Surface Roughness

Rajesh Sharma Tribology Elective Course Jan 2010
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Tribology History
• Use of wheels from 3500 B.C. • A chariot with animal fat lubricant in wheel bearing: Egypt • Use of lubricant during transportation* • Ball thrust bearing used to support a statue by a sculptor: about 40 BC
– Found in a lake Nimi near Rome #

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Friction
• First postulates by Vinci(1452-1519)
– Friction force
– proportional to Load – independent of nominal area of contact

• In 1699, Amonton credited with the laws • Coulomb in 1780 put forth 3rd law of friction
– Friction independent of velocity

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Early Developments
• 1684 Hooke
– Combination of steel shaft and metal bush as preferable combination instead of wood shod with iron for wheel bearings.

• 1883 Beauchamp Tower
– Discovered phenomenon of hydrodynamic lubrication

• 1883 Petrof (Petrov)
– Concept of viscous shearing

• 1886 Osborne Reynolds
– Theoretical interpretation of hydrodynamic lubrication
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Tribology in Industry
• Energy dissipation or loss
– Resistance to motion and friction

• Wear
– Surface changes may be beneficial or disastrous
– One half of GNP used to replace components after wear

• Friction and wear not always disadvantageous • Wear effects are more important than frictional losses • Environmental factors due to use of lubricants
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Tribological Solutions
Low friction/wear Low load cases Reduce intimate contact Thermal stability important Low resistance to transverse shear Graphite or MoS2 Built in press. due to fluid film Water, oil, air
Transverse displacement small Polymer with viscoelasticity

Some sort of elastomeric property Widely employed tribological solution
Load carried without mechanical contact Electric meters
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Surface Topography

Mean of Asperity Summits

Mean of Surface

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Contact of Surfaces
Flat and Rigid Surface

d

Reference Plane Mean of Asperity Summits Typical Contact
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Significance
• Friction, lubrication, and wear issues in automobile brake linings, floor surfaces, tires, roller bearings, cam & follower and gears • Contact resistance in space applications • Fluid dynamics in pipe flow and flow resistance of ship hulls • Etc. etc.
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Categories
• Definitions and indications for surface roughness parameters(for industrial products)are specified. • They are:
– – – – – – arithmetical mean roughness(Ra) maximum height(Ry), ten-point mean roughness(Rz), mean spacing of profile irregularities(Sm), mean spacing of local peaks of the profile(S) profile bearing length ratio(tp).

• Surface roughness is given as the arithmetical mean value for a randomly sampled area.
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Typical ways for obtaining surface roughness
• Arithmetic Mean Average
– A section of standard length is sampled from the mean line on the roughness chart. The mean line is laid on a Cartesian coordinate system wherein the mean line runs in the direction of the x-axis and magnification is the y-axis.

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• Maximum peak(Ry)
– A section of standard length is sampled from the mean line on the roughness chart. The distance between the peaks and valleys of the sampled line is measured in the y direction.

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• Ten-point mean roughness(Rz)
– A section of standard length is sampled from the mean line on the roughness chart. The distance between the peaks and valleys of the sampled line is measured in the y direction. Then, the average peak is obtained among 5 tallest peaks(Yp), as is the average valley between 5 lowest valleys(Yv).

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Mean spacing of profile irregularities
Average of the values of the spacing between irregularities Smi of the profile inside an evaluation length.

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Mean spacing of local peaks of the profile
• Click to add an outline

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Roughness Parameters
• Amplitude parameters
– Extreme-value

parameters
– Average parameters – Height distribution
Rt

• Texture parameters
• R p, R v
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Amplitude: Height Distribution

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Amplitude: Average Parameters

Rq=1.25 Ra

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Z

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Typical Contact
Original shape

P
Contact area

 2a R

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Asperity

Asperities

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•BAC or Bearing Area Curve is an assessment of the percent  of bearing area at a certain distance (P) from the highest peak. It is sometimes used to estimate the percent of contact  area available as surface wear occurs.

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Surface Contacts
• Deformation due to load acting on a point
– Elastic
• Simple and reversible

– Plastic
• Complex phenominon and irreversible In most of the cases the deformation may be plastic at the microlevel geometries e.g. Metal working
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contd.
• Contact of bodies defined by arcs
– Wheel on tracks, rolling bearing, gear teeth, rope drives, etc.

• Small protuberances
– Spherical shape at contact

• Target : Friction and heat

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Multi-Asperity Models
(Greenwood and Williamson, 1966, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, A295, pp. 300-319.)

Assumptions
 All asperities are spherical and have the same summit curvature.  The asperities have a statistical distribution of heights (Gaussian).
z

(z)

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Click to add title
• Click to add an outline

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Figs
• Click to add an outline

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172 slaves pulling a large statue weighing about 6x105 N
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Probably used about A.D. 40 by a sculptor to support a statue. Found in 1928 in Lake Nimi near Rome

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Multi-Asperity Models
(Greenwood and Williamson, 1966, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, A295, pp. 300-319.)

Assumptions (cont’d)
 Deformation is linear elastic and isotropic.  Asperities are uncoupled from each other.  Ignore bulk deformation.
z

(z)

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Two Scales of the Contact
• Contact Bump (larger, micro-scale)

• Asperities (smaller, nano-scale)
Nominal Surface

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Irregularities

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Click to add title

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