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..

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~05

..--

Unsteady Spherical Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs


A. T. CHATAS
MEMBER A!ME

ABSTRACT
A description
of the geometrical
characteristics
of spherical
reservoir
systems,
a discussion
of
unsteady-state
flow of such systems
and examples
of erzgirzeering
applications
are presented
as
background materiaL The {undameital
differential
a description
of average
spherical
equation,
permeability
and the introduction
of the Laplace
transformation
serve
as tbeoret ical foundations,
Engineering
concepts
are irwestigated
to indicate
particular
solutions of interest,
which are analytitally obtained with tbe aid of the Laplace transform.
These are numerically
evaluated
by comput e~ and
presented
in tabular form.
INTRODUCTION
A tractable
mathematical
analysis
of unsteady
fluid flow through porous media generally
requires
incorporation
of a geometrical
symmetry.
The
simplest
forms include
the linear,
cylindrical
(radiaI)
and spherical.
Most analytical
endeavors
have concentrated
on cylindrical
symmetry because
it occurs
more often
in petroleum
reservoirs.
Nevertheless,
some reservoir systems do exist that
are better approximated
by spherical
geometry.
Review
of technical
literature
revealed
but a
single
reference
to unsteady
spherical
f~ow in
petroIeum reservoirs.
~ The motive and purpose of
the present work was to remove this gap in technical
information?
and to provide the practicing
engineer
with some useftd analytical
tools. The mathematical
details
associated
with the partictdar
solutions
of
interest
involved
use of thti Laplace
transformation.
Hurst
and van Everdingen
previously
demonstrated
the
efficacy
of this
operational
technique;
mrd in many respects
the present
treatment
was patterned
after their earlier work. 2

I
1

I
I
i

PRELIMINARY

GEOMETRICAL

CONSIDERATIONS

Original manuscript received in Saciet y of Petroleum Engineers

offlCe SetIt. 27, 1965. Revised manuscript of SPE 130S received


APrii

S,

1966.,

preferences

1-.. -fi.:i:-=:-

.::b-:
-:=:
,:.
...--.. .+. ..=;
. --.,. ..

UNSTEADY-STATE

..

given at end of PaPer,

.-.; -.=.
--

-, . . .. ..-~.
,.

--..-,

FLOW

sense virtua~ly alI flow phenomena


10 a strict
associated
with a reservoir
system are unsteadystate. The transient
behavior of these phenomena
requires
accounting,
however,
only when time
maist be introduced
as an explicit
variabIe.
Othertiay
be used.
wise,
steady - state
mechanics
steady-state
conditions
prevail
AnaIyticaIIy,
in a reservoir
system
only over that portion of
its history when this relation
is satisfied:
.
Jig&+
~TF..()___
---

- .- - .--S-- .-.-.e +,. ,-... ._,_- (-lJ---=---

But to do. this, a reservoir


system must contain
either art ideal fluid, which impIies
a vanishing
or an
@compressible
fluid,
which
viscosity,
SOGIETYOF.PETROLEUM

.-. -.-:---:

CO,

hemispheres
whose physical
properties
of interest
vary only with the radial distance.
Every physical
property is thus restricted
to be a space function
of only one variable:
the distance
along a radius
vector emanating from the center.
Such a system is composed of an outer region
and an inner region, separated by a defined internal
boundary.
The inner region simply extends inward
from this boundary, whereas the outer region extends
outward
from it to an external
boundary.
The
position of the internal boundary is presumed fixed,
so that the, size of the inner region remains constant.
On the other hand, the position
of the external
boundary at any given instant of time is determined
by the distance
into the system that a sensible
pressure reaction has occurred.
Thus, the external
boundary may change position
with time.
It jnitially
emerges
from the inner region and
advancea
outward to its ultimate
position.
When
this ultimate
position
coincides
with a geometric
limit, the reservoir
system is said to be Iimited.
When it coincides
with points subject to pressure
gradients
furthest
removed
from the
internal
boundary, yet short of a geometric limit, the system
is aaid to be unIimited.
In this investigation
two
different
boundary
conditions
are imposed at the
ultimate. boundarie a of limited systems.
The first
requires
that no fluid fIow occur
across
this
boundary;
the second
that the pressure
remain
fixed at this boundary. s-s

102
:;
-

& PRODUCltiG

CHARACTERISTICS

Ge~metricaIIy,
a spherical
reservoir
system ;is
dZfinZii _iiiZ@-i%tGiiF% f-&ii~- ti~~~cgn~e~ki~---

IRANIAN OIL EXPLORATION


TEHRAN, IRAN

---..
. ...

:
.,--

: :---:

---T-

.7

-
.

... .

:. .-

-~=

:-:

:~k-:

:-:= ~ -.-,-.=;~:---:i
-.
..

--

. .-

..-.

..

-.,-

. ..-.

. -;-.-:,

.
.-,
-.

:-:
.

i::::::::

. .

.- .....
.

;-:~-.

=4.

ENGINEERS

.-.

JOURNAL
-~. ,,:;:-::~.-~

-.

. . . . .. . . . ..--.
_.
.:

.>

7..-....
.-;
.
-----

1..,..

--:;

:::,

.::
-.
. . ....
.=. . .

. ....-. .. .. . .-3%-: ~.r-&%

..

-----

implies a vanishing compressibility;


or it must have
pressures
fixed with time such that the timederivative
vanishes.
Evidently,
strict steady-state
conditions
are virtually impossible
to attain, since
these provisions
are abstractions
of the mind and
not properties of physical systems. From a practical
standpoint,
however,
this fact does not exclude
application
of steady-state
mechanics,
because
in
many situations
Eq. 1 is closely approximated. 3-5
The significant
physical properties that determine
the extent
of transient
behavior
in spherical
reservoir
systems
are exhibited
by the so-called
readjustment
time which is approximated
by:

~ .
_ #Crez
r

2k/p

damaged
sand
conditions.
Also,
although
the
analytical
soIutions
strictly appfy
ordy to the
single-phase
flow of compressible
liquids, the results
can sometimes
be used (with proper interpretation)
the fIow of gases when pressure
drops are small,
and to the simultaneous
flow of oil and gas upon
imposition of drastic assumptions.s!q~
~
THEORETICAL
FUNDAMENTAL

in~ariant-3,5

where the porosity,


compressibility
and mobility
are interpreted
as fixed averages,
and where the
effects
of gravity are rreg~ecred. Define a dimensionless
length ratio, dimensionless
time ratio and
sionless

-.-._. ___

i.

.-

EQUATION

The fundamental
differential
equation governing
the dynamics
of the flow of compressible
liquids
through spherical
reservoir
systems
can be written
as:

(2)

These
factors
are the size of the system,
its
compre ssibi Iity and its mobility. When they combine
.ne, unsteady +tate
to yield a large readjustment
mechanics
should be used wless
pressures
are

ENGINEERING

CONSIDERATIONS

DIFFERENTIAL

APPLICATIONS

~en
a water drive field is characterized
by
the
hydrocarbon
bottom-water
encroachment,
accumulation
usually
fills only a portion of the
total thickness
of the reservoir
formation and is
entirely underlain by water. Flow of water into the
pay zone results
from a gradual and uniform rise
of the underlying
water.
Of particular
interest
to the reservoir
engineer
are methods,
fotmally
independent
of materiaI
balance
principles,
for determining
the water
influx into bottom-water
drive fields.
First,
rhese
methods
afford
determination
of a number
of
through an analysis
of the
reservoir
properties
past reservoir
history
iYy an adjunctive
use with
other reIatIons.
Secondly, by independently
yielding
the water influx they provide means of predicting
future reservoir
performance.
Many bottom-water
drive fields Iend themselves
to the imposition
of
spherical
geometry; hence, solutions
of the fundamental flow equations
appropriate
ro this symmetry
can be used to analytically
determine
the water
infIux for this class of reservoir.4~ b
Although many wells are completed after the drill
has passed entirely through the pay formation, some
are purposely completed after only partial penetration
has been effected.
Sometimes
such
wells
are
completed after th~ rop surface of the reservtiir
is
merely tapped by the drill, in which case they are
termed non-penetrating
weIls.
Non-penetrating
wells that occur in a relatively
thick formation can be treated as spherical systems.
They can be analytically
investigated
by using
appro~iate
of the fundamental
flow
..
____
. solutions
. .
. _____

equations
corresponding
to spherical
symmetry.
include
flow calculations,
These
investigations
snaly sis of drawdown and bui id-up tests, determination of static
bottom-hole
pressure,
productivity
indices,
effective
permeabilities
and evaluation
of

ratio,

length

ratio,

respectively,

re d =

time

ratio

and

pressure-drop

as foIlows:

(4)

. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .

kt
td= ---

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . (5)

$pcr$

P~ = P~ (~~t @

Pi p(rEI#

D)

Pi+l,tj)
Introduction
of these
to be rewritten as:

(6)
- .

relations

into Eq. 3 permits

ir

which
represents
the
fundamental
differential
equation
in dimensionless
form appropriate
to
reservoir
systems
characterized
by spherical
symmetry .z-%s
AVERAGE

SPHERICAL

PERMEABILITY

Available evidence indicates that the .uermeabiIitv


of porous media constituting
rerervoir
sys,tems is
not isotropic
in character,
As a rule the vertical
permeability
is less than the horizontal,
and in
some inswnces
the difference
is profound. Since
spherical
symmetry embraces
a three-dimensional
geometric
space, it was felt necessary
to include
the effects of this anisttopy here. The radial permeability in a spherical
porous medium characterized
by uniform vertica!
and horizontal
permeability
components can be analytically
described
by:
.-.
---~
_. .._ _______
..._ =
1
=
sin2a+
cosza.
. . . , . . , (8)
k;
k:
!40
.
~
The average
spherical
permeability
obgained with th,e volume integral:

can

then

. .. ..

. . . . _____

. .. . . . . . . .

-.
.

be

JUNE,,1966
... . ..

10,?
.
. _. ..-_

...
.

.. .

-.
b

(2/3)

F+=
fffi

m(r~3 -?:)
~

,..

system.
But due to the generality
introduced,
it
becomes
necessary
to relate
certain
physical
quantities
associated
with
absolute
units
of
measurement
to functions
of the &lmensionless
variables
in Eq. 7.2*5
The macroscopic
radial velocity
at the internal
boundary of a spherical
rdservoir
system is given
by Darcys law: 2-4

. (9)

sin a drda~fl

Oorw

which,

upon evaluation,

gives:

3kbku

, . , (lo)

k=
kh+2ku
the average

spherical

permeability.

fundamental
differential
equation
for a
The
spherical
reservoir
system has been expressed
in
dimensionless
form by Eq. 7. Define the product:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Then Eq. 7 can be written


d2b
=
&D2

db
..
atD

@)

Introduction
of the
through 6 yields:

APPLICATION OF THE
LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION

h=rDpD

ap
k
/L ()Tr;

u=-

in the alternative

k A p (r,fl, t)

#.

(11)

defined

8pD
,.
() L%D ~

P ~w

by

(12)
e = -

Laplace
integral:

transform

of b is

given

by the

()

J* Jmr2u sin adadO=2trr~~

J_-bexp(-stD)dtD

fw

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (18)
Then,

~=

. . . . . . (17)

00

The
definite

Eqs.

which relstes
the actual velocity with the dimensionjess
function
(@D /&D)l.
The rate of fluid
influx at the internal boundary is given by:s, g

form:

. . . . . . . . . . ..

reIstions

introduction

of Eqs.

4 through

6 yields:

. . . . , . . . (13)

Multiplication
by the nucIeus of the transform and
integration
over all time converts
Eq. 12 from a
partial to the ordinary differential
equation:

which relates
the actuaI fluid influx rate with the
dimensionless
function - (13p~/dr~)l.
The cumulative fluid influx at the internal boundary Up to any time t is given by: 2

~F

dz~

=.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . {14]

t [dp

drD2

F .

$t edt

=2trr~~

The general
solution
of this
can be written at once:

z=Clexp(-rD@)
where

Cn k

subsidiary

an arbitrary

constant.

.-.

OF PARTICULAR

() ~

. . . (20)
,Wzt

introduction

of Eqs.

F = -2 Prqicr$ ilp(rw, 2){

D apD ~t
~-

, . . (21)

D1

2,9-11

SOLUTIONS

R&dw~cion--of--E~ =%*e*e
-dimensiorrles-s-fcwiadepicted by Eq. 7 was effected,
because
the cornplete dimensioolessness
of Eq. 7 renders the numericaI va[ues associated
with its particular
soIucions
entirely
independent
of the actual magnitudes
of
the physical
properties
of any given reserv-oir

which relatea
the actual
cumulative
fluid influx
with the time integral of che dimensionless
function
- (dpD/8@
)l. Upon proper interpretation,
Eqs. 17,
19 and 21 can be used to determine the fluid flow
in a spherical
reservoir
and pressure behavior
system, and also to indicate the appropriate
choice
of particular
soltitions co Eq. 7. Ttio distinct cakes
arise: the so-called pressure and rate cases. 2,5
The Pressure

Case

The pressure
case presumes
know~edge of the
ptessure
conditions
at the internal
boundary of a
-_re*rv~irfiyUadp~dtie4~~i.ga4QL~f__*&_
fIuid flow behavior. Consider a spherical
reservoir
system characterized
by. dimert sioriless
properties.
Ler this system be charged to a unit dimensionless
and at zero time let the pressure
at the
pressure,
internal
boundary
vanish and remain zero. This

104

SOCIETY

OS

PETROLIiuM

ENGINEERS.

... .. .. . . . . ... . . .. ------ . .. -. -.

. .,..

4 through 6 yields:

.()

, . . . (15)

Particular
soIutions
to the subsidiary
equation
corresponding
to specifically
imposed
boundary
conditions
are obtained upon appropriate
evaluation
of the constants
that appear in its general solution.
These
particular
solutions
would represent
the
Laplace
transforms
of the required
particular
sohirioris
to Eq. K?. The Iattei are determined
by
effecting the inverse transformation
of their Laplace
transforms.
This procedure will be used to develop
the particular
solutions of interest.
SELECTION

equation
Similarly,

-t C2 exp(rD@)

$ .. U.L-:

-.-:::J

.-

. - ~ . ,.,, ,

.,,.

-,-

--

Jou.WAL

~- ~~ ~ ,-J

_.~

.-. -. .- -=.? ---

=.~--$

condition
represents
the distinctive
feature of the
pressure
case.
The
problem
then
remaitr~
to
determine
the dimensionless
rate and cumulative
fluid influx at the internal
boundary as functions
of dimensionless
time. This dimensionless
description of the fluid flow behavior and its uanslation
into absolute units of ~easurement
constitutes
the
pressure case,2, s
Under the precepts
of the pressure
case,
the
dimensionless
fluid influx rate is defined by:

()
ap~

eD=eD(ljtD)

=-~

p(r,t)
Similarly,
boundary

FD=FD(I,

tD)=-

()
arD

DESCRIPTION
~

UNLIMITED

Ap(rw,O)eD(l,tD).

UP
F = F(rw, t) = 2rr4J crm~Ap(rw,O)FD (l,tD).

. (24)

. (26)

SOLUTIONS

SYSTEM

Clexp(-rD@).

. . . . . . . . . .(30)

, . . . . . . (31)

which is the subsidiary


equation
a ppto priate to
the pressure
case for an unlimited
system.
The
dimensionless
fluid influx rate e D can be rewritten
in terms of /7:

Case

()

r?p~
~
~rD 1:

Then the Laplace


31 and 32, ia:

transform

of eD, utilizing

whose
inverse
once as:

transformation

. . . ..
can

eDml-l- (~@-1i2,-.. . . .

.-

Eqs.

~D -++=

. (27)
._

for all time tD, represents


the distinctive
feature of
the rate case. The problem here is to determine the
dimensionless
pressure
drop distribution
in the
system,
and the pressure
drop at the internal
boundarv under the conditions
txescribed
bv Ea.
-.. .. _
2ZT%k-iiirn-Sin%lonIess
descs~pdofi-of->~~wsu-;~
behavior and its translation
into- absolute units of
measurement
constitutes
the rate case. 2; 5
Under the precepts
of the rate case, the actual
pressure distribution
in the system is given by:
JUNE, 1966.

internal

. . . (29)

OF PARTICULAR

z.-+exp[-fi(rD-l)l

The rate case presumes


knowledge
of the fIuid
flow conditions at the internal boundary and permits
determination
of the pressure behavior.
Consider a
dimensionless
spherical
reservoir
system charged
to a unit dimensionless
pressure,
and from zero-time
onward Iet a unit dimensiotdess
fluid influx rate be
imposed. This condition,
which expressed
analytically is:
_.

the

The precepts
of the pressure
case require that
a dimensionless
pressure
drop of unity be maintained
at the internal
boundary,
and since the
Laplace
transform of unit is 1/s, it foUows that:

. (25)

Eqs. 24 through 26 express the facets of fluid flow


behavior in terms of field data and the dimensionless
functions
eD and FD. By application
of the superposition
principle
(Duhamels
theorem)
these
functions
can also be used to treat time-varying
pressure histories.
The Rate

at

By definition the external boundary of an unIimited


system
continuously
recedes
from the internal
boundary without reaching a geometric limit. Under
these conditions
the product rD pD vanishes and Eq.
15 becomes:
Z=

3 .3p(rw,0)eD(l,tD).

e = e (rw, t) = 2rrr

pressure

dad . . . . .

SymbolicaUy,
the actuaI veIocity, rate and cumulative fluid influx majj now be expressed
in terms of
eD and FD as follows:
u = U(rw, t) = 1
prw

the actual
is given by:

These
symbolic
relations
express
the pressure
behavior in terms of field data and the dimensionIesp
functions
PD (tD. tD) and PD (1, tD). Likewise,
by
appli~ation
of the superposition
principle,
these
rate
functions
can be used to treat time-varying
histories.
,

fluid influx by:

~D &lD
J_

pD(rD, CD). . . . . . (28)

P = p(~w, t) = pi _~PD(l>tD)
w

:
, . . . . . . .(22)

cumulative

= pi - --&&
w

D1

and the dimensionless

be

(33)

written

. . . ..

(34)

which is the dimensionless


fluid influx rate
an unlimited
system.
The Laplace
transform
F ~ (dimensionless
cumulative
fluid
: .Hux)
simply:

-_
.~D=:

whose

-1
37-2

inverse

- --- ----J+- So***

transformation

can

likewise

at

of
of
is

-
. (35)

be
10s

.-

.-

written

..

at once as:

()

, . . . . . . . ..

(36)

which
influx

is
the
dimensionless
cumulative
fluid
of an unlimited
system. g) 11)13, 14
The
precepts
of the rate case require
that a
dimensionless
rate of unity be maintained
at the
internal boundary, which can be wk=
in terns of
b as:

-(-%)1=-(%-6)1=

F = C ,[ exp(-r

o --()

~ =

Eq. 30 it. foHows


eXp

[-

(;D-

;.

that:

sinh[@r~~r D)]

. (38)

{S

(7D-1)]-@

fs(rD-l)cosh[@(rD~l)]
s ffs

[()

-1

*K

-efi

(-)ex!+(b-;j
rDCOSh[{S(rD-

rD cosh[{s

rD)]

(rD -l)]]

which is the subsidiary


equation appropriate
to the
pressure
case for a closed
limited system.
The
LapIace transform of eD, using Eqs. 32 and 42, ia:

which is the subsidiary


equation
appropriate
to
the rate case for an unlimited system. The inverse
transformation
is available
from integral transform
tables. This result divided by rD yields:

$ erfc

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (42)

1)]

S(l+fs)

pD(rD*tJ =

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Under the precepts
of the pressure
case and by
subsequent
conversion
to hyperbolic
functions,
Eq.
41 becomes:

s{sinh[{s
Using

limit. At this limit, a system with a closed external


boundary can sustain no fluid flow across it. Hence,
the normal pressure
derivative
there must vanish.
Introduction
of this condition into Eq. 15 gives:

tD 1/2

FD=t~+2~

.-

TD- I
+fi
26

[fs (rD-l)]

rDcosh

- sinh[(s

(rD~I)]
(rD-l)] I

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (43)
The inverse transformation
of the relation may be
obtained with the aid of Mellins inversion theorem,
and -is given
by the foIlowing
in tegttd
in the
compIex pfane:

exp (tD + rD

!.

+(srD~l)sinh[fs

.(39)

which is the dimensionless


pressure-drop
distribu-
tion of an urdimited system.
Upon placing rD at
unity, Eq. 39 reduces to:

pD=l

- exp(tD)

erfc (t&),

which for the function at hand may be evaluated


by
converting
it to a closed contour integral and then
applying the calculus
of residues.
ThuB, by virtue
of Cauchy s integral formula:

. . . . . . . (40)

which. is the dimensionless


pressure
drop at the
internaI boundary of an unlimited system.2# g, 11,1% 14
At this juncture
some significant
observations
can be made. First, the least upper bound of the
dimensionless
pressure drop is unity. Consequently,
under the conditions
of constant
rate the pressure
drop at the internal
boundary
of an unlimited
.
apherlcd
system can never exceed s fixe-d finite
value. Secondly,
the greateat
lower bound of the
dimensionless
rate is also unit~. Hence, the rate
engendered
by a single pressure
drop impes ed at
?eio time ,at the internal boundary of an unlimited
spheric-isystem ciin never b& less thafi a fixed
non-vanishing
value. h either situation,
it appears
that
an unlimited
spherical
tesetwoir
syatern
approaches steady-state
conditions as dimensionless
time
assumes
excessively
Iarge
values.
This
property,
strangely
enough,
is not enj eyed by
unlimited. linear or cylindrical
(radial) sy~ms.
2,5.

where
R. is the
singularity
at the
corresponding
to the
tion of Eq. 45 yields
rate for a closed
follows:
w

limited
reservoir
system
the externaI
evenruaIIy
coincides
with a geometric

wn2rD2+ (rD~l)2

tizlt#rD2 - (~~~1)

D=+

[1

-
Xp(,;2.1)
Wn%o

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (46)
.-where

LIMITED SYSTEM WITH


CLOSED EXTlitRhJAL BOUNDARY

In a
boundary

residue
corresponding
to the
origin
and Rn the residues
orher singular points. Evalua the dimensionless
fluid influx
limited
spherical
system,
aa

-wn-are-th-roots.of.

tan w
.
w
.

The Laplace

the equation ~.
----.___

. ...+
(r;

1)

transform

of FD is:

.,

...

. . (47)

. ..

..-

where Wfl are also the roots

F&$
@(rD~l)cosh@(rD~l)
=

~2[@rDcosh

Under
becomes,

+(srDX)sinh@~Ll)

0.001
0.002

18.84124
13.61566

0,003
0.004

11.30065
9.92062

0.005
0.006

8.97885
8.28366

0.007

7.74336

+ (srD-lh+inh@rD-l

)]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (50)
which is the subsidiary
equation appropriate
to the
rate case for a closed limited system. As before,
the inverse. transformation of Eq. 50 is given by the
sum of the residues,
and since b is r~PD, there
foHows :

1 -

UNLIMITED

Dimensionless
Pressure- Drop
(PD)

SYSTEM

Dimenshrless
Time
(tD)

Dimensionless
Rote
(6D)

0.03668
0.05246
0,06430

0.03471
0,04853

60.0

J,07284

0.05892

1.06743

0.07536

0.06755

70.0
80.0

0,08479
0.09340

0.07504
0.08174

90,0
100.0

1.0s947

0,08782

200.0

1,06308

Dimensionless
Influx
(FD )

Dimensionless
Pressure.DrOp

68,7
79.4

0.93103

90.1

0.93512

0.92595

0.93851

1.05642

100.7
111.0

1.03989

216.0

0.95703
0.96408

0.94139

7.30783

0.09343

300.0

1.03257

320.0,

0.009

6,94708

0,11605

0.09865

400.0

423.0

0.96835

0.01

0.12204

0.10354
0,14152

500.0

525,0

0.97131

0.02

6,64J90
4.98942

1,02821
. 1.02523

600,0

4.25735

0.16894

3.82095

0.19098

700.0
BOO*O

628oO
730.0

0.04
0.05

0.22S44
0.26568

1,02303
1,02132

0.97352

0.03

900.G
1,000.0

832,0
934,0

3,30329

0.20962
0.22588

i .01995
1,01881

0,06

0.30231
0.33640

1.01784

1,036,0

0.07
0.08

3.13244
2.99471

0.36854

2,000.0
3,000.0

1.01262
1.01030

2,050.0

0.39915

0,24036
0.2534S

0.97668
0.97787
0.97888
0.98453

3,062.0

0.98714

0.09

2,88063
2.78412

0,42851
0.45682

0,26540

4,000.0

0,98874

0,27642

S,ooooo

}.00892
1,00798

4,071.0

0.10

5,080.0

0.98984

0.20

2.26157

0,70463
0.91804
1,11365

1.00728
1.00674

6,087,0
7,094;0

0.99067

2.03006
1.89206

0,35621
0.40798

6,000.0

oo3r
0.40

0,44639

0.50
0.60

1.79788
1.72837

1,00631
1.00595
1,00564

8,101,0
9,107.0

0.70
0.80

1.67434
1.63078

O*9O
1.0.

1059471
.1.56419

300,
4,0

1.39894
1.32574
1.28209

500
6,0

1.25231
1.23033

7.0
8,0

1.21324
1.19947

1000

1.17841

20,0
30.0
40.0

1966

0.17958

3,52313

7,000.0

1.29788

0.47684

8,000,0
9,000.0

1.47404
1.64407

0,50198
0,52330

10,000.0
20,000.0

1000399

1.80925

0.54175

1.97047
2.12830

0.55798
0.57242

%59577
4W95441

t16638Q
0.71266

30,000,0
40,000.0
50,000.0
;60,000.0
70,000.0

1.00326
1.00282
1.00252
1}00230
1,00213

6.25676
7.$2313

0.74460
0.7676$

80,000.0
90,000.0
100,000.0

8?76395
9.98541

0,78534
0.79946

200,000.0
300.000.0

11.19154

0.81109

1.12616
1.!0301

13.56825
25.04626
36,18039

0,82927
0.87624

L08921
1.07979

47,13650
57.97885

0.91060

1,00199
1.00188
1,00178
200,505.0
1.00126
LOO1O3
300,618,0
400,714.0
1,00089
loLIoom
500~8i0
1.00073
600,874.0
1:00067
7oo,944bo
801,009,0
1.00063
1.00059
901,070.0
1,001, 128*G
1,00056

..

.,

(49)

0.008

50.0
JUNE.

Dimensionless
Influx
(fD)

fi(rD-rD

0,10141
0.10893

2,0

..

Dimensionless
Rate
(GD)

(r~-rD) -sinh

.S[@YO-l )cosh@D-l)

By virtue
of previous
arguments,
the inverse
transformation
of Eq. 4S yields the dimensionless
cumulative fluid influx for a C1OSed limited system:

TABLE

the precepts
o: the rate case,
Eq. 41
upon conversion to hyperbolic functions:

~rDcosh\tJG

. (48)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..?

of Eq. 47. z, 10#llsls-lfJ

b=

W (rD-l) - sinh @ (~D-I)l

. . . . . . . . . . . . . ...*.

Dimensionless
Tim.
(t~)

... ..

0,89770
0.91943

..
600;000.0
700,000,0
800,000,0
900,000,0
1,000,000,0

10,113.0
20,160.0
30,195.0
40,226.0
50,252.0
60,276,070,299.0
80,319.0
90,339.0
100,357.0

0.97526

0,99132
0.991 8S
0.99229
0.99267
0.99473
0,99566
0.99623
0.99662
-0.99690
0.99713
0.99731
0.99746
0.99759
0,99829
0.99860
0.99878
0.99891-?
0.99900
0,99908
0,99914
%999 19
0.99923

,.

-107

,. . . . .. .
.
,=.

,..

. . . . . . . . . . . . ... . .
. ...:-r
. . ..
..
. .
. . . . . . . .. .. . . . .

.. .
. . .-.-.--.+
.

. . . . . . _. -.- . ...>
. . . . . . ..... . ... ,:. --.-.Z-=
-7
.. .
. - .. ..4..=.

.-

Under the precepts


of the pressure
case and
conversion to hyperbolic functions,
Eq. 54 becomes:
sinh @
(rD-l)

(rD-l)4+

27D(r~~l)%3

(?D - fD)

j=

rD2 r~

s[sinhfi(~D-

l)]

. . . (55)

which is the subsidiary


equation appropriate
to the
pressure
case for an open limited
system.
The
Laplace
transform of e D using Eq. 55, is:

[2cos(wain(.%!le-cosh @

7D =;.+

Wnx[wnrDcos Wu+ (rD% 1) sin wn )

(r~ - 1)

[sinh ~

(tD- I)]

The inverse transformation


tables in the form:

. . . . 56)

is available

from integral

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (51)
where

Wn are here the roots

Ctn w
w

oh

TD

1
=
W2

and upon expanding

(r~-l)*

the Theta

Dp

The expression
embodied by Eq. 51 represents
the dimensionless
pressure-drop
distribution
for a
CIOSed limited sphtiical
system.
Upon placing rjy
at unity and simplifying,
there follows at once the
dimensionless
pressure-dropat
me internal boundary:

D=
D

2W

-l

rD-l

+(rD-1)2

[*(rD

(2rD+1) +t~

cosh

ssfl

@(rD-

I)

[sinh @ (rD- I )]

, -

(59)

,whose inverse transformation


was obtained with. the
aid of the Faltung convolution
theorem as:

-l)2+7D

xXp[--o

fz=l

D=~=~+

[(~ rD-@

this becomes:

which is &e dimensionless


rate for an open limited
system. As before, the Laplace transforms of FD is:

PD=
[(r; l)2+3rD

function

(52)

(?D1)*(TD1)4+2
(r~-1)2
r~+3r~2
1
[w?
[

-2 (rD- 1)3
*=I

~ =(r~=- 1)2

where Wu are still

-----

r~%(rD-l)
2 ,2

w ~[w ~ TD +( FD2+~D+l)(~D~

...

,..

the roots

1)2]

. (53)

.... .. . .. . .. .-.

ainh @ (rD- rD)

F=

,..
s[~cosh

@(rDLl

(61)-

)+ sinh @(rD-l)]

BOUNDARY

It w iIl be recalled
that a limited
reservoir
system
is characterized
by the arrestment
of
growth of the extema~ boundary when the latter
coincides
with the geometric
limit of tb? system.
For the caseopen boundary it is presumed
that at this hit
(r ~f) the ~ system
suffera no
of this condition
into
pressure
drip. - --~~ction
~ ..
Eq.. 15 gives:
laa..

the dimensionless
cumulative
fluid infIux for an
open limited system. ~-n, 1320
Under the precepts
of the rate case,
Eq. 54
becomes:

of Eq. 52.

-----

LXMITED SYSTEM
WITH OPEN EXTERNAL

.=

2]

which is the subsidiary


equation appropriate
to the
rate case for a Iimited system with a fixed pressure
at the external boundrw. The inverse transformation
of Eq. 61 was again obtained by Mellin Js inversion
th@orem~a9-@WhXxs
lyex~ldtreiiti~us~~pressure-drop- distribution
is given by:

SOCIETY

. .

-..

. ..

. . . . .. .

J.-

OF

PETROL1

..... . . . ... . . .

RUM

ENGINEERS

. . .. .

JOURNAL

. ....

.... . . .....-.-!

.
---

.-

TABLE 2 LIMITED
SYSTEMS
Clased External
Boundary

Time

Dlmmnsianlass

Functions

Rate
(eD)

Influx
_(FD)

Dimensionless
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.20
0030
0.40
0.50
0,60
3.7(J
0,80
0.90
1.0
2.0
3.0
4,0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0

0.19~6
0,0491
0,0127
0.0033
0.0000
0,0002
0.0001
0.0000
0.0000

Dime.tsienless
,.

1,6743
1,6308
1.5946
1.5640

---

. ..-. 1
1.0049

6.0

9.0

tn.n

External

2.2616
2.0301
1,8920
1.7972
1.7261
1.6688
L6 199
1:5764
1,5363
1.2114
0.9586
0.7586
0.6004
0.4751
0.3760
0,2975
0,2354
0.1863
0,0180
0,0017
0,0002
0.0000
0.0000

0.7
0.8
O*9
1.0
2.0
3.0

Radius
;:$;

0.7922

110008

n.72m

11.770

, .

.-

_ -

80.6
90.0

ti0028
0,0013

2W64:

--=-----

.1.3989
1,3255
1,2807
1.2477
1,2201
T.1951
1.1714
1.1487
1.1265
0.9283
0.7650
0.6304
0.5195
0.4281
0.3528
0.2907
0.2396
0.1974
0.0285
0,0041
0.0006
0.0001
0.0000
0,0000
0.0000
Dlmensionlew

0.5233
0.5418
0.5580
0.5724.
0.6655
0.7234
0.7734
0,8216
0,8693

2-

Pressure Drc.p
6%)

External

Radius

r; = 5

2.128
3,596
4.953
6.246
7.490
8*688
9.843
10.958
12.033
13.070
21.621
27.585
31.744
34.646
36.669
38.080
39.064
39.751
40.230
41.333
Externul

0,5724
0.6638
0.7133
0.7479
0,7764
0.8024
0,8273
0,8518
0.8761
0,9004
1,1424
1.3843
Lgjz;
2.1101
2.3520
2.5940
2.8359
3.6778
6.5068

Radius t;=6

3,596
4.954
6.256
7.520
8.753
9.961
11.144
12.304
13.441
23,683
32,123
39.078
44.810
49,534
53.426
56,634
59.277
61.455
70.191
71.453
71.636
71,662
71.666
71.666
7 1.66?
External

0,6638
0.7127
0.7449
0.7687
0.7881
0.8051
0.8207
0,8356
0,8501
0.9903
1.1298
1.2693
1.4089

1,5484
L6B79
1,8275
1.9670
2,1065
3.5019
48972
6.2926
7,6879
9,0833
10,4786
11,8740

Radius

4,95
6.26
7,52
8.76
9,98
11,18
12,37
13,54
24.52

90,0
100.0
200.0
~@o-

oioYl7-

l-12~91 - -=--------4.2598

. . . ..

. ...-

114*OO
114.00

::
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50,0
60.0
77;

Functions
Influx
_(FD)

1.32,57
1.2820
1.2519
1,2289
1,2099
1*1933
1,1780
1.1636
1.0354
0.92i3
0,82160.7318
0.6518
.0.5806
0.5172
0.4607
0,4104
0.1290

3.0
4.0
5*O
6.0
7.0

1.0122
110599..
1.5361
290122
Z@:

20.144
20.613
-

,,

rj = 4

;;?3::
i
7

1.5642
1.3986
1.3216
L2673
1,2203
1,1766
1.1348
1.0946
1.0558
1.0184
0,7103
0.4954
00345s
0.2410
0.1680
0,1172
0.0s18
0.0570
0:0398
0.0000
Dimensionless

2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
20,0
30,0
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0
100.0
200.0
300.0
400.0
500.0
600.0
700.0
800.0

0.3562
0.4080
0.4464
0.4769
0.5021
0.5236
0,5425
0.5595
0.5750
0,7012
0,8171
0.9325
100479
1.1633
L2787
1;3941
1.5095
1.6249
2,7787
3,9325
5.0864
6.2402
7*394 1

1.970
2.128
3,592
4,921
6.147
7.279
8.325

r55

Dimsnsfmdess
1.0
2*O
3.0
4.0
5,0
6.0
700
8,0
9,0
10,0
20,0
30.0
40.0
SO*O
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0
100.0
200,0

Red lus r;=3

7*3944
7.6598
7.8698
8,5899
8,6593
8.6659
8,6666
8.6667

1.il369

(PD)

Rate
(e~)

Time
(tD)

0.2404
0.2534
0.2654
0.2764
0,3567
0.4120
0.4591
0.5033
0.5467
0,5897
0.6326
0.6755
0.7184
1.1469
1.5755
2.0041
2.4327
2.8612
3.2898
3.7184
4.1469
4.5755

0.7046
0,9180
1.1136
1.2978
1,4739
1.6435
1.R079
1.9677
2,1233
3.4891
4.5692
5,4239
6.1004
:::;;

Ewernal

Drop

Radius r~ = 2
0.3685
i7.3992
0.4285
0,4568
0.7040
0.9120
1.0927
1.2503
1,3879
1.5080
1.6128
1.7044
1.7843
2.1921
2,2970
2,3240
2.3309
2,3327
2.3332
2.3333
2.3333
2.3333

1.685S
1.4713
1,2844
1.1212
0.9788
0.8544
0.7459

Dimenskmless
0.2
0.3
0.4
O*5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
Lo
2*O
3.0
4.0
5.0
, 6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50,0
60.0

External

3.1324
2.9947
2.8806
2,7839
2.2411
1.9342

Dlmenslonless
Pressure

1}000.0

0.000:

34*3O
43.01
50.76
57,68
63,83
6.,31
74.20
78.55
102,86

0.7127
0,7446
0,7678
0.7857
0,8004
0.8131
0.8244
0,8348
0.9255
1.0133
;:;;;;
L2765
1.3642
1,4519
1,S396
1,6273
2,5045
<

. .. .. .
%,6449
9.522?

.
-.

TABLE
Dimensionless

Dimensionless

4.0
5*O
6.0
7.0
8.0
9*O
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0
100,0
2Q0.O
300.0
400.0
500.0
600.0
700.0
800.0
900.0
1,00000
2,000.0

1.2821
1.2S23
1.2302
1.2128
1.1983
1.1859
1.1747

1.0860
1.0078
0.9354
0.868
0.8056
0.7477
0.6939
0.6440
0.S976
0.2s32
0.1342
0.0637
0.0302
0.0143
0.0068
0.0032
0.0015
0.0007
0.0000
DlmensionIess
1.2523
1,2303
1,2132
1.1993

5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
70,0
80.0
90.0
100.0
200.0
300,0
400.0
500.0
600.0
700.0
800.0
900.0
1,000.0
2,000.0

1.1877
1.1776
1,1094
1.0539
1.0015
0.9518
0.9045

0,8596
0,8169
0.7763
0.7378
0.4433
0,2663
0.1600
0,0962
0,0578
0,0347
0.0209
0,0125
0.0075
0,0000

Dimenslonlmss
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
20:0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0
100.0
200.0
300.0
400.0
500.0
;g~f
800.0
900.0
1,0000
2,000,0
3,000.0
4,000,0

1.2303
1.2132
1.1995
1.1880
1.1783
1.1196
c 1.0783
1.0398
1.0027
0.9669
0,9325
0.8992
0.8672
0,8362
0.5816
0:404s
0.2813
0,1954
C$:;W;
0:0659
00458
0.0319
0,0008
0.0000
0.0000

SYSTEMS (ccmthued)
Dimensionless Functions

Pressure Drop

Influx

_(FD)

(mD)

LIMITED

Functions

Rote

Time
(t)J)

2-

.-

External

Radius

(I%)

Dinwnsionloss External Rodlus

,
D

0.7446
0.7678
0.7854
0.7996
0.8115
0.8216
0.8306
0,8971
0.9561
1,0148
1.073s
1.1322
1.1910
1,2497
1.3084
1.3671
1.9542
2.5412
3,1283
3.7154
4.3025
4,8896
5.4767
6.0638
6.6508
12.5218

6.26
7.52
8.76
9.98
11.19
12.38
13.56
24.85
35.31
45.02
54.04
62.40
70.17
77.37
84.06
90.26
132.37
152.34
161.80
166.29
168*41
169.42
169.90
170.13
170.24
170.33
External

Radius ?; = 9
0.7676
0,7853
0.7995
0,8112
0.8211
0,8296
0.8848
0.9271
0;9684
1.0096
1.0508
1.0920
1,1332
1.1745
1.2157
1,6278
2.0398
2.4519
2.8640
3.2761
3.6882
4.1003
4.5124
4,9245
9.0455

7.52
8.76
9.99
11.19
12.38
13.57
24.98
35.70
46.04
55.83
65.11
73,92
8230
90.27
97.84
155,64
190.37
211.24
223,79
231.32
- 235.85
238.57
246,21
241.19
242.67
External

Radius r;=

8.76
9*99
11.19
12.38
13.57
25.02
36.01
46.60
56.81
66;66
76.15
85.31
94.14
102.66
172.78

%:2

279.07
=29549
---306.90
314,85
320.37

Infl Ux
(FD)

R.to
(e~)

Time
(t)

30.0
40.0
50.0

1.1030
1,0892
1.0796
1,0724
1.0664
1.0611
1.0562
1.0516
1.0088
0,9681
0.9291
0.0916
0.8S57
0,8212
0.7881
0.7563
0.7259
0.4810
0.3187
0.2111
0.1400
0.0929
0.0616
0.0408
0.0270
0.0179
0.0000

p:

80.0
90.0
100.0
200.0

300.0
400.0
S30.0
600.0
700.0
800.0
900.0
1,000.0
.2,000.0
3,000.0
4,000s0
5,000.0
6,000.0
7,000.0
8,000.0
9,000.0
10,000.0
20,000.0

30,000.0
40,000.0
50,000.0
60,000.0
70,000.0
80,000.0
90,000.0
100,000.0

90.1
100.7
111.3
215.9
319.1
421.0
521.7
621.3
719.7
816.9
913.0
1,007.9
1,898.3
2,689.4
3,392.4
4,017.0
$,572.0
5,065.2
5,503.4
5,892,7
6,238.6
8,153,6
8,739.1
8,919.7
8,975.1
8,992.1
8,997.3
8,998.9
8,999.4
8,999.6

Dime. Sionless Extwnal RadIUSr;=

10
0.7853
0.7995
0.s112
0,8210
0.8295
0.8797
0.9124
0.9427
0.9728
1.0028
,1,0329
1.0629
1,0929
1.1229
1.4232
1.7235
2.0238
2.3241 Zf6244
2.9247
3,2250
3.5253
3.82S6
6.8287
9.8317
12.8347

100.0
200.0
300.0
400.0
500.0
600.0
700.0
800.0
900.0
1,000.0
2,000.0
3,000,0
4,000.0
5,000.0
6,000.0
7,000.0
8,000.0
9,000.0
10,OW,O
20,000.0
._30,000,0
40,000.0
50,000,0
60,000.0
70,000.0
80,000,0
90,000.0
100,000.0
200,000,0

1.0564
1.0398
1.0320
1.0262
1.0210
LO 160
1.0110
1.0060
1.0011
0.9962
0.9485
0.9031
0.8S98
0.8186
0.7794
0.7421
0.7066
0;6727
0.6405
0,3920
.:;::!3;.

0:0901
0.0552
0.0338
0,0207
0.0127
0,0078
0,0000

.0.8977
0.9106
0.9199
0.9270
0.9328
0.9378
0.9423
0.9465
0.9851
1.0229
1.0604
1.0979
1.13s4
1.1729
1.2104
1.2479
1.2854
1.6604
2,0355
2,4105
2.78s6
3,1606
3,5357
3.9107
4.2858
4,6608
8.4113

mal Rod[us r~ = 30

1.0631
1.0595
1.0564
1,0381
1,0254
1.0133
1.0014
0,9895
0.9780
0.9665
0,95S2
0.9439
0.8388
0,7453
0,6622
0,5884
0.5228
0,4646
0,4128
0,3668
0,3259
0.1000
0,0307
0,0094
0,0029
0,0009
0.0003
0.0001
0.0000
0.0000

8,000,0
9,000.0
10,000.0
20,000.0

20

36.2
47.1
58.0
68,7
79,4
90, I
100,7
111.2
214,2
313s0
407.9
498,9
586,2
670,1
750s
827.7
901,8
1,496,9
1,891.2
2,152.4
2,325,7
2,440.5
2,516,7
2,567.1
2,600,6
2,622.7
2,666.3

Dimensionless
80.0
90.0
100.0
200.0
300,0
400.0
500.0
600.0
700.0
800.0
900.0
1,000.0
2,000.0
3,000.0
4,000.0
5,000.0
6,000.0
Zooo,o

Pressure Drop
(pD)

ii

11100
216,0
320.0
422.0
525.0
627,0
728.0
829.0
929,0
1,029.0
2,001.0
2,927,0
3,808.0
4;647.0
5,446.0
6,207.0
L931.O
~620.O
8,277.0
13,339.0
s~3&o+
18,333.0
19.496.0

0.9351
0.9385
0,9414
0.9000
0.9724
0,9840
0.9954
1.0068
1,0179
1.0290
1.0401
1.0512
1,1623
1,2735
1.3846
1.4957
1,cW68
1.7179
1.8290
1.9401
2.0s13
3.1624
4.2736
5.3847
6.4959
7.6070
8.7182
9.8293
10,940s
12.0516
40
0.9414
0.9570
0.9653
0.9715
0.9769
0.9820
0.9871
0.9925
0.9972
1,0019
.1.0488..
1.0957
L 1425
h 1894
1.2363
I. 2832
1.3301
L3769
1.4238
1.8926
_2.3613
2,8301
3.2988
* 3.7676
4.2363
4.?051
5.1739
5s6426
10,3302

.-

-.

TABLE 2- LIMITED
DhnmslonlmssFunctlmm
Pressure Drop
Influx
The
Ret,
(eD)
Q
. bv]
(t~)

Dlmmdwhss E+tarnot Radius r: = SO


0.9570
216,0
1.0399
200,0
0.9641
320.0
1.0325
300.0
0.9693
423.0
400,0
1.0280
0.9732
52%0
1.0246
500,0
0.9765
628.0
1.0217
600,0
1,0190
1.0164
.!.0139
1.0113
0,9865
0.9622
0.9385
0.91$5
0.8930
0,8710
0.0496
0,8287
0,8083
0.6241
0.4912
0.2828
0.2984
0,2326
0.1818
0.1418
0.1106
0.0862
0.0072
0.0006
0.0000
0,0000

700,0
800.0
900.0
1,000.0
2,000.0
3AO0.O
4,CQ0.O
5,W0.O
6,00cbo
7,000.0
8,000.0
9,000.0
10,000.0
20,000.0
30,000.0
40,W0.O
50,000.0
60,000.0
70,000.0
80,000.0
90,000.0
100,000.0
200,000.0
3Q0,000,0
400,000.0
500,000,0

0.9795
0.9823
0.9856
0.9880
1.0120
1.0360
1.0600
1.0840
1.1080
1,132+3
1.1560
1.1800
1.2040
1.4440
1,6840
1,9240
2,1640
2.4040
2.4440
2,8840
3.1240
3.2640
5,7641
8.1641
10.5641
12,9641

730.0
831.0
933.0
1,02-4.0
2,033.0
3,007.0
3,958.0
4,884,0
5,789.0
6,671.0
7,531,0
8,370,0
9,188.0
16,344.0
21,921.0
26.269.0
29,658.0
32,299.0
34,357.0
35,967.0
37,222.0
38,201.0
,41, 37s.0
41,642,0
41,664.0
41,666,0

1.0326
L0282
1.0252
1.0228
1.0209
1.0192
1.0176
1.0160
1.0015
0.9872
0.9732
0.9594
0.9457
0,9323
0.9190
0.9060
0.8931
0,7739
0.:3.::
0,5036
0.4363
0.3780
0.3275
0,2838
0,2458
0>0690
0.0141
0.0034
0.0008
0.0002
0.0000
0.0000

320,0
423.0
525.0
628.0
730,0
832,0
934,0
1,035.0
2,0440
3,038,0
4,019.0
4,985,0
5,937,0
6,8?6.0
7,802.0
8,714.0
9,614.0
17,935.0
25,145,0
31,393.0
36,808.0
41,499.0
45.564.0
49.086,0
52,137.0
34,78 Lo
67,87%0
71,014.0
71,764,0
71,942,0
71,986.0
71,996,0
72,000,0

Dimensionless Extarrml Radius r;=


700.0
800.0
900.0
1,000.0
2,000,0
3,000.0
4,000.0
5,000.0
6,000.0
7,0W.O
8,000.0
9,000,0.
10,000.0
20,000,0
30,000.0
40,000.0
50,000.0
60,000.0
70,000,0
80,000.0
90,000.0

.l-~,

Q%,&%:_
300,000.0
400,000.0
500,000.0
600,000.0
700,000.0
800,000.0
900,000.0
1,000,000.0
2,000,000.0

1.0213
1.0198
1.018S
1.0174
1.0079
0.;2.;;

730,0
832.0
924,0
1,036,0
2,048,0
3,052.0
4,046,0
5,032.0
0.981 I
6,008.0
0.9723
6,976.0
0.9635
7,926.0
0.9550
8,88o.O
0.9405.
9,829.0
%9380
18,800.0
0.8575
27,W2.O
0.7838
,
34.498,0
0,7165
41,351.0
0,6549
0,5987
47,615.0
53,341.0
0.5472
58,37S.0
00WQ2
63,359.0
0.4572
.0,4179
67,732,0
_9$#396.o
f7,1zo.7_
106,570.0
0.0692
0.0280
111,168.0
0.0113
113,042.0
0.0045
113,807.0
l14,11&o
0.0018
0.0007
114,245.0
o,aoo3
114,297.0
l14,31&o
0.0001
114,333.0
0.0000

(continued)

Dimensionless Funct irms


Timo
(t,,)

Rate
(p)

Influx
_(Fn)

Pres.wro Drop
@D)

Dimensionless External Rndlus r;=


900.0
1,000.0
2,000,0
3,000,0
4,000,0
5,000.0
yw::

1.0188
1,0178
1.0108
LO047
0.9987
0,9927
0.9868
0.9809
0,9750
0.9692
0.9634
0.9073
0.8545
0.8048
0.7579
0.7138
0.6723
0.6331
0,5963
0,5616
0.30s1
0.1697
0.0933
0.0512
0.0281
0,0155
0,0085
0.0047
0.0026
0.0000

9:.!.0
1,036,0
2,05%0
3,057.0
4,059.0
5,055,0
6,045.0
7,028,0
8,006.0
8,978,0
9,945,0
19, 29S,0
28,102.0
36,396.0
44,207,0
51, S64.0
58,493.0
65,018,0
71,163.0
76,950,0
119,176,0
142,333?0
155,096.0
162,112,0
165,967.0
168,084.0
169,248.0
169,887,0
170,238.0
170,666,0

1,000.0
2,000,0
3,000.0
4,000.0
5,000.0
6,000.0
7,000.0
8,000.0
9,000.0
Io,ooo.o
20,000.0
30,000.0
40,000.0
50,000.0
60,000.0
70,000.0
80,000.0
90,000.0
100,000.0
200,000.0
300,000.0
400,000.0
500,000.0
600,000.0
700,000.0
800,000.0
900,000.0
1,000,000.0
2,000,000.0

1:6645
1.8034
1.9422
2.0811
2.2200
2.3589
3.7478
5.1367
6,5256
7,914s
9,3034
10.6923
12,0812
70

1,0178
1,0119
I .0075
1.0033
0.9991
0,9949
0,9907
0.9866
0,9824
0.9783
0,9381
0,8995
0,8625
0.8270
0,.7930
0.7603
0.7291
0,6W1
0,6703
0,4402
0.2890
0.1905
0,1253
0.0824
0.054 I
0,0356
0.0234
0,0154
0,0000

60

Dimensi.anlncs Eat.wnal Radiusr~,

0.9641
0.9684
0.9717
0.9743
0.9765
0.9784
0,9801
0.9818
0,9969
1.0117
1,0256
1,0395
1,0533
1.0672
1.0811
1.0950
1.1089
1.2478
\:w6;

SYSTEMS

8:000.0
9,000.0
10,000,0
20,000.0
30,000.0
40,000,0
50,000.0
60,000.0
70,000.0
80,000.0
90,000.0
100,000.0
2W,000,0
300,000.0
400,000.0
500,000.0
. 600,000.0
700,000.0
800,000.0
900,000.0
1,000,000.0
2,000,000.0

Dlmmtsi.anlessExtamal Radlusr~=60
300.0
400.0
500.0
600.0
700.0
800.0
900.0
l,oco.o
2,000.0
3,000,0
4,000.0
S,ooo.o
6,000.0
7,000.0
8,000.0
9,000,0
10,000,0
20,000.0
30,000.0
40,000,0
50,000,0
60,000,0
70,000.0
80,000.0
90,000,0
100,000.0
200,000,0
300,000.0
400,000.0
500,000.0
600,000.0
700,000.0
800.000.0

-.

0.9779
0,9791
0.9875
0.9944
1.0009
1.0068
1,0127
1.0185
1.0244
1.0302
1.0361
1,0947
1.1533
l,21i9
1,2705
1.3291
1,3877
1.4463
1,5049
1.5634
2,1494
2.7353
3.3213
3,9072
4.493 I
S,0791
5.6650
6.2510
6.8369
12,6963

90

1,036,0
2,050,0
3,060.0
4,065.0
5,066,0
6,063,0
7,056.0
8,045.0
9,029.0
10,610.0
19,590,0
28,776.0
37.585.0

0.9789
0,9864
0,9914
0,9965
1.0006
1.0047
1.0088
1.0129
1.0170
1,0212
1,0623
1,1035
1.1446
1,1858
1.2269
1,2681
1,3092
1.3504
1.3915
1.8031
2.2146
2,6261
3.0376
3,4491
3,8607
4.2722
4.6637
5,0952
9,2104

46;031,0
54.129.0
61,895,0
69,341,0
76,480.0
83,326,0
138,050.0
173,987,0
197,575,0
213,137,0
223,370,0
230,097.0
234,519,0
237,425,0
239,335,0
243,000.0

Dimemsianles$ External Radius r~= 100


0.9753
0,9769
0.9785
0.9799
0.9906
1,0005
1.0093
1,0180
1.0268
1.035s
1.0443
y::;g.
1:1492
1,2367
1.3241
i.4116
1.4991
1.586s
1,6740
1.7615
1,8489
-_2z7236
3,59K24,4728
s.~7.
6.Z:
7A968
7.9714
8.8460
9.7207
l&4677

1,000;0
2,000.0
3,000.0
4,000.0
5,000.0
6,000.0
7,000.0
8,000.0
9,000.0
10,000.0
-20,000.0.
30,000.0
40,000.0
,60,000.0
,60,000.0
70,000.0
80,000.0
90,000.0
.100,000.0
200,000.0
300,000,0
400;oooio500,000.0
600,000,0
700,000.0
800,W0.O
900,000,0
1,000,000,0
2,000,0000

1.0178
1,0123
1.0090
1.0058
1,0028
0.9997
0.9967
0,9936
0.9906
0.9876
0,9578
0,9290
0.9010
0,8739
0.8476
0.8221
0.7974

0.7733
0.7501
0.s5?5

0,4068
-0299s
0.2210
0.1633
0s1203
0.0887
0.06S3
0.0482
0,0000

1,036.0
2,050,0
3,061.0
4,068.0
5,073.0
6,074,0
7,072.0
8,067.0
9,059.0
10,048.0
..19,775.0
39,208,0
38,358,0
47,232.0
55,839,0
64,187.0
72,283.0
F30,136.0
87,753,0
1S2,377.0
1%9,972.0
::;;:
;f:

0,9789
0.98s3
0.9894
0,9930
0.9964
1,0000
1.0030
1.0060
1.0090
1.0120
1.0420
1.0720
I.102O
1.1320
1.1620
1.1920
1.2220
1.2520
1.2820
1.5820
L8820
y4:;;

279: S49:0
293,918.0

2:7820
3.0820
3,3820
3.6820
3.9820
6.9820

304,287.0
311,938.0
317,558.0
333,333.0

. +-

TABLE 3LIMITED SYSTEMS


Open External Boundary
Dfmensfenless
T!mm

Rata

(tD)

(e~)
Dfmenslonless

0,07
0,08
0,09
0,10
0020
0.30
0,40
O*5O
0.60
0.70
0,80
0..;
2.00
3*OO

0.7
0.8
0,9
1
o
2,0
3*O
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8,0
9.0
10.0
20,0

1.5642
1.3992
1.3289
1,2924
1.2729
1.2623
1,2567
1.2536
1.2519
1.2510
1.2500
1.2500
Dimenslenloss

.x._._

1,3989
2,0
3.0
1.3259
4.0
1.2832
5.0
1,2557
6.0
1.2375
Zs::L _._.--.102252_-

9*O
10.0
20.0
30.0
40,0

1,2170
1.2115
1.2077
1)2001
1.2000
1.2000

Pressure

Radius

r:=

External

Radius r;=

Radius

3
0,3562
0.4080
0.4464
0.4768
0,5019
0,5230
0,5412
0.5568
0s704
0.6407
0.6597
0.6648
0.6661
0.6665
0.6666

r~=

4
0,5233
0.5418
0.5580
0.5724
0.662S
0,7054
0.7272
0.7383
0,7440
0.7469
0.7484
0.7492
0.7496
0.7500

1:6441
1.8093
1.9705
2.1284
3.5988
4.9773
6.3258
7,6641
8.9992
10.3331
11,6666
13,0000
14.3333
27,6667
External

External

Radius

r~ = 5

2.1284
3.S958
4.9558
6,2646
7.5462
8.8133
10.0725
11,3275
12,5802
13.8316
26.3333
3B.8333

0.5724
0.6638
0.7121
0.7422
0.7618
0.7748
0.7833
0,7890
0.7927
0,7952
0,7999
0.8000

Radius rD = 6
3.S95B
4.9545
6,2573
7,5258
8,7718

Time
(tL))

Functions

Rate
(@/J)

Influx
(FD)
External

0.2404
0,2534
0.2654
0,2764
0,355s
0.4048
0.4370
0.4582
0,4723
O*4B17
0.4878
0.4919
0.4947
0.4999
0:5000

0.7046
0,9180
1.1137
1,2979
1.4742
1.6445
1.s103
1.9727
2.1323
3.6638
5.1664
6.6666
8.1667
9.6667
11,1667
External

Drcm

0.3685
0.3992
0.4285
0,4568
0.7052
0.9228
1.1294
103319
1.5328
1.7331
1,9333
2.1333
2,3333
4.3333
6.3333

1.6743
1.6308
1.5948
1.5643
1.4078
1.3582
1.3416
.1.3361
1,3343
1.3336
1,3334
1.3334
1.3333
1.3333
Dimensionless

1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5*O
6.0
7.0
8,0
9.0
10.0
20,030.0

External

2.2616
2,0301
1,8921
1.7984
1.7302
1,6788
1.6393
1.6087
1.5849
1,5072
1.5006
1.5001
1.5000
1.5000
1.5000
D[mens[anIess

Dlmensienloss

Influx

3.1324
2.9947
2.8007
2.7043
2.2786
2.1036
2,0386
2,0144
2.0054
2,0020
2.0007
2.0003
2.0001
2.0000
2,0000
Oimensianless

0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0

Functlc.ns

0.663B
0,7126.
067444
0.7669
0.7834

10,0028__Q:Z&11.2236
J2.4377
0.8119
.13.6471
0,8172
25.6663
: 0.8324
37.6667
0,8333
0.8333
49,6667

3*O
4,0
5,0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10,0
20.0
30.0
40,0
50,0

1,3257
1,2822
L2527
1.2315
1,2157
1,2039
1*1950
L11?82
1.1681
1.1668
1.1667
L 1667
Dlmenslanless

4,0
5*O
6,0
7,0
8*O
9*O
10.0
20,0
30.0
40.0
50,0
60.0
70,0

L2821
1.2523
1.2305
1.2136
1.2003
1.1897
1.1811
1.1479
1.1435
1.1429
1.1429
L 1429
1.1429

5,0
6.0
7.0
800
9,0
10*O
20.0
30.0
40.0
5000
60.0
70.0
80.0

1.2523
1.2303
1.2133
1,1996
1.1884
1.1790
1.1364
1.1274
1.1255
1,1251
1.1250
1.1250
1.1250

6,0
7,0
8,0
9.0
10,0
20.0
30.0
40,0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0

1,2303
1.2132
1.1995
1.1881
1.1785
1.1306
1.1169
101128
1.1116
1.1113
1,1112
1.1111
1,1111

External

_@&g

101030
1.0892
1.0799
1.0732
1.0682
1.0645
1.0616
1,0595
1.0531
1.0527
1,0526

___LQ&
,..

Radius
6,2568
7,5231
8.7640
9,9857
11.1925
12.3873
13.5725
25.1652
36.6157
;::;;:

7
0,7127
0.7446
0,7676
0,7851
0.7988
0.8098
0,8187
0,8258
0,8531
0,8566
0.8571
0,8571

r~= 8
-

0,7446
0.7676
0,7853
0.7944
0,8109
0.8205
0,8285
0,8653
0.B730
0,B746
0.8749
0.8750
0.8750

70.9048
82,3333
Radius

r;=

9
0.7676
0.7853
0,7995
008111
0.8209
0,8292
0.8717
0.8838
0.8874
0.8884
0.8888
0,8S89
0.8089

7.5231
8.7640
9.9854
11,1917
12,3855
13.5690
25.0925
36.4008
47.6633
5s.9159
70,1665
8104166
92.6667
External

30,0
40.0
50.0
60.0
70;0
80.0
90.0
100.0
200.0
300,0
400.0

rfi=

4*9544
6,2568
7,5234
8,7649
9,9881
11.1977
12.3969
13.5883
25,3283
37.0000
48,6666
60.3333

External

Dimensionless

Radius

Prassure Drop
fla~)

Radius r~=

10
0.7853
0.7994
0,8111
0.8209
0,8293
0,8747
0,8906
0.8965
0.8987
0.8995
0.8998
0,8999
0,9000

0.764
9.985
;;:;;
13,568
25,063
36,286
47.431
58,551
69.665
80.777
91,889
103.000
Externai

Radius r~=

20

36.180
47. I 37
570980
68,743
79,449
90.112
100,741
111.346
216.843
322.122
427.386

0.8977
0,9106
0.9193
0,9261
0.9312
0.9351
0.9382
0,9406
0,9486
0,9495
0.9497

532,K49
637.912

09499
0.9500

rD-r~
PD(rD~tD~ = ~

2 (q.j- 1)
+

2.
-
@;q2

[1
.[-1
;4%.1=%2(TD:2
~rDL::
(
TD ?@

#-

wh:ch is the concIudmg

Wn[rD (rD- 1) + tun2] cos W*

NUME~CAL

where Wn are the roots


tan w
=
w

-~

...0.

(62)

of the equation:
,

. . . . . . . . . . (63)

D-l

Upon pIacing ?D at unity in Eq. 62 and simplifying,


the dimensionless
pressure drop is obtained:

TABLE

Dlmenslonless
Time
(tD)

80,0
90,0
100.0
200.0
300,0
400,0
500.0
600.0
700.0
800.0
900.0
1,000.0

Influx

(eD)
.

(FD)

1.0631
1,0595
;:::::
1.0365
1,0351
1.0347
1.0345
1.0345
1.0345
?-80345
1,0345
Dimensionless

100.0
200.0
300.0
400.0,
500.0
600.0
700,0
BOW

900.0
1,000,0
2,000,0

1.0564
1,0399
1,0330
1.0295
1.0276
1.0267
L0262
1,0259
1,0258
1,0257
1,0256
Dlmansimslsss

200,0
300.0
400.0
500.0
600,0
700.0
800.0
900.0
1,000,0
2,000,0
3,000,0

1,0399
1.0326
1,0283
1.0256
1.0239
1.0227
1.0219
1.0214
1,0211
1,0204
1.0204
Dimension!es$

300.0
g:~:
600.0

JUNE, 1966

1.0326
1.0282
1.0253
ii0232

LIMITED

External

SYSTEMS (Cwstinued)
Dimenslcinless

Pressure

Time
(t~)

Drop

kD)

0,9351
0;9385
0.9414
0.9576
0,9629
0.9649
0.9656
0.9660
0.9662
0,9664
0.9665
0.9667

90,093
100*705
111.284
216,001
319,838
423.406
526,891
630.351
733.803
837,252
940.701
1,044.149
Rodius r:=

0,9414
0,9570
0,9646
0.9686
0.9708
0.972 I
0.9729
0.9734
0.9737
0.9739
0.9750

Rad[us r;=

50

215,96
319s4
422,5B
525,27
627,74
730.06
832o29
934,46
1,036,58
2,057, i5
3,077.56
Exterqol

Redius rj = 60
319*54
422,57
528.23
627.65

Influx

(eD)

(FD)

2,000,0
3,000,0
4,000,0
5,000.0
6,000.0
7,000.0
8,000,0

0,9570
0,9641
0.9688
0.9718
0.9739
0.9754
0,9764
0,9771
0,9?76
0.9794
0.9800

0,9753
0.9767
0.978 I
0.9795
0.9838
0.9848
0.9853
0.9857
0.9857

Radius

934,0
1,036.0
2,051.0
3,064.0
4,077.0
S,090.O
6,102.0
7,1 15*O

1.0127
L0127
1,012:
1,0127

0.9779
0.9794
0,9847
0.9862
0.9868
0.9872
0.9875
0.9875

s Extel ,nol Radius

1.0178
100131
1,0118
1,0114
1.0113
1,0112
1.0112
1.0112
Dimensionless

1,000.0
2,000,0
3,000.0
4,000,0
5,000,0
6,000iO7,000.0
8,000.0
9,000.0

Exte/ rrral

1,0188
1,0179
100137
1.0129

Drop

(PD)

730.0
832.0
934.0
1,036.0
2,052.0
3,066.0
4,081.0
5,095.0
6,110.0

1.0150
1.0146
1.0145
1,0145
1.0145

Dlmenslonles

1,000.0

Pressure

Radius r~=, 70

External

1.0213
1.0200
;::;:9

Dimensionless

900,0
1,000.0
2,000.0
3,000.0
4,000.0
5,000.0
6,000,0
7,000.0

40

111*28
215,96
319,56
422.67
525.51
628.22
730,86
833,47
936,05
1,038.63
2,064.28
Externol

700.0
800.0
900.0
1,000.0
~ooo.o
3,000.0
4,000.0
5,000,0
6,000,0

Functions

Rate

Dlmen4iorrless

Radius FL=
30

External

SOLUTIONS

Nine particular
solutions
to Eq, 7 obtained with
the aid of the LapIace transformation
were numerically computed.
Specifically,
these included
the
functions
Mined
by Eqs. 34, 36, 40, 46, 49, 53,
58, 60 and 64.
The numericaI
computations
were carried
out
with the aid of IBM 1401 and 1620 computer systems.
for
Programming
was in FORTRAN.
The functions

Functions

Rate

Dimensionless

3 -

11,17

COMPUTATION OF

PARTICULAR

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

resuk.9

1,036.0
2,051.0
3,C63.O
4,074.0
5,086.0
6,097.0
7,108,0
8,120.0
External

1*OT78
1,0128
100111
LO1O5
1*O1O2
1.0101
1,0101
1*O1O1
1,0101

,,

Rod I us I

1,03600
2,051.0
3,062.0
4,073.0
5,083.0
6,094.0
t 7.104.0
8;1 14.0
9,124,0

D=

0.9789
0.98S0
0.9870
0,9B78
0.9883
0.9886
0.9889
0.9889
100
0.9789
0.9846
0.9874
0.9885
0,989.1
0,9894
0.9897
0.9899
009900

o*9~41
0.%684
r,9716
0.9740

. t

#-.-.
..

...

..z

113

.
.-

the unlimited system were computed first over the


dimensionless
time range 0.001 to 1,000,000. Then
tables of the trigonometric
relations
described
by
Eqs. 47, s,2 and 63 were developed
from which the
roots
w (with n = 6) were obtained.
Finally,
numerical
vaIues
of the functions
for limited
systems were computed over the range of external
radii (rD) 2 to 100. The range of dimensionless
time (tD) for these functions
was chosen to begin
with the points of divergence
from the unlimited
system envelope and to end with steady-state
valwes.
These
numerical
results
are included
in tabular
form to foster practical
application
of this work.
NOMENCLATURE
Cl, C2 = arbitrary

constants

F = cumulative
= Laplace

~D

Rv = residues

fluid

influx

2. Hurst, W. and van Everdingen,

of pressure

3, Musk~t, M.: The Flow o} Homogeneous

Porows

of b

pi = initial

of eD

permeability

6.

Fluid

system
integers

pressure
pressure

of radius vector

of

parameter,

boundary
a complex

variable

tr = readjustment

U . macroscopic

velocity

arbitrary real variable

z .

complex variable

-.

angle,

in poro,us media

spherical

coordinates

_,.

Princeton

U.

Dover,

Methods
New York (1963).

Circuit Analysis,
John Wiley
12. Bush, V:: Operational
& Sons, fnc., New York, N, Y. (1929).
I. A.: Handbook
oj
13. Abrarnowits, M. end Stegun,
Matbernatical
Functions,
U. S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D. C, (1964).

angle, spherical

theta

F.

B,: Advanced
Cafcuhs
.I!I~, Inglewood .Cliffs,

function,

also

coordinates
denoted

/or Engineers,
N. J. (1948).

to Applied

Mafbe.

18. Kern, G. A. and Kern, T. M.: Mathematical


McGqiw-Wll
for S~i@tists
and Engineers,.
Me%Yolii;KY7[i961),

Handbook

BocIk CO.,

19. Erdslyi,
A. et dt Higher Trcinscendetzta~
Functions,
McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, N.Y. (1953) Vol. 11.

parameter

@ = longitadinal

@oord

Transform,
N. J. (1946).

to Complex Variabfes
17. Churchill, R. V.: lntrodriction
and Applications,
McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York,
N. Y. (1948).

y-=ab~eis~ti-o~ ~otivergence---

(34 = Jacobian

Princaton,

F. D.: introduction
16. Mumaghan,
tnatics, Dover, New York (lg63).

w=

a = colatitude

time

= maximum time

~ = arbitiary

10. Widder, D. V.: Tbe LapJace

15. Hildebranrf,
Prentice-Hall,

time

to = dimensionless

l-

Churchill, R. V.: Modem Operational


Matbernatics
in
Engineering,
McGraw-Hill Book Co,, New York, N, Y.
(1944j,
,

of Integral Transforms,
14. Erdelyi, A. et aL: Tables
McGrew-HiU Book Co,, New York, N,Y. (1954) Vol. 1.

t = time

9.

in Applied Mathematics,

Sadius of external

transform

L. P.: An Introduction
to Di//erential
with tbe Use o/ the Tensor
Calculus,
U, Press, Princeton,
N. J. (1947).

11. Carslaw, H, S. and -Jaegqw, J, C.: Operational

boundary

boundary
rw = radius of intemal
rD = dimensionless
radial distance

Eisenhart,
Geometry
Princeton

Press,

rD = dimensionless

W.: The Skin Effect and, Ita Impediment to


Flow irrto a Wellbore ~, Pet. Erzg. (Oct., 1953)
25, B-6.

8.

drop

length

of external

s = Laplace

Muakst, M.: ! The Performance of Bottom-Water Drive


Reaervoirs~),
Trans., AIME (1947) VO1. 170, 81.

Vol.

of domain of positive

radial distance,
sphere
.

= radius

re

Fluids Through
Ann Arbor (1946).

7. Hurst,

in spherical

permeability

~D = dimensionless
r .

J, W. Edwards,

M.: Physical
Principles
of Oil Production,
McGraw-Hill Book Co.-, New York, N. Y. (1949).
Treatment Of Nonsteady 5. Chatas, A. T.: ~~A Praciical
State Flow Problems
in Resewoir
Systema3~, Pet.
.En& (May, June and Aug., 1953) 25,

k = permeability
kb = horizontal
permeability

n = element
p = pressure

Media,

4. Muakat,

transform

kv = verticaI

A. F.: ~l%e Application


of the Laplace Transformation
to .F1ow Problems in
Reservoirs?,
Trans., AfME (1949) Vol. 186, 305.

drop

e = rate of fhtid influx or fluid rate


rate of fluid influx
D = dimensionless

k, = radial

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

W,: Water Influx into a Reservoir


and Ita
Application
to the Equstion of Volumetric Balancer ~,
Twwzs., AIME (1943) Vol. 151, 57.

c = compressibilir~

TD = Laplace

drop

1. Hurst,

at z=

product
distance

transform

pressure

Grateful acknowledgment
is made to A. S. Odeh
of Mobil Oil Co.s Field Research Laboratory es who
reviewed
this work, critically
checked the mathematics and offered some valuable
criticisms,
The
author wishes to express his appreciation
to Deno
Ladas of IBM Corp. for his help in programming the
analytic
functions
and to William Chichester
for
his help in their computation.
Thankfui acknowledgment is aIso made to H. L. Smith of the U. S. Corps
of Engineers
for his practical
suggestions
ahd
encouragement t to publish this paper.

at origin

of singularities

b = dimensionless
and radial

&J = cumulative

of FD

of singularity

~ = LapIace

p = viscosity

REFERENCES

cumulative

transform

,RO = residue

.,-

+ = porosity

fluid influx

FD = dimensionless

by

20.

Csrslaw, H. S. and Jaeger, J. C.: Corzductfon o/ Heat


in Solids, Oxford U. Prees, Oxford, England (1959).
+++