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transformers and their taps (another model construct that is rarely

conversed).

1. Transformers having both windings with off-nominal rated voltages

two windings. Following table provides guidelines into populating some

of the winding attributes.

Table 1 Guidelines for defining impedance for a transformer having both windings with

off-nominal rated voltages.

TransformerWinding

attributes

Primary Winding

Secondary Winding

BaseVoltage

V nominalH

V nominalL

RatedKV

V nominalH

V nominalL

V nominalH

V rated H

V nominalL

V rated L

Resistance, r

(From Table 4, Table 5 in

Appendix 1)

Reactance, x

(From Table 4, Table 5 in Appendix

1)

r p=r pu z baseH k

(

2

x p=x pu Z baseH k

The transformers impedance in ohms should be computed at the offnominal winding. Following table provides guidelines into populating

some of the winding attributes for such a transformer assuming that

the primary end is off-nominally rated.

Table 2 Guidelines for defining impedance for a transformer having one winding with

off-nominal rated voltages.

TransformerWinding

attributes

Primary Winding

Secondary Winding

BaseVoltage

V nominalH

V nominalL

RatedKV

V nominalH

V nominalL

V nominalH

V rated H

V nominalL

V

= nominal L

V rated L

V nominal L

Resistance, r

(From Table 4, Table 5 in

Appendix 1)

r p=r pu z baseH k 2

)(

0

Reactance, x

x p=x pu Z baseH k 2

1)

Table 3 Guidelines for defining TapChangers associated with off-nominal transformers.

TapChanger

attributes

Neutral step

Neutral kV

Step voltage

increment

TapChanger @ Primary

Winding

TapChanger @

Secondary Winding

voltage is produced.

rated voltage is produced.

V ratedH

V ratedL

V increment

V nominal

perstep

100

V increment

V nominal

perstep

100

TEST RESULTS

A simple equivalent model for a two-winding transformer model is shown

in the Figure 1 below.

winding impedance to the primary side and aggregating it into primary

sides impedance, resulting in the circuit model shown in Figure 2 below.

S rated

power (MVA;

), primary & secondary winding voltages (kV;

V rated ,V rated ,

high

low

Ploss

z %pu

. These

the one shown in Figure 2. The sections below provide insights into

computing impedances for both a two-winding transformer and a three

winding transformer using the test results.

CIM standard calls for the use of engineering units when modeling

physical attributes of equipment. Following this norm, transformer

impedances in NMMS must be provided in engineering units (ohms). The

impedance from the test results are in per units and need be converted

into their equivalent values in engineering units. Table 4 provides a

standard set of equations may be used for deriving per unit resistance &

reactance of a transformer and their equivalent values in ohms at either

the primary or secondary side of the transformer.

Table 4 Expressions for computing a Transformers impedance in engineering units

using Test results.

Primary Winding

Secondary Winding

Base Voltage

V ratedH

V ratedL

Base MVA

S rated

S rated

Base Impedance

V rated H 2

z baseH =

Srated

V ratedL2

z baseL =

S rated

Per Units

Transformer

Resistance

r pu

r p=r pu z baseH

r s =r pu z base L

x p=x pu z baseH

x s=x pu z base L

old

x pu

Transformer

Reactance

Ploss

S base

Engineering Units

Primary

Secondary

Winding

Winding

2

%pu

r 2pu

or

Asuming , x r ,

z

x pu %pu

S base

old

equations in Table 4 may be used to compute & assign the aggregated

impedance of a transformer in engineering units at either one of the two

windings and setting the other to zero. Table 5 provides an example where

the ohmic impedance is computed and assigned at the primary winding

and the impedance on the secondary winding is set to zero.

Table 5 A possible impedance computation strategy that may be adopted when

modeling nominal two-winding transformers

Resistance, r

r p=r pu Zbase p

Reactance, x

x p=x pu Z basep

0

0

equations in Table 4 in conjunction with those in Table 1 or Table 2 must

be used when computing the aggregated impedance of a transformer in

engineering units. Table 6 provides step-by-step details for computing the

impedance of a transformer having its high-side winding with off-nominal

rated voltage.

Table 6 Sample calculations for a 2 winding transformer starting with results from a

Test report.

High Rated Voltage

(H)

Low Rated Voltage (L)

132

kV

13.8

kV

36

MV

A

W

1253

24

11.46 %

Winding Leakage

Impedance H-L

Resistance

(

0.00967006

r pu )

High Nominal

Voltage

Low Nominal

Voltage

pu @

rated

kV,

100MVA

Impedance

(

0.00967006+0.31818

642i

)

Impedance

@H

(

pu @

rated

kV,

100MVA

1.6849112544+55.44

08018208i

Ohms

z pu =r pu+ ix pu

React

ance

(

x pu

13

8

13.

8

0.31818

642

kV

kV

pu @

rated kV,

100MVA

z p=r p +ix p

TRANSFORMER

(138:13.8)

Base Voltage

Rated kV

Scaling factor (k)

Resistance, r

( r total p=r p k

( x totalp =x p k

Secondary Winding

138

138

1.04545455

1.841566242

13.8

13.8

1

0

60.59542235

Reactance, x

2

INPUTS TO NMMS

Primary Winding

)

VERIFICATION (EXPECTED RESULTS DOWNSTREAM)

Resistan

ce, r

Reactanc

e, x

TRANSFORMER (138:13.8)

0.00967006

pu @ nominal kV, 100MVA

0.318186423

between each winding pair i.e. high-low ( z HL ) , low-tertiary (z ) and

high-tertiary (

z HT

Table 7 describes these additional computations when modeling the

impedances of each of the three transformers to be effective at the

primary winding.

Table 7 Expressions to compute impedances for a three winding transformer equivalent

consisting of 3 two-winding transformers connected at a common 1kV node.

TRANSFORMER 1

Primary Winding

Secondary Winding

V ratedH

1 kV

Base Voltage

S rated

Base MVA

Base

Impedance

z baseH =

V ratedH 2

Srated

Engineering Units

Primary

Secondary

Winding

Winding

Per Units

z HL

1

zH =

2

pu

Impedance

z H =z H zbase H

z + z HT

pu

pu

pu

pu

TRANSFORMER 2

Primary Winding

Secondary Winding

V ratedL

1 kV

Base Voltage

S rated

Base MVA

Base

Impedance

z baseL =

V ratedL2

S rated

Engineering Units

Primary

Secondary

Winding

Winding

Per Units

z HL +

1

zL =

2

pu

Impedance

z z HT

pu

pu

z L =z L z baseL

pu

pu

TRANSFORMER 3

Base Voltage

Base MVA

Primary Winding

Secondary Winding

V ratedT

1 kV

S rated

V ratedT 2

z baseT =

Srated

Base

Impedance

Engineering Units

Primary

Secondary

Winding

Winding

Per Units

Impedance

1

z T = (z HL + z + z HT )

2

pu

pu

pu

pu

Z HL , Z

pu

pu

z T =z T zbaseT

pu

Z HT

pu

equations in Table 7 in conjunction with those in Table 1 or Table 2 must

be used when computing the aggregated impedance of a transformer in

engineering units. Error: Reference source not found and Error: Reference

source not found provide step-by-step details for computing the

impedance of a three winding transformer having its high- and low- side

windings with off-nominal rated voltages.

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