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CENTRAL QUEENSLAND UNIVERSITY

Conductivity Sensor
Telemetry Network Design
ENEG14003 Engineering Project Planning

Name:
Student Number:

s0211667

Academic Supervisor:

Aruna Jayasuriya

Date:

12th of October, 2014

Faculty of Sciences, Engineering and Health


Central Queensland University
Rockhampton
Australia

ENEG14003
Engineering Project Planning

Table of Contents
1.0

Project Definition: .................................................................................................. 4

2.0

Project Scope: ........................................................................................................ 5

3.0

Project Limitations: ................................................................................................ 5

4.0

Literature Review: .................................................................................................. 6

4.1

Investigation of Existing Telemetry Designs ................................................................. 6

4.1.1
4.2

Wireless Sensor Network ................................................................................................ 6

Water Conductivity Monitoring ................................................................................... 8

4.2.1

Unit of Measurement...................................................................................................... 9

4.2.2

Types of Conductivity Sensor ........................................................................................ 10

4.2.3

microCHEM Conductivity Transmitter .......................................................................... 11

4.3

Sensor Platform ........................................................................................................ 12

4.3.1

Waspmote Pro Sensor Device ....................................................................................... 12

4.3.2

Waspmote Communication Ports and Board Layout ................................................... 13

4.3.3

Peripheral Modules ....................................................................................................... 15

4.3.4

XBee-ZB-Pro Communication module .......................................................................... 16

4.4

Programming Architecture ........................................................................................ 17

4.4.1

ATMEGA 1281 Microcontroller ..................................................................................... 17

4.4.2

Flash Memory ............................................................................................................... 17

4.4.3

EEPROM ........................................................................................................................ 18

4.4.4

RAM............................................................................................................................... 18

4.4.5

Waspmote-Pro IDE Programming Interface ................................................................. 18

4.4.6

Networking with the XBee Modules ............................................................................. 19

4.5

Proposed Program Operational Flow Diagram ........................................................... 19

4.5.1
4.6

Functional Flow Diagram .............................................................................................. 20

Overview of Required System Functions .................................................................... 21

4.6.1

Timers............................................................................................................................ 21

4.6.2

Interruptions ................................................................................................................. 21

4.6.3

Energy State Systems .................................................................................................... 22

5.0

Resources Overview and Breakdown of Proposed Work: ...................................... 25

5.1

Available Resources .................................................................................................. 25

5.2

Proposed Work Breakdown ....................................................................................... 26

5.2.1

Planning Phase .............................................................................................................. 26

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5.2.2
5.3

Implementation Phase .................................................................................................. 26

Methodology of Work ............................................................................................... 28

5.3.1

Microcontroller Design Development ........................................................................... 28

5.3.2

Data Management and Handling ................................................................................. 29

5.3.3

Project Completion ........................................................................................................ 29

5.4

Proposed Work Schedule .......................................................................................... 30

5.4.1

Initial Conceptual Design Schedule ............................................................................... 31

5.4.2

Microcontroller Design Schedule .................................................................................. 32

5.4.3

GUI Design Schedule ..................................................................................................... 33

5.4.4

Sensor Platform Design Schedule .................................................................................. 34

5.4.5

Data Management and Handling Schedule .................................................................. 35

5.4.6

Project Completion Schedule......................................................................................... 36

6.0

Risk Assessment: .................................................................................................. 37

6.1

Loss of Sensor Platform ............................................................................................. 37

6.2

General Delays and Non-Functioning Equipment ....................................................... 39

7.0

Reflective Paper: .................................................................................................. 40

8.0

Bibliography: ........................................................................................................ 42

9.0

Appendixes: ................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.

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Table of Figures
Figure 1 - Waspmote Pro Board Layout ................................................................................................ 13
Figure 2 - Waspmote IO Block Diagram ................................................................................................ 14
Figure 3 - Waspmote Power Block Diagram ......................................................................................... 14
Figure 4 - Waspmote Board Pin-Out Design ......................................................................................... 15
Figure 5 - Waspmote Pro Basic Program Structure .............................................................................. 17
Figure 6 - Waspmote IDE Interface ....................................................................................................... 18
Figure 7 - Conceptual Program Flow Diagram ...................................................................................... 20
Figure 8 - Waspmote Interrupt Flow Diagram ...................................................................................... 22
Figure 9 - Waspmote 'Sleep' Flow Diagram .......................................................................................... 23
Figure 10 - Waspmote 'Deep Sleep' Flow Diagram ............................................................................... 23
Figure 11 - Waspmote 'Hibernate' Flow Diagram................................................................................. 24
Figure 12 - Proposed Work Gantt Chart................................................................................................ 30
Figure 13 - Initial Conceptual Design Gantt Chart ................................................................................ 31
Figure 14 - Microcontroller Design Gantt Chart.................................................................................... 32
Figure 15 - GUI Design Gantt Chart....................................................................................................... 33
Figure 16 - Sensor Platform Design Gantt Chart ................................................................................... 34
Figure 17 - Data Management and Handling Gantt Chart ................................................................... 35
Figure 18 - Project Completion Gantt Chart .......................................................................................... 36

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1.0 Project Definition:


For the period of 2014 to 2015, an engineering project is required to be undertaken by all engineering students
in order to display their individual capabilities in the field of engineering by planning and implementing a full
scale engineering development with supervision provided by the university and if applicable, supervision
provided by an industry client.
Through collaboration with the university and academic supervisor Aruna Jayasuriya, an electrical based
engineering project has been organised to monitor water conductivity utilising suspended buoy platforms with
a local river to be utilised as the prototype test site.
Based on a previous research topic, the initial components of the prototype have been previously developed
with a basic platform design and microcontroller system. However compilation of the system components into
a finalised design has yet to be produced or trialled for application, as a result of this, this project hopes to
produce the finalised design for the system focusing on refining the programming of system as well as
developing the most economical and efficient hardware configuration for the prototype sensor buoy.
The major section of development for the project that requires work is the pre-developed microcontroller
board provided by Waspmote, The board utilises C programming with predefined functions for use with the
device. The devices major function is to work as a relay for information utilising radio communications, as a
result of this, the Waspmote board has the functionality for wireless communications as well as sensory
peripherals and battery operation prebuilt into the device.
The goal of utilising this board is to produce a standardised sensor device that can relay information remotely
in an ADHOC electronic network to collect multiple measurements while remaining operational for extended
period of time. With a functioning prototype, it means that this system could be utilised by industries to
monitor downstream rivers and creeks quickly and efficiently.
Through this prototype design, the main goal of the project can be achieved through the collection and
analysis of water conductivity tests from the measurements received via the sensor network. Utilising the
developed network, the sensors should be able capable of collecting and storing data for analysis, this stored
information will be sent to a central hub computer or sensor platform for processing via a front end
information process. This will trend the collected data and analyse the quality of the water with the users
being able to quickly interpret the collected results and their meaning.
Based on the electrical components of the design, the major constraints of the project are related to the
extended operation of prototype sensor rig. As the components are exposed to large bodies of water,
waterproofing of the prototype and developing a method for the sensory buoy to meet IP rating standards for
possible marketing applications is crucial.
Along with this, being able to operate for extended periods of time is another crucial constraint of the project.
As the sensor buoy store and transfer information remotely, maintaining a source of power is necessary to
collect a wide range of test results and transfer them back to the operator in real time.

S
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2.0 Project Scope:


Within the water monitoring sensor development project, there exists three major sections to the project
scope. One of the major sections of the project is the physical hardware design of the sensor platform and the
design for a rechargeable power source and its incorporation into both the water conductivity sensor as well
as the microcontroller device. The idea for this section of the project is to develop the most economical design
for the sensor platform while making the platform stable and electrically safe so that the sensor network can
operate without risk of damaged equipment.
Along with the physical hardware configuration, the project also requires a significant amount of work to be
focus towards to the programming of the microcontroller devices as well as development of the ADHOC
network for the transferal of test data. This requires that current programming developed by Aruna Jayasuriya
is built upon to include better power management operations as well as a developing a method of storing and
transferring data at regular intervals as contingency if data is lost during the initial water conductivity tests.
This may be handled through data checks with the main processer through the ADHOC network or through
pre-determined operations of storing all data samples internally on the device itself.
Along with the hardware and software components of the design, the project also requires work in regards to
data management and the handling of data for the end user. This requires proper storage of data and
displaying of the collected results from the sensor network through a front end user interface. This user
interface can be developed using visual basics to provide a method of viewing the desired data from the
sensor network through search fields and display trends in data for quick analysis of results. The front end user
interface for data acquisition however is a final development stage as the proper operation of prototype
sensor network itself is essential for the data handling to occur.
As a result of this, a significant amount of the project development will be focused on finalising the hardware
and software sides of the designs, with the user interface being an additional component of the project that
will be planned into the project. Although the user interface is an additional aspect of the design, the
collection and analysis of the information received from the sensor network tests is the major aspect and
reason for development of the project. As such, network tests are to be performed under a range of conditions
to measure the changes to the results collected and the efficiency the system itself to provide adequate
information on improvements to the system and how the data collected can be used for industrial
applications.

3.0 Project Limitations:


Within any major development, there are limitations that will affect the project outcomes and the scale of the
design. As this project is conducted in conjunction with Central Queensland Universitys Bachelor of
Engineering program, the project has a strict deadline and must have significant deliverables achieved by the
end of the first semester of the 2015 academic year. As such, the design and implementation phases of the
project must be scheduled for completion by week 10 of semester 1, 2015 at the latest.
As the electrical components of the sensor network are costly, Central Queensland University is unable to
replace the entire network if damages occur throughout development and testing. The project is also severely
limited due to the time frame and location of development. As the project requires that practical performance
tests are performed to meet the deliverables proposed within the project scope as the nature of the practical
tests require large scale periods of operation in remote locations.

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4.0 Literature Review:


Based on the scope of work and the major limitations specified in the previous section, literature
based on the microcontroller requirements for the design and the different methods of data transfer
has been researched and documented for the development of the design.
The relevant information to the sensor prototype design and the water conductivity tests have been
presented through the following literature review highlighting the theory and design capabilities of
sensor networks utilising a range of different methods and information and standard results for
water conductivity experiments and the meaning of their results. Along with this, all relevant
information in the chosen platform for programming ranging from chosen development software
and language has been documented in the following literature review section.

4.1 Investigation of Existing Telemetry Designs


In data collection systems, telemetry is the automated communications process for which
measurements and information is stored and transmitted from a remote location to receiving
equipment for processing. This term is commonly used to describe wireless communication
mechanisms such as radio, ultrasonic or infrared systems however the definition also refers to over
data transfer methods such as the use of long distance wired Medias such as telephone and TCP/IP
networks or optical link systems.
Another common telemetry design method is to utilise the low cost and wide availability of the
Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) Networks by transferring information via SMS
receivers as a method of capturing data from the system. These different telemetry designs allow for
a range of communication methods to offer the most suitable design aspects depending on the
application of the system.
4.1.1 Wireless Sensor Network
Using the telemeter devices, a wireless sensor network (WSN) can be generated using the platforms
as nodes within the system. Utilising these nodes throughout the system, the form of information
transfer and design layout of the WSN is a major design element of the telemetry network.
When developing a WSN, it is important to consider the design constraints of the telemeter device
such as power consumption, available memory, computational speed and communication
bandwidth. These factors limit the possible network configurations for a telemetry system when
choosing the topology.
In network topology theory, there is various methods of communication between remote computing
devices, each with their own advantages and disadvantages based on a number of factors such as
redundant communication paths, processing speeds and complexity of design and programming.
Information on the different forms of network topologies will be represented through the following
section:

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The ring topology transfers information from nodes in a single


direction, each device within the network acts as a signal
repeater to ensure that the signal strength is kept as strong as
possible as information is transferred. The network is
dependent on the ability of the signal to travel within the ring
formation, when information is transferred, the signal must
pass through each device until it reaches it intended address.
In this topology design, each device is a critical link, as there is
no server or central computer device within the network the
design is cheaper however if failure occurs at one of the nodes,
the entire network is lost.
In mesh topology or Partially Connected topology, the nodes
of the network are capable of cross communication utilising
point-to-point links to more than one node within the system.
This system allows for the effective range of the network to be
extended while still offering redundancies for communication
paths in the occurrence of faults in the network.
The system still relies on a central receiver or hub device for
information to be sent back to however have the capability of
cross communication eliminates the risk of information loss
due to failing nodes at the cost of complexity within the
system.
In a star network topology, each node device is connected to
central hub. The system allows cross communication between
devices by communicating through the central node device.
This central hub can be a router or switch device that acts as a
signal repeater or it can consist of a computer device to store
and collect information from the network devices.
The star network topology is considered one of the simplest
forms of topology to design and implement with large amounts
of resources available online however the primary
disadvantage of the design is damages or communication loss
to the central hub resulting in a loss of the network.
Similar to the mesh topology, the fully connected topology
operates by cross communication of all nodes within the
system. A fully connected network utilises communication
between all points to transfer information quickly and reliably
with minimal losses to the system in the occurrence of a node
failure.
However the major disadvantage of the system is the
complexity of its design, as the number of nodes within the
system increases, the communication connections in the
system grow quadratically in number meaning that system is
only practical in smaller systems.

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The tree topology utilised distributed branches developed


from transfer nodes and a central hub. For the topology to
exist, there must be at least three levels within the hierarchy of
the system, a central hub device, information transmitters
connected to the nodes and central hub and the devices
spread across the network.
The tree topology offers an easily scalable system and pointto-point communication between secondary and third level
nodes with ease of fault finding in the system. However as the
system relies on the hierarchy design, large system losses can
occur from a single node fault.
Bus topology is utilised generally within local area networks,
the technology operates by connecting each of the computing
nodes together by a single bus cable. Information signals are
transferred through the bus connection to all devices until the
intended recipient receives the signal.
Implementation of this system is relatively cheap as
communication occurs across a single wired connection
however managing the network can often have high
maintenance costs. As only one cable is utilised, a network can
be compromised by a single point of failure in the cable
resulting in the entire network failing.

4.2 Water Conductivity Monitoring


When developing a telemetry system, the most important aspect is to determine the goal of the
system. As proposed by the scope of the project, the telemetry system will be developed to capture
the apparent conductivity of water streams over a large range. Within a body of water, the
conductivity measurement is the waters capability to transfer an electrical current. The
measurement of water conductivity can be interpreted using the Inverse Problem framework
approach method.
By measuring a body of waters ability to conduct an electrical current, an approximation of the
dissolved elements within the system can be interpreted. As the conductivity of water is directly
proportional to the dissolved ions within the water and the ambient temperature of the system,
higher conductivity readings can be used to determine the presence of inorganic solids of salts such
chloride, nitrate, sulphate and phosphate as well as the presence of heavy metals such as sodium,
magnesium, iron and copper ions.
The indirect effect of these materials can be detected through the conductivity measurements
however all factors of the environment around the water system must be taken into consideration
to determine an accurate interpretation of the chemical composition.

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This measurement is a highly effective mean for early detection of dangerous chemical leaks and the
size of an effected area, it is also useful in detecting the flow and changes in bodies of water that
connect to the ocean through measurements of changing tide and salinity of a water system.
4.2.1 Unit of Measurement
In standardised water conductivity tests, the measured information is the relationship between the
measurement of dissolved ions to a specific quantity of water. The unit of measurement commonly
used for the electrical conductance of a material is the siemens (SI unit symbol: S). As the
conductance of a material is the reciprocal of resistivity of a material, one siemens is the equivalent
of one ohm and can also be referred to as mho.
As such, the measurement of the conductivity of a liquid is commonly measured as milli-siemens per
centimetre (mS/cm). This measurement can change however depending on the apparent
conductivity of the water, to avoid incredibly low readings from purer bodies of water, a smaller
scale can be utilised through micro-siemens per centimetre (S/cm).
This relationship is useful for a proportional measurement of a liquids conductivity in a known size
volume, however is not a clear representation of a larger systems conductivity. As a result of this, it
is also common to measure water conductivity in Parts Per Million (ppm) using the ratio of 2S/cm
to 1ppm.
As such common water conductivity measurements for different bodies of water have been
represented through the following table:

Solution Type
Pure Water
Distilled Water
RO water
Domestic tap water
Potable Water (max)
Sea Water
Brackish Water

Table of Aqueous Conductivities


S/cm
mS/cm
0.55
0.5
50-100
500-800
1055
56,000
100,000

0.5-0.8
1.055
56
100

ppm

25-50
250-400
528
28,000
50, 000

This information can be used as reference for testing conditions within local water system.

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4.2.2 Types of Conductivity Sensor


To measure the conductivity of a liquid, a number of different conductivity sensors are available on
the market. The different techniques these sensors use have been research and documented in the
following list:

Amperometric -

Amperometric conductivity sensors utilise two conducting plates separated by a specific


distance (1cm), using the separation and the measured liquid as a conducting material, a
predetermined potential difference is injected across the plates of the sensor.
By measuring the current flow across the two plates, the resistivity of the liquid is
determined using ohms law in a space of 1cm.

Potentiometric -

Potentiometric conductivity sensors operate by induction by utilising a ring assembly. By


applying an alternating voltage across two outer rings in the sensor, a current loop is
generated within the liquid being tested. This current loop is then measured by two
inner rings within the sensor to measure the apparent voltage across the liquid. This
process allows the conductivity of the water to be determined using Ohms law.

These two methods of devices both have their advantages and disadvantages within a system. Due
to the nature of the sensor platform operating remotely using solar and battery power storage, the
application of an AC system is less ideal for the system as the device will require an inverter
component. However the amperometric design is less accurate and is at a disadvantage in larger
moving water samples due to the method polarisation of the detection plates. All these aspects have
been taken into consideration and the following sensor device has been chosen for the sensor
platform design.

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4.2.3 microCHEM Conductivity Transmitter


Providing a waterproof, low power consumption liquid conductivity module, the microCHEM device
operates using a 12VDC power source with an average power consumption of less than 10mA. The
device operates by producing a 0 to 1VDC or 0 to 5VDC output selected by the user, the device offers
the following operating specifications:
microCHEM Conductivity Transmitter Specfications

Ranges

Resolution

k=0.1 Sensor. . . . . . 0 to 19.99 uS/cm


. . . . . . 0 to 199.9 uS/cm
...... 0 to 1999 uS/cm
k=1.0 Sensor. . . . . . 0 to 199.9 uS/cm
...... 0 to 1999 uS/cm
..... 0 to 19.99 mS/cm
k=10 Sensor . . . . . . 0 to 1999 uS/cm
..... 0 to 19.99 mS/cm
..... 0 to 199.9 mS/cm
0.1% of full scale

Accuracy

+/- 0.2% of full scale at 25C

Linearity

+/- 0.05% of full scale

Repeatability

+/- 0.05% of full scale

Ambient Drift

<0.02 %/C

Long Term Drift


Temperature Compensation

<0.1% per year


Automatic, 0 to 100C

Zero Range

+/- 5%

Span Range

70 to 130%

Sensors

Platinised Platinum

This instrument will be implemented into all Sensor platforms in conjunction with the
microcontroller device.

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4.3 Sensor Platform


In conjunction with the sensor equipment, the telemeter devices require a method of control in the
system to store and transfer information as well as apply a measure to regulate power consumption.
These issues are able to be resolved using a data recording device and battery charger unit on board
the sensor platform to produce a cheap method to store conductivity measurements and analyse
the result later.
However to provide a measure of control and regulation to the system, a microcontroller based
system is ideal for the design of the telemetry sensor network. By implementing a microcontroller
device, the design aspects of data storage, information transmitter and power regulation are
processed internally to a single device, this approach requires compatibility between devices and a
microcontroller system that is based around data communication.
4.3.1 Waspmote Pro Sensor Device
Supplied by Libelium, the Waspmote Pro sensor device is a pre-compiled micro-computer
development kit that operates using a modular architecture. The device allows for integration of
separate sensor and communication modules to be attached to the board and be interchanged
according to the needs of the system.
The base Waspmote Pro development board has the following specifications:

Waspmote Pro Sensor


General Data
Microcontroller
Frequency
SRAM
EEPROM
FLASH
SD Card Size
Weight
Dimensions
Clock
Power Consumption
During Operation
During Sleep
Deep Sleep
Hibernate

ATmega1281
14.7456 MHz
8 KB
4 KB
128 KB
2 GB
20 g
73.5 x 51 x 13 mm
RTC (32 KHz)
15 mA
55 A
55 A
0.07 A

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4.3.2 Waspmote Communication Ports and Board Layout


The development board offers a range of peripheral connections for integration of Libelium modules
as well as 3rd party sensor devices through a range of in-built sensors and analog and digital I/O ports
integrated into the development kit. These components have been pre-configured on the board in
the following layout:

Figure 1 - Waspmote Pro Board Layout

Provided by Libelium, information on the component connections for power and information
channels on board are represented through the following block diagrams, this information helps to
provide insight into the operation of the board.

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Figure 2 - Waspmote IO Block Diagram

Figure 3 - Waspmote Power Block Diagram

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As can be seen by the board layout and block diagrams of the Waspmote pro board, the device has 2
sensor I/O pin ins as well as an auxiliary SPI-UART connector on board. To utilise these ports, the Pinout information is crucial to implementing the device as such, a summary of the pin-out connections
for the 3 connectors on board have been provided:

Figure 4 - Waspmote Board Pin-Out Design

4.3.3 Peripheral Modules


The Waspmote development kits modular architecture provides the user with the capability to
integrate a variety of communication technologies through a simple pin-in attachment. Libelium
provides the following pre-developed module attachments for the Waspmote pro sensor device:
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

ZigBee/802.15.4 modules (2.4GHz, 868MHz, 900MHz)


GSM/GPRS Module (Quadband: 850MHz/900Mhz/1800MHz/1900Mhz)
3G/GPRS Module
WiFi Module
Bluetooth Modules
GPS Module
NFC/RFID Modules
Sensor Module board attachments
SD memory card storage module

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4.3.4 XBee-ZB-Pro Communication module


For the sensor telemetry system, the chosen communication technology was radio communication
using the ZigBee Pro protocol. The chosen model offers a range of functionalities to the system with
a variety of topology configurations capabilities as well as Over the Air Programming (OTA) for added
accessibility to the devices.
The XBee-ZB-Pro model of the ZigBee radio communication modules operates using the following
specifications:
Model
XBee-ZB-Pro

Protocol
ZigBee-Pro

Frequency
2.4 GHz

txPower
50 mW

Sensitivity
-102 dBm

Range
7000 m

The device operates in conjunction with a coordinator/gateway device that is essential to the design,
by utilising the gateway for the ZigBee device to connect, multiple nodes can be develop a wireless
telemetry network using the Waspmote Pro development boards as the sensor nodes.
Using the ZigBee radio device and Meshlium gateway equipment, the network topologies built
available are Star, Tree and Mesh transmission networks. As the ranges of these devices are capable
of 7000 meters line of sight, all topology designs are practical for the water conductivity sensor
network design.
However consideration needs to be taken into the communication programming used within the
system as loss of communication is a high risk in the design.

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4.4 Programming Architecture


4.4.1 ATMEGA 1281 Microcontroller
The Waspmote Pros architecture is based upon the Atmel ATMEGA 1281 microcontroller device,
which operates using a compiled C programming language. The device is a low power, 8-bit
processor that combines 128 KB ISP Flash memories, 8KB SRAM, 4KB EEPROM as well as an
assortment of general purpose I/O lines and working memory registers.
Upon initialising power, the device executes its bootloader binary in order to load the compiled
programs and libraries into the ATMEGA 1281s Flash memory. This process operates on a waiting
time of 62.5ms, during this time subsequent compiled programs can be loaded from the USB to
override the existing program on the device.
Operating on the basic programming structure of all C compilers, the ATMEGA 1281 follows a
coding structure divided into basic sections, the setup and loop. Both parts of the coding
structure operate with a sequential behaviour however play to separate roles in the program.
The setup within the coding structure is the first section, as the name suggests, the setup is run
only once when the program is initialised. It is through this section that initialisation of modules and
start-up requirements are run.
Sequentially, the loop component of the program is then initiated to run continuously forming an
infinite loop within the program. This portion of the coding structure makes up the main operation
of the program and operates continuously through interruptions where required. An example of the
coding structure can be seen in Figure 5.

Figure 5 - Waspmote Pro Basic Program Structure

4.4.2 Flash Memory


The ATMEGA 1281 microcontrollers Flash (128KB) stores both the downloaded program and
bootloader instruction for initialisation of the device. As the bootloader program is essential to
loading the compiled program into initiation, Libelium provides the necessary Waspmote IDE for
programming the device that will not permit rewriting the bootloader instruction.
As such, it is important that no other IDEs are used with the Waspmote Pro development board.

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4.4.3 EEPROM
The ATMEGA 1281 microcontrollers EEPROM (4KB) is non-volatile memory that can be utilised to
store variable information and values permanently even when power is lost to the device. This is
necessary to store operating conditions for when the device loses power or enters hibernate mode.
In the EEPROM memory, addresses 0 to 1023 are reserved memory space required for the operation
of the ATMEGA 1281 microcontroller. Addresses from 1204 to 4095 are free available memory
spaces to store variable information. The Waspmote Pro, WaspStackEEPROM can be utilised to
access the EEPROM memory as a LIFO stack to allow save frames during operation.
4.4.4 RAM
The ATMEGA 1281 microcontroller includes SRAM memory (8KB) which is utilised to store
temporary information from the on-board program. The 8KB of SRAM memory is shared between all
initialised and uninitialized variables, the dynamic memory allocator as well as the memory stack
that is utilised for calling subroutines and storing local variables.
As there is limited space it is important to use good coding practices to implement memory saving
techniques within main program structure.
4.4.5 Waspmote-Pro IDE Programming Interface
To ensure that necessary memory addresses and instructions for the Waspmote Pro board are not
overwritten, Libelium provides their own standalone Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
program for programming of the Waspmote Pro device.

Figure 6 - Waspmote IDE Interface

The Waspmote IDE offers a range of features compatible with the Waspmote Pro. Programs written
within the Waspmote IDE are called Sketches, these sketches are written within the text editor inbuilt into the IDE and are saved with the file extension .pde.

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Included with the Waspmote IDE, Libelium also provides an extensive API of libraries and header
files for use with the Waspmote Pro device. With a range of various programming examples showing
coding examples to access the different functions of the device, the provided libraries provide extra
functionality for use in the main program structure of the Waspmote Pro device.
Using the library header files, Libelium includes a number of pre-programmed subroutines and
functions to build upon the C programming architecture of the device. These pre-built codes cover
the major functions of the Waspmote Pro development board from coding for communication and
sensors as well as handling internal timers and other functions of the ATMEGA 1281 microcontroller.
For information on the Waspmote API, the Waspmote Programming Guide provided by Libelium on
their website can be referred to for the function commands.
4.4.6 Networking with the XBee Modules
When using communication modules with the Waspmote devices, the devices have preprogrammed requirements that must be met for operation to occur. For the XBee ZigBee radio
modules, the devices are required to join the wireless network when they are powered on, as such it
is necessary for the devices to check the association indication before the program attempts to send
information to ensure better performance.
The XBee protocol requires a short period of time to create the necessary routing table and cross
communications between devices when powered on, as such it is necessary to implement delays in
the programming to ensure proper connections are created before sending information.
An important note that must be made when utilising the ZigBee modules with the Waspmote Pro
development board is the information packet handling. When a packet is received by the XBee
module, memory space is reserved to store the packets information, due to this factor, the reserved
space for the XBee information must be freed otherwise the code will crash when no more allocated
memory is available for the device.

4.5 Proposed Program Operational Flow Diagram


Using the collected information on the different design aspects of the system, an operational flow
diagram is an essential stage of planning to ensure that the resources compiled are utilised within
the system and to have a method of approach during the early stages of development.
As such, the requirements of the design must be implemented using the scope of the system
specified earlier within the technical investigation. As specified within the scope of the project, the
design must be capable of operating for extended periods of time in remote locations requiring that
power consumption is regulated and information packets through communication channels are
managed and tracked to ensure that the sensor data is received.

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Due to the multiple sensor components of the system, the operation of the individual sensor system
are required to be more complex handling not only their own internal process but also for receiving
and transferring other sensors captured information. To reduce the complexity of the system, as
well as to integrate specific power operations within the system for power management purposes,
the proposed functionality of the Waspmote devices will be developed to operate on a schedule for
collecting information, transmitting data and a hibernation mode until a specific time of wake up
command is received by the devices.
4.5.1 Functional Flow Diagram
As specified within the scope, the developed programming of the Waspmote devices must be
capable of capturing and transmitting sensor information as well as being able to maintain long
periods of operation due to the remote nature that the tests are taken in. As such a primary flow
diagram has been developed suggesting the operation of the device and can be seen in Figure 7.

Figure 7 - Conceptual Program Flow Diagram

This Flow diagram states the required actions to be performed however does not provide
information on the programming at this stage, functionality of the telemetry system will be
developed through the implementation phase of the project.

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4.6 Overview of Required System Functions


As can be seen in Figure 7 of the functional flow diagram of the Waspmote devices, there are some
major design aspects that will be utilised within the sensor network system design, these design
functions are the use of in-built timers, system interrupts and energy systems pre-developed into
the Waspmote architecture.
4.6.1 Timers
Built into the Waspmote development kits core architecture, the device is capable of utilising a
variety of different timer functions for different implementations into the system. Available as an
added addition on the Waspmote development kit, the device has incorporated the use of a quartz
based crystal oscillator to maintain the internal system clock as well as the use of a Real Time Clock
(RTC) device to allow the user to set an absolute time during operation of the device. Incorporated
into the ATMEGA 1281 microcontroller there is also the provided functionality of the internal
Watchdog Time (WDT) which counts the clock cycles of oscillator internal to the microcontroller
device, however to avoid overwriting pre-loaded Waspmote functions into the WDT, this timer will
not be utilised for the sensor network system.
Within the system, the Quartz oscillator operates at a frequency of 14.7456 MHz as the internal
system clock, operating at this frequency, the microcontroller runs a low level instruction every
125ns in order to maintain the system clock speed for programming execution.
Along with the Quartz oscillator, the in-built RTC device operates at consistent 32KHz. Using this
device, alarms can be programmed into the Waspmotes RTC device allowing for the specification of
day/hour/minute/second within the program for execution. This allows coordination with the
devices energy conservation systems to allow for total control of the system to perform operations
at specific times and to remain in energy conservations states for set periods of duration.
As such, the RTC device has been associated with the Waspmotes Deep Sleep and Hibernate
low energy consumptions states which will be explained in the following sections.
4.6.2 Interruptions
Developed into the programming architecture of the Waspmote device, interruptions are signals
received by microcontroller to indicate that the system must attend to a current event. Interruption
control allows the microcontroller to be free from having to execute the primary programming at all
times and can also be utilised to alarm the Waspmote device when specified variable thresholds are
reached within the users programming.
The Waspmote development board is designed to function using 2 types of interruptions,
Synchronous and Asynchronous. Synchronous interruptions are programmed for
incorporation with timers of the system. As such, they allow the user to program when the
interruptions will be triggered; there are two types of timer alarms available within the
microcontroller architecture, periodic and relative alarms.
As the name suggests, periodic alarms are pre-programmed to interrupt the system at a specified
duration of operation or specific time of the day and are controlled by the RTC device. Alternatively,
relative alarms are interruptions that are programmed via the RTC device for more specific
purposes and are only designated to operate at specific time under pre-determined circumstances.

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However, unlike synchronous interruptions, Asynchronous interruptions are not able to be


programmed internally into the ATMEGA 1281 microcontroller device of the Waspmote board,
instead these interruptions are triggered externally by connecting devices and as such are not
designed to trigger at specific moments. Based on the nature of these two forms of interruptions,
Synchronous interruptions are more commonly utilised for changes in energy consumption states
while Asynchronous interruptions are utilised for system operation alarms.
As such the interruptions of the Waspmote board operate using the flow diagram specifying specific
functions shown within Figure 8.

Figure 8 - Waspmote Interrupt Flow Diagram

4.6.3 Energy State Systems


Developed into the ATMEGA 281 microcontrollers design, the Waspmote device has 4 available
modes of operation, these modes are the ON, Sleep, Deep Sleep and Hibernate. Each mode
operates with different power consumptions and clock cycles, these different operating specifics
have been compiled.
Waspmote Device Energy State Specifics
Consumption

Micro State

Power Cycle

Accepted Interruptions

ON

15 mA

ON

Sleep

55 A

ON

32ms

Deep Sleep

55 A

ON

1s

Synchronous (RTC) and Asynchronous

Hibernate

0.06 A

OFF

1s

Synchronous (RTC)

Synchronous and Asynchronous


Synchronous (Watchdog) and
Asynchronous

For each energy state, the microcontroller operates differently, in the following sections, these
modes of operation will be explained.

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Sleep Mode

Figure 9 - Waspmote 'Sleep' Flow Diagram

During Sleep Mode, the main program is suspended and the microcontroller passes into a latent
state of operation. During this state, the microcontroller can be awoken through all asynchronous
interruptions as well any synchronous interruption generated by the Watchdog Timer. The duration
interval for this state is from 16ms to 8s while power consumption is 55A.
During this state, the program stack where all variables and log values are stored is maintained; this
allows the current instruction and variable values to be restored when the Waspmote device returns
to the ON state.

Deep Sleep Mode

Figure 10 - Waspmote 'Deep Sleep' Flow Diagram

During Deep Sleep Mode, the main program is suspended and the microcontroller passes into a
latent state of operation. During this state, the microcontroller can be awoken through all
asynchronous interruptions as well any synchronous interruption generated by the RTC device. The
duration interval for this state can range from seconds to minutes, hours or days while power
consumption is 55A.
During this state, the program stack where all variables and log values are stored is maintained; this
allows the current instruction and variable values to be restored when the Waspmote device returns
to the ON state.

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Hibernate Mode

Figure 11 - Waspmote 'Hibernate' Flow Diagram

Hibernate Mode is different to the other energy conservation states. During Hibernate Mode,
the main program is suspended and all Waspmote modules are completely disconnected. During this
state, the microcontroller can only be awoken through synchronous interruptions generated by the
RTC device. The duration interval for this state can range from seconds to minutes, hours or days
while only the RTC device consume power at a consumption of 0.06A.
During this state, the microcontroller does not store any operating values from variables or from the
program stack. When leaving the Hibernate state, the microcontroller is reset requiring that Setup
and Loop routines are run within the programming.
With information provided on the different functionality of the Waspmote device, the developed
primary sensor network flow diagram can reviewed.

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5.0 Resources Overview and Breakdown of Proposed Work:


A summary of the resources and proposed schedule of work has been documented for the major
phases of development:

5.1 Available Resources


As the project is being developed in collaboration, the Engineering Centre and available workshops
are able to be designated to the development sensor network prototypes with prior scheduling.
Along with this, supplied by the university, enough funds have been dedicated to the project to
allow for a total of 10 sensor platforms. For each individual platform, the major design components
are:

1x Buoy Platform
2x Solar Panels
1x Conductivity Sensor
1x 24A Battery Charger
1x 12V Battery
1x Waspmote Device
1x Zigbee Pro Wireless Addon
1x Microcontroller Battery Pack
1x IP 55 Rated Container

As mentioned earlier, due to the nature of the project being implemented through the university,
the resources need to be closely managed as components are not easily replaced. In the occurrence
of damages or destroyed equipment, depending on the parts that are lost, a total of one sensor
platform may be able to be replaced with the current budget for the project.
However as the project is functionally the same with one less platform this is not a major concern
and replacement depends on the current phase of development and the permissible time to
reconstruct a platform.

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5.2 Proposed Work Breakdown


For the development of the project, there are two major phases, the planning phase and
implementation phase. As portions of the project are designated to separate work groups, the
implementation phase has been broken into major sections based on the individuals scope of work.
5.2.1 Planning Phase
A breakdown of the major work tasks and scheduled time has been designated as follows:
Task
No.

Planning Phase

Duration
(Days)

1.1

Identify major design requirements

1.2

Project Risk Analysis (identify risks that could impact on quality or


scheduling)

63

1.3

Identify design specific constraints and set resulting parameters

11

1.4

Identify electronic communication network design constraints and


requirements

30

1.5

Identify Conductivity sensor capabilities and research water conductivity


test examples to determine expected results.

30

1.6

Identify key environmental issues and Sensor platform design requirements

30

1.7

Finalise the design constraints and set parameters including both technical
and environmental specifications

1.8

Develop Technical Documentation for Project including a Literature Review


for all research.

13

1.9

Review of initial conceptual design with Academic Supervisor

10

This breakdown covers the major research requirements of the project and the development of the
project risk assessment and Literature review. Upon completion of the planning phase,
development of the project will continue within the implementation phase.
5.2.2 Implementation Phase
For the implementation phase of the project, the development has been segregated into 4 major
work packages, however as the project is split amongst two work groups, the physical hardware and
software design requirements will be worked on separately as proposed by the scope of work
section of the report.
As such a breakdown of the major work tasks and allocated time has been proposed for the major
sections of the implementation phase as follows:

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Task
No.

Microcontroller Design Development

Duration
(Days)

2.1

Compile programming resources and pre-developed functions for


implementation into the prototype design

14

2.2

Review existing microcontroller programming for functionality and


operation within the sensor platform design

14

2.4

Implement power saving techniques into microcontroller system's


programming to extend duration of operation

16

2.5

Run initial trial tests of developed systems with incorporation of power


saving techniques

16

2.6

Perform ADHOC capability tests and refine network configuration for


maximum efficiency

16

2.7

Review developed microcontroller system with Academic supervisor

10

2.8

Refine microcontroller system based on recommendations

12

Task
No.

Data Management and Handling

Duration
(Days)

4.1

Review source material for data transfer utilising the ADHOC


communication network and its incorporation into the sensor network

4.2

Develop programming techniques to incorporate internal memory storage


and transfer for sensor test results

4.3

Develop a method of capturing data from ADHOC sensor network for end
users.

14

4.4

Perform tests for ADHOC network utilising developed data handling


techniques to ensure functionality

4.5

Analyse captured sensor data compared to previous tests and resource test
result data.

4.6

Review data handling methods with Academic Supervisor

4.7

Refine data management system based on Recommendations

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Task
No.

Project Finalisation and Documentation

Duration
(Days)

5.1

Finalise Project incorporating all developed aspects into a conclusive


prototype

14

5.2

Run full scale prototype testing to determine the functionality and


operation of the developed prototype

14

5.3

Refine prototype based on findings during testing

16

5.4

Analyse full results of testing to the prototype rig and it's suitability for
commercial application

20

5.5

Develop Presentation documents and finalise all findings determined


throughout project

15

These sections of the project cover the work that will be completed by the individual during the
implementation phase, this work includes joint development with the other work group members
through testing and collection of data however and where applicable to the design review.

5.3 Methodology of Work


Using the work breakdown as an overview for the development of the project, the implementation
methodology of this project has been developed for the 3 major design phases. As specified within
the detailed work breakdown, each phase has been segregated into individual development steps.
These tasks outline the required work that needs to be completed for each phase to ensure that the
design objectives of the project are met, this section will further discuss these design phases and the
sub-objectives of the project development.
5.3.1 Microcontroller Design Development
For this phase of development, the major design objective is the programming and incorporation of
the microcontroller devices within the sensor network system. This process requires that all
determined reference material and existing programs be analysed and compiled where suitable to
develop a foundation for the system to operate on.
As the system will operate using ADHOC radio technology, the implementation of this technology
with the microcontroller devices must be investigated, this task will consist of reviewing the existing
system programming of the devices for functionality in the proposed application and refining the
system. This existing programming will need to be improved to account for the long periods of
operation that the system is design to perform. As such refining the developed system to implement
power saving techniques through the operation of the devices is crucial for the development of the
project.

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Utilising these developments, another major section of this development phase is the initial tests of
the ADHOC system, as it is crucial to determine that the design is functioning as intended to a
suitable degree before large scale tests are performed, the sensor network must undergo trial tests
in order to improve the system where possible and to mitigate and risks of damaged equipment or
failed experiments affecting the scheduling of the project.
5.3.2 Data Management and Handling
To ensure that the relevant information from the sensor network is captured and processed to a
degree suitable for end users, the process of transferring information by telemetry systems and
automatically storing and processing the collected information remotely must be established from
theory and source material.
This research has been performed during the planning phase of the report however implementing
the theory for the system is crucial. To ensure this, methods of storing information internally within
the device must be developed. Due to limited memory however a method of transferring
information and deleting old information will be produced so that the system can operate
indefinitely without internal memory issues.
This process will be tested and refined during the scheduled testing phases of the project and
implemented into the final design.
5.3.3 Project Completion
Within the final phase of the project, the design of the sensor network will incorporate all refined
aspects and tested to ensure the total functionality of the system. This will require full scale testing
of the project operating over a large period of time. Using the results from the test, any aspects of
the design that require work will be focused on and the final results will be analysed and
documented.
Using the gathered information, the majority of this phase will be spent on documenting the design
and developing the project report and presentation. This stage in development will run until the
completion of the project.
As such a schedule of work has been developed documenting the major phases and the available
periods of time dedicated to them. This is clearly represented within the proposed work schedule.

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5.4 Proposed Work Schedule


For the developed work packages, a project Gantt chart was produced utilising the time frame of
work proposed for the development of the engineering project with the allocated work hours
proposed in the work breakdown. This work schedule has been split into individual phases, a total
overview of the plan can be seen through the following Gantt chart representation:

Figure 12 - Proposed Work Gantt Chart

Using these subsections of the project for scheduling of specific tasks, each individual aspect of the
project has been scheduled for until the GECON 2015, the main project design tasks will run over the
third university semester until the start of the first semester of 2015. At this stage the project
completion stage will begin to ensure that the project is finalised by the end of the degree.
This schedule has been developed for the entirety of the project containing all design phases, As the
development of the project relies on the design phases being worked on independently within the
work group, these aspects have been included although not all of this work will be focused on by the
individual. Each phases sub tasks have been scheduled into the project Gantt chart through the
following:

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5.4.1

Initial Conceptual Design Schedule

Figure 13 - Initial Conceptual Design Gantt Chart

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5.4.2

Microcontroller Design Schedule

Figure 14 - Microcontroller Design Gantt Chart

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5.4.3

GUI Design Schedule

Figure 15 - GUI Design Gantt Chart

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5.4.4

Sensor Platform Design Schedule

Figure 16 - Sensor Platform Design Gantt Chart

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5.4.5

Data Management and Handling Schedule

Figure 17 - Data Management and Handling Gantt Chart

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5.4.6

Project Completion Schedule

Figure 18 - Project Completion Gantt Chart

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6.0 Risk Assessment:


As the projects financial support is provided solely by Central Queensland University, the potential
risks to cost factors are pertinent towards the design in regards to efficiency, reliability and
mitigation of damage to electrical components. As such a risk matrix has been developed to assist in
the successful implementation of risk management for the project:
Likelihood of Risk
Almost Certain

The risk is expected to occur under most circumstances.

Likely

The risk is likely to occur in most circumstances.

Possible

The risk has a chance of occurring some of the time.

Unlikely

The risk has a small chance of occurring under some circumstances.

Rare

The risk is only expected to occur under exceptional circumstances.

Consequence of Risk
Extreme

Extreme damages to equipment or personal that will stop project development.

Major

Major damages to equipment or scheduling of project that will halt development.

Moderate

Incident that results in delays of project scheduling or costs for replacements.

Minor

Incident that results in minor delays in project scheduling or design.

Insignificant

Minor costs to replacement parts for system or minor schedule issues.

Likelihood

Risk Matrix
Consequence
Insignificant

Minor

Moderate

Major

Extreme

Almost Certain

Moderate

High

High

Extreme

Extreme

Likely

Moderate

Moderate

High

High

Extreme

Possible

Low

Moderate

Moderate

High

High

Unlikely

Low

Low

Moderate

Moderate

High

Rare

Low

Low

Low

Moderate

Moderate

Using the chosen risk matrix, key risks to the project have been identified and evaluated, the
following project risks have been determined based on the completion of the project in regards to
cost and scheduling but also based on the future applications of the sensor network design.

6.1 Loss of Sensor Platform


Under the circumstances of significant damages occurring to one or more of the sensor platforms,
the risk towards the project is significant, as a single platform holds significant importance within the
project in regards to cost, the platforms are also required for proper tests to be performed on the
sensor network to test the full range and application of the system.

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As such, the risk resulting in the loss of equipment or platform itself ranges depending on the
significance of the damages to a platform and the number of platforms that have been lost. As the
prototypes are electrical devices to be operated within water environments, the likelihood of
damages caused by water are potentially high, along with this, the tests that will be performed are
to be conducted in public river systems, as such loses to platforms caused by boats or theft is a
significant risk that also affects the project.
Using the condition of loss of a sensor platform, the following risks have been identified:
Risk

Effect on Project

Risk Mitigation

Risk Rating

Damage to Electrical
Components due to
water.

Potential Loss to some


equipment, project delay
due to loss of testing
results

Ensuring that the design


is fully water proof and
testing conditions are
suitable

Moderate

Loss of Sensor Platform


from boat or theft

Loss an entire platform


and equipment affecting
the overall effectiveness
of the system.

Develop the platform to


be as highly visible as
possible to reduce
possibility of being hit

High

Interruption of data
communication due to
loss of platform

Test results may be loss


or data never received
resulting in major project
delays.

Topography arrangement
and interconnection of
sensor network to
minimise loss of data

Moderate

Loss of 2 or more sensor


Platforms

Irreparable losses to the


project, effectiveness of
development will be
effected.

Apply all measure


identified in the previous
risks to mitigate the loss
of multiple platforms

Extreme

As can be seen from the risk matrix, any losses of the sensor platforms will result in significant delays
and costs to the project, these risks are difficult to mitigate due to the nature of testing the network.

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6.2 General Delays and Non-Functioning Equipment


Along with the risks associated with the loss or damage of equipment, the functionality of the design
is crucial to the scheduling of the project. As testing requires a large amount of time dedicated to
setting up and running the experiment, there are major risks associated around the functionality of
the sensor network.
Risk

Effect on Project

Risk Mitigation

Risk Rating

Sensor Network
functioning incorrectly
during testing.

Delay to project requiring


repeat in prototype
testing.

Run communication
checks at start of testing
and continuous operation
checks throughout
testing.

Moderate

Injury to Personal

Delay in project
development depending
on severity.

Ensure everyone is
equipped with proper PPE

Low

As can be seen, the risk associated with the functionality of the sensor network is generally
moderate, as the effects on the project are only related to delays in the project. With proper
preventative measures, the risks can be mitigated to reduce the delays in testing by continually
monitoring the sensor network during operation.

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7.0 Reflective Paper:


Removed

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8.0 List of Reference:


8.1 Wireless Sensor Network Resources
DIGI International, 2008. Demystifying 802.15.4 and ZigBee. [White Paper]
Available at: http://www.digi.com/pdf/wp_zigbee.pdf
[Accessed 25 September 2014].
Wireless Sensor Networks Research Group, 2008. IEEE 802.15.4. [Online]
Available at: http://sensor-networks.org/index.php?page=0823123150
[Accessed 23 September 2014].
Lewis, F. (2004). Wireless Sensor Networks. 1st ed. [ebook] University of Texas, pp.1 to 4.
Available at: http://210.32.200.159/download/20100130212654891.pdf
[Accessed 24 Sep. 2014].

8.2 Conductivity Research Resources


MHB Engineering Systems, 2008. A Practical Guide to Conductivity Measurement. [Online]
Available at: http://www.mbhes.com/conductivity_measurement.html
[Accessed 31 August 2014].
United States Environment Protection Agency, 2012. A Practical Guide to Conductivity Measurement. [Online]
Available at: http://water.epa.gov/type/rsl/monitoring/vms59.cfm
[Accessed 31 August 2014].
Lenntech Water Treatment Solutions, 2014. Water Conductivity. [Online]
Available at: http://water.epa.gov/type/rsl/monitoring/vms59.cfm
[Accessed 31 August 2014].
TPS, 2013. MicroCHEM Conductivity Transmitter. [Online]
Available at: http://www.tps.com.au/products/cond-tds/micro-c.htm
[Accessed 10 September 2014].

8.3 Waspmote Resources


Libelium, 2014. Waspmote Datasheet. [Online]
Available at: http://www.libelium.com/downloads/documentation/waspmote_datasheet.pdf
[Accessed 13 September 2014].
Libelium, 2014. Waspmote Technical Guide. [Online]
Available at: http://www.libelium.com/downloads/documentation/waspmote_technical_guide.pdf
[Accessed 13 September 2014].
Libelium, 2014. Waspmote ZigBee Networking Guide. [Online]
Available at: http://www.libelium.com/downloads/documentation/waspmote-zigbee-networking_guide.pdf
[Accessed 13 September 2014].
Libelium, 2014. Waspmote Programming Guide. [Online]
Available at: http://www.libelium.com/downloads/documentation/waspmote_programming_guide.pdf
[Accessed 14 September 2014].

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Libelium, 2014. Waspmote IDE User Guide. [Online]
Available at: http://www.libelium.com/downloads/documentation/waspmote_ide_user_guide.pdf
[Accessed 14 September 2014].
Libelium, 2014. Waspmote RTC Programming Guide. [Online]
Available at: http://www.libelium.com/downloads/documentation/waspmote-rtc-programming_guide.pdf
[Accessed 14 September 2014].
Libelium, 2014. Waspmote Interruptions Programming Guide. [Online]
Available at: http://www.libelium.com/downloads/documentation/waspmote-rtc-programming_guide.pdf
[Accessed 14 September 2014].

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