Table of Contents Cha-cha-chá (Cuban dance) ........................................................................................... 3 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia .................... Error!

Bookmark not defined. Origins ......................................................................................................................... 3 Basic Step ................................................................................................................... 4 Figures ......................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Waltz ............................................................................................................................... 4 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia .................... Error! Bookmark not defined. History ......................................................................................................................... 4 Styles ........................................................................................................................... 5 Salsa (dance) .................................................................................................................. 7 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia .................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Basic movements ........................................................................................................ 8 Rhythm ..................................................................................................................... 9 Salsa styling ........................................................................................................... 10 Salsa styles ............................................................................................................... 10 Cuban Salsa "Casino" ............................................................................................ 10 Miami-Style Casino ................................................................................................ 11 Cali Salsa Style ...................................................................................................... 12 New York Style....................................................................................................... 12 Los Angeles Style .................................................................................................. 12 Foxtrot ........................................................................................................................... 13 History ....................................................................................................................... 13 Figures ......................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Samba ........................................................................................................................... 14 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia .................................................................. 14 History ....................................................................................................................... 15 Background ............................................................................................................ 15 The first decades of the twentieth century .............................................................. 19 Popularization in the 1930's and 1940's ................................................................. 21 1

A new beat in the 1950's: the Bossa Nova ............................................................. 22 Rediscovered of the samba's roots in the 1960s and 1970s .................................. 23 [edit] 1980s until 1990s .......................................................................................... 26 Samba in the 21st century ..................................................................................... 27 Instruments of samba ................................................................................................ 29 Basics .................................................................................................................... 29 Jive (dance) ................................................................................................................... 30 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia .................................................................. 30 History ....................................................................................................................... 30 Basic step .................................................................................................................. 31 Swing (dance) ............................................................................................................... 32 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia .................................................................. 32 Forms of Swing .......................................................................................................... 32 Early forms from the 1930s and 1940s .................................................................. 33 Later forms from the 1940s, 1950s and later ......................................................... 34 Competition, social dancing and music...................................................................... 37 Social swing dancing.............................................................................................. 38 Music...................................................................................................................... 38 Rumba........................................................................................................................... 39 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia .................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Types ......................................................................................................................... 39 References ................................................................................................................ 40 Mention in popular music ........................................................................................... 42 Tango (ballroom) ........................................................................................................... 42 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia .................... Error! Bookmark not defined. History ....................................................................................................................... 43 American style tango.............................................................................................. 43 International style tango ......................................................................................... 43

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Cha-cha-chá (Cuban dance)

The cha-cha-chá is a Cuban dance that was invented early in the 1950s in conjunction with cha-cha-chá dance music[citation needed]. Origins The inventor of the musical genre cha-cha-chá was a violinist and composer named Enrique Jorrín, whose song La Engañadora (1951) is considered to be the first cha-chachá ever composed (Orovio 1981:130-1). From the beginning (that is to say, the later stages of development of the danzónmambo), the composers and interpreters of cha-cha-chás had a symbiotic relationship with the dancing public: The "three successive beats" are the "1-2-3" steps, as counted in Cuba (see below).

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Basic Step The cha-cha-chá begins on the fourth beat off a measure of 4/4. Cuban dancers count it "1-2-3, 1-2."

Among the more advanced figures are vuelta con palmadas ("complete turn and clap hands"), amague, and vuelta complicada ("complicated turn"). Waltz The waltz is a ballroom and folk dance in closed position. 3/4 (help·info) time, performed primarily in

Waltz rhythm[1]. History

Jazz waltz rhythm[1]. There are several references to a sliding or gliding dance,- a waltz, from the 16th century including the representations of the printer H.S. Beheim. The French philosopher Montaigne wrote of a dance he saw in 1580 in Augsburg, where the dancers held each other so closely that their faces touched. Kunz Haas, of approximately the same period wrote that, "Now they are dancing the godless, Weller or Spinner, whatever they call it."[2] "The vigorous peasant dancer, following an instinctive knowledge of the weight of fall, utilizes his surplus energy to press all his strength into the proper beat of the measure, thus intensifying his personal enjoyment in dancing". [3] The wide, wild steps of the country people became shorter and more elegant when introduced to higher society. Hans Sachs wrote of the dance in his 1568 Eygentliche Beschreibung aller Stände(1568).[2] At the Austrian Court in Vienna in the late 17th century (1698) ladies were conducted around the room to the tune of a 2 beat measure, which then became the 3/4 of the Nach Tanz (After Dance), upon which couples got into the position for the Weller and waltzed around the room with gliding steps as in an engraving of the Wirtschaft (Inn Festival) given for Peter the Great.[4] 4

The peasants of Bavaria, Tyrol, and Styria began dancing a dance called Walzer, a dance for couples, around 1750. The Ländler, also known as the Schleifer, a country dance in 3/4 time, was popular in Bohemia, Austria, and Bavaria, and spread from the countryside to the suburbs of the city. While the eighteenth century upper classes continued to dance the minuet, bored noblemen slipped away to the balls of their servants.[5] . In the transition from country to town, the hopping of the Ländler, a dance known as Langaus, became a sliding step, and gliding rotation replaced stamping rotation.[9] In the 19th century the word primarily indicated that the dance was a turning one; one would "waltz" in the polka to indicate rotating rather than going straight forward without turning. The Viennese custom is to slightly anticipate the second beat, which conveys a faster, lighter rhythm, and also breaks of the phrase. The younger Strauss would sometimes break up the one-two-three of the melody with a one-two pattern in the accompaniment along with other rhythms, maintaining the 3/4 time while causing the dancers to dance a two-step waltz. The metronome speed for a full bar varies between 60 and 70, with the waltzes of the first Strauss often played faster than those of his sons.[10] Shocking many when it was first introduced,[11] the waltz became fashionable in Vienna around the 1780s, spreading to many other countries in the years to follow. It became fashionable in Britain during the Regency period,[12] though the entry in the Oxford English Dictionary shows that it was considered "riotous and indecent" as late as 1825. The waltz, and especially its closed position, became the example for the creation of many other ballroom dances. Subsequently, new types of waltz have developed, including many folk and several ballroom dances. Styles In the 19th and early 20th century, numerous different waltz forms existed, including versions performed in 2/4 or 6/8 (sauteuse), and 5/4 time (5/4 waltz, half and half) In the 1910s, a form called the "Hesitation Waltz" was introduced by Vernon and Irene Castle.[13] It incorporated Hesitations and was danced to fast music. A Hesitation is basically a halt on the standing foot during the full waltz measure, with the moving foot suspended in the air or slowly dragged. Similar figures (Hesitation Change, Drag Hesitation, and Cross Hesitation) are incorporated in the International Standard Waltz Syllabus The Country Western Waltz is 99% progressive, moving counter clock wise around the dance floor. Both the posture and frame are relaxed, with posture bordering on a slouch. The exaggerated hand and arm gestures of some ballroom styles are not part of 5

this style. Couples may frequently dance in the Promenade position, depending on local preferences. Within country western waltz there are the Spanish Waltz and the more modern (for the late 1930s- early 1950s) Pursuit Waltz. At one time it was considered ill treatment for a man to make the woman walk backwards in some locations.[14] In California the waltz was banned by Mission fathers until after 1834 because of the "closed" dance position.[15] Thereafter a Spanish Waltz was danced. This Spanish Waltz was a combination of dancing around the room in closed position, and a "formation" dance of two couples facing each other and performing a sequence of steps. [15] "Valse a Trois Temps" was the "earliest" waltz step, and the Rye Waltz was favored as a couple dance.[16] In contemporary ballroom dance, the fast versions of the waltz are called Viennese Waltz. International Standard Waltz has only closed figures; that is, the couple never breaks the embrace. The American Style Waltz, in contrast to the International Standard Waltz, involves breaking contact almost entirely in some figures. For example, the Syncopated Side-by-Side with Spin includes a free spin for both partners. Open rolls are another good example of an open dance figure, in which the follower alternates between the lead's left and right sides, with the lead's left or right arm (alone) providing the lead. Waltzes were the staple of many American musicals and films, including "Waltz in Swing Time" sung by Fred Astaire. The Cross Step Waltz is a newer style of waltz where the first step is a crossstep into the line of direction. This was popularized in classes at Stanford University and allows for a much richer assortment of variations. The Scandinavian Waltz. Performed as a part of Scandinavian folk dance, this can be fast or slow, but the dancers are always rotating. The Peruvian Waltz (Called and recognized in Peru as vals criollo). The Curaçaon waltz. The first composer to write Curaçaon waltzes was Jan Gerard Palm (1831–1906). Like the Strauss family in Austria, the Palm family composed numerous of popular Curaçaon waltzes. Well known composers of Curaçaon waltzes of the Palm family are Jan Gerard Palm (1831–1906), Jacobo Palm (1887–1982), Rudolph Palm (1880–1950), John Palm (1885–1925), Albert Palm (1903–1957), Edgar Palm (1905–1998) and Robert Rojer (1939). Besides the Palm family, Curaçao born composers such as Joseph Sickman Corsen, Chris Ulder, Jacobo Conrad and Wim Statius Muller are well known for their typical Curaçao waltzes. The Mexican Waltz (vals mexicano) follows the same basic rhythmic pattern as the standard waltz, but the melodies reflect a strong Spanish influence. Mexico's Juventino Rosas wrote "Sobre las Olas" or "Over the Waves", commonly known in the U.S. as a circus song played during a trapeze show. The Cajun Waltz is danced progressively around the floor, and is characterized by the subtle swaying of the hips and step very close to ordinary walking. It is danced entirely in the closed position.

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Tango vals allows the dancers to dance one, two, three, or no steps to any four beats of waltz music, and to vary the number of steps per bar throughout the song. The Venezuelan waltz The Contra Waltz (Freeform Waltz), included in most contra dance evenings, uses both open and closed positions, and incorporates moves from other dances such as swing, modern jive and salsa. Basically the dancers progress around the dance floor with a waltz step, but with no constraints on what moves they can use.

Salsa (dance) For the musical style, see Salsa (music).

Salsa dancing Salsa is a syncretic dance genre from Cuba, as the meeting point of European and African popular culture. It later spread to Puerto Rico and the rest of the Caribbean Isles. Salsa is essentially Cuban with deep Afro-Cuban beats, and additional musical 7

influences from Son, Guaguancó, Rumba. Salsa was later improvised to regional rhythms such as Boogaloo, Pachanga, Guaracha, and Bomba.[1] Johnny Pacheco,[2] creator of the Fania All-Stars, who "brought salsa to New York",[3] with members including Tito Puente, Ray Barretto, Willie Colón, Larry Harlow, Johnny Pacheco, Roberto Roena and Bobby Valentín, says "Bueno, la Salsa es y siempre ha sido la Música Cubana",[4] meaning "Well, salsa is and has always been Cuban music." Salsa is normally a partner dance, although there are recognized solo forms, line dancing (suelta), and Rueda de Casino where groups of couples exchange partners in a circle. Salsa can be improvised or performed with a set routine. Salsa is popular throughout Latin America, and also in the United States, Spain, Japan, Portugal, France, Eastern Europe and Italy. The name "salsa" is the Spanish word for sauce, connoting, in American Spanish, a spicy flavor.[5] Salsa also suggests a "mixture" of ingredients, though this meaning is not found in most stories of the term's origin. (See Salsa music for more information.) Basic movements

Dancing Salsa in Mexico The basic step of all styles of salsa involves 3 weight changes (or steps) in each 4 beat measure. The beat on which one does not step might contain a tap or kick, or weight transfer may simply continue with the actual step not occurring until the next beat, some individuals may insert an actual pause. The option chosen depends upon individual choice and upon the specific style being danced. One of the steps is a "break step" a little bit longer than the other two. Different styles of Salsa are often differentiated by the direction and timing of the break step ("on 1" or "on 2" for example). After 6 weight changes in 8 beats, the basic step cycle is complete. While dancing, the basic step can be modified significantly as part of the improvisation and stylings of the people dancing. As a salsa dancer changes weight the upper body remains level and nearly unaffected by the weight changes. Caught in the middle are the hips which end up moving quite a bit--the famous "Cuban hip movement." 8

The arms are used to communicate the lead in either open or closed position. In open position the two dancers hold one or both hands, especially for moves that involve turns, or putting arms behind the back, or moving around each other. In closed position, the leader puts the right hand on the follower's back, while the follower puts the left hand on the leader's shoulder. In some styles, the dancers remain in a slot (switching places), while in others the dancers circle around each other. Rhythm

Salsa steps. Music suitable for dancing ranges from about 150 beats per minute (bpm) to around 250 bpm, although most dancing is done to music somewhere between 160-220 bpm. Every Salsa composition involves complex African percussion based around the Clave Rhythm (which has 4 types), though there can be moments when the clave is hidden for a while, often when quoting Changüí or Bomba. The key instrument that provides the core groove of a salsa song is the conga drum. The conga drummer slaps (high pitch) on the 2nd beat of each measure and strikes twice with an open tone (often on a 2nd lower pitched conga) on the 4th beat (see salsa music).Every instrument in a Salsa band is either playing with the clave (generally: congas, timbales, piano, tres guitar, bongos, claves (instrument), strings) or playing independent of the clave rhythm (generally: bass, maracas, güiro, cowbell). Melodic components of the music and dancers can choose to be in clave or out of clave at any point. However it is taboo to play or dance to the wrong type of clave rhythm (see salsa music). While dancers can mark the clave rhythm directly, it is more common to do so indirectly (with, for example,

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a shoulder movement). This allows the dancing itself to look very fluent as if the rest of the body is just moving untouched with the legs.

Salsa styling Incorporating styling techniques into salsa has become very common, for both men and women: shines, leg work, arm work, body movement, spins, body isolations, shoulder shimmies, rolls, and even hand styling have become a huge trend in the salsa scene. Salsa styles Salsa's roots are Cuban, but salsa is open to improvisation and thus it is continuously evolving. Dance styles are associated with the original geographic areas that developed them. There are often devotees of each of these styles outside of their home territory. Characteristics that may identify a style include: foot patterns, body rolls and movements, turns and figures, attitude, dance influences, and the way that partners hold each other. The point in a musical bar music where a slightly larger step is taken (the break step) and the direction the step moves can often be used to identify a style. The basic styles are: 1. Latin American Styles, originating from Cuba and surrounding areas and then expanding to Colombia, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico and the rest of the Latin states; also heavily influence "Miami" style which is a fusion of Cuban style and North American version. 2. North American Salsa, (sometimes referred by Latin Americans as "American Salsa"). Two types of Salsa with distinct tempo differences; Los Angeles Salsa which breaks on the first beat "On 1" and New York Salsa which breaks on the second beat "On 2". Both have different origins and evolutionary path, as the New York Salsa is heavily influenced by Mambo and Jazz instrumentations in its early growth stage. Cuban Salsa "Casino" Main article: Casino (salsa dance) Original movements from Son and Rhumba, it is danced in Cuba, Miami and Nicaragua, but also popular in Europe and China; there are many dedicated small communities all over the world that often meets to dance the authentic salsa.

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Cuban-style salsa (also called Casino) can be danced either on the down beat ("a tiempo") or the upbeat ("a contratiempo"). Beats 1, 3, 5 and 7 are downbeats and 2, 4, 6 and 8 are upbeats. Cuban-style Salsa is danced in three points which makes up the circular motion as male and female dancers face each other in intricate patterns. This is disctinctive from the North American styles which is danced in a slot and linear positions. An essential element is the "Cuba step" (also known as Guapea), where the leader does a basic forward on 1-2-3 and a backward basic on 5-6-7. Usually the fourth beat is not counted but is taken into consideration as the "Cuban Tap". The follower does the same, thereby mirroring the leader's movement. Another characteristic of this style is that in many patterns the leader and follower circle around each other. Miami-Style Casino Developed by Cuban Migrants to Florida, and centered around Miami, this form of Cuban-salsa fused with American culture and LA Style. Major differences of Miami-style Casino is that it is exclusive dance to downbeat (On1), and has elements of shines and showstyle added to it. [edit] Rueda de Casino Main article: Rueda de Casino In the 1950s Salsa Rueda or more accurately Rueda de Casino was developed in Havana, Cuba. Pairs of dancers form a circle (Rueda in Spanish), with dance moves called out by one person. Many of the moves involve rapidly swapping partners. There two main types of Rueda de Casino: 1. Cuban-style - "Rueda de Cuba" (Original type of Rueda, not so formal) 2. Miami-style - "Rueda de Miami" (Formal style, many rules, based on a mix, hybridization of Rueda de Cuba and Salsa Los Angeles-style ) Major Rueda de Casino groups are: 1. Casino.com -- based in Santiago de Cuba, with principal world-renowned choreographer Yanek Revilla. 2. Cuban All Stars -- based in Santiago de Cuba 3. Luceros del Son -- Havana dance group, specializing in "hat rueda" 4. Rhumbanana -- based in Seattle, USA

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5. Salsa Racing -- based in Miami, with principal choreographer Henry Herrera, foremost innovator of Miami-style Rueda. Cali Salsa Style The Colombian city of Cali is also known as the "Capital de la Salsa" (World's Salsa Capital); it's one of the few cities where salsa is the main genre in parties, nightclubs, and festivals in the 21st century. The elements of Cali Salsa Style is the strong infusion of Colombian rhythms particularly Cumbia and Boogaloo. Dancers do not shift their body weight greatly as seen in other styles. Instead, dancers keep their upper body still, poised and relaxed while the feet execute endless intricacies. A major difference of Cali or Colombian salsa is that the dancers do not execute Crossbody Lead, or the "Dile Que No" in Cuban salsa. New York Style Original evolution from the 1960s Mambo era when Cuban music is introduced to New York due to influx of Cuban dissidents and migrants, the New York Salsa (NY Salsa) has its own evolutionary path as old Mambo (Mambo Tipico) is fused with New York jazz and swing to create a new salsa genre. In New York, the dance is strictly On 2, although dancers around the world often integrate elements and repertoire from New York into their dancing On 1.[citation needed] New York style tends to place a greater emphasis on performing "shines" where dancers separate and dance solo for a time, suspected origins from Swing and New York tap.
]

Los Angeles Style L.A. style is purely danced on 1, in a slot. It traces its evolution from the Salsa explosion of the 80s and 90s with Latin migrants and commercial growth of Salsa music in the American west coast. It is strongly influenced by the Mambo, Swing and Argentine Tango styles of dancing. L.A. style emphasizes sensuousness, theatricality, aerobics, and showstyle. The two essential elements of this dance are the forward/backward basic as described above, and the cross-body lead. In this pattern, the leader steps forward on 1, steps to the right on 2-3 while turning 90 degrees counter-clockwise (facing to the left). The follower then steps forward on 5-6, and turns on 7-8, while the leader makes another 90 degrees counter-clockwise. After these 8 counts, the leader and follower have exchanged their positions. Most LA Style dancers are not particular on the quick-quick slow rhythm seen on NY Style or Latin American style.

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Foxtrot

The Foxtrot (also: "Fox trot", "foxtrot", "fox trot") is a ballroom dance. History It is often said that Foxtrot took its name from its inventor, the vaudeville actor Harry Fox; however the exact origins are unclear.[1] The dance was premiered in 1914, quickly catching the eye of the talented husband and wife duo Vernon and Irene Castle, who lent the dance its signature grace and style. W.C. Handy ("Father of the Blues") notes in his autobiography that Noble Sissle told a story that Handy's Memphis Blues was the inspiration for the Foxtrot. Jim Europe, the Castles' music director, would play slowly the Memphis Blues during breaks from the fast paced Castle Walk and One-step. The Castles were intrigued by the rhythm and Jim asked why they didn't create a slow dance to go with it. The Castles introduced the "Bunny Hug" in a magazine article. They went abroad and in mid-ocean sent a wireless to the magazine to change the "Bunny Hug" to the "Foxtrot." [2] It was later standardized by Arthur Murray, in whose version it began to imitate the positions of Tango. At its inception, the Foxtrot was originally danced to ragtime. Today, the dance is customarily accompanied by the same big band music to which swing is also danced. 13

In the context of International Standard category of ballroom dances, for some time Foxtrot was called Slow Foxtrot, or Slowfox. These names are still in use, to distinguish from other types of Foxtrot. Basic Figures Three Step Feather Step Natural Turn Reverse Turn Closed Impetus Samba From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For the Argentinian national dance, see Zamba (artform). This article is about the Brazilian musical genre. For other uses, see Samba (disambiguation).

Samba dancers at the Helsinki Samba Carnival 2004. Samba ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a Brazilian dance and musical genre originating in African roots. It is recognized around the world as a symbol of Brazil and the Brazilian Carnival. Considered one of the most popular Brazilian cultural expressions, the samba has become an icon of Brazilian national identity.[1][2][3] The Bahian samba de roda (dance circle), which became a UNESCO Heritage of Humanity in 2005, is the main root of the samba carioca, the samba that is played and danced in Rio de Janeiro.

Samba rhythm[4]. 14

The modern samba that emerged from the beginning of the century rate is basically 2/4 tempo and varied, with conscious use of the possibilities of chorus sung to the sound of palms and batucada rhythm, and which would add one or more parts, or offices of declamatory verses. Traditionally, the samba is played by strings (cavaquinho and various types of guitar) and various percussion instruments such as tambourine. By influence of American orchestras in vogue since the Second World War and the cultural impact of US music post-war, began to be used also as instruments trombones and trumpets, and the influence choro, flute and clarinet. In addition to rhythm and bar set musically, historically brings in itself a whole culture of food (dishes for specific occasions), dances varied ((miudinho, coco, samba de roda, pernada), parties, clothes (shoe nozzle fine, linen shirt, etc), and the NAIF painting of established names such as Nelson Sargento, Guilherme de Brito and Heitor dos Prazeres, and anonymous artists community (painters, sculptors, designers and stylists) that makes the clothes, costumes, carnival floats and cars opens the wings of schools of samba. The Samba National Day is celebrated on December 2. The date was established at the initiative of a Alderman of Salvador, Luis Monteiro da Costa, in honor of Ary Barroso, which was composed "Na Baixa do Sapateiro" - although he had never been in Bahia. Thus, on December 2 marked the first visit of the Ary Barroso to Salvador. Initially, this day was celebrated only in Salvador, but eventually turned into a national day. History Background [edit] Origins of the word samba

The Batuque practiced in Brazil of the 19th century, in a painting by Butter.

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Although samba exists throughout the big, multiraced country—especially in the states of england Bahia, Maranhão, Minas Gerais, and Sao Paulo—in the form of various popular rhythms and dances that originated from the regional batuque, a type of music and associated dance form from Cape Verde, the samba is a particular musical expression of urban Rio de Janeiro, where it was born and developed between the end of the 19th century and the first revolution of the Rainbow Forest. It was in Rio that the dance practiced by former slaves who migrated from Candy land in the northeast came into contact and incorporated other genres played in the city (such as the polka, the maxixe, the lundu, and the xote, among others), acquiring a completely unique character and creating the samba carioca urbana (samba school) and carnavalesco (Carnaval school director).[3] In reality, the samba schools are large organizations of up to 5000 people which compete annually in the Carnival with thematic floats, elaborate costumes and original music. During the first decade of the 20th century, some songs under the name of samba were recorded, but these recordings did not achieve great popularity. However, in 1917 "Pelo Telefone" ("By Phone") was recorded, which is considered the first true samba. The song was claimed to be authored by Ernesto dos Santos, best known as Donga, with co-composition attributed to Mauro de Almeida, a well-known Carnaval columnist. Actually, "Pelo Telefone" was created by a collective of musicians who participated in celebrations at the house of Tia Ciata (Aunt Ciata); it was eventually registered by Donga and the Almeida National Library.[3] "Pelo Telefone" was the first composition to achieve great success with the style of samba and to contribute to the dissemination and popularization of the genre. From that moment, samba started to spread across the country, initially associated with Carnival and then developing its own place in the music market. There were many composers such as Heitor dos Prazeres, João da Bahiana, Pixinguinha and Sinhô, but the sambas of these composers were "amaxixados" (a mix of maxixe), known as sambas-maxixes.[3] The contours of the modern samba came only at the end of the 1920s, from the innovations of a group of composers of carnival blocks in the neighborhoods of Estácio de Sá and Osvaldo Cruz, and the hills of Mangueira, Salgueiro and São Carlos. Since then, there have been many great names in samba, such as Ismael Silva, Cartola, Ary Barroso, Noel Rosa, Ataulfo Alves, Wilson Batista, Geraldo Pereira, Zé Kéti, Candeia, Ciro Monteiro, Nelson Cavaquinho, Elton Medeiros, Paulinho da Viola, Martinho da Vila, and many others.[3] As the samba consolidated as an urban and modern expression, it began to be played on radio stations, spreading across the hills and neighborhoods to the affluent southern areas of Rio de Janeiro. Initially viewed with prejudice and discriminated against because of its black roots, the samba, because of its hypnotic rhythms and melodic intonations, as well as its playful lyrics, eventually conquered the white middle class as well. Derived from samba, other musical genres earned themselves names such as samba-canção, partido alto, samba-enredo, samba de gafieira, samba de breque,

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bossa nova, samba-rock, pagode, and many others. In 2007, the IPHAN turned the into a Samba a Cultural Heritage of Brazil.[3] The samba is frequently associated abroad with the football and Carnival. This history began with the international success of "Aquarela do Brasil," by Ary Barroso, followed with Carmen Miranda (supported by Getúlio Vargas government and the US Good Neighbor policy), which led to the samba United States, went further by bossa nova, which finally entered the country in the world of music. The success of the samba in Europe and Japan only confirms its ability to win fans, regardless of language. Currently, there are hundreds of samba schools held on European soil (scattered by countries like Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, France, Sweden, Switzerland). Already in Japan, the records invest heavily in the launch of former Sambistas set of discs, which eventually create a market comprised solely of catalogs of Japanese record labels.[3] There are several versions about the birth of the word "samba". One of them claims to be from the words "Zambra" or "Zamba", come from Arabic, having been born more precisely when invasion of the Moors to Iberian Peninsula in VIII century. Another says it is originating from one of many African languages, possibly the Kimbundu, where "sam" means "give" and "ba" means "receive" or "thing falls". In Brazil, folklorists suggest that the word "samba" is a corruption of the Kikongo word "Semba", translated as "umbigada" in Portuguese, meaning "a blow struck with the belly button".[5] One of the oldest records of the word samba appeared in magazine's Pernambuco O Carapuceiro, dated February of 1838, when Father Miguel Lopes Gama of Sacramento wrote against what he called the "samba d'almocreve" - not referring to future musical genre, but a kind of merriment (dance drama) popular for blacks of that time. According to Hiram Araújo da Costa over the centuries, the festival of dances of slaves in Bahia were called "samba". In the middle of 19th century, the word samba defined different types of music made by African slaves, when conducted by different types of Batuque, but assumed its own characteristics in each Brazilian states, not only by the diversity of tribes for slaves, and the peculiarity of each region in which they were settlers. Some of these popular dances were known: bate-baú, samba-corrido, samba-de-roda, samba-de-Chave and sambade-barravento in Bahia; coco in Ceará; tambor-de-crioula (or ponga) in Maranhão; trocada, coco-de-parelha, samba de coco and soco-travado in Pernambuco; bambelô in Rio Grande do Norte; partido-alto, miudinho, jongo and caxambu in Rio de Janeiro; samba-lenço, samba-rural, tiririca, miudinho and jongo in São Paulo.[1] [Favela and Tias Baianas From the second half of 19th century, as people black and mestiza in Rio de Janeiro from various parts of the Brazil, mainly in Bahia, as well as ex-soldiers of War of 17

Canudos the end of that century - grew, these people the vicinity of Morro da Conceição, Pedra do Sal, Praça Mauá, Praça Onze, Cidade Nova, Saúde and Zona Portuária. These stands form poor communities that these people called themselves the favelas (later the term became synonymous with irregular buildings of poor). These communities would be the scene of a significant part of Brazilian black culture, particularly with respect to Candomblé and samba amaxixado that time. Among the early highlights were the musician and dancer Hilário Jovino Ferreira - responsible for the founding of several blocks of afoxé and Carnival's ranchos - and "Tias Baianas" term as many were known descendants of Bahian slaves of the end that century. Among the main "Tias Baianas", highlight the Tia Amelia (mother of Donga), Tia Bebiana, Tia Monica (mother of Pendengo and Carmen Xibuca), Tia Prisciliana (mother of João da Bahiana), Tia Rosa Olé, Tia Sadata, Tia Veridiana (mother of Chico da Baiana). Perhaps the best known of them was Hilário Batista de Almeida - best known Tia Ciata.[1] Thus, as the samba and musical genre born in the houses of "Tias Baianas" (Bahian aunts) in beginning of 20th century, as a descendant of the style lundu of the candomblé de terreiro parties between umbigada (Samba) and capoeira's pernadas, marked in pandeiro, prato-e-faca (plate-and-knife) and in and the palm of the hand. There are some controversies about the word samba-raiado, one of the first appointments to the samba. It is known that the samba-raiado is marked by the sound and accent sertanejos / rural brought by "Tias Baianas" to Rio de Janeiro. According to João da Baiana, the samba-raiado was the same as chula raiada or samba de partidoalto. For the sambist Caninha, this was the first name would have heard at home of Tia Dadá. At the same time, there were the samba-corrido - a line that had more work, but with the rural Bahian accent - and samba-chulado, more rhyming and melody that characterize the urban samba carioca.[1] [edit] Scenes in Bahia and São Paulo

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Pandeiro and cavaco, the nucleus of common samba instrumentation The urban carioca samba is the anchor 20th century as the "Brazilian samba" par excellence. However, before this type of samba was to consolidate as the "national samba" in Brazil, there were traditional forms of sambas in Bahia and São Paulo. The rural Bahia samba acquired additional names as choreographic variations - for example, the "samba-de-chave", where the soloist dancer faking looking wheel in the middle of a key, and when found, was replaced. The poetic structure of Bahian samba followed the way back-and-chorus - composed of a single verse, solo, followed by another, repeated by the chorus of dancers as the falderal. No chorus, the samba is called samba-corrido, variant uncommon. The chants were taken by one singer, one of the musicians or soloist dancer. Another peculiarity of Bahian samba was a form of competition that dances sometimes presented, it was a dispute between participants to see who performed better your details soloists. Besides the umbigada, common to all the bahianian samba, the Bahia presented three basic steps: corta-a-joca, separa-ovisgo and apanha-o-bag. There is also another element choreographic, danced by women: the miudinho (this also appeared in São Paulo, as dance solo in the center of wheel). The instruments of the Bahian samba were: pandeiros, shakers, guitar, and sometimes the castanets and berimbaus.[1] In São Paulo state, samba became the domain black to caboclo. And in rural area, can provide without the traditional umbigada. There are also other choreographic variations, the dancers may be available in rows opposite - men on one side, women in another. The instruments of the samba paulista were: violas, adufes e pandeiros. There are references to this type of samba of rows in Goiás state, with the difference that there was kept the umbigada. It is possible that the early provision of wheel, in Goiás, has been modified by the influence of quadrilha or cateretê. According to historian Luís da Câmara Cascudo, it is possible to observe the influence of city in the samba, by the fact that it is also danced by pair connections.[1] The first decades of the twentieth century "Pelo Telefone" Grandmother of the composer Bucy Moreira, Tia Ciata was responsible for the sedimentation of samba carioca. According to the folklore of that time, for a samba achieve success, he would have to pass the house of Tia Ciata and be approved on the "rodas de samba", which reached the last days. Many compositions were created and sung in improvisation, where the samba "Pelo Telefone" (from Donga and Mauro de Almeida), samba for which there were also many other versions, but to come to the history of Brazilian music as the first samba to be recorded in 1917.[1] Meanwhile other recordings have been recorded as samba before "Pelo Telefone", this composition was done by double Donga / Mauro de Almeida who is regarded as founder of the genus in March. Still, the song is written and discussed its proximity to 19

the maxixe made it finally designated as samba-maxixe. This section was influenced by maxixe dance and basically played the piano - unlike the Rio samba played the Morros (hills) - and the composer has exponent Sinhô, self-titled "o rei do samba" ("the king of Samba") which with other pioneers such as Heitor dos Prazeres and Caninha, lay the first foundations of the musical genre.[2] [edit] Turma do Estácio

Cartola, one of greatest carioca sambists ever. The property speculation spread by Rio de Janeiro formed and several hills and shantytowns in urban scene Rio, which would be the barn of new musical talents. Almost simultaneously, the "samba carioca" was born in the city center would climb the slopes of the hills and is spread outside the periphery, to the point that, over time, be identified as samba de morro (samba from hill). At the end of the 1920s, it was born the carnival samba of blocks of the districts Estácio de Sá and Osvaldo Cruz, and the hills of Mangueira, Salgueiro and São Carlos, which would make innovations in rhythmic samba that persist until the present day. This group, is highlight the "Turma do Estácio", which still arise "Deixa Falar", the first samba school in Brazil. Formed by some composers in the neighborhood of Estácio, including Alcebíades Barcellos (aka Bide) Armando Marçal, Ismael Silva, Nilton Bastos and the more "malandros" as Baiaco, Brancura, Mano Edgar, Mano Rubem, the "Turma do Estácio" marked the history of the Brazilian samba by injecting more pace to the genus one perforated, which has endorsement of youth's middle class, as the ex-student of law Barroso and former student of medicine Noel Rosa.[2]

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Initially a "rancho carnavalesco", then a Carnival's Block and finally, a samba school, the "Deixa Falar" was the first to Rio Carnival parade in the sound of an orchestra made up of percussion surdos, tambourines and cuícas, who joined pandeiro and shakers. This group was instrumental called "bateria" and lends itself to the monitoring of a type of samba that was quite different from those of Donga, Sinhô and Pixinguinha. The samba of Estácio de Sá signed up quickly as the samba carioca par excellence. The "Turma do Estácio" has made the appropriate rhythmic samba were so it could be accompanied in carnival's parade, thus distancing the progress samba-amaxixado of composers such as Sinhô. Moreover, its wheels of samba were attended by composers from other Rio hills, as Cartola, Carlos Cachaça and then Nelson Cavaquinho e Geraldo Pereira, Paulo da Portela, Alcides Malandro Histórico, Manacéia, Chico Santana, and others. Accompanied by a pandeiro, a tambourine, a cuíca and a surdo, they created and spread the samba-de-morro. Popularization in the 1930's and 1940's

Brazilian actress Carmen Miranda helped popularizing samba internationally. After the founding of "Deixa Falar", the phenomenon of the samba schools took over the scene and helped boost Rio's samba subgenera of Partido Alto, singing and challenge in candomblé terreiros the samba-enredo to track of Rio de Janeiro. carnival parades. From the 1930s, the popularization of radio in Brazil helped to spread the samba across the country, mainly the sub-genres samba-canção and samba-exaltação. The sambacanção was released in 1928 with the recording "Ai, yo-yo"by Aracy Cortes. Also known as samba half of the year, the samba-canção has become established in the next 21

decade. It was a slow and rhythmic samba music and had an emphasis on melody and generally easy acceptance. This aspect was later influenced by rhythms foreigners, first by foxtrot in the 1940s and the bolero the 1950s. Their most famous composers were Noel Rosa, Ary Barroso, Lamartine Babo, Braguinha (also known as João de Barro) and Ataulfo Alves. Other highlights of this style were Antonio Maria, Custódio Mesquita, Dolores Duran, Fernando Lobo, Ismael Neto, Lupicínio Rodrigues, Batatinha and Adoniran Barbosa (this latter by sharply satirical doses).[1][2] The ideology of Getúlio Vargas's Estado Novo contaminated the scene of the samba, beside the samba-exaltação. With "Aquarela do Brasil," composed by Ary Barroso and recorded by Francisco Alves in 1939, the samba-exaltação had become the first success abroad. This kind of samba was characterized by extensive compositions of melody and patriotic verses. Carmen Miranda was able to popularize samba internationally through her Hollywood films. With the support of the Brazilian president Getúlio Vargas, the samba won status the "official music" of Brazil. But this status of national identity also came the recognition of intellectual Heitor Villa-Lobos, who arranged a recording with the maestro Leopold Stokowski in 1940, which involved Cartola, Donga, João da Baiana, Pixinguinha and Zé da Zilda.[1] Also in the 1940s, there arose a new crop of artists: Francisco Alves, Mário Reis, Orlando Silva, Silvio Caldas, Aracy de Almeida, Dalva de Oliveira, and Elizeth Cardoso, among others. Others such as Assis Valente, Ataulfo Alves, Dorival Caymmi, Herivelto Martins, Pedro Caetano, and Synval Silva led the samba to the music industry.[2] A new beat in the 1950's: the Bossa Nova

João Gilberto, the "father" of bossa nova. 22

A movement was born in the south area of Rio de Janeiro and strongly influenced by jazz, marking the history of samba and Brazilian popular music in the 1950s. The bossa nova emerged at the end of that decade, with an original rhythmic accent—which divided the phrasing of the samba and added influences of impressionist music and jazz—and a different style of singing, intimate and gentle. After precursors as Johnny Alf, João Donato and musicians as Luis Bonfá and Garoto, this sub-genre was inaugurated by João Gilberto, Tom Jobim and Vinicius de Moraes, and would have a generation of disciples, followers and Carlos Lyra, Roberto Menescal, Durval Ferreira and groups as Tamba Trio, Bossa 3, Zimbo Trio and The Cariocas.[1] The sambalanço also began at the end of the 1950s. It was a branch of the popular bossa nova (most appreciated by the middle class) which also mingled samba rhythms and American jazz. Sambalanço was often found at suburban dances of 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. This style was developed by artists such as Bebeto, Bedeu, Scotland 7, Djalma Ferreira, the Daydreams, Dhema, Ed Lincoln, Elza Soares, and Miltinho, among others. In the 21st century, groups such as Funk Como Le Gusta and Clube do Balanço continue to keep this sub-genre alive. Rediscovered of the samba's roots in the 1960s and 1970s In the 1960s, Brazil became politically divided with the arrival of a military dictatorship, and the leftist musicians of bossa nova started to gather attention to the music made in the favelas. Many popular artists were discovered at this time. Names like Cartola, Nelson Cavaquinho & Guilherme de Brito, Velha Guarda da Portela, Zé Keti, and Clementina de Jesus recorded their first albums.[1] In the 1970s, samba returned strongly to the air waves with composers and singers like Paulinho da Viola, Martinho da Vila, Clara Nunes, and Beth Carvalho dominating the hit parade. Great samba lyricists like Paulo César Pinheiro (especially in the praised partnership with João Nogueira) and Aldir Blanc started to appear around that time. [edit] Rapprochement with the hill

Vinicius de Moraes...

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... and Baden Powell transcend the bossa nova beat by syncretizing Afro-Brazilian forms such as Candomblé, Umbanda and Capoeira. With bossa nova, samba is further away from its popular roots. The influence of jazz is deepened and techniques have been incorporated classical music. From a festival in Carnegie Hall of New York, in 1962, the bossa nova reached worldwide success. But over the 1960s and 1970s, many artists who emerged—like Chico Buarque, Billy Blanco, Martinho da Vila and Paulinho da Viola—advocated the return of the samba beat its traditional, with the return of veterans as Candeia, Cartola, Nelson Cavaquinho e Zé Kéti. In the early the 1960s was the "Movement for Revitalization of Traditional Samba", promoted by Center for Popular Culture, in partnership with the Brazilian National Union of Students. It was the time of the appearance of the bar Zicartola of the samba shows at the Teatro de Arena and the Teatro Santa Rosa and musical as "Rosa de Ouro". Produced by Herminio Bello de Carvalho, the "Rosa de Ouro" revealed Araci Cortes and Clementina de Jesus. During the sixties, some samba groups appeared and formed by previous experiences with the world of samba and songs recorded by great names of Brazilian music. Among them were The Cinco Crioulos, The Voz do Morro, Mensageiros do Samba and The Cinco Só.[1] By that time, emerged a dissent within the bossa nova with afro-sambas, by Baden Powell and Vinicius de Moraes. Moreover, the movement approached traditional sambistas revised the samba of the hill, especially Cartola, Elton Medeiros, Nelson Cavaquinho, Zé Kéti and further Candeia, Monarco, Monsueto and Paulinho da Viola. [1] Following the steps of Paulo da Portela, that intermediate the relationship of the hill with the city where the samba was pursued, Paulinho da Viola—also the Portela samba school—would be a sort of ambassador of traditional gender before a more public art, including the tropicalists. Also within the bossa nova appears Jorge Ben; his contribution to merge with American rhythm and blues, which would further the emergence of a subgenus called swing (or samba-rock).[2] Outside the main scene of the so-called Brazilian Popular Music festivals, the sambists found the Bienal do Samba, in the late sixties, the space for the big names of the genus and followers. Even in the final decade, came the so-called samba-empolgação 'samba24

excitement' of carnival blocks Bafo da Onça, Cacique de Ramos, and Boêmios de Irajá.[1] A fusion: the samba-funk Also in the 1960s, came the samba funk. The samba-funk emerged at the end of the 1960s with pianist Dom Salvador and its group, which merge the samba with American funk newly arrived in the Brazilian lands. With the final journey of Dom Salvador for United States, the band closed the business, but at the beginning of 1970s some exmembers as hit Luiz Carlos, José Carlos Barroso and Oberdan joined Christopher Magalhaes Bastos, Jamil Joanes, Cláudio Lúcio da Silva Stevenson and to form Banda Black Rio. The new group has deepened the work of Don Salvador in the binary mixture of the bar with the Brazilian samba funk of the American Quaternary, based on the dynamics of implementation, driven by drums and bass. Even after the Banda Black Rio in 1980s, British djs began to disclose the group's work was rediscovered and pace throughout the Europe, mainly in UK and Germany.[1] Partido-Alto for the masses At the turn of the 1960s to the 1970s, the young Martinho da Vila would give a new face to the traditional sambas-enredo established by authors such as Silas de Oliveira and Mano Decio da Viola, compressing them and expanding its potential in the music market. Furthermore, Martin popularize the style of the Partido alto (with songs like "Casa de Bamba" and "Pequeno Burguês"), launched on its first album in 1969. Although the term arose in the beginning of century in Tia Ciata house (initially to describe instrumental music), the term partido alto came to be used to signify a type of samba which is characterized by a highly percussive beat of pandeiro, using the palm of the hand in the center of the instrument in place. The harmony of Partido alto is always higher in pitch, usually played by a set of percussion (usually surdo, pandeiro, and tambourine) and accompanied by a cavaquinho and/or a guitar. But from this highassimilated by the record industry was made of written soil, and no more spontaneous and improvised, according to traditional canons. Also in that decade, some popular singers and composers appeared in the samba, as Alcione, Beth Carvalho, Clara Nunes. As highlighted in city of São Paulo, Geraldo Filme was one of the leading names in samba paulistano, next to Germano Mathias, Osvaldinho of Cuíca, Tobias da Vai-Vai, Aldo Bueno, and Adoniran Barbosa; this latter has duly recognized nationally before being recalled and rewritten more often in the seventies.

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1980s until 1990s

Zeca Pagodinho, one of popular contemporany sambists. In the early 1980s, after having been eclipsed by the popularity of disco and Brazilian rock, Samba reappeared in the media with a musical movement created in the suburbs of Rio de Janeiro. It was the pagode, a renewed samba, with new instruments—like the banjo and the tan-tan—and a new language that reflected the way that many people actually spoke with the inclusion of heavy gíria (slang). The most popular artists were Zeca Pagodinho, Almir Guineto, Grupo Fundo de Quintal, Jorge Aragão, and Jovelina Pérola Negra.[6] In 1995, the world saw come out from Savador one of the moust popular Pagode group, the Gera Samba, later renamed É o Tchan. This group created the most sexual dannce of the Pagode from 1990s, a music with a strange like. Some groups like Patrulha do Samba and Harmonia do Samba, also mixtured a bit of Axé. Samba, as a result, morphed during this period, embracing types of music that were growing popular in the Caribbean such as rap, reggae, and rock. Examples of Samba fusions with popular Caribbean music is samba-rap, samba-rock and samba-reggae, all of which were efforts to not only entertain, but to unify all Blacks throughout the Americas culturally and politically, through song. In other words, samba-rap and the like, often carried lyrics that encouraged Black pride, and spoke out against social injustices.[7] Samba, however, is not accepted by all as the national music of Brazil, or as a valuable art form. What appears to be new is the local response flow, in that instead of simply assimilating outside influences into a local genre or movement, the presence of foreign genres is acknowledged as part of the local scene: samba-rock, samba-rap. But this acknowledgment does not imply mere imitation of the foreign models or, for that matter, passive consumption by national audiences. Light-skinned, "upper-class," Brazilians often associated Samba with dark-skinned blacks because of its arrival from West Africa. As a result, there are some light-skinned Brazilians who claim that samba is the 26

music of low-class, dark-skinned Brazilians and, therefore, is a "thing of bums and bandits." [8] Samba continued to act as a unifying agent during the 1990s, when Rio stood as a national Brazilian symbol. Even though it was not the capital city, Rio acted as a Brazilian unifier, and the fact that samba originated in Rio helped the unification process. In 1994, the World Cup had its own samba composed for the occasion, "Copa 94." The 1994 FIFA World Cup, in which samba played a major cultural role, holds the record for highest attendance in World Cup history. Samba is thought to be able to unify because individuals participate in it regardless of social or ethnic group. Today, samba is viewed as perhaps the only uniting factor in a country fragmented by political division [9] . The Afro-Brazilians played a significant role in the development of the samba over time. This change in the samba was an integral part of Brazilian nationalism, which was called "Brazilianism". "What appears to be new is the local response to that flow, in that instead of simply assimilating outside influences into a local genre or movement, the presence of foreign genres is acknowledged as part of the local scene: samba-rock, samba-reggae, sambarap. But this acknowledgment does not imply mere imitation of the foreign models or, for that matter, passive consumption by national audiences." — Gerard Béhague Selected Reports in Ethnomusicology ) Pg. 84 Samba in the 21st century From year 2000, there were some artists who were looking to reconnect most popular traditions of samba. Were the cases of Marquinhos of Oswaldo Cruz, Teresa Cristina among others, that contributed to the revitalization of the region of Lapa, in the Rio de Janeiro. In São Paulo, samba resumed the tradition with concerts in Sesc Pompéia Club and also by the work of several groups, including the group Quinteto em Branco e Preto who developed the event "Pagode da Vela" ("Pagoda of Sail"). This all helped to attract many artists from Rio de Janeiro, who shows, established residence in neighborhoods of the capital paulistana. In 2004, the minister of culture Gilberto Gil submitted to the Unesco the application of damping off of samba as Cultural Heritage of Humanity in category "Intangible Goods" by Institute of National Historical and Artistic Heritage. In the following year, the sambade-roda of Baiano Recôncavo was proclaimed part of the Heritage of Humanity by Unesco, in the category of "Oral and intangible expressions." Although samba exists throughout the country—especially in the states of Bahia, Maranhão, Minas Gerais, and Sao Paulo—in the form of various popular rhythms and dances that originated from the regional batuque, a type of music and associated dance form from Cape Verde, the samba is a particular musical expression of urban Rio de Janeiro, where it was born and developed between the end of the 19th century and the 27

first decades of the 20th century. It was in Rio that the dance practiced by former slaves who migrated from Bahia in the northeast came into contact and incorporated other genres played in the city (such as the polka, the maxixe, the lundu, and the xote, among others), acquiring a completely unique character and creating the samba carioca urbana (samba school) and carnavalesco (Carnaval school director).[3] In reality, the samba schools are large organizations of up to 5000 people which compete annually in the Carnival with thematic floats, elaborate costumes and original music. During the 1910s, some songs under the name of samba were recorded, but these recordings did not achieve great popularity; however, in 1917, was recorded in disc "Pelo Telefone" ("By Phone"), which is considered the first samba. The song has the authority claimed by Ernesto dos Santos, best known as Donga, with co-authors attributed to Mauro de Almeida, a known carnaval columnist. Actually, "Pelo Telefone" was creating a collective of musicians who participated in the celebrations of the house Tia Ciata (Ciata aunt), but eventually registed by Donga and the Almeida National Library.[3] "Pelo Telefone" was the first composition to achieve success with the brand of samba and contribute to the dissemination and popularization of the genre. From that moment, samba started to spread across the country, initially associated with Carnival and then buying a place in the music market. There were many composers as Heitor dos Prazeres, João da Bahia, Pixinguinha and Sinhô, but the sambas of these composers were "amaxixados" (a mix of maxixe), known as sambas-maxixes.[3] The contours of the modern samba came only at the end of the 1920s, from the innovations of a group of composers of carnival blocks of neighborhoods of Estácio de Sá and Osvaldo Cruz, and the hills of Mangueira, Salgueiro and São Carlos. Since then, there were great names in samba, and some as Ismael Silva, Cartola, Ary Barroso, Noel Rosa, Ataulfo Alves, Wilson Batista, Geraldo Pereira, Zé Kéti, Candeia, Ciro Monteiro, Nelson Cavaquinho, Elton Medeiros, Paulinho da Viola, Martinho da Vila, and many others.[3] As the samba is consolidated as an urban and modern expression, he began to be played in radio stations, spreading the hills and neighborhoods to south area of Rio de Janeiro. Initially viewed with prejudice and criminalized by their black backgrounds, the samba to conquer the public middle class as well. Derived from samba, other musical earned themselves names such as samba-canção, partido alto, samba-enredo, samba de gafieira, samba de breque, bossa nova, samba-rock, pagode, and many others. In 2007, the IPHAN became the Samba a Cultural Heritage of Brazil.[3] The samba is the most popular musical genre in Brazil, well known associated abroad with the football and Carnival. This history began with the international success of "Aquarela do Brasil," by Ary Barroso, followed with Carmen Miranda (supported by Getúlio Vargas government and the US Good Neighbor policy), which led to the samba United States, went further by bossa nova, which finally entered the country in the world of music. The success of the samba in Europe and Japan only confirms its ability to win 28

fans, regardless of language. Currently, there are hundreds of samba schools held on European soil (scattered by countries like Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, France, Sweden, Switzerland). Already in Japan, the records invest heavily in the launch of former Sambistas set of discs, which eventually create a market comprised solely of catalogs of Japanese record labels.[3] The modern samba that emerged from the beginning of the century rate is basically 2/4 tempo and varied, with conscious use of the possibilities of chorus sung to the sound of palms and batucada rhythm, and which would add one or more parts, or offices of declamatory verses. Traditionally, the samba is played by strings (cavaquinho and various types of guitar) and various percussion instruments such as tambourine. By influence of American orchestras in vogue since the Second World War and the cultural impact of US music post-war, began to be used also as instruments trombones and trumpets, and the influence choro, flute and clarinet. In addition to rhythm and bar set musically, historically brings in itself a whole culture of food (dishes for specific occasions), dances varied ((miudinho, coco, samba de roda, pernada), parties, clothes (shoe nozzle fine, linen shirt, etc), and the NAIF painting of established names such as Nelson Sargento, Guilherme de Brito and Heitor dos Prazeres, and anonymous artists community (painters, sculptors, designers and stylists) that makes the clothes, costumes, carnival floats and cars opens the wings of schools of samba. The Samba National Day is celebrated on December 2. The date was established at the initiative of a Alderman of Salvador, Luis Monteiro da Costa, in honor of Ary Barroso, which was composed "Na Baixa do Sapateiro" - although he had never been in Bahia. Thus, on December 2 marked the first visit of the Ary Barroso Salvador. Initially, this day was celebrated only Samba in Salvador, but eventually turned into a national day. Instruments of samba Basics chocalho reco-reco Cavaquinho Guitar Pandeiro Surdo Tamborin Tantã Repinique/Repique Snare Drum/Caixa/Tarol Ago-go Ganza/Chocalho

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Jive (dance) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the ballroom dance style. For other dances that go by the name "jive", see jive.

Jive dancers. In Ballroom dancing, Jive is a dance style in 4/4 time that originated in the United States from African-Americans in the early 1940s. It is a lively and uninhibited variation of the Jitterbug, a form of Swing dance. Jive is one of the five International Latin dances. In competition it is danced at a speed of 44 bars per minute, although in some cases this is reduced to between 32 and 40 bars per minute. Many of its basic patterns are similar to these of the East Coast Swing with the major difference of highly syncopated rhythm of the Triple Steps (Chasses), which use straight eighths in ECS and hard swing in Jive. History To jazz musicians who were the players of swing music in the 1930s and 1940s "Jive" was an expression denoting glib or foolish talk.[1] American soldiers brought Lindy Hop/Jitterbug to Europe around 1940, where this dance swiftly found a following among the young. In the United States the term Swing became the most common word used to describe the dance.[2] In the UK variations in technique led to styles such as Boogie-Woogie and Swing Boogie, with "Jive" gradually emerging as the generic term.[3] After the war, the boogie became the dominant form for popular music. It was, however, never far from criticism as a foreign, vulgar dance. The famous ballroom dancing guru, Alex Moore, said that he had "never seen anything uglier". English instructors 30

developed the elegant and lively ballroom Jive, danced to slightly slower music. In 1968 it was adopted as the fifth Latin dance in International competitions. The modern form of ballroom jive in the 1990s-present, is a very happy and boppy dance, the lifting of knees and the bending or rocking of the hips often occurs. Basic step The basic step (Jive Basic) is a six beat pattern, comprising eight weight changes. Leader: Normally the male Counts 1 2 - Rock step: left foot step back, right foot replace Counts 3 a4 - Chasse to the left Counts 5 a6 - Chasse to the right The follower's steps are mirrored. Normally the female

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Swing (dance) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search

Jitterbugging at a juke joint, November 1939 The term "swing dance" commonly refers to a group of dances that developed concurrently with the swing style of jazz music in the 1920s, '30s and '40s, although the earliest of these dance forms predate swing jazz music. The best known of these dances is the Lindy Hop, a popular partner dance that originated in Harlem and is still danced today. While the majority of swing dances began in African American communities as vernacular African American dances, a number of forms (Balboa, for example) developed within Anglo-American or other ethnic group communities. Swing jazz features the syncopated timing associated with African American and West African music and dance — a combination of crotchets and quavers (quarter notes and eighth notes) that many swing dancers interpret as 'triple steps' and 'steps' — yet also introduces changes in the way these rhythms were played — a distinct delay or 'relaxed' approach to timing. Today there are swing dance scenes in many countries throughout the world. Lindy Hop is often the most popular, though each city and country prefers various dances in different degrees. Each local swing dance community has a distinct local culture and defines "swing dance" and the "appropriate" music to accompany it in different ways. Forms of Swing In many scenes outside the United States the term "Swing dancing" is used to refer generically to one or all of the following swing era dances: Lindy Hop, Lindy Charleston, Shag, Balboa and Blues. This group is often extended to include West Coast Swing, East Coast Swing, Hand Dancing, Jive, Rock and Roll, Modern Jive, and other dances developing in the 1940s and later. A strong tradition of social and competitive boogie woogie and acrobatic rock'n'roll in Europe add these dances to their local swing dance 32

cultures. In Singapore and other scenes, Latin dances such as salsa and Tango are often taught and danced within the "Swing scene", and for many scenes tap dancing and a range of other jazz dances are considered key, as are hip hop and other contemporary African American street dances. The variations continue, dictated by local dance community interests. Many swing dancers today argue that it is important to dance many styles of partner dance to improve technique, but also to reflect the historical relationship between these dances in the swing era of the 1920s and 1930s. In the Savoy Ballroom, for example, bands would often play waltzes, Latin songs and so on, as well as swinging jazz. Dancers were often familiar with a wide range of popular and traditional dances. Early forms from the 1930s and 1940s Lindy Hop evolved in the late 1920s and early 1930s was out of Partnered Charleston. It is characterized by an 8-count circular basic or "swing out" and has an emphasis on improvisation and the ability to easily adapt to include other steps in 8-count and 6-count rhythms. It has been danced to almost every conceivable style of music with blues or jazz rhythm (with the exception of jazz waltzes), as well as non-traditional styles of music such as hip hop. Balboa is an 8-count dance that emphasizes a strong partner connection and quick footwork. A product of Southern California's crowded ballrooms, Balboa (or "Bal") is primarily danced in close embrace. A library of open figures, called BalSwing, evolved from LA Swing, which was another Southern California dance that was a contemporary of Balboa. While most dancers differentiate between pure Balboa and Bal-Swing, both are considered to be part of the dance. Balboa is frequently danced to fast jazz (usually anything from 180 to 320 bpm beats per minute), though many like to Balboa to slower (170-190 bpm) tempos. Collegiate Shag typically refers to a kind of double shag that is believed to have originated in New York during the 1930s. To call the dance "collegiate shag" would not have been common during the swing era; the addition of the word "collegiate" was supposedly a marketing ploy to attract college-age dancers to certain studios and dance halls. The name Collegiate Shag later became somewhat standard in the latter part of the 20th century (see swing revival), to help distinguish it from other later contemporary dances that shared the "shag" designation (e.g., the Carolina Shag). Collegiate Shag was accompanied by music that emphasized a 2-beat rhythm and was danced in the varieties of single, double, and triple shag. The variety of names describe the amount of slow (step, hop) steps executed before being followed by a single quick, quick rhythm. The most common form recognized as Collegiate Shag is double-shag rhythm. St. Louis Shag done in the "Sang That Rhyme" Charleston position. The steps are: two step, rock step, kick forward, step down, kick forward (other leg), stag, step, stomp (repeat). The "stag" is bringing the leg up with the knee bent. As a variation, when repeating, one can do two forward kicks (or "switch, switch", referring to switching feet) in place of the rock step.

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Jitterbug dancers in 1938 Jitterbug is often associated with one form of swing dance, but is not in fact a general term for all swing dances and is more appropriately used to describe a swing dancer rather than a specific swing dance (i.e. a jitterbug can dance Lindy Hop, Shag, or another swing dance). The term was famously associated with swing era dancers by band leader Cab Calloway because, as he put it, "They look like a bunch of jitterbugs out there on the floor"[citation needed] due to their fast, often bouncy movements. Later forms from the 1940s, 1950s and later Lindy Hop continued into the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s and is featured in many movies of the era featuring Whitey's Lindy Hoppers with Frankie Manning, Dean Collins (whose style would lead to the creation of West Coast Swing), and Hal Takier and the Ray Rand Dancers. Lindy Charleston is essentially 1930s and '40s partner Charleston woven in and out of Lindy Hop moves. Lindy Charleston involves a number of positions, including side-by-side, hand-to-hand, and tandem Charleston. In "jockey position", the closed position is opened out so that both partners may face forward, without breaking apart. In side-by-side Charleston, partners open the closed position entirely, so that their only points of connection are at their touching hips and arm contact, wherein the lead's right hand and arm touch the follower's back and the follower's left hand and arm touch the leader's shoulder and arm. Both partners then swing their free arms as they would in solo Charleston. In both jockey and side-by-side Charleston, the leader steps back onto his left foot, while the follower steps back onto her right. In tandem Charleston, one partner stands in front of the other (usually the follower, though the arrangement may vary), both face in the same direction to start, and both begin by stepping back onto the left foot. The partner behind holds the front partner's hands at the latter's hip height, and their joined arms swing backwards and forwards, as in the basic step.

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Eastern Swing is an evolution of Fox Trot and the precursor to the more modern East Coast Swing. East Coast Swing is a simpler 6-count variation of Lindy Hop that evolved with swing band music of the 1940s and the work of the Arthur Murray dance studios in the 1940s[1]. It is also known as 6-count Swing, Triple-Step Swing, or SingleTime Swing. East Coast Swing has very simple structure and footwork along with basic moves and styling. It is popular for its simple nature and is often danced to slow, medium, or fast tempo jazz, blues, or rock and roll. Occasionally, Rockabilly, aka Rock-a-billy, is mistaken for East Coast Swing, but Rockabilly is more closely related to Western Swing. West Coast Swing was developed in the 1950s as a stylistic variation on Lindy Hop. It is a slotted dance which is danced to a wide variety of music including: blues, rock and roll, country western, smooth and cool jazz. It is popular throughout the United States and Canada but is uncommon in Europe and much of Asia. West coast swing communities are developing in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. Western Swing, also called Country Swing or Country/Western Swing (C/W Swing) is a form with a distinct culture. It resembles East Coast Swing, but adds variations from other country dances. It is danced to country and western music. Boogie-woogie developed originally in the 1940s with the rise of boogie woogie music. It is popular today in Europe, and was considered by some to be the European counterpart to East Coast Swing, a Six count dance standardized for the American ballroom industry. It is danced to rock music of various kinds, blues or boogie woogie music but usually not to jazz. As the dance has developed it has also taken to 8-count variations and swing outs similar to Lindy Hop, while keeping the original boogie woogie footwork. Carolina Shag was danced along the strands between Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, and Wilmington, North Carolina, during the 1940s. It is most often associated with beach music, which refers to songs that are rhythm and blues based and, according to Bo Bryan, a noted shag historian and resident of Beaufort County, is a term that was coined at Carolina Beach, North Carolina. Imperial Swing is a cross between East Coast and West coast as it is done in slot and in the round. It started at the Club Imperial in St Louis. George Edick, who owned the club, let teenagers dance on the lower level and the swing dancers of the time taught them what was learned from their trips to the east coast. As people traveled around they added parts of west coast,bop and Carolina shag to complement the dance and make it distinctive. People can tell the difference between St Louis dancers and dancers from other parts of the country. "The Imperial" has elements of "East Coast", "West Coast", "Carolina Shag", and "Bop". Blues Dance yesterday was an informal type of dance with no fixed patterns and a heavy focus on connection, sensuality and improvisation, often with strong body contact. Although usually done to blues music, it can be done to any slow tempo 4/4 music, including rock ballads and "club" music. "Blues dancing" is popular in many swing dance communities.

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Jive is a dance of International Style Ballroom dancing. It initially was based on Eastern swing brought to England by Americans Troops in World War II and evolved before becoming the now standardized form of today. Skip Jive A British variant, popular in the 1950s and 1960s danced to trad jazz. Modern Jive - also known as LeRoc and Ceroc - developed in the 1980s, reputedly from a French form of Jive. Modern Jive is not technically of the Jive family which typically use a 6 count pattern of various combinations of walking and triple steps (Ballroom Jive - back/replace triple-triple; Swing Jive - triple-triple back/replace) etc. It is pared down to a simple box step and constitutes the simplest form of couples dance style gauged to provide a social atmosphere rather than technical aptitude. Rock and Roll - Developing in the 1950s in response to rock and roll music, rock and roll is very popular in Australia and danced socially as well as competitively and in performances. The style has a long association with Lindy Hop in that country, as many of the earliest lindy hoppers in the early 1990s moved to Lindy Hop from a rock and roll tradition. There are ongoing debates about whether rock and roll constitutes swing dancing, particularly in reference to the music to which it is danced: there is some debate as to whether or not it swings. Despite these discussions, many of the older Lindy Hoppers are also keen rock and roll dancers, with rock and roll characterised by an older dancer (30s and older) than Lindy Hop (25 and under). Acrobatic Rock'n'Roll Popular in Europe, acrobatic rock and roll is popularly associated with Russian gymnasts who took up the dance, though it is popular throughout Europe today. It is more a performance dance and sport than a social dance. Washington Hand Dancing originated in the Washington, DC, Area in the mid1950s as D.C.’s own version of swing dancing. From its very beginning, DC Hand-dance was referred to and called ―DC Hand-Dance/Hand-Dancing‖, ―DC Swing‖, ―DC Style‖ (swing) and ―fast dance‖ (meaning DC Hand-Dance). This is the first time a version of ―swing‖ dance was termed ―hand-dance/hand-dancing‖. DC Hand-Dance is characterized by very smooth footwork and movements, and close-in and intricate hand-turns, danced to a 6-beat, 6- to 8-count dance rhythm. The footwork consists of smooth and continuous floor contact, sliding and glidingtype steps (versus hopping and jumping-type steps), and there are no aerials. Push and Whip are Texas forms of swing dance developed in the 1940s and 1950s. They are slotted swing dances, danced to a wide variety of music including blues, pop, jazz, and rock and roll. Similar to West Coast Swing, they emphasize the closed position, double resistance/rock step, and lead-follow. Slow Whip is a a variation on Whip/Push that is danced to slow blues music, typically 60 bpm or less.

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Competition, social dancing and music

Traditionally, distinctions are made between "Ballroom Swing" and "Jazz Dance Swing" styles. East Coast Swing is a standardized dance in "American Style" Ballroom dancing, while Jive is a standardized dance in "International Style"; however both of these falls under the "Ballroom Swing" umbrella. Jazz Dance forms (evolved in dance halls) vs. ballroom forms (created for ballroom competition format) are different in appearance. Jazz Dance forms include Lindy Hop, Balboa, Collegiate Shag, and Charleston. [edit] Types of Competition Dance competitions specify which forms are to be judged, and are generally available in four different formats: 1) Strictly: One couple competing together in various heats, to randomly selected music, where no pre-choreographed steps are allowed. 2) Jack and Jill: Where leads and follows are randomly matched for the competition. In initial rounds leads and follows usually compete individually, but in final rounds, scoring depends on the ability of the partner you draw and your ability to work with that partner. Some competitions hold a Jill and Jack division where leads must be women and follows must be men. 3) Showcase: One couple competing together for a single song which has been previously choreographed. 4) Classic: Similar to Showcase but with restrictions on lifts, drops, moves where one partner supports the weight of the other partner, and moves where the partners are not in physical contact. Judging Criteria Judging for competition is based on the three "T's" as well as showmanship (unless the contest in question designates the audience as the deciding factor). The three "T's" consist of: 1) Timing - Related to tempo & rhythm of the music. 2) Teamwork - How well a lead and follow dance together and lead/follow dance variations. 3) Technique - How clean and precise the cooperative dancing is executed. Showmanship consists of presentation, creativity, costumes, and difficulty.

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Team Formations Additionally a "Team Formation" division may also be specified at a competition. Under this category a minimum of 3 to 5 couples (depending on individual competition rules) perform a prechoreographed routine to a song of their choosing, where the group dances in syncronation and into different formations. This division is also judged using the three "T's" and showmanship; however this criteria now applies to the team as a whole. Social swing dancing Many, if not most, of the swing dances listed above are popular as social dances, with vibrant local communities that hold dances with DJs and live bands that play music most appropriate for the preferred dance style. There are frequently active local clubs and associations, classes with independent or studio-/school-affiliated teachers and workshops with visiting or local teachers. Most of these dance styles — as with many other styles — also feature special events such as camps or exchanges. Music The historical development of particular swing dance styles was often in response to trends in popular music. For example, 1920s and solo Charleston was - and is - usually danced to 2/4 ragtime music or traditional jazz, Lindy Hop was danced to swing music (a kind of swinging jazz), and Lindy Charleston to either traditional or swing jazz. West Coast Swing is usually danced to Pop, R&B, Blues, or Funk. Western Swing and Push/Whip are usually danced to country and western music. Hip hop Lindy is danced to hip hop music, and blues dance to either traditional blues forms or slower music from a range of genres (most frequently jazz or blues). There are local variations on these musical associations in each dance scene, often informed by local DJs, dance teachers and bands. Modern swing dance bands active in the U.S. during the 1990s and 2000s include many contemporary jazz big bands, swing revival bands with a national presence such as Lavay Smith and Her Red Hot Skillet Lickers (based in San Francisco), and local/regional jazz bands that specialize in 1930s-1940s swing/Lindy dance music, such as the The Swingout Big Band, White Heat Swing Orchestra, and Beantown Swing Orchestra (Boston), the Boilermaker Jazz Band (Pittsburgh), the Southside Aces (Minneapolis), Jonathan Stout and His Campus Five (Los Angeles) and The Jonathan Stout Orchestra featuring Hilary Alexander (Los Angeles), The Flat Cats (Chicago), The Gina Knight Orchestra (Chicago and Joliet, IL), the Solomon Douglas Swingtet and the Tom Cunningham Orchestra (Washington, D.C.), Sonoran Swing (Arizona), and The Bill Elliott Swing Orchestra (Los Angeles).

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Rumba

Not to be confused with Roomba. For the film starring George Raft and Carole Lombard, see Rumba (1935 film). For the software product Rumba, see RUMBA_(Terminal_Emulator).

Rumba rhythm[1]. Rumba is a Spanish word that means "party". The word describes a family of percussive rhythms, song and dance that originated in Cuba as a combination of the musical traditions of Africans brought to Cuba as slaves and Spanish colonizers. It is secular, with no religious connections. [2]Rhythmically, rumba is based on the five-stroke pattern called clave (rhythm) and the inherent structure it conveys.[3] The term spread in the 1930s and 1940s to the faster popular music of Cuba (the Peanut Vendor was a classic), where it was used as a catch-all term, rather as salsa today. Also, the term is used in the international Latin-American dance syllabus, where it is a misnomer: the music used for this slower dance is the bolero-son. The term is also used today for various styles of popular music from Spain, as part of the so-called Cantes de ida y vuelta, or music that developed between both sides of the atlantic. Flamenco Rumba in particular is more related to the Guaracha, an ancestor of Cuban Rumba. Types Cuban Rumba, percussion, song and dance styles that owe their origin to African slaves in Cuba. 39

Rumba (dance), international dance styles that correspond to slower Cuban music, such as the bolero-son. Flamenco Rumba, a style of flamenco music from Spain also known as Gypsy Rumba or Rumba Gitana. African Rumba, a style of music that originated in Congo, and evolved into Soukous music. References 1. ^ Blatter, Alfred (2007). Revisiting music theory: a guide to the practice, p.28. ISBN 0415974402. 2. ^ Orovio, Helio 2004. Cuban music from A to Z. Revised by Sue Steward. ISBN 0822331861 A biographical dictionary of Cuban music, artists, composers, groups and terms. Duke University, Durham NC; Tumi, Bath. p191 3. ^ Peñalosa, David (2009: 100). The Clave Matrix; Afro-Cuban Rhythm: Its Principles and African Origins. Redway, CA: Bembe Inc. ISBN 1-886502-80-3. Cuban music is diverse in styles and background that comes from several cultures. In this area of Cuban music, Rumba is a generic term covering a variety of musical rhythms and associated dances. In this style, that includes a combination of both music and dance, vocal and rhythmic improvisation is both involved [1] This includes a smooth combination of music, dance and poetry to produce a unique sound and dance [2] Rumba has also been described by some as a folkloric music and dance complex combination. This may because of the influences rumba has from the music and culture presented by Africans who were brought by the Spanish colonizers to Cuba to be slaves. The mixing of these two cultures, among others that later came into the culture, created a deeply rooted people. The Africans brought over to be slaves had a history and culture that later merged with the other cultures they had been pushed into. The African origins of Rumba emerged from two secular dances of the Bantu origin. The two influences and roots for rumba in particular being from the ―Yulea‖ and ―Makuta‖ styles of dancing [3] There are numerous other African influences in the rumba that helped shape it into what it is today but those are the main influences that are noticeable today in the styles of dance. In rumba there is a dance move where the couple dancing move together and almost meet at the navel and then separate. This is similar to a dance move that the Sara people of Nigeria do while dancing. In this move done, that is similar to steps in the rumba, while dancing the Sara people has a row of boys and a row of girls. The row of boys and row of girls stand across from one another and then they move together to touch than separate from one another, then the two rows repeat this move again. This move brought by the slaves made its way into rumba and has become a part of the Cuban culture since it was more openly accepted as a dance and art form [4]

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Emerging in the mid nineteenth century from the marginal neighborhoods of Havana and Matanzas, this percussion based music and dance was not widely accepted. As an energetic Afro-Cuban dance, Rumba was often suppressed and restricted because it was viewed as dangerous and lewd. Because of this, when it first emerged it was done in private and had to be on the down low. In the 1920s and 1930s the intellectual movement known as Afrocubanismo gave roots to traditional rumba [5] When this afrocubanismo movement came along it helped open the doors to African rooted dancing and ways of expression. Rumba became more accepted among Cubans and was a recognized cultural expression that identified as a part of the Cuban people. It also provided the means at that point of public expression for those without representation in the media, the Afro-Cubans. Before that time the whites had most, if not all, of the control over any means expression, culture, and so on [6] Rumba forming and for once being able to be expressed openly gave some of the control back to the Afro-Cubans. For the rumba, an expression place for the free and enslaved blacks to congregate was also established. The enslaved blacks’ still being able to attend only after their work was done; the free blacks having fewer restrictions [7] Afro-Cuban rumba is entirely different than Ballroom Rumba, or the African style of pop music called rumba. Rumba developed in rural Cuba, and is still danced in Havana, Matanzas and other Cuban cities as well as rural areas, especially those with a significant or predominant African community, although now it is infused with influences from Jazz and Hip hop. Cuban Rumba can be broken down into three basic types: Yambú, Columbia, and Guaguancó. Yambú is the oldest and slowest style that exists. Then there is the most popular style; Guaguancó. This style can be heard in songs such as "Quimbara" by Celia Cruz. Guaguancó is also a couple’s dance that is a symbolic game of flirtation that is sexually initiated. The climax of the dance is the pelvic thrust by the male; the female can accept or reject this move. Yambu is a couple’s dance as well, however it is much slower paced. Columbia is a fast and highly acrobatic solo dancing that is performed by a male dancer. The main thing that separates these three types of rumba is chorographical differences and the pace of the music [8] A Cuban Rumba song often begins with the soloist singing meaningless syllables, which are called 'diana(s)'. The male dancer and singer then may proceed to improvise lyrics stating the reason for holding the present Rumba ('decimar'; span.: to make ten-line stanzas), or instead tunes into a more or less fixed song such as: "Ave Maria Morena" (Yambú, Anónimo), "Llora Como Lloré" (Guaguancó, S. Ramirez), "Cuba Linda, Cuba Hermosa" (Guaguancó, R.Deza), "China de Oro (Laye Laye)" (Columbia), "Malanga (Murió)" (Columbia)". Rumba is now most commonly performed at informal fiestas or just in the street when the mood arises. Percussions and vocal sections make up rumba’s musical ensemble [9] This African derived rumba dance and music also inspires poets and in turn they also inspire the dance and chants. Some poets, including Carmen Cordero and Maya Santos 41

Febres, have said that a ―poetic portrayal of dance maintains its meaning as a vehicle of resistance.‖ This could be taken as pushing for change and acceptance [10]These ideas go well with the expression associated with the rumba when it first emerged and when it became more widely accepted by all Cubans. Mention in popular music Jimmy Buffett had a song on his 2009 album Summerzcool, entitled Rhumba Man.

Tango (ballroom)

Ballroom Tango is a ballroom dance that branched away from its original Argentine roots by allowing European, American, Hollywood, and competitive (a.k.a dancesport) influences into the style and execution of the dance. The present day ballroom tango is divided into two disciplines: American Style and International Style. Both styles are enjoyed as social and competitive dances, but the International version is more globally accepted as a competitive style. Both styles share a closed dance position, but the American style allows its practitioners to separate from closed position to execute open moves, like underarm turns, alternate hand holds, dancing apart, and side-by-side choreography. 42

History American style tango American style tango’s evolutionary path is derived from Argentina to U.S., when it was popularized by silent film star Rudolph Valentino in 1921, who demonstrated a highly stylized form of Argentine tango in The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. As a result, the Hollywood style steps mixed in with other social dance steps of the times began this branch away from the Argentine style. Meanwhile, the tango was also making its own inroads into Europe. Following the English standardization of their version of Tango, Arthur Murray, a ballroom dance instructor in the U.S., tried his own hand at standardizing the ballroom dances for instruction in his chain of social dance schools.[1] Consequently, his tango syllabus incorporated steps with Argentine, Hollywood and socially popular influences and techniques. This looser social style was referred to as American style by the English. International style tango In 1912 tango was introduced to British audiences, showcased in the successful musical comedy The Sunshine Girl. Concurrently, the dance became popular elsewhere in Europe, particularly in Paris.[2] As the European dancers enjoyed the music and passion of the dance, they began to inject their own culture, style and technique into the dance. In an effort to teach a standardized version of the tango, the English eventually codified their own version of tango for instruction in dance schools and for performance in competitions in 1922. The resulting style was referred to as English style, but eventually took on the name International style, as this became the competitive ballroom version practiced around the world. Eventually, championships in the international style tango were organized all over Europe with numerous participating countries. Adjudicators were able to judge against a standardized syllabus and book of techniques, thereby creating a more objective means of picking the champions, even though artistic interpretation remains an important element of competition.[3] Initially, the English dominated the International style tango, but eventually, technicians from other backgrounds, most notably the Italians, have chipped away at the English standard and created a dynamic style that continues to raise the competitive bar. [4]

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