You are on page 1of 26

# Magnet - PMSM Analysis

Sea Technology
Wang Lei
Date: 2007-11
Note: This note only describes how to operate, and may not match the actual motor exist.

1Problem Description............................................................................................................................................................... 3
2MAGNET Interface Introduction.......................................................................................................................................... 3

## 32D Static Magnetic Field Calculation....................................................................................................................................... 4

3.1Establish a Geometric Model................................................................................................................................................ 4
3.2 Material Definition.............................................................................................................................................................. 5
3.3 Physical Model.................................................................................................................................................................... 6
3.3 Coil Setup............................................................................................................................................................................ 9
3.4 Boundary conditions......................................................................................................................................................... 11
3.5 Setting Mesh....................................................................................................................................................................... 13
3.6 Solving............................................................................................................................................................................... 13
3.7 After Treatment................................................................................................................................................................. 14
4. Back- EMF Calculation......................................................................................................................................................... 17
4.1 Moving Body..................................................................................................................................................................... 17
4.2 2D Transient with Motion.................................................................................................................................................. 18
4.3 Results................................................................................................................................................................................ 18
5.1 Power Angle....................................................................................................................................................................... 20
5.2 Calculations....................................................................................................................................................................... 21
5.3 PMSM Torque-Angle Characteristic ................................................................................................................................ 23
5.4 PMSM Stall Torque Computing........................................................................................................................................ 26

1. Problem Description
Model is a three-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor, there are 24 slots on the stator, the rotor magnet built 8, two pairs of
poles, rated speed 1500rpm, specifically to do simulation analysis of the following issues:
1. Two-dimensional static magnetic field of permanent magnet synchronous motor is calculated,
and the flux density harmonic analysis;
2. Permanent magnet synchronous motor load calculated counter electromotive force;
3. Calculate the steady-state performance of permanent magnet synchronous motor;
4. Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor stall torque.
Professional use Infolytica's magnetic field analysis software MagNet, the model simulation.

## 2. MAGNET Interface Introduction

5
7
10

1
2

6
11

4
9

8
14

15

12
13
16
File
EditUndoRedo
Draw
Model
Boundary
Circuit

Solve
View
Tools
Window
Help
3

2) boundary conditions
3) run the script, VBS format
4) linear, circular grid manually partition tool
5) The model view rotation adjustment
7) Mobile copy rotation and other operations
8) Electronic components
9) arranged in the electronic component
10) Item Operation Window
Object
Material
Coil
Problem
Field
View
11) selection tool
12) draw lines, arcs, circles tool
13) generating entity Tools
14) modeling and display window
15) circuit diagram window
16) Keyboard Input Tools

## 3. 2D static magnetic field calculation

The basic steps MagNet software. And general finite element CAE software is similar to, an analysis of a project includes the following
steps.

Geometry

Material

Physical

Electrical

Border

definition

model

connections

conditions

Mesh

Solving

Post
processing

## 3.1 Establish a Geometric Model

MagNet modeling itself is simple and practical, with its powerful model import and export functions, you can create all kinds of
complex models, this model uses the import and export of the way, first create a pole of permanent magnet synchronous motor model in
AutoCAD, and into MagNet, the specific process is as follows:
1, first established in AutoCAD geometry model, the unit is mm, save as dxf format capture mode while drawing attention to ensure
that the two lines intersect completely, there is no break, the model is as follows:

2. Open a new MagNet file, set the length in mm in the menu Tools / set units in order to ensure consistency and AutoCAD the unit;
3. Import: menu Files / Import, select the dxf file, previously saved file into dxf can.
4. Set curve smoothness: Select Item Operation window View, select View 1, point right property, jump out the window, the angle of
the curve smoothness angle can be piecemeal, as shown below

## 3.2 Edit Material

Model of the stator, the rotor yoke material 50w350, neodymium iron boron permanent magnet to 50w350 example, details of
the material definition process: 1, menu Tools / New user material, jump out the window as follows: to define a new material
name (eg 50w350 ), the material color
And a description of the material and use;

2. Click Next, jump out the window as follows, select the need to define material properties, such as the magnetization curve (nonlinear), iron loss curves (do not define, but if you need to calculate the iron loss should be defined), conductivity, permittivity and mass
density;

## 3. Continue to click Next, define the magnetization curve;

4, click Next, and then click Define loss curve, conductivity, permittivity and mass density, thus completing the definition of
50w350 of.

## 3.3 Physical Model

In front of the geometric model are just some of the line segments, and to generate a physical model is now in front of the
geometric model to generate a tensile body, and the material properties of the forming process, the present model specific member
comprising: a rotor yoke, a stator yoke, the permanent magnets, coils, air (air gap layer divided four) to the stator yoke, for example,
specific steps are as follows:
1. Select the object selected

## Select the closed surface structure

2.In the closed surface of the stator yoke structure of any click, as follows:

3. Select the drawing tools, such as this model using linear stretch, as follows:

Straight stretch
Click on the line drawing tool, out of the dialog box as follows: Set the stretched length 65mm, material 50w350, part name
previously defined for stator steel.

## 4. Designation of permanent magnet: TypeUniformDirection

(0.86602540378443864676372317075294, 0.5, 0), With the X-axis represents magnetization direction 30 degrees, as
follows

## Also a magnetization direction of the permanent magnets, Type: Uniform, Direction:

(0.5, 0.86602540378443864676372317075294, with 60 degrees in X axis direction.
Pay attention to the generation of air gap, generally divided into four layers, layer wrap of the rotor, a stator wrap layer, the gap in
the middle separate into two layers, as shown below:

## Encloses the stator air bag

Intermediate
area between
rotor and
stator that
forms the
remesh area
Wrap rotor air bag

## 3.3 Coil Setup

1. Select the coil component (for example, press ctrl key to select the following figure component # 4,5,6,15), the menu model /
make simple coil, generating winding coil # 1;

2. Select the object in the project tree page in coil # 1, point right property, changed its name to coil_A, set the coil type stranded,
turns to 90 turns, set strand area that is single coil in the parameters sectional area of 0.5e-6 meters;

Coil Type
Turns

Current direction

## Set single coil crosssectional area

3. Generally adjacent to the motor windings arranged A +, C-, B + (+, - number indicates the current direction), it
is set the current direction as shown by

10

## 3.4 Boundary Conditions

MagNetic magnetic field lines in parallel, perpendicular to the magnetic field lines, surface impedance, thin-walled, parity
symmetry several boundary conditions. This model is a pole permanent magnet synchronous motor, so the use of odd symmetry
1. First select the symmetric boundary conditions need to load the main surface, press ctrl key to select the following four faces
(four faces of the air bag), as shown below:

2. Click on the odd symmetry boundary conditions, out of the dialog box as follows:
11

## 3. Click Set Transformation, pop following dialog: Specify and rotated 90

degrees from side to establish odd symmetry relations.

4. Result

12

## 3.5 Setting Mesh

Density affect the accuracy of solving the grid, mesh has both manual and automatic, manual meshing can line, face, body to be
divided, automatic division which uses adaptive mesh mode automatically in the solution process adjust the grid size. This model uses a
simple meshing method, choose a subject, and then set the grid cells of the body. Specific steps are as follows:
1, first select an individual, then right, open the Properties option, open mesh page, as shown below:

## The maximum mesh size

The minimum mesh size

Curvature

## 2. Set the network of other entities

3. Observe the initial 2D grid: In the menu view / initial 2D mesh

3.6 Solving
First of solving its 2D static magnetic field, you need to set the solution options, such as: solution accuracy, solving the order and
so on. Specific process is as follows:
1. Set the solver options, menus solve / Set Solver Options, as shown below: 0.001% accuracy linear iterative, non-linear iteration
accuracy of 0.01% for the first order to solve the Order;

13

## 3.7 Post Processing

1. Magnetic Field

14

## 2, the air gap field harmonic analysis

MagNet software provides a gap field harmonic analysis. Harmonic analysis can easily get the magnetic field at different
locations.

## Gap radius of 28mm, to calculate the harmonic component

15

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
1

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Radius 28mm gap at Bx, By, radial Br, tangential Bt flux density amplitude:

16

4. Back-EMF Calculation
For the calculation of the counter electromotive force requires the use of the transient motion solver, based on the static magnetic
field model, we need to define the moving body, the following first introduced the process of defining the moving body, then using 2D
Transient with Motion solver can solve.

## 4.1 Moving Body

1. First select the object needs to move, you can use ctrl key to select multiple components, then the menu model / make motion
component, as shown in this example :( moving parts of the rotor yoke, the two magnets, a rotor wrap air bag and close the rotor air gap
layer package):

2. Click make motion component, the dialog box appears as follows, to generate the moving body set: Select the speed, the rotary
motion, the center (0,0,0), the rotation axis (0,0,1) ie z axis.

Set the speed in solution, since the rated speed of 1500rpm, into 9000deg / s, as shown below:

17

## 4.2 2D Transient with Motion

1. For the transient calculation, in addition to solving options, you need to set the time step in the menu solve / set transient
options, starting from 0ms, 65ms end, time step fixed time-step mode, the size of 0.5ms;

2. Select 2D Transient with Motion solver to solve, in the menu solve / transient 2D with motion

4.3 Results
1. Different time field pattern, field fence at the project page you can view the equipotential lines showing various fields amounts of cloud and
Vectors:

18

2. Counter electromotive force calculation: open post processing bar in the menu tools, appears below:
2. Click this button
1. Selected object need to observe

## Can be obtained following the curve of change with time:

19

For non-steady-state simulation of PMSM start function, generally use the load driving simulation is more difficult, this paper
speed drives, in MagNet need to set two points, one is set to start position (ie power angle); the second is to set the speed of the drive, the
speed is synchronous speed.

## 5.1 Power Angle

1. For the calculation of the load, first established circuit in the menu circuit / new circuit window, as shown below:

Circuit is as follows:

20

V1

Coil_A
T1

SIN
V2

T2

Coil_B
T1

SIN
V3

T2

Coil_C
T1

T2

SIN

Set voltage V1 to 78V, a frequency of 50Hz, the phase is 0, V2 phase is 120, V3 240 phase,
2. The power angle is calculated for the position 0.
After the circuit is set up, we will be the permanent member is set to air, this time only the armature winding is excited, the moving
body is set to speed drives, speed is the synchronous speed 9000deg / s, the time from the beginning to 0ms 10ms, just 180 electrical
angle of rotation .
In this way we can consider the power factor angle.

Ff
Fa

Ff is a permanent magnet excitation MMF alone, Fa is the armature excitation MMF alone, we will set it as a start position coincide,
is about to start moving body position set to about -7.25, power angle is zero.

5.2 Calculations
Circuit diagram above, the permanent magnet or a permanent magnet set, then the combined effect of the armature winding and
the permanent magnet, moving body set up to speed drive. 1, the moving body set
First, the moving body is set to speed drive, and then set the start position and synchronous speed, respectively, as shown below:

21

22

## 5.3 PMSM Torque-Angle Characteristic

Using the method in the previous section were calculated steady-state situation is different for the steady-state power angle
(different starting position) when the simulation, you can get torque-angle characteristics of PMSM.

Note: If the power angle is zero start position did not identify, after an angle calculated once per revolution, will
Cause errors accumulate, the next speed is zero (power angle 180 degrees) will deviate from the position of an electrical
angle of 180 degrees,
Therefore, you can not consider the power angle, parameterized start position, will get two torque to position 0,
These two points is the power angle is zero for the two combined power angle of 180 degrees, then you can fill the
middle of the power angle.

23

## 1. Start position parameterisation

Using MagNet powerful parametric function can be parameterized start position, get a lot of different simulation
conditions, the specific operation is selected by moving parts (such as motion # 1) in the Project column objects page,
right click to view the properties, then click on the parameter set the start position from -7.25% deg, -2.25% deg,
2.75% deg ......... 82.75% deg, 87.75% deg (mechanical angle) (ie power angle 0 , 10 , 20 , ... 180 , 190 )
(electrical angle), as shown below:

2. Results
Transient motion using 2D solver to solve, calculated as follows: The final position of zero torque should start position for the
power angle of 180 , while there is indeed 190 , which is the accumulation in error.

## Cause, the results are as follows:

24

25

Thus, we can be 190 to 180 power angle, the corresponding adjustment will start from 0 to 190 power angle power angle
power angle from 0 to 180 power angle, torque-angle characteristics are as follows:

Torque-angle characteristic
3

Torque (Nm)

2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0

## 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180

PowerAngle(degrees)

## 5.4 PMSM Stall Torque Computing

As can be seen from the torque-angle characteristics: PMSM power angle position is greater than the maximum torque of 90 .
And this PMSM power angle position is greater than the maximum torque of 90 . And this maximum torque is a PMSM stall torque. This
model is about the stall torque 2.7Nm, this time about the power angle 114 .

26