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Basic Karate & Japanese Terms - a guide for serious study

Japanese #'s 1 to 10
Ichi - 1
Ni - 2
San - 3
Shi - 4 (can also be "Yon")
Go - 5
Roku - 6
Shichi - 7 (can also be "Nana")
Hachi - 8
Ku - 9
Ju - 10
Titles & honorifics
Sensei - club instructor
Karate-ka - karate student
Sempai - senior student
Kohai - junior student
Shidohin - instructor (1,2,or 3 kyu)
Honorary titles
Renshi - senior instructor
Kyoshi - advanced instructor
Hanshi - master instructor
Shihan - master (not used in Wado)
Nafudakake - (dojo) name board
Suffixes
-san - Mr, Mrs, Ms
-sama - superior honorific
-chan - for children, young
woman & friends
-kun - for young men

Sample higher numbers
Ju-ichi - 11
Ni-ju - 20
Ni ju-ichi - 21
Hyaku - 100
Hyaku ni jui-ichi - 121
Ni-hyaku - 200
Sen - 1000
Sen ni-hyaku san ju-ni -1232
Man - 10,000
Ichi Man - 100,000
Hyaku Man - 1,000,000

Karate Category Terms
Wa - peace, harmony
Do - the Way
Kai - Association (Wado-Kai)
Ryu - Style (Wado-Ryu)
Kara-te - empty hand
Kihon - basics
Kata - forms
Kumite - sparring
Kihon Kumite - basic sparring
Yakusoku Kumite - pre-arranged sparring
Jyu Kumite - free sparring
Dojo - training hall
Start/End Commands
Hombu - head office
Kiotsuke- attention
Natsu gasshuku - summer camp
Rei - bow
Bunkai - literal application
Naotte - relax
Kaisetsu - explanation
Seiza - sitting on knees
Oyo - varied applications
Mokuso - empty thinking
Shitei Kata - compulsory Kata
Mokuso yame - stop mokuso Tokui Kata - 'best' Kata
Shomen ni rei - bow to front
Koryu Kata - style Kata
Sensei ni rei - bow to Sensei kenzen ichi - the fist and mind are one
Otaga ni rei-bow to everyone kenzen - Complete (zen) Health (ken)
"Onegaishimasu" - please do me the honor
"Arigato gozaimashita" - thank you
Kata - formal exercise
Pinan Nidan - Pinan #2
Pinan Shodan - Pinan #1
Pinan Sandan - Pinan #3
Pinan Yondan - Pinan #4
Pinan Godan - Pinan #5
Naihanchi
Seishan
Chinto
Kushanku
Bassai
Niseishi
Wanshu
Rohai
Jitte
Jion

Keri - kicking
Mae geri - front kick
Yoko geri - front kick to side
Sokuto geri - side kick
Ushiro geri - back kick
Mawashi geri - roundhouse kick
Ushiro mawashi-reverse roundh.
Mikazuki geri-crescent kick
Soto mikazuki-crescent in to out
Fumi komi - stamping kick
Fumi kiri - cutting kick
Hiza geri - knee strike
Mae tobi geri - flying front kick
Tobi sokuto geri - flying side kick
Tobi ushiro mawashi geri - jumping spinning roundhouse
Keage - snap
Kekomi - thrust
Jodan - head level
Chudan - chest level
Ido Kihon - moving Basics
Gedan - below the belt
Jun zuki - lunge punch
Kette jun zuki - front kick lunge punch
Gyaku zuki - reverse punch
Kette gyaku zuki - front kick lunge punch
Jun zuki tsukkomi - leaning thrust punch
Kette jun zuku tsukkomi - front kick leaning punch
Gyaku zuki tsukkomi - revese leaning punch
Kette gyakuzuki tsukkomi - front kick reverse leaning punch
Tobi komi zuki - leaping leaning punch
Tobi komi nagashi zuki - side leaping leaning punch
Dachi - stances
Heisoku - feet together
Musubi - toes apart
Heiko - parallel
Haichi ji / Shizen tai - natural stnc
Jigotai - wide natural position
Naihanchi - naihanchi

Ranking System
Kyu - rank
(no dan grade - Mudansha)
Beginner - no rank (white belt)
Happkyu - 8th (white w/black stripe belt)
Nanakyu - 7th (yellow belt)
Rokkyu - 6th (orange belt)
Gokkyu - 5th (red belt)
Yonkyu - 4th (green belt)
Sankyu - 3rd (blue belt)
Nikkyu - 2nd (purple belt)
Ikkyu - 1st (brown belt)
Dan - degree (black belt)
(degree title holder - Yudansha)
Shodan - 1st degree
Nidan - 2nd degree
Sandan - 3rd degree
Yondan - 4th degree
Godan - 5th degree
Rokudan - 6th degree
Shichidan - 7th degree
Hachidan - 8th degree
Kudan - 9th degree
Judan - 10th degree
Zuki - Punch
Seiken - normal punch
Kizami zuki - jabbing punch
Mae ken zuki - lead punch
Morote zuki - double punch
Tate zuki - vertical punch
Sonoba zuki - in place punching
Nakadaka ippon ken zuki - 1 knuckle pnch
Age zuki - rising punch
Choku zuki - straight punch
Ura zuki - inverted punch
Hikite - pulling hand
Blocking - Uke
Age (jodan) uke - rising block
Gedan barai uke - downward block
Jodan uchi uke/harai uke - high out to in
Chudan uchi uke - middle out to in
Jodan soto uke - high in to out
Chudan soto uke - middle in to out

Shiko - square
Hanshiko/koshiko - 1/2 sqre stance
Kiba - horse stance (not used in Wado)
Yoko Seishan - side seishan
Tate Seishan - line seishan
Mahanmi no neko - long cat stnc
Hanmi no neko - side cat stnc
Mami no neko - front cat stance
Kokutsu - back stance
Gyaku neko ashi - reverse cat stance
Soe - supported reverse cat stance
Ren no ji - L stance
Hidari/Migi ren no ji - left/right L stnc. (or hidari/migi shizen tai)
Moto daichi - basic (original) stance
Hanmi heiko - side parallel stance
Sagiashi - one-leg stance (crane stance)
Tsumasaki daichi - toe stance
Idori - seated techniques
Tedori
Zudori
Ashidori
Hikidori
Shumokudori
Gozendori
Hiji-te Kansetsu Gyakutorinage

Unsoku - leg movement
Ayumi ashi - back leg to front
Yori ashi - lead leg first
Tsugi ashi - back leg first
Kaiten ashi - turning
Suri ashi - both legs slide
Nijiri ashi - foot shuffle
Chidori ashi - diagonal step

General Karate Concepts
Kihon Kumite
Kamae - guard ready position
(Yakusoku Kumite)
Kime - focus
Ippon Me - 1
Mu - nothingness
Nihon Me - 2
Mushin - mindlessness
Sanbon Me - 3
Zenshin – aware before attack
Yohan Me - 4
Bushin – concentrate in attack
Gohon Me - 5
Zanshin - remaining spirit
Roppon Me - 6
Budo - martial way
Nanahon Me - 7
Bujitsu - martial techniques
Happon Me - 8
Bushido - way of the warrior
Kyuhon Me - 9
Bugeisha - martial artist
Jyuhon Me - 10
Shingitai - mind, spirit, technique
Makoto - sincerity
Fudoshi - immovable mind, strong spirit
San Mi ittai - stable mind, body, technique
Shuhari - maintain, adhere, improve
Ikken-hissatsu - one deadly strike
Jo hyaku - zero to a hundred
Embusen - line of movement
Hara - lower abdomen
Chu tanden - centre of chest
Jo tanden - centre of head
Seika tandan - centre of pelvis, centre of gravity
Metsuke - eye focus
Chikara - power
Ki - energy
Ichi byoshi - in one breath
Shikaku - opponent's vulnerable space

Shuto uke - knife hand block
Nagashi uke - sweeping block
Sujui uke - scooping block
Osae uke - pressing block
Otoshi uke - dropping block
Kentsui/Tetsui uke - iron fist block
Haishu uke - open back hand box
Kakete uke - hook block
Tesho uke - palm block
Kaishu uke - open hand
Hirabasami uke - flat scissors
Hiji uke - elbow block
Shuto Nagashi uke - knife parry block
Juji uke - cross block
Morote uke - double arm block
Uchi - Strike
Uraken - back knuckle
Tettsui - hammer fist
Haito - ridge hand
Shuto - knife hand
Nukite - spear hand
Haishu - back-hand
Teisho - palm-heel
Hiraken - flat fist knuckle strike
Kentsui/Tetsui - hammer fist
Hitsosashi ippon ken - 1 point knuckle
Ippon nukite - 1 finger strike
Common Wado concepts
Maai - distancing
Seichusen - centre line of body
Sente - initiate attack
Sen sen no sen - strike before attack
Sen no sen - strike simultaniously
Go no sen - strike after attack
Irimi - entering
Inashi - evasion by dodge/deflect/trap
Nagashi – parry & evade (no counter)
Nori - riding opponent's technique
Sori - pulling opponent's technique
Hane – redirecting opponent's technique
Hajiki – re-directing push
Kawashi – dodge+counter same time
Taisabaki - body avoiding shift
Nogare - escaping outside opnt's range
San Mi Ittai - "3 in 1" principle
Teni - avoid attack
Tentai - twist body away from attack
Tengi - counter while letting attack finish
Yoshin Ryu Jujitsu - part of Wado
Mikiri - anticipation
Other Japanese karate styles
Shotokan Karate
Goju-ryu Karate
Shito-ryu Karate

produced by Kenzen Karate
Dojo Instructions
Hajime - Start
Yame - Stop
Yasume - Rest
Yoi - Get Ready
Hai - Yes
Oss - Yes! (not used in Wado)
Iie - No
Kiai – Shout "Ai"
Seiretsu - Line Up!
Mawate - switch
Hantai - opposite
Migi - Right
Hidari - Left
Shomen - Front
Ushiro - Back
Gawa - side
Sono mama - As is
Ippon totte - shift to…
Goren nashi - no count (for Kata)

Body Parts
Atama - head
Hananoshita - below nose
Me - eye
Kubi - neck
Kata - shoulder
Mune - chest
Karada - torso
Senaka - back
Suigetsu - solar plexus
Onaka - stomach
Koshi - waist/hip
Ude - arm
Hije or Empi - elbow
Te - hand
Ashi - leg
Hiza - knee
Sune - shin
Koshi - Ball of foot
Kakato - Heel
Sokuto - foot blade edge
Ashi no yubi - toes
Josokutei - ball of foot
Haisoku - instep
Equipment & weapons
Gi - karate uniform (dogi)
Obi - belt
Tatami - traditional mats
Makiwara - striking post
Shinai - bamboo sword
Bokken/Bokuto-wood sword
Iaito - training sword
Shinken - sharp sword
Tanto - knife
Bo - 6' or 5' staff
Tonfa - wooden handle block
Sai - 3-pronged steel weapon
Kama - sickle
Nunchaku - 2-piece with string

Waza - technique
Taichi waza - standing tech.
Te waza - hand techniques
Keri waza - kicking techniques
Rensoku waza-continious tech.
Nage waza - hip throw
Ashi waza - leg throw
Ashi barai - leg sweep
Sutemi waza - dropping throw
Osae waza - paralyze tech.
Shime waza - strangulation
Kansetsu waza - dislocation
Atemi waza - percussion
Kaeshi waza - reversing tech.
Kotegaishi - returning/reversing
Idori waza - seated techniques
Tachidori - sword defense tech.
Tantodori - knife defense tech.
Tamashiwari - breaking

Basic Tournament Terms
Shiai - match
Taikai - tournament
Aka - red side
Aoi - blue side
Shiro - white side (old rules)
…no Kachi - Winner!
Aoi no kachi - Blue Wins!
Aka no kachi - Red Wins!
Wazari - 1/2 pnt (old rules)
Ippon - 1 point
Nihon - 2 points
Sanbon - 3 points
Hata - flag
Shushin - referee in ring
Fukushin - corner judges
Kansa - arbitrator
Shobu hajime - "Match begin!"
Yame - "Stop!"
Tsuzukete hakime - "Resume!"
Mienai - official did not see tech.
Ai Uchi - "Simultaneous"
Torimasen - "No point"
Atoshibaraku - 30 seconds left
Cat. 1 Penalty-contact penalty
Cat. 2 Penalty-non contact pen.
Jogai - out of bounds
Mubobi - warning
Chukoku - warning
Keikoku-penalty&1 point for opp.
Hansoku Chui - violation, 2pts
Hansoku - disqualification
Shikaku - disqualified from tour.
Kiken - forfeit match
Jikan - timeout
Hikiwake - draw
Enchosen - overtime
Shitei Kata - compulsory Kata
Tokui Kata - select from WKF list
Chakugan - concentration
Hantei - official's judgement
Zanshin - remaining spirit