ULACIT Didactics Adriana Sandí And Sharon Rojas. Learning And Teaching OUTLINE Chapter # 1 Research and Teaching I. DEFINING GOOD TEACHING The central role of research in teaching practice has changed.

 It now provides ways to analyze  teaching to maximize learning. II. RESEARCH IN TEACHING: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE A. Studies of Teachers Characteristics A.1. Focused on Teachers Characteristics: neatness, sense of humor, or cognitive flexibility. A.2. Teacher experience and understanding of subject matter are used to explain lesson’s content. B. The Search for the Right Method B.1. Research focused on global methods and students are tested by just one of them. B.2. A paper­and­pencil test ignores improved communication skills. School Level Research C.1. Focused on variables such as school size, training level of teachers, and student’s aptitude or  socioeconomic status. C.2. Individual teachers vary in their teaching effectiveness. Teacher Effectiveness Research: Teachers Do Make a Difference D.1. Focused on teachers and the interactions they have with their students. D.2. The process­product research was correctional. Student’s results were caused by teacher’s  actions. Beyond Effective Teaching: A Focus on Student Learning E.1. Student’s achievement should be our primary focus. E.2. There’re   fundamental   changes   of   effective   teaching   methods.   From   teacher­centered   to  learner­centered approaches.




III. CONTEMPORARY VIEWS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING A. From Behaviorist to Cognitive Perspectives A.1. Behaviorism:  Students respond through selective reinforcement. Passive­recipient learner  and controlling teacher. A.2. Cognitive: Students develop strategies. Active­meaning­maker learner and partner teacher. B. Constructivism: Students as Creators of Understanding B.1. Four key components: B.1.1. Learners construct their own understanding. B.1.2. Prior knowledge. B.1.3. Social interaction.

B.1.4. Meaningful learning. B.2. Learners become active­meaning­makers and teachers design learning situations to facilitate  the process. C. Learner­Centered psychological Principles C.1. This Principles are: C.1.1. Natural Learning Process motivation to learn. C.1.2. Goals: Creating meaningful  C.1.7. Enhancing learning tasks. coherent knowledge. C.1.8. Developmental constraint. C.1.3. Construction of knowledge. C.1.9. Socio­cultural diversity. C.1.4. Higher­order   creative   and  C.1.10. Self­esteem and learning critical thinking. C.1.11. Learning differences C.1.5. Motivation on learning. C.1.12. Cognitive   filters:   Personal  beliefs,   thoughts   and  C.1.6. Intrinsic   (Innate)  understandings. IV. TEXT THEMES A. The Diversity of our Learners A.1. Inclusion: students with exceptionalities in regular classrooms. A.2. Ethnicity and culture. A.3. Socioeconomic status. B. Ways to Enhancing Learning Motivation B.1. Motivation energizes and directs behavior toward a goal. B.2. Teachers must increase motivation for the tasks students need to learn. C. The Use of Technology for Increasing Learning C.1. Use of computers, telecommunications, Internet, T.V. and DVD or videocassette recorders. C.2. Computer instructional uses: Computer­assisted instruction, Computer­managed instruction,  design of instructional materials, and information tools for students. V. LEARNING TO TEACH A. Knowledge of Subject Matter A.1. We can’t teach what we don’t understand B. Pedagogical Content Knowledge B.1. To translate information into forms that learners will understand. B.2. To figure out ways of making abstract topics understandable. C. Knowledge of Teaching And Learning C.1. To understand the connections between teaching and learning. C.2. Review,   concept,   prompting,   concrete   example,   and   wait­time   are   pedagogical   concepts  about teaching and learning. D. Teaching Strategies D.1. Interconnected and coordinated teaching actions designed to accomplish specific goals. E. Teacher Decision Making E.1. Applying   professional   judgement   in   deciding   when,   where,   how,   and   why   to   use   the  components of teaching: knowledge of teaching, pedagogical content knowledge, knowledge  of teaching and learning, and teaching strategies. VI. Using this book to learn to teach

The features of this book help you learn to teach. It has important concepts, example cases studies,  discussions questions, and a section called “Applying it in the schools”. Chapter # 2 Student Diversity I. TEACHING STUDENTS WITH DIFFERENT LEARNING ABILITIES “In any lesson, probably a third already know it, another third are really learning it, and the rest   don’t know what you’re talking about.”(Melanie Parker.) A. Intelligence: What does it mean? A.1. IQ test: Abstract thinking, problem solving ability and knowledge. A.2. Controversies: Nature or nurture? Culturally embedded? Unitary or multifaceted? B. Multiple Intelligences: The Work of Howard Gardner B.1. There’re   8   areas:   linguistic,   logical­mathematical,   musical,   spatial,   bodily   kinesthetic,  interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalistic. B.2. Using this, teachers create learning environments for all kind of students. C. Intellectual Diversity: Implications for teaching C.1. Creating multidimensional classrooms C.1.1. Multiability tasks. C.2. Flexible time requirements C.2.1. Enrichment options for students who finish quicker. C.3. Ability grouping C.3.1. Only when necessary, keep it flexible and be aware of negative consequences. C.4. Strategy instructions for slower students. C.5. Peer tutoring and cooperative learning. II. LEARNING STYLES A. Field Dependence/Independence A.1. Ability to select relevant from irrelevant information. A.2. Field­independence students break down the complex context into subcomponents; Field­ dependence students are more influenced by surface features and the global context. B. Conceptual Tempo: Impulsive and Reflective Learners B.1. Impulsive students  rush to blurt  out answers; Reflective students  analyze and deliberate  before answering. B.2. Self­instruction training helps students understand the impact of conceptual tempo in their  learning. C. Classroom Learning Styles: The Work of Dunn and Dunn C.1. Modality, structure/support, individual/group, motivation, environment. C.2. Creating optimal learning environments for all learning styles. D. Learning Styles: Implications for teaching D.1. The need to vary teacher instruction. Learning Strategies. D.2. To be sensitive o differences in students’ behavior. People are different III. STUDENTS WITH EXCEPTIONALITIES A. Inclusion A.1. Least Restrictive Environment (LRE): Placing students in as normal an educational setting 






as possible. A.2. Adaptive fit: the degree of a student is able to handle with the school’s requirements. A.3. Inclusion   is   an   approach   to   educating   students   with   exceptionalities.   Placing   them   in   a  regular school, guaranteeing adaptive fit, and coordinating general and special education  services. Students with Mild­To­Moderate Disabilities B.1. They learn enough to remain them in the regular classroom but with special help. B.2. The 3 major sub categories are: B.2.1. Intellectually handicapped (IQ is between 50 to 70) B.2.2. Learning disabled (listening, reading, writing, spelling problems B.2.3. Behaviorally   disordered   (It   interferes   with   the   classroom   work   and   interpersonal  relations). Teachers’ Role in Working Students Having Exceptionalities C.1. Identification, Acceptance, and Instruction. C.1.1. Teachers can identify learning problems and help other students understand them. Working Students with Exceptionalities: support for classroom teachers D.1. There   are   some   support   systems   for   helping   regular   teachers   who   have   students   with  exceptionalities. Adapting Instructions for Students with Exceptionalities E.1. Basic   strategies   like   warm   academic   climate,   effective   use   of   time   and   classroom  management, high success rates, and feedback, work with regular students as with students  with exceptionalities. Technology as a Tool for Inclusion F.1. Computers: One Avenue to Automaticity. Computer­assisted instruction. F.1.1. It provides practice, feedback, simulation F.2. Computers: Tracking the Progress of Students With Exceptionalities.  F.2.1. Improving and monitoring student’s IEP (Individualized Education Program)

IV. CAPITALIZING ON CULTURAL DIVERSITY A. Multicultural Education: The Challenge A.2. Culture refers to attitudes, values, beliefs, and behavior that characterize a social group. A.3. Multicultural Education examines ways that culture influences learning. B. Theories of Minority Achievement B.1. Cultural deficit theory. Minority children. B.1.1. Teachers have the responsibility to teach students as much as possible regardless their  backgrounds. B.2. Teacher expectations Theory. B.2.1. Positive teacher expectations form a powerful base for learning. B.2.2. Negative expectations impact learning in both explicit and implicit ways. B.3. Cultural difference theory. Discontinuities between home and school. C. Culturally Responsive Teaching. C.1. Learning about the cultures of the students. C.2. Communicating positive attitude about diversity. C.2.1. Students need to know that we understand their cultures. C.3. Instructional strategies to accommodate diversity. 

V. LANGUAGE DIVERSITY A. English Dialects A.1. A Dialect is a variation of standard language that is distinct in vocabulary, grammar, or  pronunciation. A.2. Teachers shouldn’t have low expectations for students who use nonstandard English. They  should accept it and build on it. B. Bilingual Programs B.1. Maintenance bilingual programs teach in both native language and English. B.2. Transitional bilingual programs use native language as an instructional aid until English is  proficient. B.3. English as second language (ESL) programs focus on mastering English. VI. AT­RISK STUDENTS: TEACHING THE CHILDREN OF POVERTY At­Risk Students are in danger to failing to complete their education with the skills necessary to  survive. They often come to school underfed and without proper care. Their emotional needs for safety and  security have not been met. A. At­Risk Students: Understanding the Problem A.1. Socioeconomic status influences learning. A.1.1. Physically unprepared to learn. A.1.2. Poor life experiences. A.1.3. Parental attitudes and values. B. Resiliency: Capitalizing on Student Strengths B.1. Resilient children set goals, expect to succeed, feel they’re in control of their own lives, and  have interpersonal skills. B.2. They acquire it from families that care of holding high moral and academic expectations for  their members. C. Teaching At­Risk Students C.1. They need greater structure and support in instruction and motivation, to experience success  and understand that effort results in achievement. C.1.1. Success is critical in the process. It increases motivation. C.2. Effective instructional practices for at­risk students are the same principles of good teaching. D. Motivation: The need for Challenge D.1. High expectations and high­order thinking are as important for at­risk students as for the  other students. D.2. To use challenging teaching strategies.

Chapter # 3 Teacher Planning: Research and Reality IV. PLANNING: A FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS • It allows teachers to anticipate instructional needs and organize materials. • It provides a emotional security and reduces anxiety associated with teaching.  V. VARIABLES IN INSTRUCTIONAL PLANNING A. The Teacher A.1. It is the most significant variable in planning. A.2. Teachers with a feeling of mission and commitments to excellence, take more responsibility  for students and work harder to help them achieve. B. Learners B.1. Age is related to attention span. Activities don’t be longer than of the age of your students. B.2. Student’s background knowledge. All new learning depends on current understanding. C. Motivation: An Integral Part of Planning C.1. Student’s motivation has two levels: C.1.1. Global level is the cumulative effect of past learning experiences. C.1.2. Lesson specific is the influence of the teacher. C.2. Teachers use student’s interest, curiosity and design lessons that actively involve them. D. Content D.1. To teach a concept, gather positive or negative examples are necessary. D.2. To explain a complex body of knowledge, we need to organize it in a meaningful way. E. Teaching Context E.1. It includes state guidelines. Teachers require covering all the content in the book before  turning to supplementary materials. E.2. Plans written by these guidelines are different from individual teachers. F. Materials and Resources F.1. Beginning  teachers depend on text materials.  As they acquire experience, become more  independent and personalize their curriculum. F.2. Teachers first consider activities when they plan and these are based on available materials. G. Time G.1. Teachers of young children spend much more of their planning time gathering the physical  materials for their activities. G.2. School year is divided into periods; courses and units are framed in these time periods. It  makes planning manageable. VI. THE LINEAL RATIONAL MODEL: A SEQUENTIAL PLANNING MODEL Ralph Tyler’s major contribution to the process of planning was to frame it as a series of logical  actions requiring thought and reflection. A. Goals: a Beginning Point for Teacher Planning A.1. They identify what we hope to accomplish in our classrooms. A.2. They give direction and instruction. B. Kinds of goals: The Three Domains B.1. Divide goals into areas: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. B.2. Cognitive   domain:   acquisition   of   knowledge.   Bloom’s   Taxonomy   divides   goals   into   six 

levels. B.2.1. Knowledge B.2.2. Comprehension B.2.3. Application B.2.4. Analysis B.2.5. Synthesis B.2.6. Evaluation B.3. Affective  domain:  Focused on the development of attitudes  and  values and divides  this  process into five levels. B.3.1. Receiving B.3.2. Responding B.3.3. Valuing B.3.4. Organization B.3.5. Characterization B.4. Psychomotor domain: It involves the development of coordination and Physical skills. B.4.1. Reflex movements B.4.2. Basic fundamental movements B.4.3. Perceptual abilities B.4.4. Skilled movements B.4.5. Nondiscursive communication C. Long­term Planning C.1. To   prepare   for   a   year   or   semester   as   a   frame   for   later   planning   efforts.   It   adapts   the  curriculum   to   teacher’s   knowledge,   and   provide   schedule   for   instruction.   Focus   on   the  structure and content. C.2. Teachers turn to a number of sources including curriculum guides, textbooks, notes from  college courses, and other teacher’s experiences. C.3. Products on Long­term Planning. List in different areas that help to simplify later planning. D. Unit Planning D.1. it’s a series of interconnected lessons focusing on a general topic. It bridges the gap between  Long­term Planning and day to day Planning. D.2. Overview / Goal describes the general purpose of the unit. D.3. Rationale explains why the unit is important and how it will benefit students. D.4. Objectives are the general goals translated into more specific terms and they are desired  educational outcomes from the students. D.5. Content describes what students will study. Diagrams, hierarchies, and outlines are useful to  clarify the content. D.6. Task   analysis:   a   planning   tool   for   organizing   activities.   Breaking   a   complex   skill   into  simpler subskills helps teachers plan for instruction. D.7. Learning activities is maybe the most important part because it brings the students into  contact with the ideas contained in the unit. D.8. Evaluation is the final phase, it provides students with feedback that facilitates learning, and  provides teachers with information about students’ learning. E. Lesson Planning E.1. It focuses detailed planning efforts on specific lessons. E.2. A Basic Lesson Plan Model. E.2.1. It must be specific enough to provide structure for the lesson but general enough to 


provide flexibility. E.3. Lesson Plan Reality E.3.1. Teachers can plan on Friday, go home and enjoy the weekend, and return on Monday  secure in the knowledge that the week in under control. Instructional and Implementing Integrated Units F.1. It is the match among goals, learning activities, and assessment.

VII. INTEGRATING THE CURRICULUM: INTERDISIPLINARY AND THEMATIC UNITS A. An Integrated Continuum A.1. Discipline­based organization. Instruction based on disciplines or subject areas. A.2. Interdisciplinary   planning   involves   units   with   several   subjects   areas   focus   their   content  around a theme. A.3. Integrated approach. Students are encouraged to pursue from various subject areas. B. Designing and Implementing Integrated Units B.1. Themes or topics serve as starting points for interdisciplinary or integrated units. VIII.RESEARCH ON TEACHER PLANNING It suggests that experienced teacher don’t prepare written objectives and detailed plans because  there   are   already   objectives   in   most   curriculum   guide   and   texts,   some   activities   have   the   objectives  embedded in them, and also because it simply is too much work.  Planning isn’t a uniform process. Experienced teachers have past experiences to rely on while  beginning teachers spend hours planning during student teaching and the first year of job. Planning depends  on a number of related factors as experience, content and availability of curriculum materials IX.  PLANNING FOR DIVERSITY: INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION A. Varying Time A.1. Learners differ in the amount of time needed to master a topic. A.1.1. Enrichment   activities   for   students   who   complete   their   assignments   first   early  (Learning centers, free reading, academic games individual research projects) A.2. Mastery Learning. A.2.1. It allows students to progress at their own rate through a unit of study. A.3. Team­Assisted Individualization. A.3.1. It   is   a   hybrid   of   mastery   learning   and   cooperative   learning.   Students   work   on  individualized   materials   in   mixed­ability   learning   teams   that   provide   support.  Rewards provide motivation for team members. B. Varying Learning Objectives B.1. To offer students choice the learning objectives they pursue and the topics for projects, term  papers and individual experiments. Personalization is important for motivation. C. Adapting Instructional Materials C.1. Altering instructional materials, such as using texts written in different levels. D. Offering Different Learning Activities D.1. To address  student’s  preferences,  teachers  use   a  variety   of  teaching   strategies.  Learning  options give motivation and instruction. E. Technology as a Tool of Individualized Instruction E.1. Computers as Reinforcement Tools.

E.1.1. They provide extra practice and reinforcement for students who need it. E.2. Tutorials: Adaptive Instruction. E.2.1. They are computer programs that introduce new information using text, graphics, and  exercises with feedback. E.2.2. They are adaptive. If a student already understands a concept, the computer can move  him/her to the next one. It allows students to move ahead while provide additional  help for students who need it. Chapter # 6 Learner­centered Instruction: Constructivist Approaches to Teaching I. CONSTRUCTIVISM: A VIEW OF LEARNING Learner­centered instruction. Learners create and build their own understanding of the topics they  study, in a context and apply it to authentic situations.  II. CHARACTERISTICS OF CONSTRUCTIVISM A. Learners constructing understanding A.1. Learners develop understanding; they don’t receive it from teachers. A.2. Teacher role: guiding students to understanding of conduction, helping students construct  meaningful ideas. B. New learning dependent on current understanding B.1. It is related with learners’ background knowledge. C. Learning facilitated by social interaction C.1. It   encourages   students   to   verbalize   their   thinking   and   redefine   their   understanding   by  comparing with others. D. Authentic tasks promoting learning D.1. They are classroom activities that require understanding similar to thinking encountered in  situations outside the classroom (Eggen & Kauchak). D.2. They   stimulate   the   real   world,   providing   students   with   practice   in   thinking   in   realistic,  lifelike circumstances (Needels & Knapp). E. Constructivism and learner motivation E.1. Factors that contribute to motivation: E.1.1. Problems and questions stimulate curiosity. E.1.2. Active activities are more motivating then passive ones. E.1.3. Autonomy and control. E.1.4. To Develop and acquire understanding by applying it in the everyday world. E.2. Constructivism and learner motivation complement each other. F. Misconceptions about constructivism F.1. A clear goal and planning are less important than in traditional instruction. F.1.1. Lesson begins with clear goals in mind although teachers may modify them. F.2. Learning automatically takes place with social interaction. F.2.1. Teachers monitor, intervene, and redirect students. F.3. Teachers’ roles are simpler, easier and less important. F.3.1. Guiding students has no rules for teacher they must make these decisions on their  own. III. PLANNING CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING ACTIVITIES

CHARACTERISTICS OF LEARNER­CENTERED PLANNING Planning Element Description / Rationale Goals Learning activities Assessing   understanding Social interaction Learning environment Assessment current  Focused on real problems Authentic tasks Multiple representations of content Learning depends on current understanding It facilitates learning Emotions and cognition influence learning Focused on application and thinking

Planning based on constructivism: multiple representations of content A.1. Providing several examples of topics facilitates knowledge construction. A.2. “Criss­crossing”   illustrates   different   aspects   or   represent   them   in   ways   that   are   slightly  different form the others. B. Databases: using computers to organize data and construct knowledge B.1. A   database   is   a   computerized   record­keeping   system   that   organizes   large   amount   of  information. B.2. In constructing databases, students face a meaningful task. B.3. More teacher direction produces faster lesson pace, but students learning is reduced. B.4. Less   teacher   instruction   gives   students   chance   to   learn   on   their   own,   but   it   can   cause  frustration. IV. CONDUCTING CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING ACTIVITIES • Lessons focus on answers to questions. • Answers come from learners, not from teachers. • Answers derive from content representations and social interaction • Teachers guide social interaction and provide content representations. V. USING GROUPWORK TO FACILITATE SOCIAL INTERACTION • Language plays a key role: It gives cognitive tools It gives access to thoughts It is a mechanism for self­regulation A. Student collaboration A.1. The teacher presents a cognitive task to the student, reinforcing with  lesson content. The  class   is   broke   into   manageable   groups   that   are  actively   involved.   The   teacher   provides  feedback to the groups. B. Organizing and conducting groupwork activities B.1. It provides opportunities for students become actively involved. B.2. Suggestions for planning group activities: B.2.1. Have students moving into and out of groups quickly. B.2.2. Seat groups before the activity. B.2.3. Give clear specific tasks to accomplish. B.2.4. Specify the amount of time students have to accomplish the task. B.3. When students see signals as turning off the lights, a noisy clacker, or the teacher raising  her/his hand, stop talking and pay attention. C. Working in pairs: introducing groupwork C.1. Also called Think­Pair­Share. C.2. Positive features:


C.2.1. Students learn easier than in larger groups. C.2.2. Each member contributes. C.2.3. The class is reduced to the half. C.3. Pairs check: One member solves and the other checks. D. Working with larger groups D.1. Groups larger than five are unwieldy, and not recommended. D.2. Groups provide opportunities to promote collaboration and social skills. D.3. Students   can   be   organized   as   a   leader,   two   or   more   responsible   for   the   work,   and   a  facilitator. E. Combining pairs E.1. It retains the simplicity of pairs, and promotes the social skills of larger groups. E.2. Combining pairs with seatwork E.2.1. Two pairs are combined into a group of four. They work individually, comparing their  answer with their partner. If they don’t agree, they confer with the other pair. E.3. Combining pairs in interactive questioning E.3.1. Groups of four in interactive question­and­answer sessions. E.3.2. The teacher chooses one member of the group to answer, since all of them must know  it, and when an individual answers correctly, every student in the group gets a point. F. Groupwork with higher­level tasks F.1. All members must participate. F.2. Encouraging equal participation: F.2.1. First, require students solve problems individually. F.2.2. Second, monitor the groups are following your directions. F.2.3. Third, call on non­volunteers in groups. Chapter # 11 Classroom Management I. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT: A DEFINITION All teacher’s thoughts, plans, and actions that create an environment to promote learning A. Management goals: learning and self­regulation  A.1. Important goals: A.1.1. To create environment that promote learning A.1.2. To develop students’ ability to manage their own learning A.2. Obedience versus responsibility: A.2.1. Following rules through punishment and reward A.2.2. Making responsible choices and learning from logical consequences B. Management and motivation: creating responsibility­oriented classrooms B.1. Parental interaction styles provide guidelines for interactions with students B.1.1. Authoritarian parents: value obedience without explanations; children are withdraw  and worried about pleasing parents. B.1.2. Permissive  parents: children’s total freedom that doesn’t result in their happiness or  growth; children are immature, lacked self­control, anxious and uncertain B.1.3. Authoritative parents: firm but caring, high expectations, consistent, and reasons for  rules are explained; children are confident, secure, with high self­esteem, and willing  to take risks.

Management: a historical perspective C.1. Teacher   as  Clinical   Practitioner:   causes   behind   students’   management   problems   can   be  solved. C.1.1. Inadequate approach because counselor and therapist is not teacher’s primary role,  and it is impossible for then to work on each student’s individual problems C.2. Teacher as disciplinarians: Quickly quiet a noisy class, or get kids back in their seats. C.3. Management­oriented: Desist strategies stop the misbehavior and have a ripple effect.  I.1. Teacher’s language clarity and intensity C.3.1. Withitness: “having eyes in the back of the head.” II. PLANNING FOR CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT A. Student developmental characteristics A.1. Low achievers engage in inappropriate activities more often than high achievers. A.2. Children at different developmental ages understand and interpret rules and procedures in  different ways. I.2. Lower primary I.3. Middle elementary I.4. Middle and Junior high I.5. High school B. The physical environment B.1. Instructional materials must complement learning, not detract it. B.2. Students sitting: social aspects are important. I.6. Action zone: students in the center or in front of the classroom interact more with the  teacher than those in the back and corners. C. Classroom rules: establishing standards for behavior C.1. Standards for acceptable student behavior C.2. Student involvement I.7. Sense of ownership, self­regulation, and moral thinking C.3. Class­school consistency I.8. Rules must be consistent with polices of the school and district. C.4. Number of rules I.9. Short as possible, five are recommended C.5. Clarity I.10. State rules clearly and specifically describing the desired behavior C.6. Rationales I.11. Explaining the reasons for rules C.7. Consequences I.12. What are you going to do when a student breaks a rule? C.8. Assertive discipline: writing student’s name on the board for a first infraction, adding a  checkmark for a second one, and at the third, the student is punished. I.13. Considering consequences before problems occur I.14. Consequences depend on teacher’s professional judgment D. Procedures: creating an efficient learning environment D.1. Routines that learners will follow in their daily activities D.2. It simplifies the classroom environment III. IMPLEMENTING MANAGEMENT PLANS A. Implementing plans: the first ten days


A.1. Plan for maximum contact and control I.15. Plan instructional activities during the first 2 weeks. A.2. Teach rules and procedures I.16. Explaining and providing examples, and modeling if necessary A.3. Enforce rules and procedures with complete consistence I.17. Making management completely predictable A.4. Communicate openly and congruently I.18. It makes teachers accessible and human without reducing authority. B. Involving parents 18.1. More positive student attitudes toward school 18.2. Higher academic achievement 18.3. Increased understanding and support from parents C. Diversity: challenges to home­school communication C.1. Economic barriers C.2. Cultural barriers C.3. Language barriers I.19. Other teacher or parents translating letter to parents I.20. Older students assist as interpreters I.21. Parent­student­teacher conferences D. The relationship between management and instruction D.1. Orchestration I.22. Teacher’s   ability   to   keep   the   lesson   going   while   addressing   the   human   and  management concerns in the classroom I.23. Overlapping: ability to monitor more than one activity at a time D.2. Momentum I.24. It provides the lesson with strength and direction. D.3. Smoothness I.25. Lesson’s continuity E. Classroom management: situational variables E.1. Certain activities are harder to manage than others. IV. MANAGEMENT INTERVENTIONS Teacher’s actions designed to eliminate unwanted student behavior A. Defining misbehavior A.1. Inattention and fooling around A.2. Talking, clowning around that bothers other members of the class A.3. Defiance of authority or refusal to obey A.4. Immorality, cheating, lying, or stealing A.5. Verbal or physical aggression B. Causes of misbehavior B.1. Ineffective Instruction I.26. Try designing more motivating learning activities. B.2. The custodial Nature of schooling I.27. Plan activities that involve students. B.3. “Testing” teachers

I.28. Students clarify limits in the classroom by experimenting with misbehavior I.29. Clarify boundaries between right and wrong behavior. C. Effective management: matching the intervention with the misbehavior C.1. It communicates that teachers are aware of what is going on, and helps students understand  limits and consequences. C.2. Teacher actions can be matched along a continuum of disruptiveness. I.30. From ignoring non­disruptive misbehavior, through nonverbal or short squelch cues  for   increasing   disruptive   misbehavior,   to   extended   response   for   more   disruptive  misbehavior. D. Management interventions: systematically applying consequences D.1. Reinforcing positive behaviors is preferable to punishing negative ones. E. Dealing with individual problems E.1. Identify the student needing and list responses to his/her behavior. E.2. Discard ineffective interventions. E.3. Make the student feel accepted. E.4. Make the student understand the problem, ask he/she stop it. E.5. Ask what he/she should do instead. E.6. Require a plan of action to solve the problem, include student’s commitment. E.7. Use time­out procedures. E.8. Apply in­school suspension. E.9. Call parents to discuss the problem. E.10. Refer student to another agency. F. Serious management problems: violence and aggression F.1. It is recommended an immediate and assertive response to the aggressive acts. F.2. Dealing with the problem from a problem­solving perspective. F.3. Punishment should be viewed as a consequence designed to bring about desired behavior. F.4. Parents must be aware of the problem and asked to contribute to a solution. F.5. Counselors, social workers, and principals can provide advice and assistance. F.6. Have a plan of action in mind before problems occur.

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