key decisions are taken only after detailed deliberations and discussions by the Board. The Board acts with autonomy and independence in exercising strategic decision making process and discharging its fiduciary responsibilities. The Board members are presented with all the relevant information on vital matters affecting the working of the Company as well as those which require deliberations at the highest level. It is ensured that the information, as required under Annexure I to the provisions of Clause 49 of the Listing Agreement is being made available to the Board Members. The size and composition of the Board conforms to the requirements of the Corporate Governance norms as stipulated under the provisions of the Listing Agreement entered into with the Stock Exchanges. The Audit Committee consists of only non-executive directors, with the majority being independent directors. Terms of Reference of the Audit Committee are as per Section 292A of the Companies Act, 1956 and the guidelines as set out in the listing agreement entered with the Stock Exchanges. As per the recommendation of the Compensation /Remuneration Committee, the Board and the shareholders approves the remuneration payable to the Managing Director & Executive Director & CEO of the Company. The Committee also formulates the Employee Stock Option Plans (ESOP). BRAND DIRECTORY OF SHOPPER’S STOP Men’s: • Austin Reed • Van Heusen • Arrow • Louis Philippe • Indigo Nation • Scullers
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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Zodiac Excallibur Allen Solly Black Berry’s Shapes Easies Park Avenue VF Stop Satya paul Givo Theme Giovani Life Fried Water Mufti Tuscan Verve Weekender Tantra Spykar

Women's: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Aliza Donatein Expozay Black Berry’s Allen Solly Free Look Wills Sport Weekender Union Bay One Indian Earth Life Tangle Upper Class Vibe
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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Kids: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Kraus Biba Ishvarah Indifeel Urban Trio Affairs Rang Kashish Haute Curry Sanna Raviver Rocky S Jeans Triumph Enamor Vanity Fair

Stop Little Kangaroo Disney Babies Kids' Studio Winnie the Pooh Zero Value M Frills and Flowers Weekender Gini & Jony Lee Youth Free Look Pepe Bunny Kids Kitten Gini & Jony Madigrass

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3- Globus Retail: About the Company: Strong, Competitive, Innovative, Adaptive Launched in January 1998, Globus is a part of the Rajan Raheja group. The company opened its first store in 1999 at Indore followed by the launch of its second store in Chennai (T-Nagar). Soon to follow was another in Chennai located in Adyar. The flagship store in Mumbai was opened on 1st November 2001 followed by a swanky new outlet in New Delhi in South Extension Part-2. The sixth & seventh stores are in Bangalore in Koramangala & Richmond Road respectively. The Eighth store in Ghaziabad at Shipra Mall followed by the ninth, tenth and eleventh in Kalaghoda, Mumbai, Thane and Ghaziabad, twelfth store at Kanpur and thirteenth store in Ahmedabad & fourteenth store in Lucknow.As of May 2008, Globus has opened its 24th Store in Nagpur and the journey continues.

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Mission: Achieve customer delight by offering quality products and services through a process of continuous innovation and adaptation. Build a dynamic team of committed and passionate employees through sustained learning and grooming. Develop mutually beneficial relationships with our business partners. Employ cost-effective processes and thereby create a strong organization. Infrastructure: Globus Stores Pvt. Ltd. was formed to contribute in the revolution sweeping the retail industry. Globus promises to bring about a perceptible change in the way apparel and lifestyle retailing has been carried so far. Towards this end, modern international technology has been brought in and heavy investments have been made in investing and acquiring the best, tried and tested processes and procedures of operation.
• • • • •

Research & Design Production & Merchandising Marketing & Brand Development Service Human resources

Future: Globus combines state of art international information technology, the highest quality human resources and sustained financial commitment to realize the long term vision. We are rapidly expanding and the target is to have an additional 100 fashion stores by the end of 2012. Product Ranges: Dress Materials Suiting & Shirting Electrical Accessories. Electronics Equipments Footwear Toys. Home Textiles. Home Needs goods. Household Appliances. Household Plastics. Hardware. Products Offered by Vishal Megamart:
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HOME FURNISHING: Drawing Room Door Mat Carpet Curtains Kitchen Apron Kitchen Napkin Bedroom Bed Sheet Pillows Pillow Cover Bathroom Bath Mats Towel Gift Sets

FOOD MART: FOOD & BEVERAGES

SPORTS & FITNESS: INDOOR GAMES Basket Ball T.T. Bat Boxing Kit Swimming Costumes Water Ball Fitness Equip. OUTDOOR GAMES Cricket Bat Football Lawn Tennis Tennis Racket Tennis Ball

FOOTWEAR: BOYS Shoes GIRLS Slippers
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Sandals LADIES Shoes Slippers

Sandals MENS Shoes Slippers

TELEMART: Communication Mobile Mobile Accessories Mobile Batteries Mobile Charger Mobile Dori

MENS: Upper Shirt Casual Shirt Formal Ethnic & Sports Night Suits T-Shirts Dupatta Sherwani Lower Jeans(MP) Cotton Trouser(MPC) Winter Wear Suit(WMC) Blazer(WMB) Windcheater(WMW) Jacket

LADIES ACCESSORIES: Upper Kurta Skirt Top Ethnic Nighty Lower Pants Jeans Capri Winter Wear Jackets
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Lancha Sharara Salwar Suit

Stawl Blazer Track Suit

INFANTS: Garments Hot Pant Frock Baba Suit Winter Wear Sweater Pull Over Accessories Bed Sheet Under Garments Socks

WOMEN: Sarees Fancy(SRF) Synthetics Banarsi Jewellery Necklace Ring Personal Items Cap(LCA) Socks(Las) Cosmetics LIp Gloss Nail Polish

KIDS BOYS: Lower Jeans Bermudas Dungries Upper Shirt Formal T-Shirt

Sets Night Suit Baba Suit Ethnic Kurta- Pyjama Sherwani

Winter Wear Suit Blazer Jacket

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KIDS GIRLS: Lower Hot Pant Skirt Dungries Upper Tops(GWT Frock(GFK) Sets Night Suit Capri Set Ethnic Sharara Lancha

TRAVEL ACCESSORIES: Luggages Suitcase Pouch & Cases Waist Pouch Vanity Cases Portfolio Bags Shoulder Bags Executive Bag School Bags

HOUSEHOLD: Acrylic Ware Dinner Set Copper Mug Pressure Home Aids Cooker Floor Wiper Cooker Sanitary Brush Pressure Pan General PlasticElectrical Goods App. Coffee Mug Chopper Bucket Microwave Oven Steel Cake Server Non Stick Handi Dosa Tawa Bone China Soup Set Dessert Set

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Glass Ware Cup Lemon Set

Thermo Ware Tiffin Container

Porcelain Cup & Saucer

LIFESTYLE: Time Zone Opticals Gifts & Novelties Sun Flower Vase Key Chain Perfume/Deo Spray Deo

Ladies Wrist Ladies Watch Glass Mens Wrist Mens Sun Glass Watch Mens Electric & Accessories Electronics Items Belts Battery (ABT) Wallets Calculator

TOYS & GAMES: Cycles & Scooters Musical Toys Barbie Doll Cycles Non-Musical Other Dolls Scooters Board Games Infant Video Games Toys Wooden T.V. Video Teether Blocks Game Hand Video Puzzles Swing Game Soft Toys Dolls

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STATIONARY: School Exam Board Clay Party Stuff Balloons Ribbons Office Office File Punching Machine Paper Mart Diary File

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SWOT ANALYSIS
STRENGTHS:  We can encash brand image of Vishal Retail Ltd. to sell its new product.  It sells product at cheaper prices.  Garment sector of the Vishal is much more superior to other retail stores.  It offers wide range of products under one roof.  It provides good after-sale service.  It is the only store in Lucknow where you can exchange the goods after purchase. (On selected items).  The Vishal Mega Mart is situated at the big market place.  It segments on middle and lower middle income groups, which constitute majority of the population in India.  It has welled design store & well organized store.

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WEAKNESSES:  Absolutely no brand awareness for the product. (Z-Line).  Need to incorporate many new features as per customer requirement.  Lack of proper extraction of work from staff.  Need to include more varieties of the same item.  Need to provide more offers/ discounts on FMCG. Here the perception of the people is quite low, because from my consumer behavior survey I have found out that most of respondents think that Vishal Mega Mart is not providing good offers/discounts on FMCG in comparison of Big bazaar.  Need to improve store layout according to customer facility.  People are not so modern in Lucknow and their perceptions are quite advance. OPPORTUNITIES:  No other big competitor in that area.  To increase the customer satisfaction by providing different variety of products.  Z-line (Manufacturing unit of Vishal) if we create the brand image of it. It will get additional sales in the future.  Coming era is of knowledge and information if we sell our manufacturing unit product through internet so we can create its brand image + additional sales in future.

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 There is a boom of retail in future according to current scenario. If Vishal creates brand image of its Z-line product, so it can give direct competition to the other branded products in future. THREATS:  Big bazaar, Spencer, Reliance and Globus are the main competitors.  Overseas group entering the market.  Increased competition in the domestic market.

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STRENGTHS OF COMPETITORS: The Big Bazaar is situated at the Saharaganj mall, Lucknow. It has welled design store of 70,000sqft and well organized store. locations.  It segments all age groups and income groups.  Additional space for the display.  Competitors provide good salary to the staff.  Large number of staff working in the competitors’ organization.  It gets credit from MNC’s for the extended period of time.  Regular advertising in newspaper, radio, and TV for reminding the customers about its stock.  Good space for parking of the competitors’ at different locations of the retail outlets.

 The Spencer is situated at Nishalganj and different other public

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Methodology: Research methodology is the way to systematically solve the research problem .It may be under stood as a science of studying to how research is done scientifically. In it we study the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them. In research methodology we not only talk of the research methods but also consider the logic behind the methods we use in the content of our research study and explain why we are using a particular method and why we are not using others so that research results are capable of being evaluated either by the researcher himself or by others. Secondary data are those which have been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process. There are several ways by which secondary data can be classified. Survey Method: The survey is a non-experimental, descriptive research method. Surveys can be useful when a researcher wants to collect data on phenomena that cannot be directly observed (such as opinions on library services). Surveys are used extensively in library and information science to assess attitudes and characteristics of a wide range of subjects, from the quality of user-system interfaces to library user reading habits. In a survey, researchers sample a population. Basha and Harter (1980) state that "a population is any set of persons or objects that possesses at least one common characteristic." Examples of populations that might be studied are 1) all 1999 graduates of GSLIS at the University of Texas, or 2) all the users of UT General Libraries. Since populations can be quite large, researchers directly question only a sample (i.e. a small proportion) of the population

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Types of Surveys: Surveys can be divided into two broad categories: the questionnaire and the interview. Questionnaires are usually paper-and-pencil instruments that the respondent completes. Interviews are completed by the interviewer based on the respondent says. Sometimes, it's hard to tell the difference between a questionnaire and an interview. For instance, some people think that questionnaires always ask short closed-ended questions while interviews always ask broad open-ended ones. But you will see questionnaires with open-ended questions (although they do tend to be shorter than in interviews) and there will often be a series of closed-ended questions asked in an interview. Survey research has changed dramatically in the last ten years. We have automated telephone surveys that use random dialing methods. There are computerized kiosks in public places that allows people to ask for input. A whole new variation of group interview has evolved as focus group methodology. Increasingly, survey research is tightly integrated with the delivery of service. Your hotel room has a survey on the desk. Your waiter presents a short customer satisfaction survey with your check. You get a call for an interview several days after your last call to a computer company for technical assistance. You're asked to complete a short survey when you visit a web site. Here, I'll describe the major types of questionnaires and interviews, keeping in mind that technology is leading to rapid evolution of methods. We'll discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of these different survey types in Advantages and Disadvantages of Survey Methods Questionnaires: When most people think of questionnaires, they think of the mail survey. All of us have, at one time or another, received a questionnaire in the mail. There are many advantages to mail surveys. They are relatively inexpensive to administer. You can send the exact same instrument to a wide number of people. They allow the respondent to fill it out at their own convenience. But there are some disadvantages as well. Response rates from mail surveys are often very low. And, mail questionnaires are not the best vehicles for asking for detailed written responses. A second type is the group administered questionnaire. A sample of respondents is brought together and asked to respond to a structured sequence of questions. Traditionally, questionnaires were administered in group settings for convenience. The researcher could give the questionnaire to those who were present and be fairly sure that there would be a high
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response rate. If the respondents were unclear about the meaning of a question they could ask for clarification. And, there were often organizational settings where it was relatively easy to assemble the group (in a company or business, for instance). What's the difference between a group administered questionnaire and a group interview or focus group? In the group administered questionnaire, each respondent is handed an instrument and asked to complete it while in the room. Each respondent completes an instrument. In the group interview or focus group, the interviewer facilitates the session. People work as a group, listening to each other's comments and answering the questions. Someone takes notes for the entire group -- people don't complete an interview individually. Survey Interviews: Interviews are a far more personal form of research than questionnaires. In the personal interview, the interviewer works directly with the respondent. Unlike with mail surveys, the interviewer has the opportunity to probe or ask follow-up questions. And, interviews are generally easier for the respondent, especially if what is sought is opinions or impressions. Interviews can be very time consuming and they are resource intensive. The interviewer is considered a part of the measurement instrument and interviewers have to be well trained in how to respond to any contingency. Almost everyone is familiar with the telephone interview. Telephone interviews enable a researcher to gather information rapidly. Most of the major public opinion polls that are reported were based on telephone interviews. Like personal interviews, they allow for some personal contact between the interviewer and the respondent. And, they allow the interviewer to ask follow-up questions. But they also have some major disadvantages. Many people don't have publicly-listed telephone numbers. Some don't have telephones. People often don't like the intrusion of a call to their homes. And, telephone interviews have to be relatively short or people will feel imposed upon. Constructing the Survey: Constructing a survey instrument is an art in itself. There are numerous small decisions that must be made -- about content, wording, format, placement -that can have important consequences for your entire study. While there's no one perfect way to accomplish this job, we do have lots of advice to offer that might increase your chances of developing a better final product.

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First of all you'll learn about the two major types of surveys that exist, the questionnaire and the interview and the different varieties of each. Then you'll see how to write questions for surveys. There are three areas involved in writing a question:
• • •

determining the question content, scope and purpose choosing the response format that you use for collecting information from the respondent figuring out how to word the question to get at the issue of interest

Finally, once you have your questions written, there is the issue of how best to place them in your survey. You'll see that although there are many aspects of survey construction that are just common sense, if you are not careful you can make critical errors that have dramatic effects on your results.

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Research Design:

Method Used: Type Of survey: Instrument used: Sample size: Data used:

Survey method Interview Questionnaire 200 Both Primary & Secondary

Data Collection: Data Collection is an important aspect of any type of research study. Inaccurate data collection can impact the results of a study and ultimately lead to invalid results. Data collection methods for impact evaluation vary along a continuum. At the one end of this continuum are quantatative methods and at the other end of the continuum are Qualitative methods for data collection .

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Data collection methods :
The Quantitative data collection methods, rely on random sampling and structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories. They produce results that are easy to summarize, compare, and generalize. Quantitative research is concerned with testing hypotheses derived from theory and/or being able to estimate the size of a phenomenon of interest. Depending on the research question, participants may be randomly assigned to different treatments. If this is not feasible, the researcher may collect data on participant and situational characteristics in order to statistically control for their influence on the dependent, or outcome, variable. If the intent is to generalize from the research participants to a larger population, the researcher will employ probability sampling to select participants. Typical quantitative data gathering strategies include:
• •

Experiments/clinical trials. Observing and recording well-defined events (e.g., counting the number of patients waiting in emergency at specified times of the day). Obtaining relevant data from management information systems.

Primary Data Collection: The considerable and diverse array of primary data methods includes, e.g., true experiments such as randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and other controlled trials; other prospective but uncontrolled trials; observational studies such as case-control, cross-sectional studies, and surveillance studies; and simpler designs such as case series and single case reports or anecdotes. These methods can be described and categorized in terms of multiple attributes or dimensions, such as whether they are prospective or retrospective, interventional or observational, controlled or uncontrolled, and other attributes noted below. Some of these methods have alternative names, and many studies employ nearly limitless combinations of these attributes • Primary data used in this project is mainly collected through questionnaire which has been taken with the help of sample size which has been taken and after that the entire data has been manipulated.
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Secondary data: Secondary data originally collected for a different study, used again for a new research question.
o

o o o o

Service District Statistics including basic client counts, attributes, demographics, social conditions and lots of program information (analogous to public schools and school teachers, who constitute some of the most accountable of public servants). Other Social and Economic Indicators, Consumer Price Index, unemployment figures, inflation indicators, Income Figures, etc. Resource Inventories and other needs assessments Opinion Polls taken by others Budgets

• The secondary data used in this project is :
  

through internet through books of retail company profiles of big bazaar and shopper’s stop

QUESTIONNAIRE ANALYSIS

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Q1. How often do you visit the store? a. Once in a week. b. Twice in a week. c. Once in a month. d. Twice in a month. e. Once in a year.

200 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 40 22 40 10 88

once in a week twice in a week once in a month twice in a month once in a year

Visit of respondents in the store
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Result: From the survey it is concluded that maximum visit of respondents are twice in a month.

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Q2. Which section of the store does you like the most?

a. Food mart. b. Home ware. c. Household. d. Medimart. e. Kids. f. Jewel mart.

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200 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 18 0 Divisions 84 40 48 10

Foodmart Homeware Household Medimart Kids Jewelmart

Result: As per the responses about 84 respondents like the food mart section.

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Q3- Are you satisfied with the customer service offered? a. Good. b. Average. c. To an extent. d. Need to be improved.

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200 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 30 26 84 60

Good

Average

To an extent

Need to be improved.

Customer service offered

Result: From the survey it is concluded that maximum number of respondents are assuming that the customer service offered here is average.

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Q4- Main reason for coming to the store? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Value for money. Discounts. Product range offered. Nearby. Saving of time. Other.

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200 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 20 27 35 70 45 3

Value for money Discounts Product range offered Nearby Saving of time Other

Reasons for coming to the store

Result: From the survey it is concluded that maximum number of respondents are coming to the store because it is near to their home.

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Q5- Distance covered while coming to the store?

a. 0-5 kms. b. 5-10 kms. c. 10-15 kms. d. More than 15 kms.

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200 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 92 65 30 13 Distance preferred (in kms)

0-5 kms

5-10 kms

10-15 kms More than 15 kms

Result: As per responses about 90 respondents stay 0-5 kms from the store.

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Q7- Preferred timing of coming to the store?

a. 10:00-11:59 a.m. b. 12:00-5:59 p.m. c. After 6:00p.m.

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20 50 130

Evening after 6:00p.m.

Afternoon 12:005:59p.m.

Morning 10:0011:59am

Result: As per responses about 110 respondents preferred to come in store in the evening after 6:00 p.m.

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Question No.8Have you heard about Z-Line?

a. Yes. b. No.

12%

YES NO

88%

There is absolutely no brand awareness for Z-line (Vishal manufacturing unit product) Vishal Retail Ltd. must do measures to promote its brand, make ads both in print and electronic media. Making stalls in corporate melas like trade fair can help.

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Q9- Apart from Vishal where do you shop for daily items? a. Big bazaar. b. Globus. c. Shopper’s Stop. d. Subiksha. e. Local markets. f. Other.

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200 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 42 10 14 5 9 120

Big bazaar Reliance Spencer Subiksha Local markets Other.

Retail Stores

Result: As per responses about 120 respondents preferred local markets apart from Vishal.

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Q10- What medium of advertisement do you respond to?

a. Magazine. b. T.V (local cable channel). c. Local newspaper. d. Radio. e. Relatives/ Friends. f. Visuals. g. Other.

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200 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 6 29 45 26 94

Magazine T.V. Local newspaper Radio Relatives/ Friends Visuals Other.

0 0 Ways of informing about Vishal

Result: From the survey it is concluded that maximum number of respondents knows about Vishal through local newspaper.

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Q11- What sort of services would you will like the most gor betterment of the different stores? a. b. c. d. More variety. Discount on branded products. Discount on FMCG. Better Customer service.

the

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200 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 Suggestions 30 56 36 Better customer service. 78 Discount on Branded Products Discount on FMCG More variety

Result: As per responses about 75 respondents preferred F.M.C.G.

discounts on

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Q11- How much rating will you give to this store? a. b. c. d. Average. Very Good Excellent Can’t Say

rating of the retail store

14%

23% excellent very good average

29% 34%

can't say

Result: As per responses about 23% respondents said that its rating is execellent.

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Findings of the Research Report:
 People of Lucknow prefer Vishal Megamrt, more than the

Shopper’s Stop & Globus Retail because of its prime location and it is cost effectiveness, but it is just for behind the Big-Bazar.  Vishal Megamart is cheap as compared to the Shoppers’ stop  Vishal Megamart has greater product line than the Shoppers’ stop and Globus Retail. Big Bazaar offers more schemes and offers than the Vishal Megamart and Shoppers’ Stop.  Vishal Megamart is scoring over shoppers’ stop because of its Food Bazaar & better development.  Big Bazaar has more reputed brands than Vishal Megamart and Shoppers’ Stop.  The product keeping and visual merchandising of Vishal Megamart is better than the Big Bazaar.  The product quality of Vishal Megamrt is better as compared to the Shoppers’ Stop and Globus Retail.  For the upper Class people Big-Bazar is better than the Vishal Megamart and Shoppers’ Stop.  The product quality of Vishal Megamrt is better as compared to the Shoppers’ Stop and Globus Retail.  For the upper Class people Big-Bazar is better than the Vishal Megamart and Shoppers’ Stop.  Big Bazaar offers more schemes and offers than the Vishal Megamart and Shoppers’ Stop.

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 Vishal Megamart is scoring over shoppers’ stop because of its Food Bazaar & better development.  Big Bazaar has more reputed brands than Vishal Megamart and Shoppers’ Stop.  The product keeping and visual merchandising of Vishal Megamart is better than the Big Bazaar.

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Conclusion:
After completing this research we come to know that Only Big Bazaar is ahead of Vishal Stop because of its prime Location and higher product range. Shoppers’ Stop is new in Lucknow as compared to Vishal Megamart and it is slowly covering its market. But there are few areas where these malls needs amendments and these suggestions are mentioned in these malls. Advertising is an important factor of getting sales promotion and Vishal Megamart is ahead of Shoppers’ Stop in that case, but Product Quality of Shoppers’ Stop is better than Big Bazaar. Product Range of Shoppers’ Stop is better than that of Big Bazaar. Overall Vishal Megamart is ahead of Stopers’ Stop and Globus Retail, but just little behind to Big-Bazaar.

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SUGGESTIONS:  Company need to spend a lot on advertising and promotion to create brand image of its product.  Make frequent advertisements in both print and electronic media.  Making stalls in corporate melas like trade fair, maybe beneficial to create brand image of its product.  Need to provide additional offers and discounts as per customer requirements.  Need to include varieties of similar item.  Provide more discounts on FMCG.  Provide better customer service.  Maintained proper display to create impulse. (It is assumed that near about 70% sales comes from impulse marketing and if proper display is not maintained impulse cannot be created).  Better if we provide filtered information about Vishal Megamart.

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LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:
 Sometime respondents are not taking interest in such type of surveys therefore there is chance that they might be giving wrong information.  The respondents are free from all barriers so he/she can give his/her opinion which may not be true in many occasions.  The staff of the Vishal only provides/ communicates the merits of its products.

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Bibliography
BOOKS
• • • • • • • Kotler, Philip and Armstrong, Graw - Principles of Marketing, Pearson Education, New Delhi 2004. Swapna Pradhan – Retailing Management, 2nd Edition , 2007 Kotler, Philip - Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, Implementations and Control, Pearson Education, New Delhi. 2003, 11th ed. Kotler, Philip and Keller, Kevin - Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, Implementations and Control, Pearson Education, New Delhi. 2006, 12th ed. Sharma J K - Business Statistics (Pearson Education) Beri - Marketing Research (Tata McGraw-Hill), 1993, 2nd ed. Kalakota R - Electronic Commerce: A Manager’s Guide (Pearson Education) 2000

DAILYS & JOURNALS • Business World • Business Today • The Economic Times

INTERNET • www.bigbazaar.com • www.shopperstop.com • www.google.co.in • www.vishalmegamart.in

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