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What is it? Learner’s use of its own learning or life experiences to construct understandings that make sense to them. Constructivism values developmentally-appropriate learning that is initiated and directed by the learner. Constructivist ideas were not widely accepted due to the perception that children's play was seen as aimless and of little importance. Jean Piaget, however, saw play as an important and necessary part of the student's cognitive development in kids; being the 1st experiences the basis for learning everything else in life. Processes of accommodation Assimilate: to incorporate the new experience into an already existing framework without changing that framework. This may occur when individuals' experiences are aligned with their internal representations of the world… or it may also occur as a failure to change a faulty understanding. For example, they may not notice events, may misunderstand input from others, or may decide that an event unimportant as information about the world. Accomodation When individuals' experiences contradict their internal representations, they may change their perceptions of the experiences to fit their internal representations. Accommodation is the process of reframing one's mental representation of the external world to fit new experiences. When we act on the expectation that the world operates in one way and it violates our expectations, we often fail. So by accommodating this new experience and reframing our model of the way the world works, we learn from the experience of failure, or others' failure. Characteristics Learners constructing understanding: Learner doesn’t receive understanding from teacher or written materials. New learning depends on current understanding. Learning is facilitated by social interaction: students verbalize their thinking and refine their understanding by comparing them with others. Meaningful learning occurs within authentic learning tasks: experimenting, real life situations, creating, using technology, getting into different environments. The nature of learner: The learner as a unique individual. The importance of background and and culture of the learner. The responsibility for learning The motivation for learning The role of the teacher. Instructors as facilitators:a teacher gives a lecture which covers the subject matter, a facilitator helps the learner to get to his or her own understanding of the content. A teacher mostly gives a monologue; a facilitator is in continuous dialogue with the learners. The critical goal is to support the learner in becoming an effective thinker. The nature of the learning process Learning is an active, social process. Dynamic interaction between task, instructor and learner. Collaboration among learners. Assessment: dynamic, continuous assessment. An interactive process that measures the achievement of the learner, and the quality of the learning experience. Feedback created by the assessment process serves for further development.
How to plan? Think on… Stating goals and outcomes ( real- life situations, problem-solution activities,etc) Designing and organizing learning activities. Assessing current understanding. Plan for social interaction. Plan for the learning environment. Plan for assessment ( seeing ideas applied by the students)
Based on the proposition that all things which organisms do — including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors. Skinner's empirical work expanded on earlier research on trial-and-error learning by researchers. Skinner took the view that humans could construct linguistic stimuli that would then acquire control over their behavior in the same way that external stimuli could. Behaviorism is described as a developmental theory that measures observable behaviors produced by a learner’s response to stimuli. According to behaviorism, knowing is giving the correct response when exposed to a particular stimulus. The behaviorist is not concerned with how or why knowledge is obtained, but rather if the correct response is given. Responses to stimuli can be reinforced with positive or negative feedback to condition desired behaviors. Punishment is sometimes used in eliminating or reducing incorrect actions, followed by clarifying desired actions. Educational effects of behaviorism are key in developing basic skills and classroom management. The process tends to be passive with regard to the behaviorist theory. The learner uses low level processing skills to understand material and the material is often isolated from realworld contexts or situations. Little responsibility is placed on the learner concerning his/her own education. Typical classroom instruction consistent with the behaviorist theory includes; classroom management, rote memorization, and drill and practice. A classroom application of using drill and practice can be using a computer software: These types of software provide positive and negative reinforcements for answering correctly or incorrectly. A final example: rote memorization. Rote memorization may include memorizing addition or multiplication facts or memorizing state capitals. Roleplay 6 groups of 5 people. Represent the teacher and the students’ role. Group 1: the use of gerunds in a constructivist class. Plan 1 activity and represent it. Group 2: Parts of the plants in a constructivist class. Plan 1 activity and represent it. Group 3: Solar system in a constructivist class. Plan 1 activity and represent it. Group 4: How to order in a restaurant? in a constructivist class. Plan 1 activity and represent it. Group 5: Solar system in a behaviorist class. Plan 1 activity and represent it. Group 6: How to order in a restaurant? in a behaviorist class. Plan 1 activity and represent it.