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FEA

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COURSEWORK SUBMISSION

Course code:

H300

FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING ASYSMENT

DEGREE AND YEAR: BENG MECHANICAL ENGINEERING YEAR 3 (2015)

DATE COURSEWORK DUE FOR SUBMISSION: 20/11/2015

LECTURER: DR BELE

I confirm that this is all my own work (if submitted electronically, submission will be taken

as confirmation that this is your own work, and will also act as student signature)

Table of content

1.

Introduction page 3

2.

Theory page 3

3.

Methodology page 4

4.

Results page 5-7

5.

Discussion page 7-8

6.

Conclusion page 8

7.

Reference page 8

8.

Appendix page 9- 14

WORD COUNT: 1497 excluding figures and tables

1. Introduction

This report aims to demonstrate the following:

notches and shoulder fillets subjected to a moment at its end.

Such geometry and boundary conditions is created in ANSYS and

the solution of stress concentration factors from ANSYS would be

compared with those obtained from Roarks formulae for stress and

strain

During the analysis using ANSYS, the convergence of principal and

Von Mises stresses with finer mesh sizes is also studied

The important of understanding of elasticity theory including St

Venants principle during interpreting results.

2. Theory

Finite element analysis (FEA)

FEA is widely used today in industry to solve complex problems in

structure analysis. It operates by dividing the complex structure into a

series of smaller parts, such part is called element and nodes in between.

From the theory, it can be said that with more elements - finer mesh size,

it would be better to solve the problem. In this assignment, a studying of

effects of mesh size to the consistency in computational solving time and

accuracy of results comparing to the theoretical solutions is done to show

the characteristic of mesh size.

Stress concentration

When a large stress gradient exists at a localise area of a structure, it is

called stress concentration. The localised stress exceeds the average or

nominal stress in a material. In our report, the nominal stress is replaced

by the maximum value of applied pressure at the end of the beam and the

stress concentration factor Kf is defined as:

Kf =

SEQV (stress)

P max

St Venants Principle

St Venants principle states that at sections distant from the surface of

loading, the localised effect is negligible and statically equivalent systems

of forces produce the same stresses on the same area. [1]

The ratios of length in this assignment were chosen to fit this principle,

therefore applying forces instead of pressures on the loaded end would

give the same result.

3. Methodology

ANSYS setup:

A model of cantilever beam (presented in appendix A) is created in ANSYS

Mechanical. The beam is then constrained its displacement on the left end

to be 0 and a moment is applied on the right end by defining a varying

pressure gradient.

The element type is chosen as Quad 8 Node Plane183 with element

behaviour K3 set to Plane Stress with thickness and the thickness is set

to be 1. The material is chosen as a linear, elastic, isotropic material with

= 1 and = 0.3.

To analyse the beam, the U-notches are called point 1,2 and the shoulders

are called point 3 and 4.

Convergence study with mesh sizes and comparison with

Roarks Formula

The beam was meshed with a random Global Size of 5 and no Smart Size

chosen at first. It is clear shown that the mesh at notches and shoulder

are coarse with large element size so the solution would not have the

required accuracy.

A convergence study is then conducted by improving the mesh

decreasing the mesh Global Size then using the Smart Size mesh to

determine the effects on the von-Mises stress. Once the correct mesh is

found, maximum von-Mises stress at notches and shoulders would be

obtained to calculate stress concentration factor. The convergence of the

stress results as the mesh size gets fine would be validated and discussed

later.

The calculated stress concentration factor will be compared with the

theoretical result from Roarks Formula. (formulae are shown in appendix

B)

4. Result

Stress concentration factor calculated by using Roarks

formula:

Location

Kt

2.16

1.76

Notches

Shoulde

rs

Table 1: result of theoretical stress concentration factor

Convergence study on global size numerical result can be

found in appendix C

The effect of gradually decreasing of the mesh Global Size on the stress

concentration factor are shown below in following graphs:

1.2

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

Global Size

From appendix C, it can be said that the stress concentration difference at

the notches can not reach higher than 20%, however the stress

concentration at the shoulders converge to the theoretical value as the

mesh size decreases.

It is also observed that the maximum value of von-Mises stresses at point

1 and 2 are really close to each other. Same can be applied for stresses at

point 3 and 4. This can be said due to the symmetry along the axis of the

bar

The chosen mesh global size is 0.3 (about half of radius r value) to

achieve a balance between percentage difference in both notches and

shoulders. To achieve faster convergence, Smart Size is used to create

better mesh near the notches and shoulders which would help to achieve

a better result.

Convergence study on Smart Size numerical result can be

found in appendix D

6

From the above graph, it can be seen that using global size of 0.2, the

value of Kt converged to 1.59 immediately.

However, by using the mesh global size of 0.3 with smart size 4, it would

give the closest stress concentration factor to the theoretical ones. So it

would be chose as the final mesh size

Point

1

2

3

4

Mesh size

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

Smart Size

4

4

4

4

SEQV

80.139

80.461

88.642

87.134

KT

1.60278

1.60922

1.77284

1.74268

% DIFFERENCE

25.80

25.50

-0.73

0.98

Table 2: final mesh size and its % difference to the theoretical values:

Following are 2 pictures showing the mesh at the top notch with initial

mesh size and the final chosen mesh size:

Fig 4: Mesh size 1 compared with Mesh size 0.3 smart size 4

Extra study on varied value of pressure and length of the

bar:

As the pressure and length of the bar changes, it would give no effect on

the stress concentration factors. Study was done with pressure of 50 and

500, the ratio between maximum von-Mises stress and pressure would

keep the stress concentration factor the same.

As the length L of the rectangle bar increases from 15 to 30, there were

also no significant effects on the stress concentration factor.

5. Discussion on results:

Convergence study:

It can be assumed that the choice of element type Plane183 would

provide a faster convergence, as this element has 8-node comparing to 4node of Plane182. Plane183 is capable of representing deformations more

accurately even at a coarser mesh while Plane182 is incapable of creating

a degenerated triangular element. [2]

Smart Size option also gives faster convergence due to the fact that the

greatest difference using different global mesh size is at the curvature of

the notches. The curvatures are better drawn with Smart Size option,

because this created smaller mesh elements than the global size near the

arc of the shoulder and the notch. [3]

FEA analysis

The maximum stress appears at the predicted points. For the notches, as

for different mesh size, the location of maximum stress alternates

between top and bottom notches. For the shoulders, the stress in the

bottom is greater than the top, which means that the compression at the

bottom is higher than the tension at the top. However, its difference is

very small which is reasonable as the material should behave the same

with tension or compression. [4]

Comparing result with Roark table

Location

ANSYS Kt

Roark Kt

Notch

1.6

2.16

Shoulder

1.77

1.76

Table 3: comparing result between Ansys and Roarks

% difference

25%

<1%

concentration factor however in the notch, the minimum percentage

difference possible is 23%. This shows a limitation in ANSYS in recreating

valid results for stress concentration.

There are two types of errors can occur in FEA analysis: computational

errors, due to round-off errors in floating point calculations and

discretisation errors due to limitations of how certain geometries can be

represented with the given element type.

6. Conclusion

The results of this report proved that the results obtained from FEA

analysis done in ANSYS are close to the experimental results from Roarks

formula with a few limitations in some cases. Finding the correct mesh is a

crucial step in this analysis to get a balance in accuracy and constant of

computational time. Using the minimum possible mesh size will not help

to achieve the best result.

7. Reference:

[1] P.P. Benham, R.Crawford, and C.G Armstrong, Mechanics of Engineering

Materials. Pearson Edcuation Limited, 2nd ed., 1996

[2] ANSYS, Mechanical apdl element reference, Southpointe 275

Technology Drive, Canonsburg PA 15317, Release 14 2011

[3] ANSYS, Modeling and meshing guide, Southpointe 275 Technology

Drive, Canonsburg PA 15317, Release 14 2011

[4] J.M. Gere, Mechanics of Materials. Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning, 6th

ed., 2004

[5] W.C.Young and R.G.Budynas, Roarks Formulas for Stress and Strain.

United States: McGraw Hill, 7th ed., 2002

10

Geometry:

Where:

D=

h

=0.15

10

D

h=

1.5

h

=2

r=

r

0.75

L = 15 Dimension L is obtained from the relationship of L and

D in Roarks Formula for Stress and Strain, case 5B:

L

0.8

>

D [ r / ( D2 h ) ] 1 /4

L

0.8

>

10 [ 0.75/ ( 103 ) ]1 / 4

L = 15 > 13.98

11

Moments:

Linearly varying pressure is set along right end of the bar to stimulate the

moment applied on the right end

Material properties:

Youngs Modulus EX = 1

Poissons Ratio PRXY = 0.3

Appendix B Theoretical stress concentration factor [5]

h

=2

r

and

2

h

=0.15

D

3

For the shoulders with

h

=2

r

and

2

h

=0.15

D

3

12

stress by:

Kt=

max max

=

nom Pmax

Mesh

Size

Point and

node

Point 1

(214)

Point 2

(54)

Point 3

(44)

Point 4

(98)

Point 1

(272)

Point 2

(72)

Point 3

(184)

Point 4

(156)

Point 1

(410)

Point 2

(106)

Point 3

(338)

Point 4

(190)

Point 1

(506)

Point 2

(132)

Point 3

(416)

Point 4

(234)

0.75

0.5

0.4

von-Mises

SEQV stress

Stress

concentration

factor Kt

% Difference to

Roark Kt

74.488

1.48976

30.98

75.38

1.5076

30.16

71.485

1.4297

18.73

71.82

1.4364

18.35

79.383

1.58766

26.45

77.654

1.55308

28.05

74.558

1.49116

15.24

75.013

1.50026

14.72

81.094

1.62188

24.86

82.676

1.65352

23.40

81.476

1.62952

7.377

79.907

1.59814

9.161

82.458

1.64916

23.60

82.099

1.64198

23.93

80.259

1.60518

8.761

82.96

1.6592

5.690

13

0.3

Point 1

(672)

Point 2

(176)

Point 3

(554)

Point 4

(310)

Point 1

(1000)

Point 2

(260)

Point 3

(826)

Point 4

(458)

Table 4: result from

79.762

1.59524

26.10

80.821

1.61642

25.12

86.794

1.73588

1.331

88.461

1.76922

-0.563

79.411

1.58822

26.42

79.533

1.59066

26.31

89.801

1.79602

-2.086

88.91

ANSYS

1.7782

-1.073

0.2

As the node global size gets lower than 0.19, the computation time takes

longer and the limitation of node prevents the study to go further.

Appendix D - Convergence study with smart size

Mesh size

Node

Kt

% difference

0.3

Smart

size

4

20

80.139

25.79

0.3

20

77.526

0.3

20

78.221

Mesh size

Node

0.25

Smart

size

4

1.6027

8

1.5505

2

1.5644

2

Kt

20

80.459

0.25

20

79.882

0.25

20

79.222

Mesh size

0.2

0.2

0.2

Table 5:

Smart

Node vonsize

4

20

3

20

2

20

ANSYS result at top notch

Mises stress

79.7

79.7

79.7

28.21

27.57

% difference

1.6091

8

1.5976

4

1.5844

4

Kt

25.50

% difference

1.594

1.594

1.594

26.20

26.20

26.20

26.03

26.64

14

Mesh size

0.3

Smart

size

4

0.3

0.3

Mesh size

Smart

size

4

0.25

0.25

0.25

Mesh size

Node

19

80.461

19

19

77.838

Node

77.838

von- Mises stress

19

78.707

19

19

78.954

3

2

0.2

Smart

size

4

0.2

0.2

Node

79.328

von- Mises stress

19

79.429

19

79.429

19

79.429

Table 6: ANSYS result at bottom notch

Mesh size

0.3

0.3

0.3

Mesh size

Smart

size

4

Node

211

88.642

215

84.126

215

Node

84.126

von- Mises stress

3

2

0.25

Smart

size

4

0.25

0.25

Mesh size

0.2

2

Smart

size

4

0.2

249

89.307

249

253

Node

87.612

88.26

von- Mises stress

307

89.698

307

89.698

Kt

1.6092

2

1.5567

6

1.5567

6

Kt

1.5741

4

1.5790

8

1.5865

6

Kt

1.5885

8

1.5885

8

1.5885

8

Kt

1.7728

4

1.6825

2

1.6825

2

Kt

1.7861

4

1.7522

4

1.7652

Kt

1.7939

6

1.7939

6

% difference

25.50

27.93

27.93

% difference

27.12

26.89

26.55

% difference

26.45

26.45

26.45

% difference

-0.73

4.40

4.40

% difference

-1.49

0.44

-0.30

% difference

-1.93

-1.93

15

0.2

307

89.698

Table 7: ANSYS result at top shoulder

Mesh size

0.3

0.3

Node

543

87.134

547

750

Node

85.576

85.65

von- Mises stress

892

892

88.762

88.09

896

Node

86.162

von- Mises stress

0.3

Mesh size

0.25

0.25

0.25

2

Smart

size

4

3

2

Mesh size

0.2

0.2

0.2

Table 8:

Smart

size

4

Smart

size

4

1112

89.13

3

1112

89.13

2

1112

89.13

ANSYS result at bottom shoulder

1.7939

6

-1.93

Kt

% difference

1.7426

8

1.7115

2

1.713

Kt

0.98

2.75

2.67

% difference

1.7752

4

1.7618

1.7232

4

Kt

2.09

% difference

1.7826

1.7826

1.7826

-1.28

-1.28

-1.28

-0.87

-0.10

16

17

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