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# Chapter7

SamplingandSamplingDistributions

LearningObjectives
1.

Understandtheimportanceofsamplingandhowresultsfromsamplescanbeusedtoprovide
estimatesofpopulationcharacteristicssuchasthepopulationmean,thepopulationstandard
deviationand/orthepopulationproportion.

2.

Knowwhatsimplerandomsamplingisandhowsimplerandomsamplesareselected.

3.

Understandtheconceptofasamplingdistribution.

4.

Understandthecentrallimittheoremandtheimportantroleitplaysinsampling.

5.

Specificallyknowthecharacteristicsofthesamplingdistributionofthesamplemean( x )andthe
samplingdistributionofthesampleproportion( p ).

6.

systematicsampling,conveniencesamplingandjudgmentsampling.

7.

Knowthedefinitionofthefollowingterms:
parameter
sampledpopulation
samplestatistic
simplerandomsampling
samplingwithoutreplacement
samplingwithreplacement
pointestimator
pointestimate

targetpopulation
samplingdistribution
finitepopulationcorrectionfactor
standarderror
centrallimittheorem
unbiased
relativeefficiency
consistency

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Chapter7

Solutions:
1.

a.

b.

With10samples,eachhasa1/10probability.

c.

EandCbecause8and0donotapply.;5identifiesE;7doesnotapply;5isskippedsinceEis

2.

Usingthelast3digitsofeach5digitgroupingprovidestherandomnumbers:
601,022,448,147,229,553,147,289,209
Numbersgreaterthan350donotapplyandthe147canonlybeusedonce.Thus,the
simplerandomsampleoffourincludes22,147,229,and289.

3.
4.

459,147,385,113,340,401,215,2,33,348
a.

5,0,5,8
BellSouth,LSILogic,GeneralElectric

b.

N!
10!
3,628,800

120
n !( N n)! 3!(10 3)! (6)(5040)

5.

283,610,39,254,568,353,602,421,638,164

6.

2782,493,825,1807,289

7.

108,290,201,292,322,9,244,249,226,125,(continuingatthetopofcolumn9)147,and113.

8.

Randomnumbersused:13,8,27,23,25,18
Thesecondoccurrenceoftherandomnumber13isignored.
Companiesselected:ExxonMobil,Chevron,Travelers,Microsoft,Pfizer,andIntel

9.

102,115,122,290,447,351,157,498,55,165,528,25

10. a.

b.

Infinitepopulation.Samplingfromaprocess.Theprocessistheproductionlineproducingboxesof
cereal.

c.

Infinitepopulation.Samplingfromaprocess.Theprocessisoneofgeneratingarrivalstothe
GoldenGateBridge.

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SamplingandSamplingDistributions
d.

Finitepopulation.Aframecouldbeconstructedbyobtainingalistingofstudentsenrolledinthe
coursefromtheprofessor.

e.

Infinitepopulation.Samplingfromaprocess.Theprocessisoneofgeneratingordersforthemail
orderfirm.

11. a.

b.

x xi / n

54
9
6

( xi x ) 2
n 1

( xi x ) 2 =(4)2+(1)2+12(2)2+12+52=48
s=
12. a.
b.
13. a.

48
31
.
61

p =75/150=.50
p =55/150=.3667
x xi / n

465
93
5

b.

Totals
s
14. a.

94
100
85
94
92
465

+1
+7
-8
+1
-1
0

( xi x ) 2
1
49
64
1
1
116

18
.45
40

Sixofthe40fundsinthesamplearehighriskfunds.Ourpointestimateis
p

c.

( xi x )

( xi x ) 2
116

5.39
n 1
4

p
b.

xi

6
.15
40

Thebelowaveragefundratingsarelowandverylow.Twelveofthefundshavearatingoflowand
6havearatingofverylow.Ourpointestimateis

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Chapter7

15. a.

b.
16. a.

18
.45
40

x xi / n

\$45,500
\$4,550
10

( xi x ) 2

n 1

9, 068, 620
\$1003.80
10 1

Wewouldusethesampleproportionfortheestimate.
p

5
.10
50

(Authors'note:TheactualproportionfromNewYorkis p
b.

52
.104. )
500

ThesampleproportionfromMinnesotais
2
.04
50
OurestimateofthenumberofFortune500companiesfromNewYorkis(.04)500=20.
p

(Authors'note:TheactualnumberfromMinnesotais18.)
c.

Fourteenofthe50inthesamplecomefromthese4states.So36donot.
p

36
.72
50

(Authors'note:TheactualproportionfromMinnesotais p
17. a.

409/999=.41

b.

299/999=.30

c.

291/999=.29

18. a.

366
.732. )
500

E ( x ) 200

b.

x / n 50 / 100 5

c.

NormalwithE( x )=200and x =5

d.

Itshowstheprobabilitydistributionofallpossiblesamplemeansthatcanbeobservedwithrandom
samplesofsize100.Thisdistributioncanbeusedtocomputetheprobabilitythat x iswithina
specifiedfrom

19. a.

Thesamplingdistributionisnormalwith
E ( x ) ==200
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SamplingandSamplingDistributions

x / n 50 / 100 5

## For5, 195 x 205

UsingStandardNormalProbabilityTable:
At x = 205, z

At x = 195, z

P ( z 1) = .8413

x 5

1 P ( z 1) = .1587
x
5

b.

## For10, 190 x 210

UsingStandardNormalProbabilityTable:
At x = 210, z

At x = 190, z

x 10

2
x
5
x

10
5

P ( z 2) = .9772

2 P ( z 2) = .0228

## P (190 x 210) =.9772.0228=.9544

x / n

20.

x 25 / 50 3.54
x 25 / 100 2.50
x 25 / 150 2.04
x 25 / 200 1.77
Thestandarderrorofthemeandecreasesasthesamplesizeincreases.
21. a.
b.

x / n 10 / 50 141
.
n/N=50/50,000=.001
Use x / n 10 / 50 141
.

c.

n/N=50/5000=.01

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Chapter7

Use x / n 10 / 50 141
.
d.

n/N=50/500=.10
Use x

N n

N 1 n

500 50 10
134
.
500 1 50

Note:Onlycase(d)wheren/N=.10requirestheuseofthefinitepopulationcorrectionfactor.
22. a.

x / n 4000 / 60 516.40

x
51,800

E( x )
Thenormaldistributionfor x isbasedontheCentralLimitTheorem.
b.

## Forn=120,E( x )remains\$51,800andthesamplingdistributionof x canstillbeapproximated

byanormaldistribution.However, x isreducedto 4000 / 120 =365.15.

c.

Asthesamplesizeisincreased,thestandarderrorofthemean, x ,isreduced.Thisappears
logicalfromthepointofviewthatlargersamplesshouldtendtoprovidesamplemeansthatare
closertothepopulationmean.Thus,thevariabilityinthesamplemean,measuredintermsof x ,
shoulddecreaseasthesamplesizeisincreased.

23. a.

Withasampleofsize60 x

At x = 52,300, z

4000
60

516.40

52,300 51,800
.97
516.40

At x = 51,300, z

51,300 51,800
.97
516.40

## P( x < 51,300) = P(z < -.97) = .1660

P(51,300 x 52,300) = .8340 - .1660 = .6680
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SamplingandSamplingDistributions

b.

4000
120

365.15

At x = 52,300, z

52,300 51,800
1.37
365.15

At x = 51,300, z

51,300 51,800
1.37
365.15

## P( x < 51,300) = P(z < -1.37) = .0853

P(51,300 x 52,300) = .9147 - .0853 = .8294
24. a.

Normaldistribution, E ( x ) 17.5

x / n 4 / 50 .57
b.

Within1weekmeans16.5 x 18.5
At x =18.5, z

18.5 17.5
1.75 P(z 1.75) = .9599
.57

## At x =16.5,z = -1.75. P(z < -1.75) = .0401

So P(16.5 x 18.5) = .9599 - .0401 = .9198
c.

## Within1/2weekmeans 17.0 x 18.0

At x =18.0, z

18.0 17.5
.88
.57

At x =17.0, z = -.88

## x / n 100 / 90 10.54 Thisvalueforthestandarderrorcanbeusedforparts(a)and(b)

25.

below.
a.

512 502
.95
10.54

492 502
.95 P(z < -.95) = .1711
10.54

## P(z .95) = .8289

probability=.8289.1711=.6578

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Chapter7

b.

525 515
.95
10.54

505 515
.95
10.54

## P(z < -.95) = .1711

probability=.8289.1711=.6578
Theprobabilityofbeingwithin10ofthemeanontheMathematicsportionofthetestisexactlythe
becausethestandarderroristhesameinbothcases.Thefactthatthemeansdifferdoesnotaffect
theprobabilitycalculation.
c. x / n 100 / 100 10.0 Thestandarderrorissmallerherebecausethesamplesizeislarger.
z

504 494
1.00
10.0

484 494
1.00
10.0

## P(z < -1.00) = .1587

probability=.8413.1587=.6826
thestandarderrorsmaller.
26. a.

x 939

/ n

## Within 25means x 939mustbebetween25and+25.

Thezvaluefor x 939=25isjustthenegativeofthezvaluefor x 939=25.Sowejustshow
thecomputationofzfor x 939=25.
n=30

n=50

n=100

n=400

25
245 / 30
25
245 / 50

.56 P(.56z.56)=.7123.2877=.4246

.72 P(.72z.72)=.7642.2358=.5284

25
245 / 100
25
245 / 400

1.02 P(1.02z1.02)=.8461.1539=.6922

2.04 P(2.04z2.04)=.9793.0207=.9586

b. Alargersampleincreasestheprobabilitythatthesamplemeanwillbewithinaspecified
distanceofthepopulationmean.Intheautomobileinsuranceexample,theprobabilityof
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SamplingandSamplingDistributions
beingwithin25ofrangesfrom.4246forasampleofsize30to.9586forasampleof
size400.
27. a.

At x =178,000, z

## 178, 000 168, 000

1.58 P(z 1.58) = .9429
6324.56

At x =158,000,z = -1.58
P(z < -1.58) = .0571, thus
P(158,000 x 178,000) = .9429 - .0571 = .8858
b.

At x =127,000, z

## 127,000 117, 000

2.53 P(z 2.53) = .9943
3952.85

## At x =107,000,z = -2.53, P(z < -2.53) = .0057, thus

P(107,000 x 127,000) = .9943 - .0057 = .9886
c.

Inpart(b)wehaveahigherprobabilityofobtainingasamplemeanwithin\$10,000ofthe
populationmeanbecausethestandarderrorissmaller.

d.

At x =164,000, z

1
4000

## P( x <164,000)=P(z < -1) = .1587

28. a.

Thisisagraphofanormaldistributionwith E ( x ) =95and

x / n 14 / 30 2.56
b.

Within3strokesmeans92 x 98
z

98 95
1.17
2.56

92 95
1.17
2.56

P(92 x 98)=P(1.17z1.17)=.8790.1210=.7580
Theprobabilitythesamplemeanswillbewithin3strokesofthepopulationmeanof95is.7580.
c.

x / n 14 / 45 2.09
Within3strokesmeans103 x 109
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Chapter7

109 106
1.44
2.09

103 106
1.44
2.09

P(103 x 109)=P(1.44z1.44)=.9251.0749=.8502
Theprobabilitythesamplemeanswillbewithin3strokesofthepopulationmeanof106is.8502.
d.

## Theprobabilityofbeingwithin3strokesforfemale golfers is higher because the sample size is

larger.

=2.34=.20

29.
a.

n=30
z

x
.03

.82
/ n .20 / 30

P(2.31 x 2.37)=P(.82z.82)=.7939.2061=.5878
b.

n=50
z

/ n

.03
.20 / 50

1.06

P(2.31 x 2.37)=P(1.06z1.06)=.8554.1446=.7108
c.

n=100
z

/ n

.03
.20 / 100

1.50

P(2.31 x 2.37)=P(1.50z1.50)=.9332.0668=.8664
d.

Noneofthesamplesizesinparts(a),(b),and(c)arelargeenough.Atz=1.96wefindP(1.96z
1.96)=.95.So,wemustfindthesamplesizecorrespondingtoz=1.96.Solve
.03
1.96
.20 / n
.20
13.0667
.03

n 1.96

n 170.73
Rounding up, we see that a sample size of 171 will be needed to ensure a probability of .95 that the
sample mean will be within \$.03 of the population mean.
30. a.
b.

n/N=40/4000=.01<.05;therefore,thefinitepopulationcorrectionfactorisnotnecessary.
Withthefinitepopulationcorrectionfactor

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SamplingandSamplingDistributions

N n

N 1 n

4000 40 8.2
129
.
4000 1 40

Withoutthefinitepopulationcorrectionfactor

x / n 130
.
Includingthefinitepopulationcorrectionfactorprovidesonlyaslightlydifferentvaluefor x than
whenthecorrectionfactorisnotused.
c.

x
2

154
.
130
.
130
.

P(z1.54)=.9382

P(z<1.54)=.0618
Probability = .9382 - .0618=.8764
31. a.

E( p )=p=.40
p (1 p )
.40(.60)

.0490
n
100

b.

c.

## NormaldistributionwithE( p )=.40and p =.0490

d.

Itshowstheprobabilitydistributionforthesampleproportion p .

32. a.

E( p )=.40

p (1 p )
.40(.60)

.0346
n
200

Within.03means.37 p .43
z

p p
.03

.87
p
.0346

## P(z < -.87) = .1922

P(.37 p .43) = .8078 - .1922 = .6156
b.

p p
.05

p
.0346

## P(z < -1.44) = .0749

P(.35 p .45) = .9251 - .0749 =.8502

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Chapter7

33.

p(1 p)
n

(.55)(.45)
.0497
100

(.55)(.45)
.0352
200

(.55)(.45)
.0222
500

(.55)(.45)
.0157
1000

Thestandarderroroftheproportion, p , decreasesasnincreases
34. a.

(.30)(.70)
.0458
100

Within.04means.26 p .34
z

p p
.04

p
.0458

## P(z < -.87) = .1922

P(.26 p .34) = .8078 - .1922 = .6156
b.

(.30)(.70)
.0324
200

p p
.04

p
.0324

## P(z < -1.23) = .1093

P(.26 p .34) = .8907 - .1093 = .7814
c.

(.30)(.70)
.0205
500

p p
.04

p
.0205

## P(z < -1.95) = .0256

P(.26 p .34) = .9744 - .0256 = .9488
712

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SamplingandSamplingDistributions

d.

(.30)(.70)
.0145
1000

p p
.04

p
.0145

## P(z < -2.76) = .0029

P(.26 p .34) = .9971 - .0029 = .9942
e.

Withalargersample,thereisahigherprobability p willbewithin.04ofthepopulation
proportionp.

35. a.

p(1 p )
.30(.70)

.0458
n
100

.30
Thenormaldistributionisappropriatebecausenp=100(.30)=30andn(1p)=100(.70)=70are
bothgreaterthan5.
b.

P(.20 p .40)=?
z

.40 .30
2.18 P(z 2.18) = .9854
.0458

## P(z < -2.18) = .0146

P(.20 p .40) = .9854 - .0146 = .9708
c.

P(.25 p .35)=?
z

.35 .30
1.09 P(z 1.09) = .8621
.0458

## P(z < -1.09) = .1379

P(.25 p .35) = .8621 - .1379 = .7242
36. a.

Thisisagraphofanormaldistributionwithameanof E ( p ) =.66and

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Chapter7

p
b.

p (1 p )
.66(1 .66)

.0273
n
300

Within.04means.62 p .70
z

.70 .66
1.47
.0273

.62 .66
1.47
.0273

P(.62 p .70)=P(1.47z1.47)=.9292.0708=.8584
c.

p (1 p )
.87(1 .87)

.0194
n
300

Within.04means.83 p .91
z

.91 .87
2.06
.0194

.83 .87
2.06
.0194

P(.83 p .91)=P(2.06z2.06)=.9803.0197=.9606
d.

Yes,theprobabilityofbeingwithin .04ishigherforthesampleofyouthusers.Thisisbecause
thestandarderrorissmallerforthepopulationproportionasitgetscloserto1.

e.

Forn=600, p

.66(1 .66)
.0193
600

Within.04means.62 p .70
z

.70 .66
2.07
.0193

.62 .66
2.07
.0193

P(.62 p .70)=P(2.07z2.07)=.9808.0192=.9616
Theprobabilityislargerthaninpart(b).Thisisbecausethelargersamplesizehasreducedthe
standarderror.
37. a.

Normaldistribution
E ( p ) .12

b.

p(1 p)

(.12)(1 .12)
.0140
540

p p
.03

p
.0140

## P(z < -2.14) = .0162

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SamplingandSamplingDistributions
P(.09 p .15) = .9838 - .0162 =.9676
c.

p p .015

p
.0140

## P(z < -1.07) = .1423

P(.105 p .135) = .8577 - .1423 = .7154

38. a.

Normaldistribution
E( p )=.56

b.

p(1 p)

(.56)(.44)
.0248
400

.02
.81 P(z .81) = .7910
.0248

## P(z < -.81) = .2090

P(.54 p .58) = .7910 - .2090 = .5820
c.

.04
1.61 P(z 1.61) = .9463
.0248

## P(z < -1.61) = .0537

P(.52 p .60) = .9463 - .0537 = .8926
39. a.

b.

p (1 p )
.75(1 .75)

.0204
n
450

p p
.04

p
.0204

## P(z < -1.96) = .0250

P(.71 p .79)=P(1.96z1.96)=.9750.0275=.9500
c.

## Normaldistributionwith E ( p ) p .75 and

p(1 p )
.75(1 .75)

.0306
n
200

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Chapter7

d.

p p

.75(1 .75)
200

.04
1.31
P(z 1.31) = .9049
.0306

## P(z < -1.31) = .0951

P(.71 p .79)=P(1.31z1.31)=.9049.0951=.8098
e.

40. a.

Theprobabilityofthesampleproportionbeingwithin.04ofthepopulationmeanwasreducedfrom
.9500to.8098.Sothereisagaininprecisionbyincreasingthesamplesizefrom200to450.Ifthe
extracostofusingthelargersamplesizeisnottoogreat,weshouldprobablydoso.
E( p )=.76

p (1 p )
.76(1 .76)

.0214
n
400

Normaldistributionbecausenp=400(.76)=304andn(1p)=400(.24)=96
b.

.79 .76
1.40 P(z 1.40) = .9192
.0214

## P(z < -1.40) = .0808

P(.73 p .79)=P(1.40z1.40)=.9192.0808=.8384
c.

p (1 p )
.76(1 .76)

.0156
n
750

.79 .76
1.92 P(z 1.92) = .9726
.0156

## P(z < -1.92) = .0274

P(.73 p .79)=P(1.92z1.92)=.9726.0274=.9452
41. a.

E( p )=.17

p (1 p )

(.17)(1 .17)
.0133
800

Distributionisapproximatelynormalbecausenp=800(.17)=136>5
andn(1p)=800(.83)=664>5
b.

.19 .17
1.51 P(z 1.51) = .9345
.0133

## P(z < -1.51) = .0655

P(.15 p .19)=P(1.51z1.51)=.9345.0655=.8690
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SamplingandSamplingDistributions

c.

p (1 p )

(.17)(1 .17)
.0094
1600

.19 .17
2.13 P(z 2.13) = .9834
.0094

## P(z < -2.13) = .0166

P(.15 p .19)=P(2.13z2.13)=.9834.0166=.9668
42.

Therandomnumberscorrespondingtothefirstsevenuniversitiesselectedare
122,99,25,55,115,102,61
Thethird,fourthandfifthcolumnsofTable7.1wereneededtofind7randomnumbersof133or
lesswithoutduplicatenumbers.
Authorsnote:Theuniversitiesidentifiedare:ClarksonU.(122),U.ofArizona(99),UCLA(25),
U.ofMaryland(55),U.ofNewHampshire(115),FloridaStateU.(102),ClemsonU.(61).

43. a.

Normaldistributionbecausen=50
E( x )=6883

b.

2000

282.84
n
50

/ n

300
2000 / 50

## P(z < -1.06) = .1446

P(6583 x 7183)=P(1.06z1.06)=.8554.1446=.7108
c.

At7500, z

7500 6883
2000 / 50

2.18

## P( x 7500)=P(z 2.18)=1P(z< 2.18)=1.9854=.0146

Yes,Iwouldquestiontheconsultingfirm.Asamplemeanthislargeisunlikelyifthepopulation
meanis\$6883.
44. a.

Normaldistributionbecauseofcentrallimittheorem(n>30)
E ( x ) =115.50

35

5.53
n
40

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Chapter7

b.

/ n

10
35 / 40

## P(z < -1.81) = .0351

P(105.50 x 125.50)=P(1.81z1.81)=.9649.0351=.9298
c.

At x =100, z

100 115.50
35 / 40

2.80

P( x 100)=P(z -2.80)=.0026
Yes,thisisanunusuallylowspendinggroupof40alums.Theprobabilityofspendingthismuchor
lessisonly.0026.
45.

Withn=60thecentrallimittheoremallowsustoconcludethesamplingdistributionis
approximatelynormal.
a.

Thismeans14 x 16
At x =16, z

16 15
4 / 60

1.94

## P(z < -1.94) = .0262

P(14 x 16)=P(1.94z1.94)=.9738.0262=.9476
b.

Thismeans14.25 x 15.75
At x =15.75, z

15.75 15
4 / 60

1.45

## P(z < -1.45) = .0735

P(14.25 x 15.75)=P(1.45z1.45)=.9265.0735=.8530

=27,175=7400

46.
a.

x 7400 / 60 955

b.

x
0

0
x
955

P( x >27,175)=P(z>0)=.50
ofthesamplingdistributionof x .
c.

x 1000

## 1.05 P(z 1.05) = .8531

x
955
718

May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

SamplingandSamplingDistributions

## P(z < -1.05) = .1469

P(26,175 x 28,175)=P(1.05z1.05)=.8531.1469=.7062
d.

z

x 1000

x
740

## P(z < -1.35) = .0885

P(26,175 x 28,175)=P(1.35z1.35)=.9115.0885=.8230
47. a.

N n
N 1 n

N=2000
2000 50 144
2011
.
2000 1 50

x
N=5000

5000 50 144
20.26
5000 1 50

N=10,000

10,000 50 144
20.31
10,000 1 50

Note:Withn/N.05forallthreecases,commonstatisticalpracticewouldbetoignore
144
20.36 foreachcase.
thefinitepopulationcorrectionfactoranduse x
50
b.

N=2000
z

25
1.24
20.11

## P(z < -1.24) = .1075

Probability=P(1.24z1.24)=.8925.1075=.7850
N=5000
719

May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter7

25
1.23 P(z 1.23) = .8907
20.26

## P(z < -1.23) = .1093

Probability=P(1.23z1.23)=.8907.1093=.7814
N=10,000
z

25
1.23 P(z 1.23) = .8907
20.31

## P(z < -1.23) = .1093

Probability=P(1.23z1.23)=.8907.1093=.7814
Allprobabilitiesareapproximately.78indicatingthatasampleofsize50willworkwellforall3
firms.
48. a.

500

20
n
n

2
n =500/20=25andn=(25) =625

b.

For25,
z

25
1.25 P(z 1.25) = .8944
20

## P(z < -1.25) = .1056

Probability=P(1.25z1.25)=.8944.1056=.7888
49.

Samplingdistributionof x

0.05

n
30
0.05

1.9

x
2.1

1.9 + 2.1 = 2
=
2
Theareabelow x =2.1mustbe1.05=.95.Anareaof.95inthestandardnormaltableshows
z=1.645.
720

May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

SamplingandSamplingDistributions

Thus,
z

2.1 2.0

/ 30

1.645

Solvefor

50.

(.1) 30
.33
1.645

p=.28
a.

ThisisthegraphofanormaldistributionwithE( p )=p=.28and

p(1 p)
.28(1 .28)

.0290
n
240

b.Within.04means.24 p .32
z

.32 .28
1.38
.0290

.24 .28
1.38
.0290

P(.24 p .32)=P(1.38z1.38)=.9162.0838=.8324
c. Within.02means.26 p .30
z

.30 .28
.69
.0290

.26 .28
.69
.0290

P(.26 p .30)=P(.69z.69)=.7549.2451=.5098

51.

p (1 p )

(.40)(.60)
.0245
400

P( p .375)=?
z

.375 .40
1.02
.0245

## P(z < -1.02) = .1539

P( p .375)=1.1539=.8461
52. a.

p(1 p)

(.40)(1 .40)
.0251
380

Within.04means.36 p .44

721

May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter7

.44 .40
1.59
.0251

.36 .40
1.59
.0251

P(.36 p .44)=P(1.59z1.59)=.9441.0559=.8882
b.

WewantP( p .45)
p p .45 .40
z

1.99
p
.0251
P( p

53. a.

NormaldistributionwithE( p )=.15and

p
b.

.45)=P(z 1.99)=1.9767=.0233

p (1 p )

(.15)(.85)
.0292
150

P(.12 p .18)=?
z

.18 .15
1.03 P(z 1.03) = .8485
.0292

## P(z < -1.03) = .1515

P(.12 p .18)=P(1.03z1.03)=.8485.1515=.6970
54. a.

p(1 p)

.25(.75)
.0625
n

Solveforn
n
b.

.25(.75)
48
(.0625) 2

## NormaldistributionwithE( p )=.25and p =.0625

(Note:(48)(.25)=12>5,and(48)(.75)=36>5)

c.

P( p .30)=?
z

.30 .25
.80 P(z .80) = .7881
.0625

P( p .30)=1.7881=.2119

722