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INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY

What is Physical Chemistry?


It is the quantitative and theoretical study of the
properties and structure of matter, and their relation to
the interaction of matter and energy.
Can be regarded as the study of the physical principles
underlying chemistry we wanted to know how and
why materials behave as they do.
The ultimate goal of physical chemistry is to provide a
model (mathematical) for all chemistry.

What is Physical Chemistry?


The study of physical chemistry includes several disciplines:
Thermodynamics: relationship between energy interconversion by
materials, and the molecular properties.
Kinetics: rates of chemical processes
Quantum Mechanics: phenomena at the molecular level
Statistical Mechanics: relationships between individual molecules and the
bulk properties of matter
Spectroscopy: non-destructive interaction of light (energy) and matter, in
order to study chemical structure
Photochemistry interaction of light and matter with the intent of
coherently altering molecular structure.

WHAT IS PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY?


variables , relationships, and laws
VARIABLES: an experimental parameter we can change
or tweak
RELATIONSHIPS: existence of effects between
variables
LAWS: an observation or generalization that is universal

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY : Cause and Effect


Why do we feel cold when we enter an air-conditioned
room?
- heat travels from our body into cold air surrounding us
- causing our own energy content to lower
- we feel more comfortable
A transfer of energy occurs therefore a change. Without
the cause, the effect of feeling warmer could have not
followed.

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY : Physicochemical relationsips


Why does water get hot in a pot?
- Water remains cold until we turn on the stove.
electrical energy heat energy absorbed by the water
The temperature of the water does not increase much if
small amount of energy is consumed
Mathematical relationship: T = f (energy)

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY : Quantitative and qualitative


measurements
Will the bitterness in my coffee disappear if I add cream
on it?
In any investigation, we look at first at qualitative
relationships.
If I change variable x is there a response in variable y?
(qualitative relationships)
How much of the response is caused? (quantitative
relationships)

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY: Observed and controlled


variables
Does my TV get louder if I vary the volume control?
- We vary the volume control, and as a response, our
ears experience increase in the sound level.
- The magnitude of the noise and the position of the
volume knob are both variables, they represent
different types:
Volume control:
controlled variable
Amount of noise:
observed variable

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY: Relationships and graphs


Physical Chemists
often depict
relationships
between variables
by drawing graphs:

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VARIABLES

h = constant x p

LAWS and the -1th Law of Thermodynamics


Why does a radiator feel hot to touch when it is on and cold
when it is off?

ON heat travels from radiator to our body


OFF heat from our body travels to radiator

-1th law of thermodynamics: Heat always travels from hot to


cold

The zeroth law of thermodynamics:


How does a thermometer work?

ZEROth Law: If A and B are in thermal equilibrium, and B and C are also in thermal equilibrium, then A
and C will be in thermal equilibrium.

UNITS OF MEASURE

DERIVED UNITS:
FORCE:
unit of force in SI system is the newton (N)
force required to give a mass of 1 kg an acceleration of 1 m/s2

ENERGY:
SI unit of energy is the joule (J) (1 J = 1 N m)
a non-SI unit of energy some chemist still use is the calorie
1 cal = 4.184 J

DERIVED UNITS:
PRESSURE:
defined as force per unit area (p = F/A)
SI unit of measure is the Pascal (Pa) 1Pa = 1 N/m2
1 bar = 100 kPa
1 atm = 101.325 kPa
1 atm = 1.01325 bar
1 atm = 760 torr

Atomic Mass, Molecular Mass, the Mole


1 amu is defined as equal to exactly 1/12 of the mass of 1 C-12 atom.

1 mole of any substance is the mass of that substance that contains as


many atoms molecules, ions or any other entities as there are atoms in
exactly 12 g of C-12.
1 mole of C-12 contains 6.0221367 X 1023 atoms (Avogadros number)
The molar mass of a substance is the mass in grams of 1 mole of the
substance.