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Nutrition Midterm 4 Study Guide

Fats: 9 kcal/g
-

Short chain (<10)


o Made in the intestines by bacteria for energy for our cells
Medium chain (10-16)
o In palm and coconut
o Absorbed directly into mitochondria via carnitine
o Absorbed directly into portal vein within 20 min
Long chain (16-22)
o Absorbed into mitochondria via carnitine
o Main dietary fats
Degree of saturation:
o Fully saturated= no double bonds
o Mono= 1
o Poly = >1
Trans fat:
o Trans free= <.5g per serving
o Even 2 g/day increase CVD risk
o In partial hydrogenated foods

Essential Fatty Acids:


-

Types:
1. Alpha
a.
b.
2. Alpha
a.
3. EPA
a.
4. DHA
a.

linoleic
Number one EFA
Omega 6
linolenic
Omega 3
Omega 3
Omega 3

Deficiency signs and symptoms:


o Dermatitis
o Hard ear wax
o Alligator skin on forearms
o Unruly hair
o Infertility
o Menstrual irregularities
o PMS
o Increased inflammation
o Rigid cell membranes and blood vessels

Sources of cholesterol
-

Meats

Animal products
Shrimp, crab, lobster, calamari*

Sources of saturated fat:


-

Coconut/cocoa/coffee beans
Palm kernel
Hydrogenated fat/lard/margarine
Animals (warm climate)
o Red meat
o Dairy
Diseases with increased saturated fat:
o Obesity
o Diabetes
o Cancer
o CVD
o Leaky gut syndrome
o Arthritides/rheumatology
o Skin disorders (psoriasis and eczema)
o Autoimmune diseases
o ADD/ADHD

Sources of hydrogenated fats:


-

Margarine/shortening
o From vegetable oils
Associated disease risks:
o CVD
o Diabetes
o Cancer
o Colorectal disease

Least risk of heart disease with MONOUNSATURATED FATS


Extra virgin olive oil:
-

Juice extracted from crushed olives; no chemical refining

Decreased CVD with:


-

Balance electrolytes
Take antioxidants
Supply co-factors
Improve hydration
Normalize fat intake and utilization
Stop smoking *
Exercise regularly *
Stress reduction *
Maintain proper weight *

Intent of diet in heart disease/atherosclerosis:


-

Treat inflammation *

Prevent plaque formation


Promote plaque regression
Decrease angina
Decrease intermittent claudication
Decrease cardiac arrhythmias
Decrease serum lipids
Decrease platelet aggregation
Promote fibrinolysis

Best recommendation for fat intake: 20% or less of total kcals


Protect bowel from cancer when theres an increase in PUFA by taking vitamin E
Fat replacer:
-

Olestra:
o Fat and sugar molecules
o Calorie free
o Large molecule passes thru GI system
o May increase diarrhea

Chickens are fed omega 3 fish oil to decrease cholesterol in eggs


Trans = worse than saturated fat because:
-

Increase CVD, miscarriage, breast cancer, alzheimers, learning and behavior


disorders
Oxidizes early

Cold pressed oils:


-

Doesnt destroy fat soluble vitamins with heat or light

Fish oil decreases platelet stickiness


-

May not be good in patients already taking anti-coagulants

Increased homocysteine increases risk of CVD


-

Need to increase B (6, 9, 12) vitamin intake these also help decrease
cholesterol

Caffeine increases CVD


-

Dehydrating
Accelerate heart rate
Increased arrhythmia
Depletes calcium
Vasoconstriction (in caffeine sensitive group)

Caffeine in the diet:


-

Coffee (has an inverted J relationship; certain amounts can act as


antioxidants)
Soda

Tea
Chocolate

Decrease sodium intake by:


-

Decreasing holes in salt shaker


Sodium substitutes
Avoid processed/restaurant food
Increase other spices
Beware of oriental food
Steam foods
Wash canned foods
Check levels in water
Beware of cereal and condiments
Group management

Iron increases CVD because it leads to an increase in free radicals (especially Heme
group)
No potassium supplements given to people:
-

on potassium sparing diuretics


with kidney disease

Decrease CVD with:


-

magnesium
selenium
calcium
potassium

Zinc decreases HDL unless with copper (need a good ratio of the two)
Avoid if at risk of CVD:
-

smoking
caffeine
salt
sugar
alcohol
heme

Sugar increases CVD because:


-

increases blood pressure


increases estrogen in men
increases total cholesterol
increases platelet adhesiveness
increases uric acid
increases insulin
increases urinary chromium loss
decreases HDL

Soluble fiber = good for heart disease

decreases blood lipids by binding dietary and biliary cholesterol and


improving excretion

4 eicosanoids:

1. prostaglandins
2. thromboxanes
3. leukotrienes
4. prostacyclins
these are made after injury or perceived injury

Omega 3:
-

EPA
o Fatty fish
o Approved health claim to decrease CVD
DHA
o Fatty fish, algae
o Approved health claim to decrease CVD
Alpha linolenic
o Flaxseed, soy walnuts
EPA and DHA decrease inflammation:
o Substrates to make anti-inflammatories PG3
o Compete with arachidonic acid
o Inhibit inflammatory leukotriene 4
o Inhibit PG 2 formation

Omega 6:
-

Alpha linoleic acid


o Sunflower, safflower, corn
Gamma linolenic
o Evening primrose oil, borage, black currant seed oil
Arachidonic Acid:
o Preformed from all animals
In red meat*, eggs, milk
o Highest from ruminant animals
o Massively inflammatory*******
Causes smooth muscle contraction and bronchoconstriction
o Decreased in animals who:
Live in colder climate
Live in higher altitude
Eat pasture/meadow plants and insects
Omega 6 can be bad because we eat too much of it- imbalance between
omega 6 and 3

Inflammation is top cause of many diseases:


-

Heart disease
Strokes

Alzheimers
Menstrual cramps
Colitis
Autoimmune
Arthritis

Inflammatory
-

Prostaglandin 2
Thromboxane 2
Leukotriene 4

Anti-inflammatory
-

Prostaglandin 3
Prostaglandin 1
Thromboxane 3
Thromboxane 1
Leukotriene 5
Prostacyclin

Food that decreases heart disease:


-

Fatty fish (EPA and DHA improved by FDA for health claim*)
o Salmon, cod, halibut, trout

Alpha linoleic:
-

Can be converted to gamma linolenic with d-6-desaturase and cofactors of


zinc, magnesium, and B6

D 5 desaturase upregulated by:


-

Increased blood insulin


Increase blood cholesterol
Increased trans and saturated fat intake
Increase blood estrogen
African American
Abnormal neurotransmitter levels

Omega 6 is bad when:


-

Eat
Eat
Eat
Eat

too much (out of balance with omega 3)


hydrogenated, trans, or over heated/fried
arachidonic acid
sprayed or fed with synthetic estrogen

Decrease clot formation with increased intake of fish, fruit, veggies


Arachidonic acid is changed by lipoxygenase into leukotriene
Boswellia: decreases leukotriene 4 by blocking 5-LOX**
Increased prostacyclin:

Ginger
Garlic
Onions
Magnesium
Bromelain
Selenium
Turmeric
Curcumin
Hot chili peppers

High arachidonic acid:


-

Mammal remnants ***


Farmed animals
Lamb, liver, boiled eggs
There is less in:
o colder climate animal
o higher altitude animal
o eating pasture, plants, and insects

Leukotriene 4:
-

stimulated by:
o lipoxygenase
o aspirin
o NSAIDs
Inhibited by:
o High vitamin E
o EPA
o Zinc
o Quercitin
o Glutathione
o Aloe
o Selenium
o Boswellia

Prostaglandin 2:
-

Stimulated by:
o Cyclooxygenase
o Dairy
o Estrogen
o Vit C
o Vit B6
Inhibit:
o EPA
o Aspirin
o NSAID

Prostacyclin

Stimulated by:
o Ginger
o Garlic
o Onion
o Magnesium
o Selenium
o Bromelain
o Turmeric
o Curcumin
o Hot peppers
Inhibit:
o Hydroxyl free radicals

NSAIDs increase asthma, anaphylaxis and heart attacks because vasoconstricts


bronchi
Insulin increases inflammation by upregulating d5 desaturase (to switch to
arachidonic acid pathway)
-

Sucrose
HFCS
High GI foods

Increased heat disease:


-

Junk food, red meat , high sugar

Decreased heart disease:


-

Mediterranean diet
o Fruits, veggies, nuts, seeds, olive oil, fatty fish, low sugar, and low red
meat

Foods that elevate insulin increase inflammation:


-

Sucrose
High fructose corn syrup
High Glycemic Index foods

GAGs:
-

Chondroitin and glucosamine


Be familiar with the shark cartilage research
o Decrease inflammation
o Increase wound healing