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MONASTIC SUPREMACY

Ang Pagdodomina ng mga Prayle sa Pilipinas

PI 100 THV1 Group 3


September 22, 2013

Monastic Supremacy
Patronato Real
Service to the God and King
Clerical Ascendancy

THE FIVE RELIGIOUS ORDERS

01

Augustinians (1565)
Fray Andres de Urdaneta and four other Augustinians landed in
the province of Cebu on April 27, 1565 from Mexico with Miguel

Timeline of Five
Religious Orders

Lopez de Legazpi.

02

Franciscans (1577)
The Ordo Fratum Minorum (OFM), the First Order of
Franciscans, Friars Minor. They arrived in Manila on July 2, 1578.

03

Jesuits (1581)
They arrived in 1581, expelled in 1768 as a result of the
suppression of the Jesuits in Europe in 1767, and returned to

04

Manila in 1859.

Dominicans (1587)
The first fifteen missionaries of the Dominican Order, also
known as the Order of Preachers (OP), arrived from Spain by

05

way of Mexico on July 21, 1587.

Recollects (1606)

They boarded a ship in Cadiz, Spain in July 1605 and arrived in


the province of Cebu in May 1606. By 1608, they had a priory in
the walled city of Intramuros.

Spiritual Geography
Visayas, Ilocos, Pangasinan, Pampanga, Manila

Laguna, Tayabas (Quezon), Camarines

Manila, Cebu, Leyte, Samar, Bohol, Mindanao


Cagayan and Pangasinan, some areas in
Manila
Remaining scattered places in the Visayas and
Mindanao

Contributions of the Missionaries

Builders of Roads, Bridges,


Forts, Irrigation Dams
Founders of Hospitals and
Orphanages
Propagation of Catholicism

2
1

Introduced New
Industries

First Teachers of the Natives and


Pioneers in the Establishment of
the Printing Press

Augustinians

Augustinians
April 27, 1565: Andrs de Urdaneta, Diego de Herrera,
Martin de Rada, Andrs de Aguirre, and Pedro de
Gamboa: first Augustinian priests to arrive (Cebu) with
Miguel Lopez de Legazpi from Mexico
1565: first house established in Cebu
1571: first house established in Manila

AUGUSTINIANS
Mga ipinatayo:
San Agustin Church
Agustinian Seminary and
College sa Vigan
Orphanage at industrial school
sa Tambhon

Franciscans

Franciscans
July 2, 1578: Ordo Fratrum Minorum (OFM) Franciscans
arrive on Philippine soil.
Orden na sinusunod ang pamumuhay ni St. Francis of
Assisi, kilala din bilang Order of the Minor
1580: San Juan de Dios Hospital ; San Lazaro Hospital
1586: Naga Hospital of San Diego
November 15, 1586: Province of St. Gregory the Great
1592: Hospital of Holy Waters (Los Baos)

FRANCISCANS Hospital San Juan de Dios, Manila

FRANCISCANS San Lorenzo Hospital, Manila

Jesuits

Jesuits
Orden na itinayo ni St. Ignatius of Loyola, kilala din bilang Society
of Jesus.
1581: Arrival from Mexico, headed by Antonio Sedeo
1585: Accepted first Novice (Juan Garcia Pacheco)
1591: Mission stations established in Balayan, Batangas, in
Taytay, and in Antipolo, Rizal.
1593: first Jesuit mission stations were established in the Visayas
in Tibauan, Panay

Jesuits
June 1595: Fr. General Claudio Acquaviva made the Philippine
Mission into a Vice Province dependent on the Province of Mexico
September 1595: College of Manila was opened
August 25, 1601: The residential College of San Jose, attached to
the College of Manila opened
1605: made the Philippine Vice Province into an independent
Province
1768: Jesuits were banned from the Philippines.

JESUITS Escuela Municipal de Manila, Intramuros

JESUITS Manila Observatory, Padre Faura

Dominicans

Dominicans
Orden na kilala rin bilang The Order of Preachers/Order of
St. Dominic
July 21, 1587: first 15 missionaries of the Dominican Order
arrive from Spain via Mexico.
Domingo Salazar - ang unang Obispo ng Maynila, ang kaunaunahang Dominicanong pari na dumating sa Pilipinas
1593: first two books published
Doctrina Christiana, one in Chinese, the other in
Spanish and Tagalog)
1594: Dominicans evangelized the fertile Cagayan Valley
1611: University of Santo Tomas established
1619: extended missionary work in the Babuyanes
1783: Permanently set-foot in Batanes

DOMINICANS Sto. Domingo Church, Intramuros

DOMINICANS University of Sto. Tomas, Manila

DOMINICANS Binondo Church, Manila

DOMINICANS Tumauini Church, Isabela

DOMINICANS University of San Carlos, Cebu

DOMINICANS Colegio de San Juan de Letran,Manila

DOMINICANS Doctrina Christiana


Noong 1593, naimprenta
ang unang libro sa
Pilipinas, ang Doctrina
Christiana sa
pamamagitan ni Padre
Blancas de San Jose sa
tulong ng Tsinong si Juan
de Vera.
Unang itinayo sa Binondo
pero inilipat sa Unibersidad
ng Sto. Tomas na ngayon
ay tinawag na UST Press.

DOMINICANS Villa Verde Trail


Padre Juan Villaverde
- naging arkitekto sa
pamosong Villa Verde trail
sa Nueva Vizcaya.

Augustinian Recollects

Augustinian Recollects
Kabilang sa Augustinian Order ngunit sumusunod sa mas striktong
mga alituntunin. Ang kanilang patron ay si St. Nicholas of Tolentino.
May 1606: Arrived in Cebu
1607: took charge of Bataan, Zambales and western Pangasinan which
were previously abandonded by the Augustinians and the Dominicans
1608: Priory based in Intramuros
1622: Pope Gregory XV declares the Recollects a congregration and
the Philippines formed one of four separate provinces
1635: exchanged their small mission in Negros with the islands of
Romblon
1679: Archbishop of Manila gave them Mindoro
1687: took charge of Masbate

RECOLLECTS San Sebastian Church, Quiapo

Nagpakilala ng mga Bagong Industriya

Manufacture
Cattle Industry
Cultivation of

Silk raising

Mats

Indigo and

and tile

FR. PEDRO DE
SAN AGUSTIN

FR. MATIAS
OCTAVIO

Coffee
Cultivation

Corn

manufacturing

FR. ANTONIO
SEDENO

of Hats and

FR.
MARIANO
GRANDIA

FR.
AGUSTIN
JIMENEZ

DISCRIMINATION AMONG SPANISH


AND FILIPINO PRIESTS

Agenda
The Opening of the Suez Canal
The Secularization Controversy

The Opening of the Suez Canal


Suez Canal
- connected the Red Sea and the Mediterranean
Sea
-inaugurated in 1869
-built by a French engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps
-vessels journeying between Barcelona and Manila
no longer had to pass by the Cape of Good Hope
at the southern tip of Africa
-traveling time from three months to 32 days.

The Opening of the Suez Canal


Suez Canal
-trading in the Philippines became increasingly
profitable
-foreign merchants and businessmen came to the
colony, bringing with them a lot of progressive ideas.
-Filipinos gained more knowledge and
information
about the world at large
-Filipinos gained the desire for freedom and
improvement in their lives

The Secularization Controversy


Two kinds of priests served the Catholic Church in the Philippines:
Regular priests - belonged to religious orders and has the main
task to spread Christianity
(Ex. Franciscans, Recollects)
Secular priests - did not belong to any religious order. They were
trained specifically to run the parishes and were under the
supervision of the bishops.

The Secularization Controversy


Conflict began when the bishops argued that its their duty to
check on the administration of parishes run by regular priests.
Regular priests refused these visits, saying that they were not
under the bishops jurisdiction. They threatened to abandon their
parishes if the bishops persisted.

The Secularization Controversy


Archbishop Basilio Santa Justa Sancho
de Rufina (1728-1787)
accepted the resignations of the
regular priests in 1774.
assigned secular priests to take their
place
Since there were not enough seculars
to fill all the vacancies, he hastened
the ordination of Filipino seculars.

The Secularization Controversy


November 9, 1774 - a royal decree was issued which
provided for the secularization of all parishes or the
transfer of parochial administration from the regular
friars to the secular priests.
Regulars resented the move because they considered the
Filipinos unfit for the priesthood due to reasons such as
the Filipinos brown skin, lack of education, and
inadequate experience.

The Secularization Controversy


The Spaniards were clearly favouring their own
regular priest over Filipino priests.

Pedro Sebastian Pelaez (1812-1863)


- ecclesiastical governor of the Church, sided with the
Filipinos.

-died in an earthquake that destroyed the Manila


Cathedral in 1863.
-after his death, was succeeded by other priests
fighting for the secularization movement.
(Ex. Gomburza)

CRUSADES AGAINST MONASTIC


SUPREMACY

Mga kumalaban sa pagdodomina mga


prayle:
Mga Gobernador
Hari
Mga Indio
Mga Obispo
Gomburza
Propagandista

Governors complain to Spanish


Monarchs
Gov. Dasmarinas (1592) slavery of indios
Gov. Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera (1636) friars monopolized
the business
They complained that the friars were infinitely more powerful than
the Crowns representatives.

But not without a price.


Gov. Diego de Salcedo imprisoned and died while being shipped
back to Mexico in 1669.
Gov. Juan de Vargas
- After his term, Archbishop Pardo forced him to stand each day for 4
months in Manilas streets wearing sackcloth and a rope around his neck
- Also died while being shipped back to Mexico

Gov. Fernando Manuel de Bustamante


- found out that the friars were stealing money from the obras pias
- Imprisoned the Archbishop
- Friars stabbed him to death

The Crown tries to investigate the Friars


1578 Spanish Crown ordered the governal general & the
president of the Royal Audiencia to examine land titles
- nothing happened
1697 the Crown ordered a visitador (oidores) from Mexico to
determine validity of land titles
- friars refused to show titles, claiming exemption
- nothing happened

Who has the real power?


If the King sends troops here, the Indians will return to the
mountains and forests. But if I shut the church doors, I shall have
them all at my feet in twenty-four hours.

GOMBURZA

Mariano Gomez
1799-1872 (age 72)
Tornatra (mixed Chinese & Spanish descent)
Theology (UST)
Head priest of Bacoor, Cavite (well-loved)
Printed the newspaper La Verdad describing the deplorable
conditions in the country
Accused of taking part in the Cavite mutiny (1872)
"Let us go where the leaves never move without the will of God."

Jacinto Zamora
Born in Pandacan, 1835-1872 (Age 36)
Insulares
Marikina, Pasig, Batangas, Manila Cathedral
Continued the secularization movement of Pelaez
Had a habit of playing cards (panguigui)
"Grand reunion...our friends are well provided with
powder and ammunition. means that they have much
money to gamble with
Misinterpreted by Spaniards and used as evidence

Jose Burgos
1837-1872 (age 35)
Born in Vigan to a Spanish officer & Mestiza
mother
Two doctorate degrees (Letran & UST)
Liberal views, secularization, defender of the
native clergy-> caught the attention of Spanish
authorities
1869 Felipe Buencamino
Close friend of Paciano Rizal
"What crime have I committed to deserve such a
death? Is there no justice in the world?"

Execution: February 17, 1872 Bagumbayan


- Gomez -> Zamora -> Burgos

Ordered by Gov. Gen. Rafael de Izquierdo


Francisco Zaldua
- Testified against Burgos
- Expected a pardon
- also executed that day (1st)

This event influenced a whole generation of revolutionists (Rizal,


Mabini, Bonifacio, Aguinaldo, etc.)
El Filibusterismo dedication

Without 1872, there would have been no Plaridel, Jaena or


Sanciongco; nor would the brave and generous Filipino colonies in
Europe have existed. Without 1872, Rizal would now have been a
Jesuit and instead of writing "Noli Me Tangere," would have written
the opposite. Observing those injustices and cruelties fired my
young imagination and I pledge to dedicate myself and to avenge
some day those victims. With this idea, I have studied and this can
be discerned in all my works and writings. God will give me the
opportunity someday to keep my vow.

- Jose Rizal

itinatag ng Propaganda
Movement sa Espanya
noong Disyembre 13, 1888
layuning iparating sa
Espanya ang mga
pangangailangan ng
Pilipinas bilang kolonya
nito
Graciano Lopez Jaena:
unang editor, pinalitan ni
Marcelo H. Del Pilar noong
Oktubre 1889

Graciano Lopez Jaena


isinilang noong ika-18 ng Disyembre 1856 sa
Jaro, Iloilo
anak nina Placido Lopez at Maria Jacoba
Jaena

pinadala ng ina sa Seminario De San Vicente


Ferrer upang magpari ngunit mas gusto
niyang maging physician kaya sinubukan
niyang mag-aral sa University of Santo Tomas
ngunit hindi sya natanggap
magaling na mananalumpati kaysa
manunulat
para sa kanya, ang Pilipino at Kastila ay iisa,
at ang pinakamatayog niyang pangarap ay
maging bahagi ni Espanya ang Pilipinas
Diego Laura

FRAY BOTOD (1874)


Padre Botod taguri dahil sa kanyang
malaking tiyan
isang maikling nobela at character
sketch tungkol sa isang Kastilang prayle
at paggamit nila sa relihiyon para sa
pagmamalabis nito sa mga Pilipino
ipinakita ang mga bisyo ng mga prayle at
ang pagsingil nang mahal sa
pagpapalibing at pagpapatubo nang
malaki sa mga utang
umikot ang ang kwento sa diskusyon ng
isang Pilipino at liberal na kaibigan
nitong Kastila
nilarawan niya ang prayle bilang
abusado, malupit, tamad, sakim, at
mahalay
hindi man nalimbag ay nabasa ng
taumbayan ng kopya nito hanggang
makarating sa mga prayle dahilan upang
ipahanap ang may akda

Marcelo.H. Del Pilar


isinilang sa Kupang, Bulakan, Bulakan
noong ika-30 ng Agosto 1850
pangsiyam na anak nina Julian H. Del
Pilar at Blasa Gatmaitan
nag-aral sa Colegio de San Jose at
University of Santo Tomas kung saan
nagtapos ng abogasya
Di tulad ni Rizal, si Del Pilar ay gumamit
ng wikang Tagalog sa paglaban sa mga
pang-aabuso ng mga Kastila sa Pilipino
sinasabing ang panitik ni Del Pilar ay
walang-takot, walang-pagod, walangpangingilag, tapat, tahas, at dimapagkakamalian
Piping Dilat, Plaridel, Pupdoh, at
Dolores Manapat

DIARIONG TAGALOG (1882)


isang pahayagang pampulitika at
unang diyaryong Tagalog
tinustusan ang pagpapalimbag ni
Franciso Calvo
dito niya sinulat ang kanyang mga
artikulo tungkol sa mga pangaabuso ng mga prayleng Kastila at
mga repormang hiling ng mga
Pilipino
ikinagalit ito ng mga Espanyol at
inutusang ipaaresto siya ngunit
nakaalis na siya papuntang
Espanya bago ito mangyari
nagtagal lamang ito ng limang
buwan

DASALAN AT TOCSOHAN
(Prayer Book and Teasing Game)

pinakamabangis na akda ni Del Pilar


Isang akdang nakakatawa dahil
ipinapakita kung paano sobrang kaiba o
kabaliktaran ang mga ginagawa ng mga
prayle noon sa kanilang mga sinasabi sa
mga Pilipino
dahilan ng pagkakatawag na filibustero
kay Del Pilar
sinulat niya ang mga dasal gayundin ang
mga tanong at sagot sa katesismo at
pinalitan nya ang ilang mga salita upang
tuligsain ang mga prayle
May mga nagsasabing itoy kawalanggalang sa relihiyon, ngunit mapapansing
hindi Diyos ang tinutuligsa ni Del Pilar
kundi ang mga prayle

DASALAN AT TOCSOHAN
(Prayer Book and Teasing Game)

Amain Namin
(Parody ng Our Father)
Amain naming sumasaconvento
ka, sumpain ang ngalan mo,
malayo sa amin ang kasakiman
mo, quitlin ang liig mo dito sa lupa
para nang sa langit. Saulan mo
cami ngayon nang aming kaning
iyong inaraoarao at patauanin mo
kami sa iyong pagungal para nang
pag papataua mo kung kami
nacucualtahan; at huag mo kaming
ipahintulot sa iyong manunukso at
iadya mo kami sa masama mong
dila.

DASALAN AT TOCSOHAN
(Prayer Book and Teasing Game)
Aba Guinoong Barya
(Parody ng Hail Mary)
Aba guinoong Baria
nakapupuno ka nang
alcancia ang FraileI
sumasainyo bukod ka
niyang pinagpalat pina
higuit sa lahat, pinagpala
naman ang kaban mong
mapasok. Santa Baria Ina
nang Deretsos,
ipanalangin mo kaming
huag anitan ngayon at
cami ipapatay. Siya naua.

Ang Mga Utos ng Fraile


(Parody ng The Ten Commandments)
Ang nauna: Sambahin mo ang Fraile na lalo sa lahat.
Ang ikalaua: Huag kang mag papahamak manuba nang ngalang deretsos.

Ang ikatlo: Mangilin ka sa Fraile lingo man at fiesta.


Ang ikapat: Isangla mo ang catauan mo sa pagpapalibing sa amat ina
Ang ikalima: Huag kang mamamatay kung uala pang salaping pang libing

Ang ikanim: Huag kang makiapid sa kanyang asaua.


Ang ikapito: Huag kang makinakaw.
Ang ikaualo: Huag mo silang pagbibintangan, kahit ka masinungalingan.

Ang ikasiyam: Huag mong ipagkait ang iyong asaua.


Ang ikapulo: Huag mong itangui ang iyong ari.
Itong sampong utos nang FraileI dalaua ang kinaoouian. Ang isa: Sambahin
mo ang Fraile lalo sa lahat.
Ang ikalaua: Ihayin mo naman sa kaniya ang puri mot kayamanan.
Siya naua.

CAINGAT CAYO - BEWARE


sinulat ni Fr. Jose Rodriguez
"Ang polyetong ito'y ipinangalat
nang walang bayad halos noong
taong 1888 bilang paghamak kay
Dr. Rizal at sa mga akda nito. Ang
may katha ay isang paring kastila
sa pangkat ng mga agustino
CAIINGAT CAYO BE SLIPPERY AS
AN EEL
Noong ika-3 ng Agosto ng taon
ding yaon, ang polyetong ito ay
tinugon ni Marcelo H. del Pilar sa
isang polyeto na may lagdang
"Dolores Manapat".

ANG CADAQUILAAN
NANG DIOS (Gods
Goodness)
isang sanaysay na pagtuligsa
laban din sa mga prayle,
ngunit nagpapahayag ng
pilosopiya at pag-ibig sa
kalikasan ni Del Pilar

LA SOBERANIA MONACAL EN
FILIPINAS
(Monastic Supremacy In The
Philippines)
isang polyeto na tumutuligsa sa mga
prayleng Espanyol tungkol sa mga
maling pagtuturo nila na nagresulta sa
paghihirap ng mga Pilipino
ginamit ang ngalang-sagisag na
Plaridel
Tatlong aspeto:
politika
ekonomiya
relihiyon

STATE OF THE CHURCH:


THE PAST AND TODAY

Composition
Philippines today consists of many religions:
Roman Catholic - 86%
Other Christian religions - 6%
Protestant - 2%
Muslim - 4%
Non-Western, indigenous beliefs and practices - 2%

Traditions

Roman Catholic traditions are still done in the


country like fiestas, re-enactments, celebration
of special days, etc.

Filipino Priests

Before, they do not allow otherwise 'trained'


Filipino priests to ascend into the higher
positions of the Catholic Church hierarchy.
Today, Filipinos can freely study and become
priests.

Land/money Acquisition

Down payment for a place in heaven


Buying of land
Foreclosure of mortgages
Land-grabbing
Friars to Encomenderos

Political influence

Before, friars have a strong hold on the


Philippine government. They have the power to
endorse certain officials, or have them
replaced.
Today, politicians ask to be endorsed by the
Church officials, the Church also demands in
political decisions, and leaders of our country
ask guidance from priests, bishops, and the
like.

Morals

During the Spanish era, the Spaniards rigorously


destroyed all local religious practices, including
indigenous holy places, idols, statues and
representations of indigenous spirits, gods and
goddesses.

They also imposed new moralities such as


discouraging slave holding, polygamy, gambling and
alcohol consumption.

Today, these moralities are still taught in the church.

Marriage

Before, it was considered customary and


desirable for the heads of two friendly families
to cement their 'alliance' by arranging an
appropriate marriage for their children--in many
cases while their children were still very young.
Today, this is not customary anymore. These are
rare cases in society today.

CONTEMPORARY ISSUES

Separation of Church & Government

malakas na impluwensya ng simbahan sa mga


mananampalataya o taumbayan
kapalit ng di pagsunod sa mga utos ng pari

Fight vs RH bill is Catholic Churchs


biggest challenge

Partial divorce bill worries church leaders

Philippine bishop says divorce law is


'the devil at work'

Ang Kaparian: Sex, Politika at Pera


South America has become a safe haven for the Catholic Churchs
alleged child molesters. The Vatican has no comment.
Sexual Misconduct among Priests in the Philippines: Key Cases
PANG-AABUSO

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