1.
BASIC ARITHMETIC..............................................................................1-1
1.1 directed numbers.............................................................................1-1
1.2 times tables......................................................................................1-2
1.3 basic calculations.............................................................................1-2
2.
FACTORS...............................................................................................2-1
2.1 prime numbers.................................................................................2-1
2.2 highest common factor (HCF)..........................................................2-1
2.3 lowest common multiple (LCM)........................................................2-2
3.
ARITHMETICAL PRECEDENCE...........................................................3-1
3.1 bodmas example..............................................................................3-1
4.
FRACTIONS...........................................................................................4-1
4.1 addition............................................................................................4-1
4.2 subtraction.......................................................................................4-2
4.3 multiplication....................................................................................4-2
4.4 division.............................................................................................4-3
4.5 decimal fractions..............................................................................4-3
4.5.1
Addition & Subtraction...................................................4-3
4.5.2
Multiplication & Division.................................................4-4
4.6 percentages.....................................................................................4-4
5.
6.
INDICES.................................................................................................6-1
6.1 standard form...................................................................................6-3
6.2 extension to logarithms....................................................................6-3
7.
INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRA............................................................7-1
7.1 operation..........................................................................................7-1
7.2 basic laws........................................................................................7-2
8.
FORMULAS...........................................................................................8-1
8.1 construction......................................................................................8-1
8.2 transposition & evaluation................................................................8-1
9.
EQUATIONS...........................................................................................9-1
9.1 construction......................................................................................9-1
9.2 solving equations.............................................................................9-1
12.6
12.7
areas...........................................................................................12-7
volumes.......................................................................................12-9
13. TRIGONOMETRY...................................................................................13-1
13.1 trigonometrical calculations & formula.........................................13-2
13.2 construction of trigonometrical curves.........................................13-4
13.3 values in 4 quadrants..................................................................13-5
13.4 expansion of basic formula..........................................................13-6
14. GRAPHS................................................................................................14-1
14.1 construction.................................................................................14-1
14.2 graphs & mathematical FORMULAE...........................................14-3
14.3 function & shape..........................................................................14-4
15. CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY..................................................................15-1
15.1 polar / rectangular co-ORDINATES.............................................15-2
15.2 complex numbers........................................................................15-4
15.3 argand diagrams.........................................................................15-5
16. CALCULUS............................................................................................16-1
16.1 introduction to increments...........................................................16-1
16.2 differentiation...............................................................................16-2
16.3 Slope...........................................................................................16-2
16.4 integration....................................................................................16-3
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1. BASIC ARITHMETIC
The most common system of numbers in use is the decimal system, which uses
the ten digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.
The student will be familiar with this system and the basic operation, which may
involve Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division.
When numbers are added, they form a sum.
When numbers are subtracted, they create a difference.
When numbers are multiplied, they form a product.
When one number (the dividend) is divided by another (the divisor), the result is a
quotient.
It is useful if a student is proficient at simple mental arithmetic, and this is only
possible if one has a feel for numbers, and size of numbers. A knowledge of
simple times tables is Also useful.
Simple tests for divisibility:
A number is divisible by;
2
if it is an even number.
10
-12 + 6
(12 - 6)
6 -6
To subtract a directed number, change its sign and add the resulting number.
eg.
-10 - (-6) =
- 10 + 6
7 - (+18) =
7 - 8
-1
The product of two numbers of like signs is positive (+ve), the product of numbers
with unlike signs is negative (-ve).
When dividing, numbers with like signs give a +ve quotient, numbers with unlike
signs give a ve quotient.
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2. FACTORS
We know that for example, 2 x 6 = 12. We state that 2 and 6 are factors of 12,
we could also state that as 3 x 4 = 12, then 3 and 4 are also factors, as are 12
and 1.
This may seem obvious, but it will sometimes be useful to "factorize", i.e.
determine the factors of a given number, or more commonly, find the factors of an
algebraic expression.
Example
Find the possible factors of 60. (In other words, find the integers which divide
into 60).
These numbers will be:
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, 30 and 60
Check them yourself.
2 2 3 7 84
This is the greatest number which is a factor of all three number, i.e. the Highest
Common Factor and is found by multiplying together all the factors which are
common in each of the individual numbers.
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This is the lowest number of which each of the three numbers are factors - it is
comprised of the least number of factors which are found in all three numbers.
e.g.
1764 x 25 = 44,100
2100 x 21 = 44,100
2940 x 15 = 44,100
44,100
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3. ARITHMETICAL PRECEDENCE
Consider the expression 2 + 3 = 5. It makes no difference if we write 3 + 2 = 5.
Again consider 3 x 4 = 12. There is no difference if we write 4 x 3 = 12.
However, if I write 2 + 3 x 4, what is the answer? Is it 20 (= 5 x 4), or is it 14
(= 2 + 12) ?
If we are going to agree on the answer we must first agree on the rules we use.
This introduces the topic known as arithmetical precedence, and is most easily
remember by the term BODMAS. BODMAS indicated the precedence, or the
order in which we perform our calculations:
B
(-4) + (-19) - 49
- 23 - 49
- 72
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4. FRACTIONS
is an example of a Fraction.
It has the same meaning as 11 16, that is,
11 divided by 16.
The number above the line is the Numerator; The number below the line is the
Denominator.
is also a fraction, but because 23 is greater than 4, it is called an Improper
fraction. It will normally be written as ,
which is the same as
= .
4.1 ADDITION
The importance thing to remember here is that only fractions with the same (or
common) denominator can be added or subtracted. It is usual to find the lowest
Common Denominator (LCD), and this is essentially the same as a Lowest
Common Multiple, covered in a previous topic.
Example
In this example, the LCD of 16, 12 and 8 is 48. To re-arrange the fractions so
that a common denominator is used, carry out the following procedure:
48 16 is 3 and so can be written as
it may look different, but clearly
so is the same as .
Similarly,
converts to
and
converts to .
=
and so with the common denominator in place, the addition becomes .
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Example
First add the whole numbers together, so the calculation becomes.
.
The LCD of 3, 6 and 12 is 12. Using this, the sum becomes.
= 6 + .
This simplifies to become 6 + 2 + .
4.2 SUBTRACTION
The basic procedure is very similar to that used for addition; find the LCM,
convert the individual fractions, but subtract the numerator instead of adding.
There may be a difference which is importance.
Example
First subtract the whole numbers, 3 - 1 = 2, so calculation becomes , the LCM
is 12, so the sum becomes .
Now
is greater than
becomes , written as .
4.3 MULTIPLICATION
These calculations are generally easier to perform than addition and subtraction.
Example
Simply multiply the numerators together and repeat for the denominators.
So;
Example
First convert into improper fractions, so
becomes
and
becomes
4.4 DIVISION
Example
First convert into improper fractions, invert the second term and multiply,
so
= 14.
which becomes 7 x 2 = 14
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Decimal fractions are usually re-written as decimals, which is very easily done, by
the use of the Decimal Point. Take the example .
Starting from the Right -hand side, move the Decimal point towards the left, by a
number of places equal to the number of "noughts" in the denominator.
So,
starts as
Any fraction can be formed into a decimal, by actually dividing the numerator by
the denominator.
Example
becomes 0.875, found by the process of long division.
4.5.1ADDITION & SUBTRACTION
ecimals can be added or subtracted; the main thing to remember is to "line-up"
the numbers vertically, so that the Decimal points are in a line.
Example
2.683 + 34.41
3
2
4
6
4
8
1
3
0
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6.24 x 3.121
6.24
3.121
624
12480
62400
1872000
19.47504
(Common sense helps here, one number slightly greater then 6, multiplied by
another number slightly greater then 3, must logically lead to an answer of
approximately 18).
Division basically follows the same rule of long division.
4.6 PERCENTAGES
If a statement is made that in a group of 44 people, 50% have brown eyes, the
great majority of students would be able to state that 22 people have brown eyes
This simple example is what percentages is all about.
To calculate a percentage, convert the data given into a fraction and multiply by
100.
i.e.
x 100 = 50%
To find the number which forms the numerator in the fraction, multiply the total
number by the percentage and divide by 100.
i.e.
44 persons (total) x
Page 4
which is 55, 65
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6. INDICES
It is often to necessary to multiply a number by itself once, twice or several times.
When this is to be performed, a method of notation has evolved, which is both
convenient and capable of being extended to introduce other concepts.
Example
3 x 3 is written as
32
2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 as
25
43 etc, etc.
4 x 4 x 4 as
In the above case(s), 2 is known as the "base" and 5 is known as the "power" or
"index". Alternatively, the number 2 has been raised to power 5.
Note. Power 2 and power 3 are often referred to as the "square" and the "cube".
3 x 3 = 32 = 9
3
9 is the "square" of 3.
4 x 4 x 4 = 4 = 64
64 is the "cube" of 4.
But put another way, 3 is said to be the square - "root" of 9, 4 is the cube "root"
of 64, 2 is the fifth root of 32.
The method of notation used is that:
sometimes
92
32 5
64 3
sometimes
32
sometimes
64
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To allow the use of numbers involving powers and indices, some Rules have
evolved, which are reproduced, using the symbol to represent any "base"
number.
2 3
a b
1.
hence
5 3
2.
hence
a b a - b
hence
2 3
3.
4.
because 2
1
2
5.
if
hence if
note
1
2
ab
2 - 2
-2
hence
1
a
-a
1 2 0 - 2 0- 2 - 2
because
6.
2 2 2
3 y,
a yb ,
yb
is written as
is written as
1
3
y 0.3333
(1 is ignored)
(2 is ignored)
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5.26 x 102
0.3716
3.716 x 10-1
0.002
2.0 x 10-3
From the calculator the log. base 10 of 6.412 is 0.80699 and log. base 10 of
23.162 is 1.36478.
So from the definition 6.412 x 23.162
=
100.80699 x 101.36478
10(0.80669
10(2.17177)
+ 1.36478)
It is now necessary to find the number whose log. number is 2.17177 and the
calculator show this to be 148.51474 (this is the anti-log of 2.17177). If the
calculator is used to solve 6.412 x 23.162, the product is 148.51474.
It is important to realise that this example shows how logarithms can be used in practice the calculator is used as normal. If a division is to be performed, the
powers of logs. are subtracted.
It is the concept of a logarithm that is important at this stage, because it reappears later.
Mathematics by COBC - Issue 1 - 19 November 2015
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7. INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRA
Very often students will claim that they never have and never will understand
Algebra. They say they can understand and work with numbers, but not with
letters, and yet Algebra is designed to make matters simple and clear.
For example, suppose a room is 5 metres long by 3 metres wide and we need to
know how much carpet is needed to cover the floor. No one would have any
hesitation in calculating the answer, 15 square metres (m2). But that answer only
applies to that room. The general answer is that the area is found by
multiplying length by width (or breadth).
i.e.
7.1 OPERATION
Algebraic operations are in essence the same as when using numbers.
But whereas we could write 3 x 4 = 3 x 4, this is ridiculous and we write
3 x 4 = 12. This is easier, correct and we all know and understand it.
But if we write a x b, what is the answer? Because a and b can be any
numbers, there is no other answer than a x b, although this is usually written as
ab or a.b.
So
a+b
a-b
ab
Dividing a by b is written
a/b
Squaring a
a2
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Like Terms are comprised of the same algebraic quantity - this is important.
e.g. 7x, 5x and -3x are all terms containing x
7a, 4b, 3a and -6b can be split into 2 groups of like terms, 7a and 3a, 4b
and -6b. If like terms contain numerical coefficients, they can be simplified.
i.e.
7x + 5x - 3x
= (7 + 5 - 3)x = 9x
7a + 3a + 4b - 6b
= 10a - 2b.
3a 2b
3 a a b
6 a b b
6ab 2
e.g.
a
2b
3x + 7y - 4x - 3y
-x + 4y
Note especially that when removing brackets, all the terms inside the brackets
are multiplied by what is immediately outside
e.g.
a (x + y)
ax + ay
a + b (x + y)
a + bx + by
(a + b) (x + y)
ax + ay + bx + by
x (a + b) + y (a + b)
(x + y) (a + b)
a (x + y) + b (x + y)
(x + y) (a + b)
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8. FORMULAS
8.1 CONSTRUCTION
As already stated, Maths serves as a "tool" for Engineers at the design stage.
Design is the creation of a component or mechanism on paper, i.e. before it take
shape in metal or plastic. The design engineer hopefully make it strong enough his knowledge of material and their strengths allow him to do this by calculation.
He uses formulas and equations.
To do this, he must allocate letters to represent some variable or known quantity.
He can then construct a formula or equation by using the letters within some
"reasonable" statement about the situation. He studies the situation and then
makes the statement.
The statement linking the Area of a room is reasonable, based on multiplying
length by breadth (this can be seen later-on, when a simple diagram shows Area
to consist of a number of squares within some boundary).
Later, some equations will be constructed from a collection of simple facts within
a given scenario.
25 - a
This contains one algebraic quantity, i.e. "a". within an equation. Think of an
equation as a statement of "balance". In this one, 6a + 11 on the Left Hand side
(LHS) equals or balances 25 - a on the RHS.
As we have one equation and one unknown a, there is only one numerical value
of a which can produce this balance. What is it?
By manipulating (transposing is the word) the equation, it is possible to isolate "a"
on the LHS and balance "a" with an actual number on the RHS. This will then be
the unique value of "a". Look again at the equation.
6a + 11
25 - a
To get rid of "a" on the RHS, we must add a to -a (- a + a = 0). But to maintain a
balance, we must also add a to the LHS.
(therefore)
6a + 11 + a
25 - a + a
7a + 11
25
7a = 14,
then a =
25 - 11
14
if C =
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Remember, we want N on one side by itself. It is important to get a 'feel' for the
form of the equation. To help, we will put brackets around (N - n).
So
(N - n)
N-n
N-n+n
2Cp + n
Here's another,
V
./
= r2
Remember, to find r, take the square root of r2 and do the same to both sides.
3V
h
r2
3V
h.
r.
Page 2
9. EQUATIONS
9.1 CONSTRUCTION
How do we construct equations from the facts contained within a scenario?
Consider an example.
"A certain type of motor car cost seven times as much as a certain make of motor
cycle. If two such cars and three such motor cycles cost 8500, find the cost of
each vehicle."
Let the cost of a car be C (at present C is an unknown). Let the cost of a motor
cycle be M (another unknown).
Now we know that 2C + 3M = 8500 (this has two unknowns within one
equation).
But C and M are linked, because C = 7M, therefore we can substitute for C in the
first equation.
i.e.
2 (7M) + 3M
8500
14M + 3M = 17M
8500
- 500
The cost of a motor cycle is therefore 500 and the cost of a car must be 500 x
7 = 3500.
Here 2 equations were constructed from the facts, and then combined to allow a
solution to be found.
3R + 5C =
And
C =
740
R + 20
3R + 5 (R + 20) =
3R + 5R + 100
8R = 740 - 100 =
640
R =
C = 80 + 20 =
740
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2x + 3y = 8
(1)
3x + 5y = 11
(2)
(2x + 3y = 8) x 3 becomes 6x + 9y = 24
So
6x + 9y = 24
(1)
6x + 10y = 22
(2)
and so
y = 2
The value for y = -2. This can be substituted in either (1) or (2), to solve for x.
i.e.
2x + 3(-2) = 8
Check using
2x = 14, x = 7
3x + 5y = 11
3x + 5 (-2) = 11
3x = 21
x =7
Note The same result would evolve by eliminating y, using the same method of
multiplying be coefficients).
(2x + 3y = 8) x 5
10x + 15y = 40
(1)
(3x + 5y = 11) x 3
9x + 15y = 33
(2)
= 7 etc.
Note also - the two equations represent two straight lines on a graph, and the
single value for x and y represent the intersection of the two lines.
If an equation linking x and y only has terms in x raised to the power of 1, the
equation can be represented by a straight line.
Mathematics by COBC - Issue 1 - 19 November 2015
Page 1
If terms involving x2, x3 etc. appear, the equation gives a curved line. e.g.
Page 2
It will be noted that one of the curves cuts the x-axis at points P and S.
P and S are known as the "Roots" of the equation. Alternatively, P and S are the
values of x which satisfies the condition y = ax2 + bx + c = o.
It can be shown that the Roots are found to be equal to (=)
Note
b 2 - 4ac
2a
(a = 6, b = -5, c = -6)
x
x
- 5
5
18
12
- 5 2 2 6
25 144
12
or
-8
12
1
2
6 6
5 13
12
or
-2
3
2
1
and 1
3
2
negative value. It has been considered impossible to find the square root of a
negative value. The equation concerned is then said not to have real roots.
However, when b2 - 4ac is negative, the equation is said to have complex
roots, where the roots comprise both a Real and Imaginary component. This
concept is examined in ref 49 which deals with complex numbers.
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12. GEOMETRY
12.1 ANGULAR MEASUREMENT
But how are 'angles' expressed or measured. Consider a single line, and rotate it
through a complete revolution.
Note that half a revolution is therefore 180 and a right angle ( of a revolution) is
90.
Note that 1 degree can be sub-divided into 60 minutes and 1 minute can be subdivided into 60 seconds (very small).
A few definitions are included here:
An Acute angle
less than 90
An Obtuse angle
A Reflex angle
Complementary angles-
their sum is 90
Supplementary angles -
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12.3 TRIANGLES
12.3.1 PROPERTIES
A triangle obviously has 3 sides and 3 (internal) angles. The sides are often
represented by the 3 (small) letters a, b and c; the angles by the (large) letters A,
B and C.
The 3 angles add up to 180.
The construction of the dotted - line proves this, by reference to chapter 12.1.
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If they have the same shape, we are really saying that their angles are the same,
they are then described as Similar triangles. If they are exactly the same shape
and size, their sides are the same length, then they are described as Congruent
triangles.
It is sometimes necessary to determine whether triangles are Congruent. A
simple criteria exists to assist us. Two triangles are congruent if:
They have two sides and the included angle is equal. (side, angle, side)
This theorem is of the greatest importance to any study of Maths and Science,
and the student should be able to recall and use this theorem without hesitation.
This theorem can be proved in different ways - knowledge of a proof is not
required on this course. This is usually already will-known to students. The
theorem states - that the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the
square on the other two sides.
AB2 = AC2 + BC2
Example:
= 82 + BC2
400 - 64 = BC2
400 = 64 + BC2
BC2 = 336
BC
= 18.33mm
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All Pythagoras problems are based on this. Look for, or construct, a right-angled
triangle and then apply dimensions and use the equation to find the solution.
12.4 POLYGONS
A polygon is simply a closed figure bounded by straight lines.
The smallest number of lines is obviously 3, which creates a triangle. Four lines
gives a quadrilateral, of which particular examples might include:
A Rectangle
A Square
A Trapezium
Other polygons often have names related to their number of sides, e.g.
Pentagon (5), hexagon (6), Octagon (8) etc.
When considering polygons, it is very often useful to draw lines from each angle
to a central point within the polygon, thus forming a number of triangles, whose
properties may be known.
12.5 CIRCLES
Circles are not just particular mathematical shapes but are involved in out
everyday life, for example, wheels are circles, gears are basically circular and
shafts revolve in a circular fashion. Hence, we must be aware of some important
definitions and properties.
If the line OP is fixed at O and rotated around O, the point P traces a path which
is circular - it forms a circle.
The length OP is the Radius of the circle. Note that OP = OA = OB and that
the length of the line AB is clearly equal to twice the radius. AB = 2OP. AB is
the Diameter of the circle (D = 2R).
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Example: A wheel, diameter 715 mm, makes 30 revolutions. How far does it
move from its start point?
The distance moved in 1 rev.= the length of the circumference.
distance in 1 rev.
= x diameter
= () (715) mm
distance in 30 revs.
= (30) () (715)
= 67410 mm
= 67.4 metres
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Consider a circle of radius R and consider an arc AB, where length is also equal
to R. The angle at the centre of the circle, AOB is then equal to I Radian.
It can be deduced that I revolution is equivalent to 2 Radians,
i.e. I rev = 6.2832 rads.
Therefore 360 = 2 rads, and we can derive conversion factors, as that;
1 =
radians, or
Note also that if a point P is moving with speed N, then the rotational speed is
equal to (N = r.).
is expressed in Radians per second.
Page 6
12.6 AREAS
We are already familiar with the concept of length, e.g. the distance between 2
points, we express length in some chosen unit, e.g. in meters, and if I want to fit a
picture - rail along a wall, all I need to known is the length of the wall, so that I
can order sufficient rail. But if I wish to fit a carpet to the room floor, the length of
the room is insufficient. I obviously need to know the width. This 2-dimensional
concept of size is termed Area.
Consider the triangles ABC and ADC which together form a rectangle ABCD.
Now inspection reveals the 2 triangles to be congruent. Hence their areas are
equal and the area of ABC = area of ABCD.
If we consider this diagram, the area of the triangle can be seen to equal
x base x perpendicular height.
This is true for any triangle, but remember the perpendicular height. Note again
that base (in meters) x height (in meters) gives m2.
Page 7
A theorem exists stating that triangles with the same base and drawn between
the same parallels will have the same area.
Example:
53.55
- (7.3) (5.1)
53.55
- 37.23
16.32m2
Note that 600mm had to be converted to 0.6m. Don't forget to include units in the
answer e.g. m2.
The area of a circle is given by the formula:
A
r2 (r = radius)
d 2
4
(note the 4)
Area of circle
semi circle
15 2
30
353.43 cm 2
12.7 VOLUMES
The concept and calculation of volume in the logical extension of length and area.
Mathematics by COBC - Issue 1 - 19 November 2015
Page 8
R2h
Volume of cone
R2h
Volume of sphere
(R = radius, L = height)
R3
Note that all these formulae contain 3 dimensions so that when multiplied, a
volume will result.
e.g. R2h = R x R x h
or
R3 = R x R x R
If you have not got 3 dimensions, you have not got a volume!
Example: What is the cubic capacity of a 2 cylinder engine, with a bore of
77mm and a stroke of 89mm?
bore
diameter
77mm
stroke
height
89mm
Volume of cylinder
77
x 89
Volume of 1 cylinder
volume of 1 cylinder
414440 mm3
volume of 2 cylinders
828880 mm3
Note that in this example, the dimensions have been given in mm. The volume
would normally be given in cm3.
Note, to convert mm3 to cm3, divide by (10)3.
828880 mm3 becomes 828.88 cm3.
Page 9
When calculating areas or volumes, remember the basic formulas, but be ready
to spot when an area or solid body is a combination of basic shapes that can be
added or subtracted.
Page 10
13. TRIGONOMETRY
Basic trigonometry involves expressing the angles of a right-angled triangle in
relation to lengths of the sides of the triangle.
The ratio of the opposite side length to the hypotenuse length in the diagram is
termed the "sine" of the angle .
i.e.
sine
opposite
similarly
cosine
adjacent
and
tangent
opposite
hypotenuse
hypotenuse
adjacent
o h
a h
o a
= 0.6 = sine
= 0.8 = cosine
Now while it is obvious that is proportional to the side lengths, what is its
actual value in degrees?
Page 1
The actual calculation of sine, cosine and tangent is beyond the scope of this
course, but the values of each ratio and the corresponding angle have been
compiled in tabular form, but can be found using a scientific calculator.
e.g. if 0.6 is input into a calculator and the sin -1 button is operated, the screen
display will be 36.86989765.
if 0.8 is input and the cos -1 button operated, or if = 0.75, and the
-1
button operated the same 36.86989765 will be displayed.
tan
Conversely, if 36.86989765 is input, and the sin button is operated, 0.6 will be
displayed
The distance D is the unknown quantity. Angle 15 and side (height) 60m are
known.
Therefore, an equation can be formed,
60
O
D
A
transposing
tan 15
60
tan 15
ABC is any triangle. Suppose a line AD is drawn so that angle BDA = angle
CDA = 90.
Mathematics by COBC - Issue 1 - 19 November 2015
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But AD
area
h sin C
ab sin.C =
a.AD
AB b sin C
bc sin.A =
ac sin.C
Also, it can be seen the AD = b sin C = c sin B from which can be deduced:
a
b
c
sin A
sin B
sin C
This is known as the Sine formula.
Another useful formula is the Cosine formula. Again it applies to any triangle
ABC.
Cos A
b2 c 2 - a2
2 bc
Cos B
a2 c 2 - b2
2 ac
Cos C
a2 b2 - c 2
2 ab
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If radius OP is rotated anticlockwise, the angle (POA) increases and the value
of sine also increases (because AP increases in relation to OP).
If the radius OP has a length of 1 unit, sine =
If a graph of sine (length AP) is plotted against angle , the typical curve results.
Note the repetition every revolution (360) and that the values of sine range
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The graph for tangent is deduced from the other two curves.
At 90 and 270, the value of tan becomes infinity.
This diagram shows how the values of sine, cosine and tangent take +ve or -ve
values, depending the value of , within one of the four quadrants.
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sin (A - B) =
cos (A + B) =
cos (A - B) =
tan (A + B)..........................................................................................=
tan (A - B) =
The above formula can be expressed in a different form.
A B
cos
A B
sin
x y
cos
x y
sin
sin A sin B
2 sin
sin A - sin B
2 cos
cos A Cos B
2 cos
cos A - Cos B
2 sin
A -B
A B
x-y
y-x
2 sin A cos A
cos 2A
cos2 A - sin2 A
1 - 2 sin2 A
2 cos2 A - 1
tan 2A
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14. GRAPHS
Graphs are a pictorial method of displaying numerical data. For example, an
experiment might be conducted in order to determine whether varying one
physical quantity causes a variation in another. At each stage, both quantities
would be measured and recorded. One quantity would be changed or varied,
and the second one would be measured to see if that had changed as well. The
first might be termed the independent variable and if the second changed, it
might be termed the dependent variable. (i.e. its value depends on the value of
the first variable). These corresponding measurements would be recorded in
tabular form (i.e. in a table).
As a next step, however, the results could be displayed in graphical or picture
form.
We might conduct an experiment in order to decide whether varying one physical
quantity causes a variation in another. At each stage we would measure the two
variables and record those measurements, usually in the form of a Results Table.
However, the nature of the variation is often far easier to appreciate if it is
depicted pictorially, and this is the purpose of a graph.
Let us suppose that an experiment was conducted, where a volume of gas was
heated. As the temperature of the gas increases, it was noted that the gas
attempted to expound - its volume increases. As the experiment progressed, the
temperature and the corresponding volume was measured and recorded, as a
results Table.
Remember that there is some truth in the statement a good picture is worth a
thousand words (or numbers).
14.1 CONSTRUCTION
In order to construct graphs effectively, some simple rules should be followed.
First of all, present the data (the two variables) in clear, tabular form.
The next stage is to plan the use of the graph - paper so as to present the graph
in the clearest manner possible.
The graph is going to be constructed by plotting a series of points, each one
representing a particular value of the independent and corresponding dependent
variable. So the graph must be drawn so that each value appears (or fits) on the
paper.
Before plotting the points, the two axes must be drawn, and the scales chosen.
The horizontal (x-axis) will represent the independent variable and the vertical (yaxis) the dependent variable. The scales cross at the origin O.
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Look at the largest (RH) and the smallest (LH) values that will be plotted along
the x-axis. Subtract the LH value from the RH value to give a range of values
(= some number of units). Study the graph paper to find how many large squares
there are from left to right.
Now divide the value found by the subtraction by the number of large squares.
This should give an idea of a suitable scale. That is, so many units should be
represented by 1 large square along the x-axis. The most useful scales are 1, 2,
5, 10, 20, 50 units etc. etc to 1 large square.
The same procedure is used for the y-axis. Subtract the smallest (lower) value
from the largest (upper value) to give the range, divide by the number of large
squares between top and bottom of the paper.
Having done this, draw the 2 axes, and mark off the units, using your chosen
scales.
The graph paper has now been prepared for the object of the exercise, i.e. to
transfer the data from the table to the graph.
The transfer is very simple, take one value of the independent variable and draws
a (faint) line to coincide with its value along the x-axis so as to intersect with a
similar line drawn from the y-axis for its corresponding dependent value.
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The way in which the line is drawn depends on the nature of the data. It is
probably true to say that most mathematical or scientific data change gradually or
progressively - they may form a definite relationship. In this case, do not join
the points with a series of straight lines.
This probably means that the line only goes through some (not all) of the points dont worry; experimental or plotting errors can occur. There should be roughly
the same number of points on both sides of the smooth curve. Sometimes, it is
fairly obvious that a straight line is the (most) reasonable fit to the point, and this
is often the case for simple scientific experiments.
D = k V2
y = x2 ,
y = ex,
y = cos x
y = x3 ,
y = sin x
etc. etc.
This topic looks at the shape and characteristics of these functions when
expressed graphically, so that a simple link can be made with physical
phenomena, which demonstrates similar characteristics.
When a mathematical function is plotted, certain shapes evolve characteristic of
that function. If, following an experiment during which data is gathered, that data
creates similar shapes, then a presumption linking formula and experiment may
made.
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This gives a curve, known as a parabola. As k increases the value of kx2 also
increases. Note that the slope is no longer constant. This is a function which is
commonly found in physical situations.
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This is the characteristic shape. Note that the graph has Turning points, where
the slope changes from +ve to ve and vice versa.
Functions within this family are less likely to be encountered during this course.
Function y = sin x and y = cos x.
Both of these functions are repetitive but the word used to describe such
behaviour is periodic (in this case, the period is 360 or 2 radians).
Note that the cosine graph leads the sine graph by 90 when such behaviour
occurs, it is often referred to a phase difference.
These graphs are often found, particularly in electrical work.
Function
y = ex,
y = e-x,
y = 1 e-x
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Reference has already been made to the slope of a graph. Straight lines have a
constant slope. Curves have variable slopes, and often include turning points
(often termed maxima and minima). Mathematicians determine slopes by using
a branch of mathematics called calculus a later topic. Engineers are often
interested in slope, because depending on the variables, the slope itself
represents a physical quantity more about this in the Physics module.
The area under a graph is also often useful and may represents a physical
quantity.
Using calculus
Counting squares.
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As long as AC is drawn parallel to the x-axis, point C becomes (6.1) and point B
becomes (6.4). If we introduce point D as the mid-point along AB, it is clear that
the co-ordinates of D are (4, 2.5). If we were to fix point A, but rotate the triangle,
the co-ordinates of B and C would change, even through the length of the side
remains unchanged.
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Assuming AC is drawn parallel to the x-axis, point C becomes (6.1) and point B
becomes (6.4). If we introduce point D as the mid-point along AB, it is clear that
the co-ordinates of D are (4, 2.5). If we were to fix point A but rotate the triangle,
the co-ordinates of B and C would change, even though the length of the sides
remained unchanged.
Point C moves from (6.1) to become (5.46, 3) and point B moves from (6.4) to
become (3.96, 5.56).
Note the student will not be required to calculate the change in co-ordinates but
to appreciate how a change of position is accompanied by a change in coordinates, even though the basic shape is unchanged.
In this example, the point A, B and C have co-ordinates which are positive integer
values, but they could have been given symbols, such as (xa, ya) (xb, yb) and (xc,
yc).
In further Maths studies, this would be more usual.
Because their position is established with reference to the two axes x and y,
where the intersection of the two reference values completes a rectangle, such
co-ordinate are known as Rectangular Co-ordinates (they are sometimes known
as Cartesian co-ordinates).
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In this system, the datum's are the origin, point O and the x axis, and the position
A, which was expressed as (2, 1) using (x y) co-ordinate will now be expressed in
terms of the distance from O (the 'r' co-ordinate) and the angular displacement of
the line OA with reference to the x axis (the co-ordinate). This method of
expressing position(s) in terms of r and is known as the Polar co-ordinate
system. (r, theta)
Although the student will not be required to perform extensive calculations using
either system in this module. A basic appreciation is necessary, which should
include the ability to relate one system to the other.
For example:
tan y
x 2 y2
x
y2
tan-1 y
x
r cos Q
r sin Q
Note - most scientific calculators have a function which will perform these
conversions.
Look for the R P and P R buttons.
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the other is
- b
b 2 - 4ac
2a
- b -
b 2 - 4ac
2a
2a
which is Real,
b 2 - 4ac
which is " Imaginary".
2a
x2 - 4x + 13 = o.
16 - 52
2
2 3
2 - 3
-9
-1
-1
j =
or j2 = -1
When considering complex numbers, the term is replaced by the term j and so
the two roots become 2 + 3j and 2 - 3j.
2+ 3j is described as Complex number, where 2 is described as the Real part,
and 3j as the Imaginary part.
So the two roots 2 + 3 and 2 3 becomes 2 + 3j and 2 3j.
They are known as Complex numbers, where;
2 is described as the Real part;
3j is described as the Imaginary part.
Note also that;
-1 = j2 = j4 = j6 etc.
j
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16. CALCULUS
Calculus is a topic in Mathematics which will be of considerable importance in
studies beyond this Module. Here, the student is introduced to the subject.
An introduction to Calculus reconsiders graphs and in particular the slope of, and
area under, a line representing a mathematical function. Calculus begins by
considering a point A on the line with co-ordinates x. y. A second point B further
along the line is considered to have co-ordinates x + x, Y + y. (x and y are
known as "delta x" and "delta y").
If x is very small, y will also tend to be small and the curve section AB will
approximate to a straight line. y is said to represent the increase in y
corresponding to an increase in x of x. In other words, y/x represents the rate
of Change of y with respect to x and is seen to be the Slope of the graph (tan ) .
As x becomes small, x - (tends to 0), and y/x - dy/dx.
It can be seen that the shaded area comprises a rectangle and a triangle. If x
and y are extremely small, the area of the triangle is negligible and the area of
the rectangle is equal to y. x. The total area under the curve between x and x'
can be considered as large number of small strips of width x. The sum of these
strips can be represented as yx and in calculus by yx. The process of
evaluating yx is called Integration.
Note also that x and x' represent the limits of the integration.
Mathematics by COBC - Issue 1 - 19 November 2015
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16.2 DIFFERENTIATION
A full study or explanation of Differentiation is beyond the scope of this Module.
However, a common but simply example will be considered.
Suppose
y = a function of x (f(x)
Such that y = x2
Then if x increases by x, y increases by y
So
y + y = (x + x)2
Therefore y = y + y - y = (x + x)2 - x2
expanding the Right-hand side,
y = x2 + (x)2 + 2xx - x2
if x is small, (x)2 is negligible and so
y 2x x and y
In the limit, y
dy
dx
2x
2x
16.3 SLOPE
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The table of differential coefficients shows how the slope of the line representing
the function varies as the value of x varies.
dx
cos x.
and (log x) =
also -
d
dx
-1
1
1- x 2
y = sin-1 x or sin y = x.
sin x
dy
dx
1
cos y
sin y
if
cos y
and so dy
dx
x
I - x2
I
I - x2
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dy
/dx
= O.
16.4 INTEGRATION
Put simply, Integration should be thought of as the reverse of the Differentiation
process.
Suppose y = x2 then
dy
/dx
= 2x = the derivative.
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Recalling that in the previous chapter " Introduction to Increments", the concept
of area was considered within limits, where the limits were given as x and x', an
integration may be performed where a function of x is integrated (example, 2x
dx becomes x2 + C) and then the specified values of x, (i.e. x and x') are
x'
Example
2x dx
is integrated to become x 2 C
x'
C -
x'
x
gives x'
- x
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