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MODELING OFF NOMINAL TRANSFORMERS AND THEIR ASSOCIATED TAPS IN NMMS

This section provides recommendations for modeling such off-nominal


transformers and their taps (another model construct that is rarely
conversed).
1. Transformers having both windings with off-nominal rated voltages

The transformers impedance in ohms can be computed at any of the


two windings. Following table provides guidelines into populating some
of the winding attributes.
Table 1 Guidelines for defining impedance for a transformer having both windings with
off-nominal rated voltages.

TransformerWinding
attributes

Primary Winding

Secondary Winding

BaseVoltage

V nominalH

V nominalL

RatedKV

V nominalH

V nominalL

Scaling factor (k)

V nominalH
V rated H

V nominalL
V rated L

(From equation (6))

Resistance, r
(From Table 4, Table 5 in
Appendix 1)

Reactance, x
(From Table 4, Table 5 in Appendix
1)

r p=r pu z baseH k

(
2

x p=x pu Z baseH k

2. Transformers having one winding with off-nominally rated voltage

The transformers impedance in ohms should be computed at the offnominal winding. Following table provides guidelines into populating
some of the winding attributes for such a transformer assuming that
the primary end is off-nominally rated.
Table 2 Guidelines for defining impedance for a transformer having one winding with
off-nominal rated voltages.

TransformerWinding
attributes

Primary Winding

Secondary Winding

BaseVoltage

V nominalH

V nominalL

RatedKV

V nominalH

V nominalL

Scaling factor (k)

V nominalH
V rated H

V nominalL
V
= nominal L
V rated L
V nominal L

(From equation (6))

Resistance, r
(From Table 4, Table 5 in
Appendix 1)

r p=r pu z baseH k 2

)(
0

Reactance, x

x p=x pu Z baseH k 2

(From Table 4, Table 5 in Appendix


1)

3. Transformer taps associated to off-nominal transformers


Table 3 Guidelines for defining TapChangers associated with off-nominal transformers.

TapChanger
attributes
Neutral step
Neutral kV
Step voltage
increment

TapChanger @ Primary
Winding

TapChanger @
Secondary Winding

Tap step position at which rated


voltage is produced.

Tap step position at which


rated voltage is produced.

V ratedH

V ratedL

V increment
V nominal

perstep

100

V increment
V nominal

perstep

100

APPENDIX 1 CALCULATION TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE IN OHMS FROM


TEST RESULTS
A simple equivalent model for a two-winding transformer model is shown
in the Figure 1 below.

Figure 1 A simple equivalent circuit for a two-winding transformer

The above model can be further a simplified by referring the secondary


winding impedance to the primary side and aggregating it into primary
sides impedance, resulting in the circuit model shown in Figure 2 below.

Figure 2 A simple referred equivalent circuit for a two-winding transformer

Transformer test results provide visibility into a transformers apparent


S rated
power (MVA;
), primary & secondary winding voltages (kV;
V rated ,V rated ,
high

low

load loss (MW;

Ploss

and impedance in percent per units

at the equipments rated voltage and MVA (% per unit;

z %pu

. These

results can be used to define an equivalent transformer model similar to


the one shown in Figure 2. The sections below provide insights into
computing impedances for both a two-winding transformer and a three
winding transformer using the test results.

IMPEDANCE CALCULATIONS TWO WINDING TRANSFORMERS

CIM standard calls for the use of engineering units when modeling
physical attributes of equipment. Following this norm, transformer
impedances in NMMS must be provided in engineering units (ohms). The
impedance from the test results are in per units and need be converted
into their equivalent values in engineering units. Table 4 provides a
standard set of equations may be used for deriving per unit resistance &
reactance of a transformer and their equivalent values in ohms at either
the primary or secondary side of the transformer.
Table 4 Expressions for computing a Transformers impedance in engineering units
using Test results.

Primary Winding

Secondary Winding

Base Voltage

V ratedH

V ratedL

Base MVA

S rated

S rated

Base Impedance

V rated H 2
z baseH =
Srated

V ratedL2
z baseL =
S rated

Per Units
Transformer
Resistance

r pu

r p=r pu z baseH

r s =r pu z base L

x p=x pu z baseH

x s=x pu z base L

old

x pu
Transformer
Reactance

Ploss
S base

Engineering Units
Primary
Secondary
Winding
Winding

2
%pu

r 2pu

or

Asuming , x r ,
z
x pu %pu
S base
old

When modeling a nominal two-winding transformer in NMMS, the


equations in Table 4 may be used to compute & assign the aggregated
impedance of a transformer in engineering units at either one of the two
windings and setting the other to zero. Table 5 provides an example where
the ohmic impedance is computed and assigned at the primary winding
and the impedance on the secondary winding is set to zero.
Table 5 A possible impedance computation strategy that may be adopted when
modeling nominal two-winding transformers

Primary Winding (ohms)


Resistance, r

r p=r pu Zbase p

Reactance, x

x p=x pu Z basep

Secondary Winding (ohms)


0
0

When modeling an off-nominal two-winding transformer in NMMS, the


equations in Table 4 in conjunction with those in Table 1 or Table 2 must
be used when computing the aggregated impedance of a transformer in
engineering units. Table 6 provides step-by-step details for computing the
impedance of a transformer having its high-side winding with off-nominal
rated voltage.

Table 6 Sample calculations for a 2 winding transformer starting with results from a
Test report.

SAMPLE 2 WINDING TRANSFORMER TEST DATA.


High Rated Voltage
(H)
Low Rated Voltage (L)

132

kV

13.8

kV

MVA for H-L

36

Losses between H-L

MV
A
W

1253
24
11.46 %

Winding Leakage
Impedance H-L
Resistance
(

0.00967006

r pu )

High Nominal
Voltage
Low Nominal
Voltage

pu @
rated
kV,
100MVA

Impedance
(

0.00967006+0.31818
642i

)
Impedance
@H
(

pu @
rated
kV,
100MVA

1.6849112544+55.44
08018208i

Ohms

z pu =r pu+ ix pu

React
ance
(

x pu

13
8
13.
8

0.31818
642

kV
kV

pu @
rated kV,
100MVA

z p=r p +ix p

TRANSFORMER
(138:13.8)
Base Voltage
Rated kV
Scaling factor (k)
Resistance, r
( r total p=r p k

( x totalp =x p k

Secondary Winding

138
138
1.04545455
1.841566242

13.8
13.8
1
0

60.59542235

Reactance, x
2

INPUTS TO NMMS
Primary Winding

)
VERIFICATION (EXPECTED RESULTS DOWNSTREAM)

Resistan
ce, r
Reactanc
e, x

TRANSFORMER (138:13.8)
0.00967006
pu @ nominal kV, 100MVA
0.318186423

pu @ nominal kV, 100MVA

IMPEDANCE CALCULATIONS THREE WINDING TRANSFORMERS

The test results for three-winding transformers provide impedance


between each winding pair i.e. high-low ( z HL ) , low-tertiary (z ) and
high-tertiary (

z HT

). When modeling a three-winding transformer as a set

of 3 two-winding transformers, additional computations will be necessary.


Table 7 describes these additional computations when modeling the
impedances of each of the three transformers to be effective at the
primary winding.
Table 7 Expressions to compute impedances for a three winding transformer equivalent
consisting of 3 two-winding transformers connected at a common 1kV node.

TRANSFORMER 1

Primary Winding

Secondary Winding

V ratedH

1 kV

Base Voltage

S rated

Base MVA
Base
Impedance

z baseH =

V ratedH 2
Srated
Engineering Units
Primary
Secondary
Winding
Winding

Per Units
z HL
1
zH =
2
pu

Impedance

z H =z H zbase H

z + z HT
pu

pu

pu

pu

TRANSFORMER 2

Primary Winding

Secondary Winding

V ratedL

1 kV

Base Voltage

S rated

Base MVA
Base
Impedance

z baseL =

V ratedL2
S rated
Engineering Units
Primary
Secondary
Winding
Winding

Per Units
z HL +
1
zL =
2
pu

Impedance

z z HT
pu

pu

z L =z L z baseL

pu

pu

TRANSFORMER 3
Base Voltage
Base MVA

Primary Winding

Secondary Winding

V ratedT

1 kV

S rated

V ratedT 2
z baseT =
Srated

Base
Impedance

Engineering Units
Primary
Secondary
Winding
Winding

Per Units
Impedance

1
z T = (z HL + z + z HT )
2
pu

pu

Impedance between each winding pair,

pu

pu

Z HL , Z
pu

pu

z T =z T zbaseT
pu

Z HT

pu

are computed using the

expressions in Table 4 at 100 MVA base.

When modeling an off-nominal three-winding transformer in NMMS, the


equations in Table 7 in conjunction with those in Table 1 or Table 2 must
be used when computing the aggregated impedance of a transformer in
engineering units. Error: Reference source not found and Error: Reference
source not found provide step-by-step details for computing the
impedance of a three winding transformer having its high- and low- side
windings with off-nominal rated voltages.