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# Engineering Electromagnetics

## LECTURE 1: Coulombs Law

Instructor: Sir Tim
Summer Term
ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

Coulombs Law

POINT CHARGES

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

ATOMIC MODEL

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

VALENCE
The NUMBER OF ELECTRONS in THE
OUTERMOST SHELL determines the
valence of the atom
The outermost shell is called the
VALENCE SHELL
The electrons residing in the outermost
shell is called VALENCE ELECTRONS

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Electrostatics
Deals with the phenomena due to the
ATTRACTIONS OR REPULSIONS OF
ELECTRIC CHARGES that are NOT
MOVING.

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Static Electricity

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Coulombs Law
Coulombs First Law of Electrostatics
The size of the force of attraction or repulsion
between two charges is DIRECTLY
proportional to the value of the charge

## Coulombs Second Law of Electrostatics

The size of the force varies INVERSELY as
the square of the distance between the two
charges

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Mathematical Form

k = 1/(4pi),
(for air o = shift constant 32)

F force in newtons
Q1 and Q2 charge in coulombs
r distance bet. two charges in meters
ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

NATURE OF CHARGES
LIKE charges REPEL
UNLIKE charges ATTRACT

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

ELECTRIC FIELD
Defined as the force per unit positive
charge that would be experienced by a
stationary point charge in a given location
in a field
The space between and around the
charged bodies where their influence is felt

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

ELECTRIC FIELD

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

ELECTRIC FIELD

k = 1/(4pi),

## E electric field intensity in V/m or

N/C
Q charge in coulombs
r distance in meters
ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 1
Point charges 1 mC and -2 mC are located
at (3, 2, -1) and (-1, -1, 4) respectively.
Calculate the electric force on a 10-nC
charge located at (0, 3, 1) and the electric
field intensity at that point.

## Ans: F = -6.507ax 3.817ay + 7.506az mN

E = -650.7ax 381.7ay 750.6az kV/m
ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 2
Two point charges of equal mass m, charge
Q are suspended at a common point by two
threads of negligible mass and length l.
Show that at equilibrium, the inclination
angle of each thread to the vertical is
given by
2 = 16 2 sin2 tan

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 3
A practical application of electrostatics
separation of solids. Assuming zero initial
velocity and displacement, determine the
separation between the particles after falling
80 cm. Take E = 500 kV/m and Q/m = 9
C/kg for both positively and negatively
charged particles.

Ans: 73.4 cm
ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Coulombs Law

CHARGE DISTRIBUTION

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## VOLUME CHARGE DISTRIBUTION

where:
V is the volume charge density; and
Q is the total charge within some finite volume

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

2
where:
L is the
density

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

line

charge

## FIELD OF A SHEET OF CHARGE

2
where:
S is the surface charge
density

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 1
Find the force on a point charge 50 C at (0,
0, 5) m due to a circular disk with surface
charge density of s = 20 C/m2 and 5
m, z = 0 m.

Ans: F = 16.5az N

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 2
The finite sheet 0 1, 0 1 on the z
= 0 plane has
a charge density =
3
( 2 + 2 + 25)2 nC/m2. Find:
(a) the total charge on the sheet
(b) the electric field at (0, 0, 5)
(c) the force experienced by a -1 mC charge
located at (0, 0, 5)

## Ans: (a) Q = 33.15 nC

(b) E = -1.5ax, -1.5ay, 11.25az V/m
(c) F = 1.5ax, 1.5ay, -11.25az mN
ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Problem 3
Determine E at (2, 0, 2) m due to three
standard charge distributions as follows: a
uniform sheet at x = 0 m with s1 = (1/3)
nC/m2, a uniform sheet at x = 4 m with s2
= (-1/3) nC/m2, and a uniform line at x =
6 m, y = 0 m with l = -2 nC/m.
Ans: E = 21ax V/m

## ECE Department, TUP Manila

Engineering Electromagnetics

## Timothy M. Amado, ECE Summer

Thank you.
Lecture 1: Coulomb's Law
Engineering Electromagnetics