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Contents

1.

BASIC ARITHMETIC..............................................................................1-1
1.1 directed numbers.............................................................................1-1
1.2 times tables......................................................................................1-2
1.3 basic calculations.............................................................................1-2

2.

FACTORS...............................................................................................2-1
2.1 prime numbers.................................................................................2-1
2.2 highest common factor (HCF)..........................................................2-1
2.3 lowest common multiple (LCM)........................................................2-2

3.

ARITHMETICAL PRECEDENCE...........................................................3-1
3.1 bodmas example..............................................................................3-1

4.

FRACTIONS...........................................................................................4-1
4.1 addition............................................................................................4-1
4.2 subtraction.......................................................................................4-2
4.3 multiplication....................................................................................4-2
4.4 division.............................................................................................4-3
4.5 decimal fractions..............................................................................4-3
4.5.1
Addition & Subtraction...................................................4-3
4.5.2
Multiplication & Division.................................................4-4
4.6 percentages.....................................................................................4-4

5.

RATIO AND PROPORTION...................................................................5-1

6.

INDICES.................................................................................................6-1
6.1 standard form...................................................................................6-3
6.2 extension to logarithms....................................................................6-3

7.

INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRA............................................................7-1
7.1 operation..........................................................................................7-1
7.2 basic laws........................................................................................7-2

8.

FORMULAS...........................................................................................8-1
8.1 construction......................................................................................8-1
8.2 transposition & evaluation................................................................8-1

9.

EQUATIONS...........................................................................................9-1
9.1 construction......................................................................................9-1
9.2 solving equations.............................................................................9-1

10. SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS..............................................................10-1


11. QUADRATIC EQUATIONS.....................................................................11-1
12. GEOMETRY...........................................................................................12-1
12.1 angular measurement..................................................................12-1
12.2 angles associated with parallel lines............................................12-2
12.3 triangles.......................................................................................12-2
12.3.1 Properties......................................................................12-2
12.3.2 Similar & Congruent Triangles.......................................12-3
12.3.3 Pythagoras' Theorem.....................................................12-3
12.4 polygons......................................................................................12-4
12.5 circles..........................................................................................12-4
12.5.1 Radian Measure............................................................12-6
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12.6
12.7

areas...........................................................................................12-7
volumes.......................................................................................12-9

13. TRIGONOMETRY...................................................................................13-1
13.1 trigonometrical calculations & formula.........................................13-2
13.2 construction of trigonometrical curves.........................................13-4
13.3 values in 4 quadrants..................................................................13-5
13.4 expansion of basic formula..........................................................13-6
14. GRAPHS................................................................................................14-1
14.1 construction.................................................................................14-1
14.2 graphs & mathematical FORMULAE...........................................14-3
14.3 function & shape..........................................................................14-4
15. CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY..................................................................15-1
15.1 polar / rectangular co-ORDINATES.............................................15-2
15.2 complex numbers........................................................................15-4
15.3 argand diagrams.........................................................................15-5
16. CALCULUS............................................................................................16-1
16.1 introduction to increments...........................................................16-1
16.2 differentiation...............................................................................16-2
16.3 Slope...........................................................................................16-2
16.4 integration....................................................................................16-3

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1. BASIC ARITHMETIC
The most common system of numbers in use is the decimal system, which uses
the ten digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.
The student will be familiar with this system and the basic operation, which may
involve Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division.
When numbers are added, they form a sum.
When numbers are subtracted, they create a difference.
When numbers are multiplied, they form a product.
When one number (the dividend) is divided by another (the divisor), the result is a
quotient.
It is useful if a student is proficient at simple mental arithmetic, and this is only
possible if one has a feel for numbers, and size of numbers. A knowledge of
simple times tables is Also useful.
Simple tests for divisibility:
A number is divisible by;
2

if it is an even number.

if the sum of the digits that form the number is divisible by 3.

if the last two digits is divisible by 4.

If the last digit is 0 or 5.

10

if the last digit is 0

1.1 DIRECTED NUMBERS


Directed numbers are numbers which have a + or sign attached to them.
Directed numbers can be added, subtracted, etc. etc, but care should be taken to
ensure a correct solution. The following rules should assist.
To add several numbers of the same sign, add together and ensure sign of the
sum is the same as the numbers.
To add 2 numbers of different sign, subtract the smaller from the larger. The
sign of the result (the difference) is the same as the large number.
eg.

-12 + 6

(12 - 6)

6 -6

To subtract a directed number, change its sign and add the resulting number.
eg.

-10 - (-6) =

- 10 + 6

7 - (+18) =

7 - 8

-1

The product of two numbers of like signs is positive (+ve), the product of numbers
with unlike signs is negative (-ve).
When dividing, numbers with like signs give a +ve quotient, numbers with unlike
signs give a ve quotient.

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1.2 TIMES TABLES

1.3 BASIC CALCULATIONS


The modern electronic scientific calculator is universally available for students of
Maths and Science and has replaced tables, slide rules and the ability to
perform mental arithmetic!
A perfectly adequate calculator would typically cost no more than 10. Many
different manufacturers and models are available and so details of operation can
only be found in the Instruction Manual.
However, a brief study and description of keys likely to be encountered now
follows: (note that an entry is usually referred to as x).
to

- The numeral keys.


- Decimal point.
-

Basic arithmetical function.


- Completes operation to produce a result.
- Clears incorrect entry.
- All Clear - Clears all numbers entered.
- Memory key (several keys may have specific memory
function).
- Changes sign.
- Pi key (gives 3.1416).
- Allows numbers to be entered in standard form
- Computes reciprocal of x.
- Gives squareroot of x.
- Raises x to the power of y.
- Computes the yth root of x.

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- Computes the sine, cosine, tangent of x.


- Compute sthe angle whose sine, cosine, tangent is x.
Most calculators can operate using Degrees or Radians - it is essential to check
which system is in operation. Look for the DRG key or equivalent.
- Computes log to base 10 of x.
- Computes log to base l of x.
- Converts Rectangular to Polar co-ordinates.
- Key which enables calculations involving fractions to be
entered directly in fractional form.
- Shift or 2nd Function keys are very important; they allow the 2nd
function appearing above (or below) the actual
key to be utilised.
The only way to use a calculator (or computer) efficiently is to learn its individual
characteristics by practice. These notes have highlighted the general features.
The student should use the calculator carefully and confidently. When all else
fails, READ THE INSTRUCTIONS.

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2. FACTORS
We know that for example, 2 x 6 = 12. We state that 2 and 6 are factors of 12,
we could also state that as 3 x 4 = 12, then 3 and 4 are also factors, as are 12
and 1.
This may seem obvious, but it will sometimes be useful to "factorize", i.e.
determine the factors of a given number, or more commonly, find the factors of an
algebraic expression.
Example
Find the possible factors of 60. (In other words, find the integers which divide
into 60).
These numbers will be:
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, 30 and 60
Check them yourself.

2.1 PRIME NUMBERS


A prime number is a number whose only factors are 1 and itself.
Example
List the prime numbers between 1 and 30.
The prime numbers will be:
1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23 and 29.
Check them yourself.
It is sometimes useful to express the factors of a given number in terms of prime
numbers.
For example, let us look at the factors of 60 again, taking 4 and 15 as 2 factors.
(4 x 15 = 60), but 4 has factors of 2 and 2, and 15 has factors of 5 and 3. Hence
the number 60 can be expressed as 2 x 2 x 3 x 5 which are all factors of 60.
Note that we have now factorized the number 60 in terms of prime numbers.

2.2 HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR (HCF)


Suppose that we take 3 numbers, 1764, 2100 and 2940. The factors of each
number, in terms of prime numbers are:
2 2 3 3 7 7 1764
2 2 3 5 5 7 2100
2 2 3 5 7 7 2940
The High Common Factor of these three numbers will be:

2 2 3 7 84
This is the greatest number which is a factor of all three number, i.e. the Highest
Common Factor and is found by multiplying together all the factors which are
common in each of the individual numbers.

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2.3 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE (LCM)


Consider the same three numbers, 1764, 2100 and 2940 and their factors.
2 2 3 3 7 7 1764
2 2 3 5 5 7 2100
2 2 3 5 7 7 2940
The Lowest Common Multiple of these three numbers will be:
2 2 3 3 5 5 7 7 44,100

This is the lowest number of which each of the three numbers are factors - it is
comprised of the least number of factors which are found in all three numbers.
e.g.

1764 x 25 = 44,100
2100 x 21 = 44,100
2940 x 15 = 44,100

It is found by multiplying together each prime number and repeated if necessary,


which appears in any of the three number considered here.
2 2 in all 3 3 in 1764

5 5 in 2100 7 7 in 1764 and 2940


2 2 3 3 5 5 7 7

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44,100

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3. ARITHMETICAL PRECEDENCE
Consider the expression 2 + 3 = 5. It makes no difference if we write 3 + 2 = 5.
Again consider 3 x 4 = 12. There is no difference if we write 4 x 3 = 12.
However, if I write 2 + 3 x 4, what is the answer? Is it 20 (= 5 x 4), or is it 14
(= 2 + 12) ?
If we are going to agree on the answer we must first agree on the rules we use.
This introduces the topic known as arithmetical precedence, and is most easily
remember by the term BODMAS. BODMAS indicated the precedence, or the
order in which we perform our calculations:
B

stands for Brackets

stands for "Of"

stands for Division

stands for Multiplication

stands for Addition

stands for Subtraction

3.1 BODMAS EXAMPLE


Find the value of:
64 (-16) + (-7 -12) - (-29 +36)(-2 +9)
This expression becomes:
64 (-16) + (-19) - (7)(7)

(-4) + (-19) - (7)(7)

(-4) + (-19) - 49

- 23 - 49

- 72

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4. FRACTIONS
is an example of a Fraction.
It has the same meaning as 11 16, that is,

11 divided by 16.

The number above the line is the Numerator; The number below the line is the
Denominator.
is also a fraction, but because 23 is greater than 4, it is called an Improper
fraction. It will normally be written as ,
which is the same as

= .

Similarly, could be converted to because 3 x 7 = so .

4.1 ADDITION
The importance thing to remember here is that only fractions with the same (or
common) denominator can be added or subtracted. It is usual to find the lowest
Common Denominator (LCD), and this is essentially the same as a Lowest
Common Multiple, covered in a previous topic.
Example
In this example, the LCD of 16, 12 and 8 is 48. To re-arrange the fractions so
that a common denominator is used, carry out the following procedure:
48 16 is 3 and so can be written as
it may look different, but clearly
so is the same as .
Similarly,

converts to

and

converts to .

=
and so with the common denominator in place, the addition becomes .

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Example
First add the whole numbers together, so the calculation becomes.
.
The LCD of 3, 6 and 12 is 12. Using this, the sum becomes.
= 6 + .
This simplifies to become 6 + 2 + .

4.2 SUBTRACTION
The basic procedure is very similar to that used for addition; find the LCM,
convert the individual fractions, but subtract the numerator instead of adding.
There may be a difference which is importance.
Example
First subtract the whole numbers, 3 - 1 = 2, so calculation becomes , the LCM
is 12, so the sum becomes .
Now

is greater than

and so (=1) is "borrowed" from the 2,

becomes , written as .

4.3 MULTIPLICATION
These calculations are generally easier to perform than addition and subtraction.
Example
Simply multiply the numerators together and repeat for the denominators.
So;
Example
First convert into improper fractions, so

becomes

and

becomes

. Then multiply as before. , convert this to become .

4.4 DIVISION
Example

First convert into improper fractions, invert the second term and multiply,
so

= 14.

Note. Every opportunity should be taken to simplify by "cancelling" numbers


wherever possible.
e.g.

which becomes 7 x 2 = 14

(a 7 above and below the line cancels, as does an 8).

4.5 DECIMAL FRACTIONS


Decimal fractions are fractions where the Denominator is equal to some power of
10, 100, 1000, etc.
For example, is a decimal fraction.
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Decimal fractions are usually re-written as decimals, which is very easily done, by
the use of the Decimal Point. Take the example .
Starting from the Right -hand side, move the Decimal point towards the left, by a
number of places equal to the number of "noughts" in the denominator.
So,

starts as

and then becomes 125

the point has moved 3 places left.

would become 12.5 etc.

Any fraction can be formed into a decimal, by actually dividing the numerator by
the denominator.
Example
becomes 0.875, found by the process of long division.
4.5.1ADDITION & SUBTRACTION
ecimals can be added or subtracted; the main thing to remember is to "line-up"
the numbers vertically, so that the Decimal points are in a line.
Example

2.683 + 34.41
3

2
4

6
4

8
1

3
0

the answer is 37093

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4.5.2 MULTIPLICATION & DIVISION


Multiplication of Decimals is the same as ordinary "long" multiplication, but the
number of decimal places in the answer must be equal to the total sum of
decimal places in the numbers being multiplied.
Example

6.24 x 3.121
6.24
3.121
624
12480
62400
1872000
19.47504

answer with 5 decimal places.

(Common sense helps here, one number slightly greater then 6, multiplied by
another number slightly greater then 3, must logically lead to an answer of
approximately 18).
Division basically follows the same rule of long division.

4.6 PERCENTAGES
If a statement is made that in a group of 44 people, 50% have brown eyes, the
great majority of students would be able to state that 22 people have brown eyes
This simple example is what percentages is all about.
To calculate a percentage, convert the data given into a fraction and multiply by
100.
i.e.
x 100 = 50%
To find the number which forms the numerator in the fraction, multiply the total
number by the percentage and divide by 100.
i.e.

44 persons (total) x

= 22 persons have brown eyes.

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5. RATIO AND PROPORTION


This topic is an extension of the several previous topics. Ratio and proportion is
essentially a statement linking two or more "quantities" together. For example, "3
parts of sand to 1 of cement" is a commonly - used statement, i.e. a "3 to 1 mix",
often written 3:1.
That is, the "mixture" totals 4 parts, of which 3 parts, of the mixture is sand, and
1 part is cement.
Example Divide 240 between 4 men in the ratio of 9:11:13:15.
Firstly, add 9,11,13 and 15, so as to total 48 (parts).
So the money is to be divided so that one man receives , another , etc.
So one man receives of 240 = 45. The others receives
and 75 respectively.

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which is 55, 65

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6. INDICES
It is often to necessary to multiply a number by itself once, twice or several times.
When this is to be performed, a method of notation has evolved, which is both
convenient and capable of being extended to introduce other concepts.
Example

3 x 3 is written as

32

2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 as

25

43 etc, etc.

4 x 4 x 4 as

In the above case(s), 2 is known as the "base" and 5 is known as the "power" or
"index". Alternatively, the number 2 has been raised to power 5.
Note. Power 2 and power 3 are often referred to as the "square" and the "cube".
3 x 3 = 32 = 9
3

9 is the "square" of 3.

4 x 4 x 4 = 4 = 64

64 is the "cube" of 4.

But put another way, 3 is said to be the square - "root" of 9, 4 is the cube "root"
of 64, 2 is the fifth root of 32.
The method of notation used is that:

sometimes

92

32 5

64 3

sometimes

32

sometimes

64

The pattern should be obvious.

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Note. It is possible to re-write the above, so that 3 = 90.5, 2 = 320.2 and


= 640.333. Where the power is expressed as a decimal, instead of a fraction.

To allow the use of numbers involving powers and indices, some Rules have
evolved, which are reproduced, using the symbol to represent any "base"
number.
2 3

a b

1.
hence

5 3

2.
hence

a b a - b

hence

2 3

3.

4.

because 2

1
2

5.

if
hence if
note

1
2

ab

1 (for any value of )


2

2 - 2

-2

hence

1
a

-a

1 2 0 - 2 0- 2 - 2

because

6.

2 2 2

3 y,

a yb ,

yb

is written as

is written as

1
3

y 0.3333

(1 is ignored)

(2 is ignored)

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6.1 STANDARD FORM


Suppose the number 8.347 is multiplied by 10,000 then the product is 83470.
This calculation can be written as 8.347 x 104 = 83470. When 83470 is written
as 8.347 x 104, it is known as Standard Form, i.e. the number in standard form
consists of one part where the number lies between 1 and (but does not equal)
10, and a second part consisting of the number 10, raised to some (whole
number) power. The first part is the Mantissa; the second part is the Exponent.
If a given number is to be expressed in Standard form, move the decimal point
Left or Right to create a number between 1 and 10, and create the exponent
whose power equals the number of places by which the decimal point has been
moved. If the point moves Left, the power is positive, if the it moves Right, it is
negative.
Example

Convert the following into Standard form.


526, 0.3716, 0.002
526

5.26 x 102

0.3716

3.716 x 10-1

0.002

2.0 x 10-3

6.2 EXTENSION TO LOGARITHMS


Logarithms are a mathematical concept that was developed so that it could be
used to simplify multiplication and division where numbers with many digits are
involved. The use of logarithms is no longer so widespread as the electronic
calculator has become so readily available.
Remembering that when, for example, 25 is written as 52, that 5 is known as the
"base" and 2 as the "power", then the "logarithm" of 25 can be expressed as 2, to
the base 5.
The general definition is, that if y = a then = loga y
So logarithms can be calculated for any base a, but generally only logarithms to
the base of 10 or e (2.71) are used, and are commonly available in tabular form.
However, logarithms are more easily obtained from the calculator. An example of
the function of logarithms is shown below.
Example

Calculate 6.412 x 23.162

From the calculator the log. base 10 of 6.412 is 0.80699 and log. base 10 of
23.162 is 1.36478.
So from the definition 6.412 x 23.162
=

100.80699 x 101.36478

And from the laws of indices.


6.412 x 23.162 =

10(0.80669

10(2.17177)

+ 1.36478)

It is now necessary to find the number whose log. number is 2.17177 and the
calculator show this to be 148.51474 (this is the anti-log of 2.17177). If the
calculator is used to solve 6.412 x 23.162, the product is 148.51474.
It is important to realise that this example shows how logarithms can be used in practice the calculator is used as normal. If a division is to be performed, the
powers of logs. are subtracted.
It is the concept of a logarithm that is important at this stage, because it reappears later.
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7. INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRA
Very often students will claim that they never have and never will understand
Algebra. They say they can understand and work with numbers, but not with
letters, and yet Algebra is designed to make matters simple and clear.
For example, suppose a room is 5 metres long by 3 metres wide and we need to
know how much carpet is needed to cover the floor. No one would have any
hesitation in calculating the answer, 15 square metres (m2). But that answer only
applies to that room. The general answer is that the area is found by
multiplying length by width (or breadth).
i.e.

Area = length x breadth.

But it is easier to write A = L x b, where the letters A, L, b represent in this


case Area, Length and breadth, and that is what Algebra is all about; letters
represent some variable and only when particular values. i.e. numbers are
known, do we resort to them instead.
So when using Algebra, it is important to state what the letters represent. Some
letters are often used, particularly x and y, but g often represents acceleration
due to gravity, represents density, and so on. This is what Algebraic notation is
about.

7.1 OPERATION
Algebraic operations are in essence the same as when using numbers.
But whereas we could write 3 x 4 = 3 x 4, this is ridiculous and we write
3 x 4 = 12. This is easier, correct and we all know and understand it.
But if we write a x b, what is the answer? Because a and b can be any
numbers, there is no other answer than a x b, although this is usually written as
ab or a.b.
So

Adding a and b is written

a+b

Subtracting a and b is written

a-b

Multiplying a and b is written

ab

Dividing a by b is written

a/b

Squaring a

a2

We are not restricted to 2 letters only.


a multiplied by b and divided by c becomes, logically,
Note also the order in which letters appear is basically unimportant.
a x b x c x d = abcd = bdac = cadb etc. etc.
(3 x 4 is obviously the same as 4 x 3 etc.)

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Like Terms are comprised of the same algebraic quantity - this is important.
e.g. 7x, 5x and -3x are all terms containing x
7a, 4b, 3a and -6b can be split into 2 groups of like terms, 7a and 3a, 4b
and -6b. If like terms contain numerical coefficients, they can be simplified.
i.e.

7x + 5x - 3x

= (7 + 5 - 3)x = 9x

7a + 3a + 4b - 6b

= 10a - 2b.

If terms like ab + cb - db occur, it may be simplified as (a + c - d) b. (b is a


common factor of the 3 terms)
When dealing with algebraic terms and expressions the ability to factorise is a
great asset. Similarly, the ability to divide numerator and denominator by the
same terms (i.e. cancelling top and bottom) allows simplification.

3a 2b
3 a a b

6 a b b
6ab 2

e.g.

a
2b

Note that a x a x a is usually written as a3, again its easier.

7.2 BASIC LAWS


Algebra obeys the same laws of procedure as Arithmetic, i.e. BODMAS.
Note that Brackets appear rather more often in Algebra, and are only got rid-of
when there is a good reason to do so. E.g. when further operations ultimately
lead to greater simplification.
e.g. (3x + 7y) - (4x + 3y)

3x + 7y - 4x - 3y

-x + 4y

Note especially that when removing brackets, all the terms inside the brackets
are multiplied by what is immediately outside
e.g.

a (x + y)

ax + ay

a + b (x + y)

a + bx + by

(a + b) (x + y)

ax + ay + bx + by

gives the basic procedure.


When factorising, examine each term is order to look for common factors.
e.g. the common factors of a2b and -2ab2 are a and b (they appear in both),
hence a2b - 2ab2 can be written (ab) (a - 2b) (ab) and (a - 2b) are both
factors of the complete expression.
Hence a2b - 2ab2 can be written as ab (a - 2b) (ab and (a - 2b) are both
factors of the expression).
As already stated, the ability to "see" factors is an asset.
e.g. ax + bx + ay + by
or

x (a + b) + y (a + b)

(x + y) (a + b)

a (x + y) + b (x + y)

(x + y) (a + b)

Algebra can be extended to include fractions.


e.g.

(bd is the LCD, ad + cb is the Numerator)

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8. FORMULAS
8.1 CONSTRUCTION
As already stated, Maths serves as a "tool" for Engineers at the design stage.
Design is the creation of a component or mechanism on paper, i.e. before it take
shape in metal or plastic. The design engineer hopefully make it strong enough his knowledge of material and their strengths allow him to do this by calculation.
He uses formulas and equations.
To do this, he must allocate letters to represent some variable or known quantity.
He can then construct a formula or equation by using the letters within some
"reasonable" statement about the situation. He studies the situation and then
makes the statement.
The statement linking the Area of a room is reasonable, based on multiplying
length by breadth (this can be seen later-on, when a simple diagram shows Area
to consist of a number of squares within some boundary).
Later, some equations will be constructed from a collection of simple facts within
a given scenario.

8.2 TRANSPOSITION & EVALUATION


Consider a formula (equation) given in a certain form.
e.g. 6a + 11

25 - a

This contains one algebraic quantity, i.e. "a". within an equation. Think of an
equation as a statement of "balance". In this one, 6a + 11 on the Left Hand side
(LHS) equals or balances 25 - a on the RHS.
As we have one equation and one unknown a, there is only one numerical value
of a which can produce this balance. What is it?
By manipulating (transposing is the word) the equation, it is possible to isolate "a"
on the LHS and balance "a" with an actual number on the RHS. This will then be
the unique value of "a". Look again at the equation.
6a + 11

25 - a

To get rid of "a" on the RHS, we must add a to -a (- a + a = 0). But to maintain a
balance, we must also add a to the LHS.
(therefore)

6a + 11 + a

25 - a + a

7a + 11

25

To get rid of the + 11, add - 11 (to both sides).


7a + 11 - 11
7a
If

7a = 14,

then a =

25 - 11

14

We have found that a = 2. This is the unique value which satisfies


6a + 11 = 25 - a.
Study it again to see how we worked to isolate the required term "a" on one side
and remember; what you do to one side of an equation, you must do to the other
side if the balance is to be maintained.
Here is another a formula involving several algebraic symbols.
Find N,

if C =

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Remember, we want N on one side by itself. It is important to get a 'feel' for the
form of the equation. To help, we will put brackets around (N - n).
So

To get rid of the 2p multiply both sides by 2p


C 2p

(N - n)

N-n

To get rid of -n, add n to both sides


2Cp + n
That's it,

N-n+n

2Cp + n

Here's another,
V

(the volume of a cone).

Find r (the radius), step by step.


V.3

./

(multiplying both sides by 3)

= r2

(dividing both sides by h)

Remember, to find r, take the square root of r2 and do the same to both sides.

3V
h

r2

3V
h.

r.

This is what transposition is all about, we are re-arranging formulas expressed as


equations, which then allows us to find particular numerical value for one
(unknown) quantity if the other numerical values are given.
One important point is, it is only possible to find this unknown quantity if all the
other values are known. This is known as 'solving an equation'.
This rule is,
One unknown quantity can be deduced from one equation,
Two unknowns require two different equations,
Three unknowns required three different equations,
And so on.

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9. EQUATIONS
9.1 CONSTRUCTION
How do we construct equations from the facts contained within a scenario?
Consider an example.
"A certain type of motor car cost seven times as much as a certain make of motor
cycle. If two such cars and three such motor cycles cost 8500, find the cost of
each vehicle."
Let the cost of a car be C (at present C is an unknown). Let the cost of a motor
cycle be M (another unknown).
Now we know that 2C + 3M = 8500 (this has two unknowns within one
equation).
But C and M are linked, because C = 7M, therefore we can substitute for C in the
first equation.
i.e.

2 (7M) + 3M

8500

14M + 3M = 17M

8500

- 500

The cost of a motor cycle is therefore 500 and the cost of a car must be 500 x
7 = 3500.
Here 2 equations were constructed from the facts, and then combined to allow a
solution to be found.

9.2 SOLVING EQUATIONS


This topic typically consists of forming equations from the facts, and then
transposing to produce a solution, as seen in the previous chapter.
Here is another example.
"3 electric radiators and 5 convector heaters together cost 740. A convector
cost 20 more than a radiator. Find the cost of each."
Let R represent a radiator, and C represent a convector.
Then

3R + 5C =

And

C =

740
R + 20

3R + 5 (R + 20) =

3R + 5R + 100

8R = 740 - 100 =

640

R =

C = 80 + 20 =

740

80 (the cost of a radiator)


100 (the cost of a convector)

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10. SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS


Consider the equation 2x + 3y = 8. There are 2 unknowns (x and y) in 1
equation, and so the equation cannot be solved to give a single value for x and y.
(There are an infinite number of values of x for which there are corresponding
values of y).
However, if a second equation exists, e.g. 3x + 5y = 11, then these 2
equations can be evaluated simultaneously to give single values for x and y. The
theory is simple and involves modifying, whilst still preserving the equalities.
e.g.

2x + 3y = 8

(1)

3x + 5y = 11

(2)

Multiply the upper equation by the coefficient of x in the lower equation.


i.e.

(2x + 3y = 8) x 3 becomes 6x + 9y = 24

Multiply the lower equation by the coefficient of x in the upper equation.


i.e.

(2x + 5y = 8) x 2 becomes 6x + 10y = 22

So

6x + 9y = 24

(1)

6x + 10y = 22

(2)

Subtracting (2) from (1) becomes 0 - y = 2.


-y = 2

and so

y = 2

The value for y = -2. This can be substituted in either (1) or (2), to solve for x.
i.e.

2x + 3(-2) = 8

Check using

2x = 14, x = 7

3x + 5y = 11
3x + 5 (-2) = 11

3x = 21

x =7

Note The same result would evolve by eliminating y, using the same method of
multiplying be coefficients).
(2x + 3y = 8) x 5

10x + 15y = 40

(1)

(3x + 5y = 11) x 3

9x + 15y = 33

(2)

= 7 etc.

Note also - the two equations represent two straight lines on a graph, and the
single value for x and y represent the intersection of the two lines.

If an equation linking x and y only has terms in x raised to the power of 1, the
equation can be represented by a straight line.
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If terms involving x2, x3 etc. appear, the equation gives a curved line. e.g.

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11. QUADRATIC EQUATIONS


The equation y = ax2 + bx + c is known as a quadratic equation. The actual
value for coefficients a, b and c will determine the exact shape and position of the
curve.
e.g.

It will be noted that one of the curves cuts the x-axis at points P and S.
P and S are known as the "Roots" of the equation. Alternatively, P and S are the
values of x which satisfies the condition y = ax2 + bx + c = o.
It can be shown that the Roots are found to be equal to (=)
Note

b 2 - 4ac
2a

b 2 - 4ac gives 2 values, for P and S.

Example Find the roots of y = 6x2 - 5x - 6

(a = 6, b = -5, c = -6)

Note - depending on a, b and c, it is possible that b-2 - 4ac results in a


x

x
x

- 5

5
18
12

- 5 2 2 6

25 144
12
or

-8
12

1
2

6 6
5 13
12
or

-2
3

in this case, points P & S are

2
1
and 1
3
2

negative value. It has been considered impossible to find the square root of a
negative value. The equation concerned is then said not to have real roots.
However, when b2 - 4ac is negative, the equation is said to have complex
roots, where the roots comprise both a Real and Imaginary component. This
concept is examined in ref 49 which deals with complex numbers.

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12. GEOMETRY
12.1 ANGULAR MEASUREMENT

Two straight lines can be drawn, and we can see


that they make an "angle".

But how are 'angles' expressed or measured. Consider a single line, and rotate it
through a complete revolution.

Then the angle that this line has turned through


is 360.
A degree is of a revolution.

Note that half a revolution is therefore 180 and a right angle ( of a revolution) is
90.

Note that 1 degree can be sub-divided into 60 minutes and 1 minute can be subdivided into 60 seconds (very small).
A few definitions are included here:
An Acute angle

less than 90

An Obtuse angle

between 90 and 180

A Reflex angle

greater than 180

Complementary angles-

their sum is 90

Supplementary angles -

their sum is 180

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12.2 ANGLES ASSOCIATED WITH PARALLEL LINES


Now consider 2 parallel lines, cut by a transversal.

A = C, B = D (they are opposite and equal), similarly L = P, M = Q. Also A


= L, D = Q, etc. etc. (they are corresponding angles)
D = M, C = L (they are alternate angles)

D + L = 180 (= C + M) (these are interior


angles, and are supplementary)

12.3 TRIANGLES
12.3.1 PROPERTIES

A triangle obviously has 3 sides and 3 (internal) angles. The sides are often
represented by the 3 (small) letters a, b and c; the angles by the (large) letters A,
B and C.
The 3 angles add up to 180.
The construction of the dotted - line proves this, by reference to chapter 12.1.

12.3.2 SIMILAR & CONGRUENT TRIANGLES


The student can obviously study two triangular shapes and estimate whether they
are the same or not. We need to be more precise.
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If they have the same shape, we are really saying that their angles are the same,
they are then described as Similar triangles. If they are exactly the same shape
and size, their sides are the same length, then they are described as Congruent
triangles.
It is sometimes necessary to determine whether triangles are Congruent. A
simple criteria exists to assist us. Two triangles are congruent if:

Their corresponding side are of equal length. (side, side, side)

They have two angles and the common side equal.

They have two sides and the included angle is equal. (side, angle, side)

(angle, side, angle)

12.3.3 PYTHAGORAS' THEOREM

This theorem is of the greatest importance to any study of Maths and Science,
and the student should be able to recall and use this theorem without hesitation.
This theorem can be proved in different ways - knowledge of a proof is not
required on this course. This is usually already will-known to students. The
theorem states - that the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the
square on the other two sides.
AB2 = AC2 + BC2
Example:

In triangle ABC, angles ACB = 90. What is length BC?


AB2 = AC2 + BC2
202

= 82 + BC2

400 - 64 = BC2

400 = 64 + BC2
BC2 = 336
BC

= 18.33mm

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All Pythagoras problems are based on this. Look for, or construct, a right-angled
triangle and then apply dimensions and use the equation to find the solution.

12.4 POLYGONS
A polygon is simply a closed figure bounded by straight lines.
The smallest number of lines is obviously 3, which creates a triangle. Four lines
gives a quadrilateral, of which particular examples might include:
A Rectangle

(all 4 angles are equal to 90)

A Square

(a rectangle with 4 equal sides)

A Parallelogram (quadrilateral with opposite sides parallel)


A Rhombus

(parallelogram with 4 equal sides)

A Trapezium

(quadrilateral with 1 pair of opposite sides parallel).

A diagonal divides a rectangle into two congruent triangles

Other polygons often have names related to their number of sides, e.g.
Pentagon (5), hexagon (6), Octagon (8) etc.
When considering polygons, it is very often useful to draw lines from each angle
to a central point within the polygon, thus forming a number of triangles, whose
properties may be known.

12.5 CIRCLES
Circles are not just particular mathematical shapes but are involved in out
everyday life, for example, wheels are circles, gears are basically circular and
shafts revolve in a circular fashion. Hence, we must be aware of some important
definitions and properties.
If the line OP is fixed at O and rotated around O, the point P traces a path which
is circular - it forms a circle.

The length OP is the Radius of the circle. Note that OP = OA = OB and that
the length of the line AB is clearly equal to twice the radius. AB = 2OP. AB is
the Diameter of the circle (D = 2R).

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We already know that if OP is rotated through 1 complete revolution, it will have


rotated through 360 degrees, but what is the distance travelled by P in tracing
this circular path? Put another way, how far will a wheel whose radius is R, roll
along a surface, during one revolution?

The distance, known as the Circumference is obviously dependent on the length


of the length of the Diameter, but can be calculated precisely from the equation
C = D (= 2R).
(Greek letter, pronounced "pi") can be approximated to 3.142. It will certainly
be found on a scientific calculator, but the fraction is a very good approximation.
The line AP drawn so that it touches the circle at point P is known as the Tangent
to the circle. It should be noted that AP is always at right-angles to the radius OP.

Example: A wheel, diameter 715 mm, makes 30 revolutions. How far does it
move from its start point?
The distance moved in 1 rev.= the length of the circumference.
distance in 1 rev.

= x diameter
= () (715) mm

distance in 30 revs.

= (30) () (715)
= 67410 mm
= 67.4 metres

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12.5.1 RADIAN MEASURE


We already know that an angle of 360 represents 1 complete revolution. But
there is another very important unit of angular measurement, known as the
Radian.

Consider a circle of radius R and consider an arc AB, where length is also equal
to R. The angle at the centre of the circle, AOB is then equal to I Radian.
It can be deduced that I revolution is equivalent to 2 Radians,
i.e. I rev = 6.2832 rads.
Therefore 360 = 2 rads, and we can derive conversion factors, as that;
1 =

radians, or

= 1 radian (approx. 57.3)


One final and useful point concerning radian measure.
If an arc of a circle, radius r, subtends an angle, equal to Radians, the length of
the arc is r..

Note also that if a point P is moving with speed N, then the rotational speed is
equal to (N = r.).
is expressed in Radians per second.

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12.6 AREAS
We are already familiar with the concept of length, e.g. the distance between 2
points, we express length in some chosen unit, e.g. in meters, and if I want to fit a
picture - rail along a wall, all I need to known is the length of the wall, so that I
can order sufficient rail. But if I wish to fit a carpet to the room floor, the length of
the room is insufficient. I obviously need to know the width. This 2-dimensional
concept of size is termed Area.

Consider a room 4m by 3m as shown above. Clearly it can be divided up into 12


equal squares, each measuring 1m by 1m. Each square has an area of 1 square
meter. Hence, the total area is 12 square meters (usually written as 12m2 for
convenience). So, to calculate the area of a rectangle, multiply length of 1 side
by the length of the other side.
Note. 4m x 3m = 12m2 (Don't forget the m2).
This concept can be extended to include non-rectangular shapes.

Consider the triangles ABC and ADC which together form a rectangle ABCD.
Now inspection reveals the 2 triangles to be congruent. Hence their areas are
equal and the area of ABC = area of ABCD.
If we consider this diagram, the area of the triangle can be seen to equal
x base x perpendicular height.
This is true for any triangle, but remember the perpendicular height. Note again
that base (in meters) x height (in meters) gives m2.

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A theorem exists stating that triangles with the same base and drawn between
the same parallels will have the same area.

Example:

An office 8.5m by 6.3m is to be fitted with a carpet, so as to leave


surround 600mm wide around the carpet. What is the area of the
surround?

With a problem like this, it is often helpful to sketch a diagram.

The area of the surround = office area - carpet area.


=

(8.5 x 6.3) - (8.5 - 2 x 0.6) (6.3 - 2 x 0.6)

53.55

- (7.3) (5.1)

53.55

- 37.23

16.32m2

Note that 600mm had to be converted to 0.6m. Don't forget to include units in the
answer e.g. m2.
The area of a circle is given by the formula:
A

r2 (r = radius)

If the diameter is given, the r =

d 2
4

(note the 4)

Remember that any area is so many square


units. So the area of a circle must
d2
include a 'squared' term; either r2 or 4 .
Example:

What is the area of a semi-circle where the diameter is 30cm?


30

Area of circle

semi circle

15 2

30

353.43 cm 2

12.7 VOLUMES
The concept and calculation of volume in the logical extension of length and area.
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Instead of squares, we now consider cubes. This is a 3-dimensional concept and


the typical units of volume are cubic metres (m3).
If we have a box, length 4m, width 3m and height 2m, we see that the total
volume = 24 cubic metres (24m3).
Each layer contains
4 x 3 = 12 cubes.
There are 2 layers.
Hence the volume is
12 x 2 = 24m3.

Basically, therefore, when calculating volume, it is necessary to look for 3


dimensions, at 90 to each other, and then multiply them together. For a box type shape, multiplying length x width x height = volume.
For irregular or particular shapes, different techniques or approximations can be
used, or sometimes a specific formula may exist.
For example:
Volume of cylinder

R2h

Volume of cone

R2h

Volume of sphere

(R = radius, L = height)
R3

Note that all these formulae contain 3 dimensions so that when multiplied, a
volume will result.
e.g. R2h = R x R x h

or

R3 = R x R x R

If you have not got 3 dimensions, you have not got a volume!
Example: What is the cubic capacity of a 2 cylinder engine, with a bore of
77mm and a stroke of 89mm?
bore

diameter

77mm

stroke

height

89mm

area of circle x height.

Volume of cylinder
77

x 89

Volume of 1 cylinder

volume of 1 cylinder

414440 mm3

volume of 2 cylinders

828880 mm3

Note that in this example, the dimensions have been given in mm. The volume
would normally be given in cm3.
Note, to convert mm3 to cm3, divide by (10)3.
828880 mm3 becomes 828.88 cm3.

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When calculating areas or volumes, remember the basic formulas, but be ready
to spot when an area or solid body is a combination of basic shapes that can be
added or subtracted.

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13. TRIGONOMETRY
Basic trigonometry involves expressing the angles of a right-angled triangle in
relation to lengths of the sides of the triangle.

The ratio of the opposite side length to the hypotenuse length in the diagram is
termed the "sine" of the angle .
i.e.

sine

opposite

similarly

cosine

adjacent

and

tangent

opposite

hypotenuse
hypotenuse

adjacent

o h
a h
o a

These must be remembered!


(Some students find the mnemonic "Sohcahtoa" to be helpful in this respect).
These ratios are used very extensively in Maths and Science and very many
modifications to the basic ratio have been evolved.
How can these ratios be used in practice?

Consider the 3, 4, 5 triangle.


From our definition,

= 0.6 = sine
= 0.8 = cosine

Now while it is obvious that is proportional to the side lengths, what is its
actual value in degrees?

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The actual calculation of sine, cosine and tangent is beyond the scope of this
course, but the values of each ratio and the corresponding angle have been
compiled in tabular form, but can be found using a scientific calculator.
e.g. if 0.6 is input into a calculator and the sin -1 button is operated, the screen
display will be 36.86989765.
if 0.8 is input and the cos -1 button operated, or if = 0.75, and the
-1
button operated the same 36.86989765 will be displayed.

tan

Conversely, if 36.86989765 is input, and the sin button is operated, 0.6 will be
displayed

13.1 TRIGONOMETRICAL CALCULATIONS & FORMULA


In chapter 1.15, the basic trigonometry functions were considered. They can now
be applied to practical situations.
Example

A church spine is known to be 60 metres high. When the top is


viewed through a theodolite, the angle between the line-of-sight
and the horizontal is 15. How far is the theodolite from the base
of the spine?

The distance D is the unknown quantity. Angle 15 and side (height) 60m are
known.
Therefore, an equation can be formed,
60
O

D
A
transposing

tan 15

60
tan 15

Using the calculator, 60 tan 15 = 223.9 metres.


This illustrates the basic principle when solving trigonometry problems. Sketch a
diagram if necessary, identify the known and unknown values, and then express
them in terms of the sides of the triangle and the corresponding angle.
The basic trigonometry ratios were explained with reference to a right-angled
triangle. But their use can be extended for use with any triangle.
Example

ABC is any triangle. Suppose a line AD is drawn so that angle BDA = angle
CDA = 90.
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AD is now the height of the triangle.


Then the area of the triangle
Therefore:

But AD
area

h sin C

ab sin.C =

a.AD

AB b sin C

bc sin.A =

ac sin.C

for any triangle.

Also, it can be seen the AD = b sin C = c sin B from which can be deduced:
a
b
c

sin A
sin B
sin C
This is known as the Sine formula.

for any triangle

Another useful formula is the Cosine formula. Again it applies to any triangle
ABC.

Cos A

b2 c 2 - a2
2 bc

Cos B

a2 c 2 - b2
2 ac

Cos C

a2 b2 - c 2
2 ab

(These formula can easily be proved by drawing AD perpendicular to BC, and


using Pythagoras).

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13.2 CONSTRUCTION OF TRIGONOMETRICAL CURVES

If radius OP is rotated anticlockwise, the angle (POA) increases and the value
of sine also increases (because AP increases in relation to OP).
If the radius OP has a length of 1 unit, sine =

= AP (the length AP).

If a graph of sine (length AP) is plotted against angle , the typical curve results.
Note the repetition every revolution (360) and that the values of sine range

between +1 and -1.


The graph for cosine is similar but displaced by 90.

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The graph for tangent is deduced from the other two curves.
At 90 and 270, the value of tan becomes infinity.

13.3 VALUES IN 4 QUADRANTS


Inspection of the sine and cosine curves show that the values change from +ve to
-ve to +ve etc., as angle increases. It is important to have an idea how these
changes are linked to the approximate value of .

This diagram shows how the values of sine, cosine and tangent take +ve or -ve
values, depending the value of , within one of the four quadrants.

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13.4 EXPANSION OF BASIC FORMULA


In future studies, it will often be necessary to consider compound angles, e.g.
angle (A + B). This simply means angle A + angle B.
When considering compound angles in the trigonometry sense, some useful
formulae can be deduced.
Example. sin (A + B) =

sin A cos B + cos A sin B

sin (A - B) =

sin A cos B - cos A sin B

cos (A + B) =

cos A cos B - sin A sin B

cos (A - B) =

cos A cos B + sin A sin B

tan (A + B)..........................................................................................=

tan (A - B) =
The above formula can be expressed in a different form.
A B

cos

A B

sin

x y

cos

x y

sin

sin A sin B

2 sin

sin A - sin B

2 cos

cos A Cos B

2 cos

cos A - Cos B

2 sin

A -B

A B

x-y

y-x

These formula can be re-written with A = B, such that:


sin 2A

2 sin A cos A

cos 2A

cos2 A - sin2 A

1 - 2 sin2 A

2 cos2 A - 1

tan 2A

All these formulae will be useful, particularly in future studies.

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14. GRAPHS
Graphs are a pictorial method of displaying numerical data. For example, an
experiment might be conducted in order to determine whether varying one
physical quantity causes a variation in another. At each stage, both quantities
would be measured and recorded. One quantity would be changed or varied,
and the second one would be measured to see if that had changed as well. The
first might be termed the independent variable and if the second changed, it
might be termed the dependent variable. (i.e. its value depends on the value of
the first variable). These corresponding measurements would be recorded in
tabular form (i.e. in a table).
As a next step, however, the results could be displayed in graphical or picture
form.
We might conduct an experiment in order to decide whether varying one physical
quantity causes a variation in another. At each stage we would measure the two
variables and record those measurements, usually in the form of a Results Table.
However, the nature of the variation is often far easier to appreciate if it is
depicted pictorially, and this is the purpose of a graph.
Let us suppose that an experiment was conducted, where a volume of gas was
heated. As the temperature of the gas increases, it was noted that the gas
attempted to expound - its volume increases. As the experiment progressed, the
temperature and the corresponding volume was measured and recorded, as a
results Table.
Remember that there is some truth in the statement a good picture is worth a
thousand words (or numbers).

14.1 CONSTRUCTION
In order to construct graphs effectively, some simple rules should be followed.
First of all, present the data (the two variables) in clear, tabular form.
The next stage is to plan the use of the graph - paper so as to present the graph
in the clearest manner possible.
The graph is going to be constructed by plotting a series of points, each one
representing a particular value of the independent and corresponding dependent
variable. So the graph must be drawn so that each value appears (or fits) on the
paper.
Before plotting the points, the two axes must be drawn, and the scales chosen.
The horizontal (x-axis) will represent the independent variable and the vertical (yaxis) the dependent variable. The scales cross at the origin O.

There is no merit in drawing small graphs. Choose scales so that completed


graph fits the sheet of graph paper.
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Look at the largest (RH) and the smallest (LH) values that will be plotted along
the x-axis. Subtract the LH value from the RH value to give a range of values
(= some number of units). Study the graph paper to find how many large squares
there are from left to right.
Now divide the value found by the subtraction by the number of large squares.
This should give an idea of a suitable scale. That is, so many units should be
represented by 1 large square along the x-axis. The most useful scales are 1, 2,
5, 10, 20, 50 units etc. etc to 1 large square.

The same procedure is used for the y-axis. Subtract the smallest (lower) value
from the largest (upper value) to give the range, divide by the number of large
squares between top and bottom of the paper.
Having done this, draw the 2 axes, and mark off the units, using your chosen
scales.

The graph paper has now been prepared for the object of the exercise, i.e. to
transfer the data from the table to the graph.
The transfer is very simple, take one value of the independent variable and draws
a (faint) line to coincide with its value along the x-axis so as to intersect with a
similar line drawn from the y-axis for its corresponding dependent value.

The intersection represents one plotted point of the graph.


The procedure is repeated for each pair of values in turn. When all the points
have been plotted, a continuous line is drawn through the points.

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The way in which the line is drawn depends on the nature of the data. It is
probably true to say that most mathematical or scientific data change gradually or
progressively - they may form a definite relationship. In this case, do not join
the points with a series of straight lines.

But try to draw a continuous smooth line.

This probably means that the line only goes through some (not all) of the points dont worry; experimental or plotting errors can occur. There should be roughly
the same number of points on both sides of the smooth curve. Sometimes, it is
fairly obvious that a straight line is the (most) reasonable fit to the point, and this
is often the case for simple scientific experiments.

14.2 GRAPHS & MATHEMATICAL FORMULAE


This course is designed for engineers, not mathematicians and so maths is
viewed as a servant, not a master.
Later, it will be seen that one physical quantity will vary as another quantity
varies, with the two linked by some mathematical law or equation. An example is
that the Drag force (D) varies according to the square of the airspeed (V).
Expressed as a formula

D = k V2

This relationship can be plotted in graphical form, and it is reasonable to presume


that it would be of the same form as the maths relationship of y = x2 where y is
considered as a function of x y = f(x)
There are many mathematical functions, examples might be:
y = mx,

y = x2 ,

y = ex,

y = cos x

y = x3 ,

y = sin x

etc. etc.

This topic looks at the shape and characteristics of these functions when
expressed graphically, so that a simple link can be made with physical
phenomena, which demonstrates similar characteristics.
When a mathematical function is plotted, certain shapes evolve characteristic of
that function. If, following an experiment during which data is gathered, that data
creates similar shapes, then a presumption linking formula and experiment may
made.

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14.3 FUNCTION & SHAPE


The variable y is often described as a function of x. Here several different
functions are considered graphically.
Function y = mx where m is some constant coefficient.

y = mx gives a straight line, passing through the origin O.


m is the slope of the graph (and = tan O) the greater the value of m, the steeper
the slope. Obviously for a straight line, the slope is constant for a constant value
of m.
If m is -ve, the line slopes as shown. (if m = O, the line Y = O coincides with the
x-axis).
Function y = mx + c

This is a variation of y = mx.


C is a constant, and is clearly the value of y when x = O. (y = m.O + c = C). This
value of C measured along the y axis is known as the intercept.
Function y = kx2 where k is some constant.

This gives a curve, known as a parabola. As k increases the value of kx2 also
increases. Note that the slope is no longer constant. This is a function which is
commonly found in physical situations.

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Function y = kx3 etc.

This is the characteristic shape. Note that the graph has Turning points, where
the slope changes from +ve to ve and vice versa.
Functions within this family are less likely to be encountered during this course.
Function y = sin x and y = cos x.

Both of these functions are repetitive but the word used to describe such
behaviour is periodic (in this case, the period is 360 or 2 radians).
Note that the cosine graph leads the sine graph by 90 when such behaviour
occurs, it is often referred to a phase difference.
These graphs are often found, particularly in electrical work.
Function

y = ex,

y = e-x,

y = 1 e-x

y = ex is known as the Exponential function. It is also often found in Engineering


applications. Some variations on the basic function are also shown.

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Reference has already been made to the slope of a graph. Straight lines have a
constant slope. Curves have variable slopes, and often include turning points
(often termed maxima and minima). Mathematicians determine slopes by using
a branch of mathematics called calculus a later topic. Engineers are often
interested in slope, because depending on the variables, the slope itself
represents a physical quantity more about this in the Physics module.
The area under a graph is also often useful and may represents a physical
quantity.

The area can be calculated by:

Using calculus

Considering simple shapes and approximating

Counting squares.

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15. CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY


Geometry has previously considered certain well-known regular shapes, e.g.
circles, rectangles and triangles, and studied their properties. These studies
have considered the shape in isolation, i.e. without reference to any particular
datums.
Co-ordinate geometry extends these studies by introducing datums, and then
expressing the position of the significant features of shapes with reference to
there datums. The datums we chose are usually the x, y, z axes we use in
graphs.
Example. Suppose we had a right-angled triangle, sides and lengths 3, 4 and 5
units.

We know that the angles are approximately 37, 53 and 90.


We might chose to place the triangle in our x, y plane, where point A is 2 units
along the x axis, and 1 unit along the y axis. The co-ordinates of point A then
become (2.1).

As long as AC is drawn parallel to the x-axis, point C becomes (6.1) and point B
becomes (6.4). If we introduce point D as the mid-point along AB, it is clear that
the co-ordinates of D are (4, 2.5). If we were to fix point A, but rotate the triangle,
the co-ordinates of B and C would change, even through the length of the side
remains unchanged.

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Assuming AC is drawn parallel to the x-axis, point C becomes (6.1) and point B
becomes (6.4). If we introduce point D as the mid-point along AB, it is clear that
the co-ordinates of D are (4, 2.5). If we were to fix point A but rotate the triangle,
the co-ordinates of B and C would change, even though the length of the sides
remained unchanged.

Point C moves from (6.1) to become (5.46, 3) and point B moves from (6.4) to
become (3.96, 5.56).
Note the student will not be required to calculate the change in co-ordinates but
to appreciate how a change of position is accompanied by a change in coordinates, even though the basic shape is unchanged.
In this example, the point A, B and C have co-ordinates which are positive integer
values, but they could have been given symbols, such as (xa, ya) (xb, yb) and (xc,
yc).
In further Maths studies, this would be more usual.

15.1 POLAR / RECTANGULAR CO-ORDINATES


In the previous chapter, the concept expressing geometrical shapes by using
(x, y) co-ordinates was considered.

Because their position is established with reference to the two axes x and y,
where the intersection of the two reference values completes a rectangle, such
co-ordinate are known as Rectangular Co-ordinates (they are sometimes known
as Cartesian co-ordinates).

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Another co-ordinate system exists, which uses a different system of datum's.

In this system, the datum's are the origin, point O and the x axis, and the position
A, which was expressed as (2, 1) using (x y) co-ordinate will now be expressed in
terms of the distance from O (the 'r' co-ordinate) and the angular displacement of
the line OA with reference to the x axis (the co-ordinate). This method of
expressing position(s) in terms of r and is known as the Polar co-ordinate
system. (r, theta)
Although the student will not be required to perform extensive calculations using
either system in this module. A basic appreciation is necessary, which should
include the ability to relate one system to the other.
For example:

To convert Rectangular to Polar,


r2

tan y

x 2 y2
x

y2

tan-1 y
x

To convert Polar to Rectangular,


X

r cos Q

r sin Q

Note - most scientific calculators have a function which will perform these
conversions.
Look for the R P and P R buttons.

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15.2 COMPLEX NUMBERS


In chapter 11, which considered Quadratic equations and their Roots, It was seen
that if the term b2 - 4ac = a negative value, then the equation did not have
Real roots. It was described as having Complex roots.
The equation ax2 + bx + c = o has 2 roots.
one is

the other is

- b

b 2 - 4ac
2a

- b -

b 2 - 4ac
2a

If b 2 4ac, the root are complex, involving 2 parts, i.e. b


and

2a

which is Real,

b 2 - 4ac
which is " Imaginary".
2a

So the above manipulation of a quadratic equation has enabled us to introduce


the Complex Number, which is a mathematical concept which has frequent
application to engineering problems.
Consider the equation

x2 - 4x + 13 = o.

Then the roots will be

16 - 52
2

Note that 16 - 52 = -36 which is negative.


The complex roots will be 2
which can expressed as
and

2 3
2 - 3

-9
-1
-1

(Note that any negative number can be expressed as a positive number


multiplied by -1).
It is the which has so far been impossible to imagine. (Remember the square of
two like terms cannot give a negative quantity).
So is replaced by the letter j

j =

or j2 = -1

When considering complex numbers, the term is replaced by the term j and so
the two roots become 2 + 3j and 2 - 3j.
2+ 3j is described as Complex number, where 2 is described as the Real part,
and 3j as the Imaginary part.
So the two roots 2 + 3 and 2 3 becomes 2 + 3j and 2 3j.
They are known as Complex numbers, where;
2 is described as the Real part;
3j is described as the Imaginary part.
Note also that;
-1 = j2 = j4 = j6 etc.
j

= -j3 = j5 = -j7 etc.

Complex numbers are often represented graphically by means of Argand


diagrams (named after their originator).

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15.3 ARGAND DIAGRAMS


An Argand diagram uses axes similar to the x and y axes, but labels them as
Real and Imaginary.
In this diagram, the complex number (2 + 3j) is represented by A. Similarly,
(2 -3j) is B, and (-1 -2j) by C.

Recalling Rectangular and polar co-ordinates, point A (complex number 2 + 3j)


can be represented alternatively as (cos 56.31 + j sin 56.31).
Here, is known as the Modulus, and 56.31 is the Argument.
Mathematical manipulation of complex numbers is possible, relying on standard
algebraic principles but is beyond the scope of this module.

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16. CALCULUS
Calculus is a topic in Mathematics which will be of considerable importance in
studies beyond this Module. Here, the student is introduced to the subject.
An introduction to Calculus reconsiders graphs and in particular the slope of, and
area under, a line representing a mathematical function. Calculus begins by
considering a point A on the line with co-ordinates x. y. A second point B further
along the line is considered to have co-ordinates x + x, Y + y. (x and y are
known as "delta x" and "delta y").

If x is very small, y will also tend to be small and the curve section AB will
approximate to a straight line. y is said to represent the increase in y
corresponding to an increase in x of x. In other words, y/x represents the rate
of Change of y with respect to x and is seen to be the Slope of the graph (tan ) .
As x becomes small, x - (tends to 0), and y/x - dy/dx.

16.1 INTRODUCTION TO INCREMENTS


x and y are also known as Increments which is another word for increase. In
the next reference, a line representing a mathematical function is analysed in
order to determine its slope. This process to find the value of y/x will be called
Differentiation.
Look again at the graph.

It can be seen that the shaded area comprises a rectangle and a triangle. If x
and y are extremely small, the area of the triangle is negligible and the area of
the rectangle is equal to y. x. The total area under the curve between x and x'
can be considered as large number of small strips of width x. The sum of these
strips can be represented as yx and in calculus by yx. The process of
evaluating yx is called Integration.
Note also that x and x' represent the limits of the integration.
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16.2 DIFFERENTIATION
A full study or explanation of Differentiation is beyond the scope of this Module.
However, a common but simply example will be considered.
Suppose

y = a function of x (f(x)

Such that y = x2
Then if x increases by x, y increases by y
So

y + y = (x + x)2

Therefore y = y + y - y = (x + x)2 - x2
expanding the Right-hand side,
y = x2 + (x)2 + 2xx - x2
if x is small, (x)2 is negligible and so

y 2x x and y
In the limit, y

dy

dx

2x

2x

In this example, dy/dx is known as the Differential Coefficient (DC) or derivative


and is equal to 2x. The slope of the curve y = x2 at point x, is equal to 2x.
This is given as an example. A Table of common functions with their respective
differential coefficients follows.

16.3 SLOPE

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The table of differential coefficients shows how the slope of the line representing
the function varies as the value of x varies.

For example, if y sin x, dy

dx

cos x.

The student of further mathematics will need to be able to recognise or deduce


differential coefficients having been given basic mathematical functions, including
the DC of a Product (UV) or a Quotient (U/V).
Note - if y = UV, where U and V are both functions of x, the dy/dx = U dV/dx +
VdU
/dx, where dV/dx = the DC of V with respect to x and dU/dx = the DC of U
with respect to x.
Special cases

note that (ex) = ex

and (log x) =
also -

This function is in fact

d
dx

-1

1
1- x 2

y = sin-1 x or sin y = x.

Therefore cos y dy = dx,


But

sin x

dy

dx

1
cos y
sin y

if

cos y
and so dy

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dx

x
I - x2
I
I - x2

Page 3

Also note that the DC of a constant,

dy

/dx

= O.

Obviously, if y = a constant, its value is independent of x and so y = a


horizontal straight line, whose slope is obviously O.

16.4 INTEGRATION
Put simply, Integration should be thought of as the reverse of the Differentiation
process.
Suppose y = x2 then

dy

/dx

= 2x = the derivative.

Consider the Integral y dx where y = 2x.


The integral 2x dx is equal to x2.
But one important point must be considered. Remember that the DC of a
constant is O. It has to be assumed that the integral contains a constant C. So
2x dx = x2 + C. Where the constant is included, the integral is known as the
Indefinite Integral.

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Recalling that in the previous chapter " Introduction to Increments", the concept
of area was considered within limits, where the limits were given as x and x', an
integration may be performed where a function of x is integrated (example, 2x
dx becomes x2 + C) and then the specified values of x, (i.e. x and x') are
x'

Example

2x dx

is integrated to become x 2 C

and then evaluated so that

x'

C -

substituted for x in the following manner:

x'
x

gives x'

- x

Note that the constant C has been eliminated.


The term (x')2 - (x)2 is known as a Definite Integral.

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