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HSN24400
Course Revision Notes
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hsn.uk.net
Higher
Mathematics
Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes
 ii  HSN24400
hsn.uk.net
Contents
Unit 1 – Mathematics 1
Straight Lines 1
Functions and Graphs 2
Differentiation 5
Sequences 6
Unit 2 – Mathematics 2
Polynomials and Quadratics 7
Integration 8
Trigonometry 9
Circles 12
Unit 3 – Mathematics 3
Vectors 12
Further Calculus 15
Exponentials and Logarithms 16
The Wave Function 18
Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes
Page 1 HSN24400 hsn.uk.net
Straight Lines
Distance Formula
( ) ( )
2 2
2 1 2 1
Distance x x y y = − + − between points ( )
1 1
, x y and ( )
2 2
, x y
Gradients
2 1
2 1
y y
m
x x
−
=
−
between the points ( )
1 1
, x y and ( )
2 2
, x y where
1 2
x x ≠
Positive gradients, negative gradients, zero gradients, undefined gradients
eg 4 y =
eg 2 x =
Lines with the same gradient are parallel
eg The line parallel to 2 3 5 y x + =
has gradient
3
2
m = − since
5 3
2 2
2 3 5
2 3 5
y x
y x
y x
+ =
= − +
= − +
(must be in the form y mx c = + )
Perpendicular lines have gradients such that
perp.
1 m m × = −
eg
perp.
3 2
3 2
if then m m = = −
tan m =
is the angle that the line makes with
the positive direction of the xaxis
Equation of a Straight Line
The line passing through ( ) , a b with gradient m has equation:
( ) y b m x a − = −
Medians
M is the midpoint of AC, ie
1 2 1 2
M ,
2 2
x x y y + +
 
=

\ .
BM is not usually perpendicular to AC, so
1 2
1 m m × = −
cannot be used
To work out the gradient of BM, use the gradient formula
A
B
C
M
x
positive direction
y
Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes
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Altitudes
D is not usually the midpoint of AC
BD is perpendicular to AC, so
1 2
1 m m × = − can be used to
work out the gradient of BD
Perpendicular Bisectors
CD passes through midpoint of AC
CD is perpendicular to AB, so
1 2
1 m m × = − can be used to
find the gradient of CD
Perpendicular bisectors do not necessarily have to appear
within a triangle – they can occur with straight lines
Functions and Graphs
Composite Functions
Example
If ( )
2
2 f x x = − and ( )
1
x
g x = , find a formula for
(a) ( ) ( ) ( ) h x f g x =
(b) ( ) ( ) ( ) k x g f x =
and state a suitable domain for each.
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
2
1
1
(a)
2
1
2
x
x
h x f g x
f
x
=
=
= −
= −
{ } Domain: : , 0 x x x ∈ ≠
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
2
(b)
2
1
2
k x g f x
g x
x
=
= −
=
−
{ }
Domain: : , 2 x x x ∈ ≠ ±
You will probably only be asked for a domain if the function involved a fraction or an
even root. Remember that in a fraction the denominator cannot be zero and any
number being square rooted cannot be negative
eg ( ) 1 f x x = + could have domain: { } : , 1 x x x ∈ ≥ −
A
B
D
C
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes
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Graphs of Inverses
To draw the graph of an inverse function, reflect the graph of the function in the
line y x =
Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
Exponential Logarithmic
Trigonometric Functions
sin y x =
cos y x =
tan y x =
Period 360
Amplitude 1
= °
=
Period 360
Amplitude 1
= °
=
Period 180
Amplitude is undefined
= °
Graph Transformations
The next page shows the effect of transformations on the two graphs shown below.
x
y
1
–1
180° 360°
O
x
y
O
180° 360°
x
y
1
–1
O
180° 360°
x
y
1
–1
180° 360°
O
x
O
1
y
log
a
y x =
( ) ,1 a
x
O
1
y
, 0 1
x
y a a = < <
( ) 1, a
x
O
1
y
, 1
x
y a a = >
( ) 1, a
x
0
y
( ) y g x =
3 –1
( ) 2, 2
x
y
O
( ) y g x =
( )
1
y g x
−
=
y x =
Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes
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Function Effect Effect on ( ) f x Effect on ° x sin
( ) f x a + Shifts the graph
a up the
yaxis
( ) f x a + Shifts the graph
a − along the
xaxis
( ) f x − Reflects the
graph in the
xaxis
( ) f x − Reflects the
graph in the
yaxis
( ) kf x Scales the graph
vertically
Stretches if
1 k >
Compresses if
1 k <
( ) f kx
Scales the graph
horizontally
Compresses if
1 k >
Stretches if
1 k <
x
0
y
•
3
2
1
2
−
( ) 2 y g x =
( ) 1, 2
x
y
0
1
–1
180° 360°
sin2 y x = °
x
y
0
1
2
180° 360°
1
2
sin y x = °
1
2
−
x
0
y
•
3 –1
( ) 2 y g x =
( ) 2, 4
x
y
0
1
–1
180 − ° 360 − °
( ) sin y x = − °
x
0
y
•
–3
1
( ) y g x = −
( ) 2, 2 −
x
y
0
1
–1
180° 360°
sin y x = − °
x
0
y
( ) y g x = −
•
3 –1
( ) 2, 2 −
x
y
1
–1
180° 360°
0
( ) sin 90 y x = − °
x
0
y
•
( ) 1, 2
2 –2
( ) 1 y g x = +
x
y
0
2
180°
360°
1
sin 1 y x = ° +
x
0
y ( ) 1 y g x = +
•
• •
( ) 3, 1
( ) 1, 1 −
( ) 2, 3
Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes
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Differentiation
Differentiating
If ( )
n
f x ax = then ( )
1 n
f x anx
−
′ =
Before you differentiate, all brackets should be multiplied out, and there should be no
fractions with an x term in the denominator (bottom line), for example:
2
2
1
3
1
3
x
x
−
=
2
2
3
3x
x
−
=
1
2
1
x
x
−
=
Equations of Tangents
Tangents are straight lines, therefore to find the equation of a tangent, you need a point
on the line and its gradient to substitute into ( ) y b m x a − = −
You will always be given one coordinate of the point which the tangent touches
Find the other coordinate by solving the equation of the curve
Find the gradient by differentiating then substituting in the xcoordinate of the point
Example
Find the equation of the tangent to the graph of
3
y x = at the point where 9 x = .
( )
3
3
3
9
3
27
9, 27
y x =
=
=
=
3
2
1
2
3
3
2
y x
x
dy
x
dx
=
=
=
1
2 3
2
3
2
3
2
9
2
At 9, 9
9
3
x m = = ×
=
= ×
=
( )
( )
9
2
27 9
2 54 9 81
2 9 27
y b m x a
y x
y x
y x
− = −
− = −
− = −
= −
Stationary points occur at points where 0
dy
dx
=
You must justify the nature of turning points or points of inflection
Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes
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Graphs of Derived Functions
Optimisation
These types of questions are usually practical problems which involve maximum or
minimum areas or volumes
Remember you must show that a maximum or minimum exists
Sequences
Linear Recurrence Relations
A linear recurrence relation is in the form
1 n n
u au b
+
= + . Also be aware that this may be
written as
1 n n
u au b
−
= +
If 1 1 a − < < then a limit
1
b
l
a
=
−
exists. You must state this whenever you use the limit
formula
+
–
0
y
x
x
Quadratic
Linear
+
0
–
0
+
x
x
Cubic
Quadratic
+ –
–
+
0
0
0
x
x
Quartic
Cubic
+
–
+
+
–
+
–
+
–
y
y y
y
y
Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes
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Polynomials and Quadratics
Polynomials
The degree of a polynomial is the value of the highest power, eg
4
3 3 x + has degree 4
Synthetic division (nested form) can be used to factorise polynomials
Example
Find
3 2
4 7 11
2
x x
x
− +
+
.
–2 4 –7 0 11
–8 30 –60
4 –15 30 –49
Remember to put in 0
if there is no term
3 2
2
4 7 11
4 15 30 remainder 49
2
x x
x x
x
− +
= − + −
+
ie ( )
( )
3 2 2
4 7 11 2 4 15 30 49 x x x x x − + = + − + −
If the divisor is a factor then the remainder is zero
If the remainder is zero then the divisor is a factor
Completing the Square
The
2
x term must have a coefficient of one. If it does not, you must take out a common
factor from the
2
x and x term, but not the constant
In the form ( )
2
y a x p q = + + the turning point of the graph is ( ) , p q −
Example
Write
2
3 12 7 x x − + in the form
2
( ) a x p q + + .
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2 2 2
2
2
2
3 12 7
3 4 7
3 4 2 2 7
3 2 4 7
3 2 12 7
3 2 5
x x
x x
x x
x
x
x
− +
= − +
= − + − − − +
= − − +
= − − +
= − −
Note that in this example, the graph is ∪shaped since the
2
x coefficient is positive; and
the turning point is ( ) 2, 5 − .
Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes
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The Discriminant
The discriminant is part of the quadratic formula and can be used to indicate how many
roots a quadratic has. For the quadratic
2
ax bx c + + :
If
2
4 0 b ac − > , the roots are real and unequal (distinct)
2 roots
If
2
4 0 b ac − = , the roots are real and equal (ie repeated roots)
1 root
If
2
4 0 b ac − < , the roots are not real; they do not exist
no roots
The discriminant can also be used to calculate the number of intersections between a
line and a curve. To use it, you must first equate them and set equal to zero, before
using the discriminant
Remember if
2
4 0 b ac − = , the line is a tangent
Integration
Integrating
1
1
n
n
ax
ax dx c
n
+
= +
+
í
As with differentiation, all brackets must be multiplied out, and there must be no
fractions with an x term in the denominator
Examples
1. Find
5 8
dx
x
(
1
1
J
.
5
8
3
8
3
8
5 5 8 8
3 8
3
8
8
3
8
3
1
dx
dx
x x
x dx
x
c
x c
x c
−
( (
1 1
1 1
J J
=
=
= +
= +
= +
í
2.
2 7
2
5
x x
dx
x
(
1
1
J
+
( )
2 7
2 2 7
2
0 5
5
6 5
6
5
5
5
1 5
x x
dx x x x dx
x
x x dx
x dx
x x c
−
(
1
1
J
+
= +
= +
= +
= + +
í
í
í
Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes
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The Area under a Curve
If ( ) F x is the integral of ( ) f x , then ( ) ( ) ( )
b
a
f x dx F b F a = −
í
Remember that areas split by the xaxis must be calculated separately and any negative
signs ignored; these just show that the area is under the axis.
The Area between two Curves
The area between the graphs of ( ) y f x = and ( ) y g x = is defined as ( ) ( )
b
a
f x g x dx −
í
If the limits are not given, ( ) f x and ( ) g x
should be equated to find a and b
Trigonometry
Background Knowledge
You should know how to use all of the information below:
SOH CAH TOA
sin
tan
cos
x
x
x
=
2 2
sin cos 1 x x + =
The sine rule:
sin sin sin
a b c
A B C
= =
The cosine rule:
2 2 2
2 cos a b c bc A = + − or
2 2 2
cos
2
b c a
A
bc
+ −
=
x
y
a b
( ) y g x =
( ) y f x =
x
y
b
a
( ) y f x =
Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes
Page 10 HSN24400 hsn.uk.net
The area of a triangle,
1
2
sin A ab C =
CAST diagrams
Exact values:
Radians
You should know how to convert between radians and degrees:
360 2 ° =
2
90
° =
4
45
° =
180 ° =
3
60
° =
6
30
° =
180
Degrees Radians
÷ ×
→
180
Radians Degrees
× ÷
→
eg
5
6
5 180
150
6
×
= = °
Trigonometric Equations
Look at the restrictions on the domain, eg 0 360, or 0 x x ≤ ° < ≤ <
Be aware of whether the answer is required in degrees or radians
Remember a CAST diagram whenever you are asked to “solve”
Examples
1. Solve
2
3sin 1 x° = where 0 360 x ≤ ° < .
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
1
1
3
1
3
1
3
3sin 1
3 sin 1
sin
sin
sin
x
x
x
x
x
−
° =
° =
° =
° = ±
° = ±
35.3 x° = °
180 35.3
144.7
x° = −
= °
180 35.3
215.3
x° = +
= °
360 35.3
324.7
x° = −
= °
{ } Solution set 35.3 , 144.7 , 215.3 , 324.7 = ° ° ° °
1
1
2
1
2
3
45°
45° 60°
30°
S A
T C
Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes
Page 11 HSN24400 hsn.uk.net
2. Solve 2sin2 1 0 x − = , 0 2 x ≤ < .
( )
1
1
2
1
2
2sin2 1 0
2sin2 1
sin2
2 sin
x
x
x
x
−
− =
=
=
=
2 30
15
x
x
° = °
° = °
2 180 30
2 150
75
x
x
x
° = ° − °
° = °
° = °
2 360 30
2 390
195
x
x
x
° = ° + °
° = °
° = °
2 360 30
2 510
255
x
x
x
° = ° +180° − °
° = °
° = °
15
180
3
36
12
15
° =
=
=
75
180
15
36
5
12
75
° =
=
=
195
180
39
36
13
12
195
° =
=
=
255
180
51
36
17
12
255
° =
=
=
{ }
5 17 13
12 12 12 12
Solutions set , , ,
=
Compound Angle Formulae
( ) cos cos cos sin sin A B A B A B ± =
( ) sin sin cos cos sin A B A B A B ± = ±
These are given on the formula sheet
Double Angle Formulae
sin2 2sin cos A A A =
2 2
2
2
cos 2 cos sin
1 2sin
2cos 1
A A A
A
A
= −
= −
= −
These are given on the formula sheet
S A
T C
Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes
Page 12 HSN24400 hsn.uk.net
Circles
Equations of Circles
A circle with centre ( ) a, b and radius r has the equation ( ) ( )
2
2 2
x a y b r − + − =
Note that if a circle has centre ( ) 0, 0 then the equation is
2 2 2
x y r + =
The equation can also be given in the form
2 2
2 2 0 x y gx fy c + + + + = where the centre
is ( ) g, f − − and the radius
2 2
r g f c = + −
You do not have to remember any of these equations, since they are all given in the
exam
You will have to remember the distance formula, ( ) ( )
2 2
2 1 2 1
d x x y y = − + − , since this
is not given, and is frequently used in circle questions
Intersection of a Line and a Circle
two intersections
one intersection (tangency)
no intersections
Remember, a tangent and a line from the centre of a circle will meet at right angles,
which means that
1 2
1 m m × = − can be used
Vectors
Basic Facts
A vector is a quantity with both magnitude (size) and direction
A vector is named either by using a directed line segment (eg AB
) or a bold letter
(eg u written u)
A vector may also be defined in terms of i, j and k, the unit vectors in three
perpendicular directions:
1
0
0
 

=

\ .
i
0
1
0
 

=

\ .
j
0
0
1
 

=

\ .
k
The magnitude of vector AB
a
b
 
=

\ .
is defined as
2 2
AB a b = +
Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes
Page 13 HSN24400 hsn.uk.net
1 1 1
1
2 2 2 2
3
3 3 3
b a b
a
a b a b
a
b a b
    ±  
 

± = ±
 

±
\ .
\ . \ .
1
1
2 2
3
3
ka
a
k a ka
a
ka
 
 


=


\ .
\ .
where k is a scalar Zero vector:
0
0
0
 


\ .
OA
is called the position vector of the point A relative to the origin, written a
AB = − b a
where a and b are the position vectors of A and B
If AB BC k =
where k is a scalar, then AB
is parallel to BC
. Since B is common to both
AB
and BC k
, then A, B and C are collinear
Dividing Vectors in a Ratio
The point P can also be worked out from first principles, or
Using the section formula. If P divides AB
in the ratio : m n , then:
n m
m n m n
= +
+ +
p a b where p is the position vector OP
Example
P is the point ( ) 2, 4, 1 − − and R is the point ( ) 8, 1, 19 − . Point T divides PR
in the ratio
2:3. Work out the coordinates of point T.
Using the section formula From first principles
The ratio is 2:3, so let 2 m = and 3 n =
( )
3 2
5 5
1
5
1
5
1
5
3 2
6 16
12 2
3 38
10
10
35
2
2
7
n m
m n m n
= +
+ +
= +
= +
    −
 
= + −
 
−
\ . \ .
 

=

\ .
 

=

\ .
t p r
p r
p r
( )
( )
PT 2
TR 3
3PT 2TR
3 2
3 3 2 2
3 2 2 3
16 6
5 2 12
38 3
10
5 10
35
2
2
7
=
=
− = −
− = −
+ = +
    −
 
= − +
 
−
\ . \ .
 

=

\ .
 

=

\ .
t p r t
t p r t
t t r p
t
t
t
Therefore T is the point ( ) 2, 2, 7 . Therefore T is the point ( ) 2, 2, 7 .
T
P
R
2 : 3
Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes
Page 14 HSN24400 hsn.uk.net
The Scalar Product
The scalar product . cos = a b a b , where is the smallest angle between a and b
Remember that both vectors must point away from the angle, eg
If
1
2
3
a
a
a
 

=

\ .
a and
1
2
3
b
b
b
 

=

\ .
b then
1 1 2 2 3 3
. a b a b a b = + + a b
.
cos =
a b
a b
or
1 1 2 2 3 3
cos
a b a b a b
+ +
=
a b
If a and b are perpendicular then . 0 = a b
If . 0 = a b then a and b are perpendicular
Example
If
8
0
4
 

=

\ .
u and
4
0
1
 

=

\ .
v , calculate the angle between the vectors + u v and − u v .
Let
8 4
0 0
1 4
12
0
5
= +
   
 
= +
 
\ . \ .
 

=

\ .
a u v
a
a
Let
8 4
0 0
1 4
4
0
3
= −
   
 
= −
 
\ . \ .
 

=

\ .
b u v
b
b
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
1
.
cos
12 4 0 0 5 3
12 0 5 4 0 3
63
169 25
63
cos
169 25
14·3
−
=
× + × + ×
=
+ + + +
=
 
=

\ .
= °
a b
a b
a b
Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes
Page 15 HSN24400 hsn.uk.net
Further Calculus
Trigonometry
Differentiation
This is straightforward, since the formulae are given on the formula sheet:
( ) f x ( ) f x ′
sinax cos a ax
cos ax sin a ax −
Integration
Again, the formulae are provided in the paper:
( ) f x ( ) f x dx
í
sinax
1
cos ax c
a
− +
cos ax
1
sinax c
a
+
Examples
1. Differentiate
3
cos3 x x + with respect to x.
( )
3 2
cos3 3 3sin3
d
dx
x x x x + = −
2. Find
3
4 sin3 x x dx +
í
.
4
3
4
1
3
1
3
4
4 sin3 cos3
4
cos3
x
x x dx x c
x x c
+ = − +
= − +
í
Chain Rule Differentiation
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
If then
n n n
f x ax b f x n ax b a an ax b
− −
′ = + = + × = +
or
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
If then
n n
f x p x f x n p x p x
−
′ ′ = = ×
“The power multiplies to the front, the bracket stays the same, the power lowers by one
and everything is multiplied by the differential of the bracket”
Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes
Page 16 HSN24400 hsn.uk.net
Examples
1. Given ( )
2
1
sin3 f x x x
x
= + − , find ( ) f x ′ .
( )
( )
1
2
1
2
2
3
1
2
3
sin3
2 3cos3
2 1
3cos3
2
f x x x x
f x x x x
x
x x
−
−
−
= + −
′ = − + −
= − + −
2. Given ( )
( )
3
2
3 2 1 f x x x = + + , find ( ) f x ′ .
( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
2
2
2
2
3 3 2 1 6 2
3 6 2 3 2 1
f x x x x
x x x
′ = + + × +
= + + +
3. Differentiate ( )
2 2
cos cos y x x = = with respect to x.
( ) ( ) 2 cos sin
2cos sin
dy
x x
dx
x x
= × −
= −
Integration of (ax + b)
n
( )
( )
( )
1
1
n
n
ax b
ax b dx c
n a
+
+
+ = +
+ ×
í
Example
Find ( )
4
3 5 x dx +
í
.
( )
( ) ( )
5 5
4
3 5 3 5
3 5
5 3 15
x x
x dx c c
+ +
+ = + = +
×
í
It is possible for any type of ‘further calculus’ to be examined in the style of a standard
calculus question (eg optimisation, area under a curve, etc)
Exponentials and Logarithms
An exponential is a function in the form ( )
x
f x a =
Logarithms and exponentials are inverses
log
x
a
y a y x = ⇔ =
On a calculator, log is
10
log and ln is log
e
Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes
Page 17 HSN24400 hsn.uk.net
Laws of Logarithms
log log log
a a a
x y xy + = (Squash)
log log log
a a a
x
y
x y − = (Split)
log log
n
a a
x n x = (Fly)
Examples
1. Evaluate
2 2 2
log 4 log 6 log 3 + −
2 2 2
2
2
3
log 4 log 6 log 3
4 6
log
3
log 8
3 (since 2 8)
+ −
×
 
=

\ .
=
= =
2. Below is a diagram of part of the graph of
0.7x
y ke =
(a) Find the value of k
(b) The line with equation 1 x = intersects at R. Find the coordinates of R.
(a) ( )
0.7
0.7 0
0
At 0, 3 ,
3
3
3
x
y ke
ke
ke
k
×
=
=
=
=
(b)
0.7 1
1 3
6.04
x y e
×
= ¬ =
=
So R is the point ( ) 1, 6.04 .
x
y
0
3
0.7x
y ke =
1 x =
Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes
Page 18 HSN24400 hsn.uk.net
The Wave Function
Example
1. Express 6 sin 2 cos x x ° − ° in the form ( ) cos k x a − ° where 0 360 a ≤ ° < .
( ) cos cos cos sin sin
cos cos sin sin
k x a k x a k x a
k a x k a x
− ° = ° ° + ° °
= ° ° + ° °
cos 2
sin 6
k a
k a
° = −
° =
S A
T C
( )
2 2
2 6
2 6
8
2 2
k = − +
= +
=
=
( )
1
sin
tan
cos
6
2
3
180 tan 3
180 60
120
k a
a
k a
a
−
°
° =
°
= −
= −
° = ° −
= ° − °
= °
Therefore ( ) 6 sin 2 cos 2 2 cos 120 x x x ° − ° = − °.
2. Express cos sin x x − in the form ( ) sin k x + where 0 2 ≤ < .
( ) sin sin cos cos sin
cos sin sin cos
k x k x k x
k x k x
+ = +
= +
cos 1
sin 1
k
k
= −
=
S A
T C
( )
2 2
1 1
2
k = − +
=
( )
1
135
180
3
4
sin
tan
cos
1
180 tan 1
180 45
135
k
k
−
=
= −
° = ° −
= ° − °
= °
=
=
Therefore
( )
3
4
cos sin 2 sin x x x − = + .
The maximum value of an expression in the form ( ) cos k x a ± occurs when
( ) cos 1 x a ± = ; and ( ) sin 1 x a ± = for ( ) sin k x a ±
The minimum value of an expression in the form ( ) cos k x a ± occurs when
( ) cos 1 x a ± = − ; and ( ) sin 1 x a ± = − for ( ) sin k x a ±