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SUBJECT (function)

Categories that can function as a subject:

noun (can be premodified by adjectives)

noun phrase
o has a noun as a head
o two words or more
o It can have pre and post modifiers (including relative clauses) but still we can
recognize a noun as the head of the phrase
noun clause
noun equivalents: gerunds and to infinitives (which are non-conjugated or nonfinite forms of the verb) and pronouns

There are different types of verbs:
Transitive verbs: they always carry a direct object, , which can perform as the
subject of a passive sentence
Intransitive verbs: do not carry a direct object.
Ditransitive verbs: carry both a direct and an indirect object (verbs of giving and
Copulative verbs: take a subjective complement. The verb to be is the most typical
one. Seem and Appear are also copulative verbs because they behave like the verb
to be.
Inchoative verbs: they show transition, denote change (get, become, grow, etc.).
They also carry a subjective complement, often adjectives or adjectives in the
Verbs of perception (see taste, hear, touch, and smell): take a subjective
complement (although they can also carry a D.O.)
I saw a bear (DO)
The cake smells delicious (SC:
Middle verbs: they are transitive verbs that cannot be turned into the passive,
although they have a DO (have, lack, suit, fit)

Direct object: function

The categories that can function as a direct object are: noun, noun phrase,
noun clause.

Indirect object: function

(To whom?)
It always need the presence of a DO and a ditransitive verb (Verbs of giving:

send, give, hand in, etc.; verbs of communication: say, tell, inform, etc.)
In general, it is a pronoun, noun, noun phrase or noun clause that follows
the transitive verb, but can also be prepositional phrase (starting with to),
placed after the DO. If the verb is of Latin origin, the prepositional phrase goes

after the verb (explain, dedicate, devote, dictate)

Exception: intended recipient (its a special kind of IO, which are always
following a verb of giving. Its a prepositional phrase that starts with for). Its
different from the prepositional phrase starting with TO because it may take
two IO (the real and the intended)

Subjective complement (or predicative)

Categories that can function as a subjective complement: noun, noun phrase,

noun clause, adjective (can be premodified by adverbs), an adjectival phrase
(an adjective as the head), adverb, gerund.
"She is beautiful"
"Pizza is here"
"She is my mother"
"She is Laura"
"Seeing is believing"
"She is what I have always wanted to be"

A clause is a sentences in terms of having a subject and a predicate of its own (una

Relative clause

They are adjectival clauses. They function as post modifiers. They say/explain
something about a noun in more than one word. It modifies the noun immediately
They are introduced by linking words known as relative pronouns: who, which,

whose, when, where, that (never what). To have a relative clause, the
relative pronoun has to say sth about the noun.
"A little man who is standing at the door"

Types of relative clauses:

Defining: they categorize something in particular; they give essential information
about the noun that is needed to understand the sentence. They appear without
commas, introduced by a relative pronoun immediately after the noun.
Non-defining: it can be omitted from the sentence and still would make sense and
be understandable. It comes after or between commas.
Reduced/abridged: the pronoun and part of the verb is omitted.
"Julia, 34, has two children"
Relative Clause introduced by a preposition:
"The man for whom I wrote the letter"
"The pen with which I wrote the letter is an ink pen"
Contact clause: the pronoun is omitted. It is only possible if another subject
comes after it.
"The baby girl (that) they had always longed for"
Sentential clauses: type of non-defining relative clause that always starts with ,
which and says something about the whole idea of a sentence, not just the noun
immediately preceding. (= lo cual)
"There are a lot communicable diseases that are coming back, which is disrupting
the whole health system"

Adverbial clauses

They are always in the predicate. It has a subject and a predicate of its own.

They function as adverbial adjuncts. It cant function as a DO

Other categories that can function as an adverbial adjunct are: adverbs (can
be premodified by other adverbs), adverbial phrases (they have an adverb as a

head), prepositional phrases.

They always begin with a subordinate conjunction (the clause/adv. Adjunct is
subordinated to the main clause: if we take it out from the sentence, the main

clause is still grammatically valid, even though theres some information missing)
They begin with adverbs (subordinate conjunctions) such as before, after, as
soon as, when, once, if, because, as, although, despite, in spite of, etc.
(Depending on the adverb it begins with, the adverbial adjunct has a different
classification: time, place, purpose, reason, condition,
concession/contrast, origin, company, means, degree, quantity,

frequency, manner, etc)

Adverbial adjuncts may not always appear at the end of the sentence. This is
called split predicate.
When the teacher arrives, the students shut up

Adverbial clauses of RESULT vs. PURPOSE

a. so that + modal (would, could, etc) -> ALWAYS PURPOSE
She studied a lot so that she could pass the exam
b. so that + present/past form -> AMBIGUOUS
He bought a new suit so that he made a good impression
She trained a lot so that she was ready for the marathon
c. so...that -> ALWAYS RESULT
She yelled so much that she scared the burglars away

Noun clauses

It has a subject and predicate of its own.

It has a nominal function. They can function as subject, subjective complement or

as a direct object in the sentence.

Interrogative noun clauses: theres a question embedded in the sentence. (wonder,
know, find out, etc)
I wonder where she lives (functioning as a DO)
Where she lives is unknown (functioning as a Subject)

Reporting verbs + noun clauses: (say, announce, inform, declare, etc.). It functions
as a DO
She said that she would be here by ten

The President announced (that) taxes will rise (Contact noun clause)

Noun clause in apposition to noun:

ABSTRACT NOUN + NOUN CLAUSE explaining the abstract noun it modifies

(belief, idea, concept, notion, assumption, etc.)

The assumption that marriage is for life has vanished
The idea that we should go together is great

Ways of giving emphasis

a. Cleft sentences:
IT + TO BE + FOCUS + that, who, which, when, (never what)
The focus is what you want to highlight; its the only thing you can change, for
the rest remain the same.
It was in Rome that they married
It was John that she married.
It was Mary who married.
b. Pseudo-cleft sentence: they always begin with WHAT and their use is more
restricted. Not all sentences can be turned into pseudo-cleft sentences.
I love chocolate -> what I love is chocolate.
Not all sentences that begin with WHAT are pseudo-cleft sentences. Some sentences
may have a noun clause as a subject. To recognise pseudo-cleft sentences, you have
you transform the sentence back to its original form (without emphasis). If that is
possible, then it is a pseudo-cleft. For example, the sentence What she did is wrong
isnt a pseudo-cleft sentence, because theres no emphasis (we cant get another
c. Inversion of order.
Rarely does she come on Mondays
Little did she tell me about it
d. Use of auxiliaries in affirmative sentences.
But she did pay for it
I do like it, but I cant afford it right now
e. Emphatic words like absolutely, definitely, highly, etc. or by the repetition of
certain words.
I absolutely love it

He is very, very shy


Coordinating conjunctions: they separate two sentences that have to be

analysed separately. They link two elements that have the same level, the same
rank. There are four of them:
AND (addition)
BUT (contrast)
OR (alternative)
SO (consequence)
They went into the house and then they started looking for the kid

Subordinating conjunctions: they link two elements that have a different level or
rank. One is subordinated to the other (main clause). Adverbial adjuncts are always
subordinated clauses.
There are many subordinating conjunctions: because, if, since, although, as, unless,
They wont go unless you go
She went out even though it was raining
They passed the exam because they studied a lot

Anticipatory there/it
Placed at the beginning of the sentence, its borrowed so that we dont start the
sentence with is (you cant start a sentence with the verb: SVO). It anticipates the
real subject (in extra position) of the sentence. It has to match the first subject.
There can only anticipate noun phrases.
It can only anticipate noun clauses (never nouns or noun phrases), to infinitive
forms or -ing forms.
Its not an emphatic use: theres a change of order because the subject would be too
long otherwise
It is + Subjective Complement + to infinitive/-ing/noun clause + ...
It is important that this distinction is made
It is important to make this distinction
It is important making this distinction
There is + real subject in extra position + noun phrase

There is a man standing at the door

CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET: we do not mention the doer of the action (its irrelevant/we dont
know/ we want to emphasize you wont do it ypurself)
HAVE/GET + something + past participle
I had my hair cut yesterday.
She got her house painted last summer.
TO HAVE SOMEONE DO SOMETHING: we mention the doer. There are two people
involved, one that performs the action and another one that benefits from the result.
Ill have my secretary send it to you.
PASSIVE VOICE: the direct object of the original sentence becomes the subject of the
new one, and the subject becomes the agent. Transitive verbs are the ones that can be
turned into the passive (middle verbs are the exception)
Romeo and Juliet was written by Shakespeare.
It is + RECOMMENDED/SUGGESTED/ESSENTIAL + that + S + (should) + verb
Should can be omitted, but the verb must keep its original tense.
It is essential that you (should) sleep.
It is suggested that pilots (should) sleep.
It is recommended that students (should) sleep.
The more you study, the easier it will be to pass.

Particular verbs
-LIE (II): lying in a horizontal position.
Past: LAY

Past participle: LAIN

-LAY (TR): put (Lay the table)

Past: laid

Past participle: laid

(LIE as in telling a lie is Intransitive and Regular)

-RAISE (TR): past: raised

past participle: raised

She raised her hand

-RISE (II): past: rose

past participle: risen


The sun rises

-AROUSE (TR): past: aroused

past participle: aroused


-ARISE (II): past: arose

past participle: arisen

A problem arise



-Gerund: behaves like a noun (nominal equivalent= function as a subject). It is a

non-conjugated form of the can be the subject of the sentence, but never
the subjective complement
-Present participle: it functions like an adjective (adjectival equivalent= function
as a subjective complement/modified a noun) e.g.: boring, interesting,
overwhelming. Past participle: -ed. It also behaves like an adjective, for example:
bored, overwhelmed, etc.)

Nouns may behave as adjectives when they precede another noun. For
example: my bank account, brain power, etc.

Collocations with DO and MAKE

-DO: used for mental and physical activities, for -ing household chores, to speak of
the improvement of things already existing, with certain abstract nouns like your
-MAKE: used for manual activities, when we speak about creating something, with
expressions related with money and business, and with certain abstract nouns such
as an effort.

Prepositional phrases can behave as post-modifiers. For example: man in black, the
music of the 60s.
Adjectives can function as nouns by adding the definite article THE before them. For
example: The unmarried.