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International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET)

Volume 2 Issue 11 pp 767-769 February 2014

www.ijsret.org

ISSN 2278 0882

Common Fixed Point Theorem for Occasionally Weakly Compatible


Maps in Complex-Valued Metric Space
1

Jitender Kumar1 and Dinesh2


Department of Mathematics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India
2
Department of Mathematics, D.N. College, Hisar, Haryana, India

ABSTRACT
The aim of this paper is to prove a common fixed point
theorem for four self maps f , g , h and k using
occasionally weakly compatible in complex-valued
metric space. Our result is independent of the
completeness of the space.
Keywords Common Fixed Point, Occasionally Weakly
Compatible, Complex-Valued Metric Space
I.

INTRODUCTION

In 2011, Azam et. al [1] introduced the notion of


complex valued metric space and proved and common
fixed point theorem for a pair of contractive type
mapping involving rational expressions which is a
generalization of the classical Banach fixed point
theorem.
Al-Thagafi and N. Shahzad [5] weakened the concept of
compatibility by giving a new notion of (o.w.c.) maps
which is the most general among all the commutativity
concepts. In this paper, we proved a common fixed point
theorem for four self maps using the concept of
occasionally weakly compatible (o.w.c.) in complex
valued metric space.
II.

PRELIMINARIES

Let be the set of complex numbers and z1 , z2 .


Define a partial order relation on as follows:
and
only
if
z1 z2 if
Re( z1 ) Re( z2 ) ,
Im( z1 ) Im( z2 ) . It follows that z1 z2 if one of the
following conditions is satisfied
(i) Re( z1 ) Re( z2 ) , Im( z1 ) Im( z2 )
(ii) Re( z1 ) Re( z2 ) , Im( z1 ) Im( z2 )
(iii) Re( z1 ) Re( z2 ) , Im( z1 ) Im( z2 )
(iv) Re( z1 ) Re( z2 ) , Im( z1 ) Im( z2 )

In particular, we will write z1 z2 if z1 z2 and one of


(i), (ii), and (iii) is satisfied and we will write z1 p z2 if,
only (iii) is satisfied.
Remark 2.1. The following statements hold.
(i)
If a, b R with a b , then az p bz , for all
z
(ii)
If 0 z1 z2 , then | z1 | | z2 | .
(iii)
If z1 z2 , z2 z3 , then z1 z3 .
Definition 2.2 ([1]). Let X be a non empty set. Suppose
that the mapping d : X X , satisfies:
(i) 0 d ( x, y ) , for all x, y X and d ( x, y ) 0 if
and only if x y ;
(ii) d ( x, y ) d ( y, x) , for all x, y X ;
(iii) d ( x, y ) d ( x, z ) d ( z , y ) , for all x, y, z X .
Then d is called a complex valued metric on X , and
( X , d ) is called a complex valued metric space.
Example 2.3. Let X . Define the mapping
by d ( z1 , z2 ) i | z1 z2 | for all
d:XX
z1 , z2 . Then ( X , d ) is a complex valued metric
space.
Definition 2.4. Let ( X , d ) be a complex valued metric
space and {xn } be a sequence in X .
(i) If for every c with 0 c , there is n0
such that, for all n n0 , d ( xn , x) c , then {xn }
is said to be convergent to x X . We denote this
by xn x , as n or lim xn x .
n

(ii) If for every c with 0 c , there is n0


such that, for all n n0 , d ( xn , xn m ) c , then
{xn } is called a Cauchy sequence in ( X , d ) .

IJSRET @ 2014

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET)


Volume 2 Issue 11 pp 767-769 February 2014

(iii) If every Cauchy sequence in X is convergent,


then ( X , d ) is said to be a complete complex
valued metric space.
Lemma 2.5 ([1]). Let ( X , d ) be a complex valued
metric space and {xn } be a sequence in X . Then {xn }
converges to x if and only if | d ( xn , x) | 0 as n .
Lemma 2.6 ([1]). Let ( X , d ) be a complex valued
metric space and {xn } be a sequence in X . Then {xn }
is a Cauchy sequence if and only if | d ( xn , xn m ) | 0
as n .
Definition 2.7. Let f and g be two self-maps on a set
X . If w fx gx for some x in X , then x is called a
coincidence point of f and g , and w is called a point
of coincidence of f and g .
Definition 2.8 ([3]). Let f and g be two self-maps
defined on a set X . Then f and g are said to be
weakly compatible if they commute at their coincidence
points.
Definition 2.9 ([5]). Let f and g be two self-maps
defined on a set X . Then f and g are said to be
occasionally weakly compatible if there exists some
point x X such that
fx gx

fgx gfx .
Every weakly compatible self maps are occasionally
weakly compatible, but converse is not true.
Example 2.10. Let X be the set of complex
numbers. Let d be the metric d : , defined
by
d ( z1 , z2 ) | x1 x2 | i | y1 y2 |
for all z1 , z2 ,
z1 x1 iy1 ,
z2 x2 iy2
Let f , g : defined by
f ( z ) 2iz
g ( z ) i | z |2
Then f (0) 0 g (0) , f (2) 4i g (2) , 0 and 2 are
coincidence points.

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ISSN 2278 0882

But
fg (0) gf (0) 0 .
fg (2) f (4i ) 8 ,
gf (2) g (4i ) 16i .
Therefore ( f , g ) are occasionally weakly compatible
but not weakly compatible.
Lemma 2.11 ([5]). Let f and g be two occasionally
weakly compatible self-maps defined on a non-empty set
X . If w fx gx is the unique point of coincidence.
Then w is the unique common fixed point of f and g .
III.

MAIN RESULT

Theorem 3.1. Let ( X , d ) be a complex valued metric


space and let f , g , h and k be four self-maps on X
satisfying the inequality
d ( fx, gy ) max{d (kx, hy ), d (kx, fx), d (hy , gy )
d (kx, gy ), d (hy, fx)}
for all x, y X ,
0 1 (*)
If the pairs ( f , k ) and ( g , h) are (o.w.c.), then f , g , h
and k have a unique common fixed point.
Proof. Since the pairs ( f , k ) and ( g , h) are occasionally
weakly compatible (o.w.c.) maps, therefore, there exists
two elements x, y in X such that
fx kx and gy hy .
First we prove that fx gy , on the contrary, suppose
that fx gy . Then
d ( fx, gy ) max{d (kx, hy ), d (kx, fx),
d (hy, gy ), d (kx, gy ),
d (hy, fx)}
Put fx kx and gy hy .
d ( fx, gy )
max{d ( fx, gy ), d ( fx, fx), d ( gy , gy ),
d ( fx, gy ), d ( gy , fx)}
max{d ( fx, gy ),0,0, d ( fx, gy ), d ( gy , fx)}
d ( fx, gy ), a contradiction.
Suppose, there exists another element z X such that
fz kz . Then by (*), we have fz gy .
Therefore u fx kx is the unique point of
coincidence. By Lemma 2.11, u fu ku is the unique
common fixed point of ( f , k ) .

IJSRET @ 2014

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET)


Volume 2 Issue 11 pp 767-769 February 2014

Similarly, there is unique common fixed point of ( g , h)


say (v gv hv) .
We show that u v , on the contrary, suppose that
u v . Then by (*), we have
d (u , v) d ( fu , gv)
max{d (ku , hv), d (ku , fu ), d (hv, gv),
d (ku , gv), d (hv, fu )}
max{d ( fu , gv), d ( fu , fu ), d ( gv, gv ),
d ( fu , gv), d ( gv, fu )}
max{d ( fu , gv),0,0, d ( fu , gv), d ( gv, fu )}
d ( fu , gv), a contradiction.
Therefore, u fu ku gu hu is the unique
common fixed point of f , g , h and k .
Example. Let X [0,1) and let d be the metric
d : X X , defined by
d ( x, y ) i | x y | , x, y X .
Then ( X , d ) is a complex valued metric space.
Let f , g , h and k : [0,1) [0,1) be four self-maps on
X , defined by

x
f ( x) ,
2

x2
g ( x)
,
3

h( x ) x 3 ,

k ( x) x 2 .
f (0) k (0) 0
fk (0) kf (0) 0
1
1
1
f k
2
2 4
1
1
1
fk f
2
4

8
1
1
kf k
4 16
g (0) h(0) 0
gh(0) hg (0) 0
1
1
1
g h
3
3 27
1
1
1
gh g
2187
3
27

1
1
1
hg h

3
27 19683

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IV.

ISSN 2278 0882

REFERENCES

[1] A. Azam, B. Fisher and M. Khan, Common fixed


point theorems in complex valued metric spaces,
Numerical Functional Analysis and Optimization, 32(3),
2011, 243-253.
[2] S. Bhatt, S. Chankiyal and R.C. Dimri, Common
fixed point of mappings satisfying rational inequality in
complex valued metric space, International Journal of
Pure and Applied Mathematics, 73(2), 2011, 159-164.
[3] G. Jungck and B.E. Rhoades, Fixed point for set
valued functions without continuity, Indian J. Pure Appl.
Math., 29 (3), 1998, 227-238.
[4] K.P.R. Sastry, G.A. Naidu, Tadesse Bekeshsie and
M.A. Rahamatulla, A common fixed point theorem for
four self-maps in complex valued and vector valued
metric spaces, Int. J. Math. Archive, 3(7), 2012, 26802685.
[5] M.A. Al-Thagafi and N. Shahzad, Generalized Inonexpansive self maps and invariant approximation,
Acta Mathematica Sinica, English series, 24, 2008, 867876.
[6] M.A. Al-Thagafi and N. Shahzad, A note on
occasionally weakly compatible maps, Int. J. Math.
Anal. 3(2), 2009, 55-58.
[7] M. Alamgir Khan, Sumitra and R. Chugh, Common
fixed point theorems for occasionally weakly compatible
maps in fuzzy metric spaces, Int. Mathematical Forum,
6 (37), 2011, 1825-1836.
[8] J. Kumar and Y. Kumar, Common fixed point
theorem in complex valued metric space satisfying
(E.A.) and (CLR)-property, IJSRET, 2 (7), 2013, 397402.

Therefore ( f , k ) and ( g , h) are not weakly compatible


but o.w.c. 0 is the unique common fixed point of
f , g , h and k .
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