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Higher

Mathematics

HSN24400

Course Revision Notes

This docum ent was produced specially for the HSN.uk.net website, and we require that any copies or derivative

works attribute the work to us.

For m ore details about the copyright on these notes, please see http://creativecom m ons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/

Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

Contents

Unit 1 – Mathematics 1

Straight Lines 1

Functions and Graphs 2

Differentiation 5

Sequences 6

Unit 2 – Mathematics 2

Polynomials and Quadratics 7

Integration 8

Trigonometry 9

Circles 12

Unit 3 – Mathematics 3

Vectors 12

Further Calculus 15

Exponentials and Logarithms 16

The Wave Function 18

hsn.uk.net - ii - HSN24400

Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

Straight Lines

Distance Formula

Distance = ( x2 − x1 ) + ( y2 − y1 ) between points ( x1, y1 ) and ( x2 , y2 )

2 2

Gradients

y2 − y1

m= between the points ( x1, y1 ) and ( x2 , y2 ) where x1 ≠ x2

x 2 − x1

Positive gradients, negative gradients, zero gradients, undefined gradients

eg x = 2

eg y = 4

Lines with the sam e gradient are parallel

eg The line parallel to 2 y + 3 x = 5

has gradient m = − 32 since 2 y + 3 x = 5

2 y = −3 x + 5

y = − 32 x + 25 (m ust be in the form y = mx + c )

Perpendicular lines have gradients such that m × mperp. = −1

eg if m = 23 then mperp. = − 23

m = tan

y

is the angle that the line m akes with

positive direction the positive direction of the x-axis

x

The line passing through ( a, b ) with gradient m has equation:

y − b = m( x − a )

Medians

B x1 + x 2 y1 + y2

M is the m idpoint of AC, ie M = ,

2 2

BM is not usually perpendicular to AC, so m1 × m2 = −1

A C cannot be used

M

To work out the gradient of BM, use the gradient form ula

Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

Altitudes

B

D is not usually the m idpoint of AC

BD is perpendicular to AC, so m1 × m2 = −1 can be used to

A C work out the gradient of BD

D

Perpendicular Bisectors

D

CD passes through m idpoint of AC

A B

C CD is perpendicular to AB, so m1 × m2 = −1 can be used to

C B find the gradient of CD

Perpendicular bisectors do not necessarily have to appear

D within a triangle – they can occur with straight lines

A

Composite Functions

Example

If f ( x ) = x 2 − 2 and g ( x ) = 1x , find a form ula for

(a) h ( x ) = f ( g ( x ) )

(b) k ( x ) = g ( f ( x ) )

and state a suitable dom ain for each.

(a) h ( x ) = f ( g ( x ) ) (b) k ( x ) = g ( f ( x ) )

= f ( 1x ) = g( x 2 − 2)

= ( 1x ) − 2

2 1

=

x −2

2

1

= −2 Dom ain: { x : x ∈ , x ≠ ± 2 }

x2

Dom ain: { x : x ∈ , x ≠ 0}

You will probably only be asked for a dom ain if the function involved a fraction or an

even root. Rem em ber that in a fraction the denom inator cannot be zero and any

num ber being square rooted cannot be negative

eg f ( x ) = x + 1 could have dom ain: { x : x ∈ , x ≥ −1}

Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

Graphs of Inverses

To draw the graph of an inverse function, reflect the graph of the function in the

line y = x

y y=x

y = g( x )

y = g−1 ( x )

O x

Exponential Logarithmic

y y y y = loga x

y = ax, a >1 y = ax, 0 < a <1

( a ,1)

O x

1 (1, a ) 1 (1, a ) 1

O x O x

Trigonometric Functions

y = sin x y = cos x y = tan x

y y y

1 1

O x O x O x

–1 –1

180° 360° 180° 360°

180° 360°

Period = 360° Period = 360° Period = 180°

Am plitude = 1 Am plitude = 1 Am plitude is undefined

Graph Transformations

The next page shows the effect of transform ations on the two graphs shown below.

( 2, 2 ) y = g ( x )

y y

1

O x

–1 0 3 x –1

180° 360°

Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

f ( x ) + a Shifts the graph y y = g( x ) + 1 y y = sin x ° + 1

a up the ( 2, 3 ) • 2

y-axis

1

• • ( 3,1)

( −1,1) 0 x

0 x 180° 360°

−a along the •

(1, 2 ) 1

x-axis

0 x

–2 0 2 x –1

180° 360°

− f (x) Reflects the y y y = − sin x °

y = − g( x )

graph in the 0 1

x-axis –1 3 x

0 x

• ( 2, − 2 ) –1

180° 360°

graph in the •

1

y-axis

0 x

–3 0 1 x –1

−360° −180°

kf ( x ) Scales the graph y ( 2, 4 ) y = 2 g ( x ) y y = 12 sin x °

vertically •

1

Stretches if 2

k >1 − 12

0 x

Com presses if –1 0 3 x

k <1 180° 360°

horizontally •

1

Com presses if

k >1 0 x

Stretches if x

− 12 0 3 –1

k <1 2 180° 360°

hsn.uk.net Page 4 HSN24400

Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

Differentiation

Differentiating

If f ( x ) = ax n then f ′ ( x ) = anx n −1

Before you differentiate, all brackets should be m ultiplied out, and there should be no

fractions with an x term in the denom inator (bottom line), for exam ple:

3 −2 1 − 12

1

= x

1 −2 = 3x = x

3x 2 3 x2 x

Equations of Tangents

Tangents are straight lines, therefore to find the equation of a tangent, you need a point

on the line and its gradient to substitute into y − b = m ( x − a )

You will always be given one coordinate of the point which the tangent touches

Find the other coordinate by solving the equation of the curve

Find the gradient by differentiating then substituting in the x-coordinate of the point

Example

Find the equation of the tangent to the graph of y = x 3 at the point where x = 9 .

y = x3 y = x3 At x = 9, m = 32 × 9 2

1

y − b = m(x − a)

= 93 = x2

3

= 32 9 y − 27 = 92 ( x − 9 )

= 32 × 3 2 y − 54 = 9 x − 81

= 33 dy 3 12

= x 2 y = 9 x − 27

= 27 dx 2 = 92

( 9, 27 )

dy

Stationary points occur at points where =0

dx

You m ust justify the nature of turning points or points of inflection

Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

Quadratic Cubic Quartic

y y y

0

0 0

– +

+ –

+ – + –

0 +

x x x

0 0

y y y

+ +

+

x – – x

– + +

x

–

Linear Quadratic Cubic

Optimisation

These types of questions are usually practical problem s which involve m axim um or

m inim um areas or volum es

Rem em ber you m ust show that a m axim um or m inim um exists

Sequences

Linear Recurrence Relations

A linear recurrence relation is in the form un+1 = aun + b . Also be aware that this m ay be

written as un = aun−1 + b

b

If −1 < a < 1 then a lim it l = exists. You m ust state this whenever you use the lim it

1− a

form ula

Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

Polynomials

The degree of a polynom ial is the value of the highest power, eg 3 x 4 + 3 has degree 4

Synthetic division (nested form ) can be used to factorise polynom ials

Example

4 x 3 − 7 x 2 + 11

Find .

x +2

–2 4 –7 0 11 Rem em ber to put in 0

if there is no term

–8 30 –60

4 –15 30 –49

4 x 3 − 7 x 2 + 11

= 4 x 2 − 15 x + 30 rem ainder − 49

x +2

ie 4 x 3 − 7 x 2 + 11 = ( x + 2 ) ( 4 x 2 − 15 x + 30 ) − 49

If the rem ainder is zero then the divisor is a factor

The x 2 term m ust have a coefficient of one. If it does not, you m ust take out a com m on

factor from the x 2 and x term , but not the constant

In the form y = a ( x + p ) + q the turning point of the graph is ( − p, q )

2

Example

Write 3 x 2 − 12 x + 7 in the form a(x + p)2 + q .

3 x 2 − 12 x + 7

= 3( x 2 − 4x ) + 7

= 3 ( x 2 − 4 x + ( −2 )2 − ( −2 )2 ) + 7

= 3 ( ( x − 2 )2 − 4 ) + 7

= 3 ( x − 2 )2 − 12 + 7

= 3 ( x − 2 )2 − 5

Note that in this exam ple, the graph is ∪ -shaped since the x 2 coefficient is positive; and

the turning point is ( 2, − 5 ) .

Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

The Discriminant

The discrim inant is part of the quadratic form ula and can be used to indicate how m any

roots a quadratic has. For the quadratic ax 2 + bx + c :

If b 2 − 4 ac = 0 , the roots are real and equal (ie repeated roots) 1 root

If b 2 − 4 ac < 0 , the roots are not real; they do not exist no roots

The discrim inant can also be used to calculate the num ber of intersections between a

line and a curve. To use it, you m ust first equate them and set equal to zero, before

using the discrim inant

Rem em ber if b 2 − 4 ac = 0 , the line is a tangent

Integration

Integrating

ax n +1

ax n dx = +c

n +1

As with differentiation, all brackets m ust be m ultiplied out, and there m ust be no

fractions with an x term in the denom inator

Examples

dx x 2 + 5x 7

1. Find . 2. dx

8

x5 x2

dx 1 x 2 + 5x 7

= dx 2

dx = x −2 ( x 2 + 5 x 7 ) dx

8

x5 8

x5 x

= x

− 58

dx = x 0 + 5 x 5 dx

x8

3

= 1 + 5 x 5 dx

= 3 +c

8 = x + 56 x 6 + c

3

= 83 x 8 + c

= 38 8 x 3 + c

Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

b

If F ( x ) is the integral of f ( x ) , then f ( x ) dx = F (b ) − F ( a )

a

y

y = f (x)

a b x

Rem em ber that areas split by the x-axis m ust be calculated separately and any negative

signs ignored; these just show that the area is under the axis.

b

The area between the graphs of y = f ( x ) and y = g ( x ) is defined as a

f ( x ) − g ( x ) dx

y

y = g( x )

should be equated to find a and b

x

a b y = f (x)

Trigonometry

Background Knowledge

You should know how to use all of the inform ation below:

SOH CAH TOA

sin x

tan x =

cos x

sin 2 x + cos2 x = 1

a b c

The sine rule: = =

sin A sin B sin C

b2 + c 2 − a2

The cosine rule: a = b + c − 2bc cos A or cos A =

2 2 2

2bc

Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

CAST diagram s

Exact values:

2 30°

2 45° 3

1

45° 60°

1 1

Radians

You should know how to convert between radians and degrees:

Degrees

180° = 60° = 3 30° = 6 × 180 ÷ → Degrees

Radians

5 × 180

eg 56 = = 150°

6

Trigonometric Equations

Look at the restrictions on the dom ain, eg 0 ≤ x ° < 360, or 0 ≤ x <

Be aware of whether the answer is required in degrees or radians

Rem em ber a CAST diagram whenever you are asked to “solve”

Examples

1. Solve 3sin 2 x° = 1 where 0 ≤ x ° < 360 .

3sin 2 x ° = 1

3 ( sin x ° ) = 1

2

( sin x ° )2 = 13

sin x ° = ± 13

S A

x ° = sin −1

( ± 13 ) T C

= 144.7° = 215.3° = 324.7°

Solution set = {35.3°, 144.7°, 215.3°, 324.7°}

Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

2 sin 2 x − 1 = 0

2sin 2 x = 1

sin 2 x = 12 S A

2 x = sin −1 ( 12 ) T C

x ° = 15° 2 x ° = 150°

x ° = 75°

2 x ° = 360° + 30° 2 x ° = 360° +180° − 30°

2 x ° = 390° 2 x ° = 510°

x ° = 195° x ° = 255°

15

15° = 180 75

75° = 180 195

195° = 180 255

255° = 180

= 36

3 = 15

36 = 36

39 51

= 36

= 12 5

= 12 = 12

13 = 17

12

{5 , 13 , 17

Solutions set = 12 , 12 12 12 }

Compound Angle Formulae

cos ( A ± B ) = cos A cos B sin A sin B

sin ( A ± B ) = sin A cos B ± cos A sin B

These are given on the form ula sheet

sin 2 A = 2sin A cos A

cos 2 A = cos2 A − sin 2 A

= 1 − 2 sin 2 A

= 2 cos 2 A − 1

These are given on the form ula sheet

Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

Circles

Equations of Circles

A circle with centre ( a,b ) and radius r has the equation ( x − a )2 + ( y − b ) = r2

2

The equation can also be given in the form x 2 + y 2 + 2 gx + 2 fy + c = 0 where the centre

is ( − g,− f ) and the radius r = g2 + f 2 − c

You do not have to rem em ber any of these equations, since they are all given in the

exam

You will have to rem em ber the distance form ula, d = ( x2 − x1 ) + ( y2 − y1 ) , since this

2 2

Rem em ber, a tangent and a line from the centre of a circle will m eet at right angles,

which m eans that m1 × m2 = −1 can be used

Vectors

Basic Facts

A vector is a quantity with both m agnitude (size) and direction

A vector is nam ed either by using a directed line segm ent (eg AB ) or a bold letter

(eg u written u)

A vector m ay also be defined in term s of i, j and k, the unit vectors in three

perpendicular directions:

1 0 0

i= 0 j= 1 k= 0

0 0 1

a

The m agnitude of vector AB = b is defined as AB = a 2 + b 2

Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

a1 b1 a1 ± b1 a1 ka1 0

a2 ± b2 = a2 ± b2 k a2 = ka2 where k is a scalar Z ero vector: 0

a3 b3 a3 ± b3 a3 ka3 0

OA is called the position vector of the point A relative to the origin, written a

AB = b − a where a and b are the position vectors of A and B

If AB = k BC where k is a scalar, then AB is parallel to BC . Since B is com m on to both

AB and k BC , then A, B and C are collinear

The point P can also be worked out from first principles, or

U sing the section form ula. If P divides AB in the ratio m : n , then:

n m

p= a+ b where p is the position vector OP

m+n m+n

Example

P is the point ( −2, 4, − 1) and R is the point ( 8, − 1,19 ) . Point T divides PR in the ratio

2:3. Work out the coordinates of point T.

2:3

P R

T

U sing the section form ula From first principles

The ratio is 2:3, so let m = 2 and n = 3 PT 2

=

n m TR 3

t= p+ r

m+n m+n 3PT = 2TR

= 35 p + 25 r ( )

3 t − p = 2 (r − t )

(

= 15 3 p + 2r ) 3t − 3 p = 2r − 2t

3t + 2t = 2r + 3 p

−6 16

= 15 12 + −2 16 −6

−3 38 5t = −2 + 12

38 −3

10

= 15 10 10

35 5t = 10

35

2

= 2 2

7 t= 2

7

Therefore T is the point ( 2, 2, 7 ) . Therefore T is the point ( 2, 2, 7 ) .

Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

The scalar product a.b = a b cos , where is the sm allest angle between a and b

Rem em ber that both vectors m ust point away from the angle, eg

a b

a1 b1

If a = a2 and b = b2 then a.b = a1b1 + a2b2 + a3b3

a3 b3

a.b ab +a b +a b

cos = or cos = 1 1 2 2 3 3

ab a b

If a and b are perpendicular then a.b = 0

If a.b = 0 then a and b are perpendicular

Example

8 4

If u = 0 and v = 0 , calculate the angle between the vectors u + v and u − v .

4 1

Let a = u + v Let b = u − v

8 4 8 4

a= 0 + 0 b= 0 − 0

4 1 4 1

12 4

a= 0 b= 0

5 3

a.b

cos =

ab

(12 × 4 ) + ( 0 × 0 ) + ( 5 × 3 )

=

122 + 02 + 52 4 2 + 02 + 32

63

=

169 25

63

= cos −1

169 25

= 14·3°

Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

Further Calculus

Trigonometry

D ifferentiation

This is straightforward, since the form ulae are given on the form ula sheet:

f (x) f ′( x )

sin ax a cos ax

cos ax − a sin ax

Integration

Again, the form ulae are provided in the paper:

f (x) f ( x ) dx

sin ax − 1a cos ax + c

cos ax 1 sin ax + c

a

Examples

1. Differentiate x 3 + cos3 x with respect to x.

( )

d x 3 + cos3 x = 3 x 2 − 3sin3 x

dx

2. Find 4 x 3 + sin3 x dx .

4x 4 1

4 x + sin3 x dx =

3

− 3 cos3 x + c

4

= x 4 − 13 cos3 x + c

n −1 n −1

If f ( x ) = ( ax + b )n then f ′ ( x ) = n ( ax + b ) × a = an ( ax + b )

or

n −1

If f ( x ) = ( p ( x ) ) then f ′ ( x ) = n ( p ( x ) )

n

× p′ ( x )

“The power m ultiplies to the front, the bracket stays the sam e, the power lowers by one

and everything is m ultiplied by the differential of the bracket”

Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

Examples

1

1. G iven f ( x ) = + x − sin3 x , find f ′ ( x ) .

x2

1

f ( x ) = x −2 + x 2 − sin3 x

−1

f ′ ( x ) = −2 x −3 + 12 x 2 − 3cos3 x

2 1

=− 3 + − 3cos3 x

x 2 x

2. G iven f ( x ) = ( 3 x 2 + 2 x + 1) , find f ′ ( x ) .

3

f ′ ( x ) = 3 ( 3 x 2 + 2 x + 1) × ( 6 x + 2 )

2

= 3 ( 6 x + 2 ) ( 3 x 2 + 2 x + 1)

2

dy

= 2 ( cos x ) × ( − sin x )

dx

= −2cos x sin x

n

Integration of (ax + b)

( ax + b )n+1

( ax + b ) dx =

n

+c

( n + 1) × a

Example

Find ( 3 x + 5 )4 dx .

( 3 x + 5 )5 ( 3 x + 5 )5

( 3 x + 5 ) dx =

4

+c = +c

5× 3 15

It is possible for any type of ‘further calculus’ to be exam ined in the style of a standard

calculus question (eg optim isation, area under a curve, etc)

An exponential is a function in the form f ( x ) = a x

Logarithm s and exponentials are inverses

y = a x ⇔ loga y = x

On a calculator, log is log10 and ln is loge

Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

Laws of Logarithms

loga x + loga y = loga xy (Squash)

loga x − loga y = loga xy (Split)

loga x n = n loga x (Fly)

Examples

1. Evaluate log2 4 + log2 6 − log2 3

log2 4 + log2 6 − log2 3

4×6

= log2

3

= log2 8

=3 (since 23 = 8)

2. Below is a diagram of part of the graph of y = ke 0.7 x

y

y = ke 0.7 x

3

0 x =1 x

(b) The line with equation x = 1 intersects at R. Find the coordinates of R.

(a) At ( 0, 3 ) , y = ke 0.7 x

3 = ke 0.7×0

3 = ke 0

k =3

(b) x = 1 y = 3e 0.7×1

= 6.04

Higher Mathematics Course Revision Notes

Example

1. Express 6 sin x ° − 2 cos x ° in the form k cos ( x − a ) ° where 0 ≤ a ° < 360 .

k cos ( x − a ) ° = k cos x ° cos a ° + k sin x ° sin a °

= k cos a ° cos x ° + k sin a ° sin x °

k sin a °

k cos a ° = − 2 (− 2 )

2 2

k= + 6 tan a ° =

k cos a °

k sin a ° = 6

= 2+6 6

=−

S A = 8 2

T C =2 2 =− 3

a ° = 180° − tan −1 ( 3 )

= 180° − 60°

= 120°

Therefore 6 sin x ° − 2 cos x ° = 2 2 cos ( x − 120 ) ° .

k sin ( x + ) = k sin x cos + k cos x sin

= k cos sin x + k sin cos x

k cos = −1 k = ( −1)2 + 12 k sin

tan =

k sin = 1 = 2

k cos

= −1

S A

° = 180° − tan −1 (1)

T C

= 180° − 45°

= 135°

135

= 180

= 34

The m axim um value of an expression in the form k cos ( x ± a ) occurs when

cos ( x ± a ) = 1 ; and sin ( x ± a ) = 1 for k sin ( x ± a )

The m inim um value of an expression in the form k cos ( x ± a ) occurs when

cos ( x ± a ) = −1 ; and sin ( x ± a ) = −1 for k sin ( x ± a )

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