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Fajardo

Fernandez
Inocencio
Raymundo
Robles
Villaroman
Yeo

POKA YOKE

INTRODUCTION

ASSURANCE
PREVENTION
FOOL PROOF
QUALITY

HISTORY

Poka-Yoke was invented by Shigeo Shingo in Japan


The origin of this name came from the words poka which
means inadvertent mistake and yoke which means
prevent.

HISTORY

In 1961, he visited the Yamada Electric Plant and was told that one of their
products had a problem. This product had 2 push buttons supported by 2 springs.
They created this by taking the springs out of a large parts box, then assembled
the switch. Despite the best efforts of their employees, sometimes the workers
assembling this would forget to insert a spring in each push-button. The company
would not know about this error until the unit already reached the customer. So the
Yamada Electric Plant would have to dispatch an engineer in order to disassemble
the product, insert the missing spring, and reassemble the product again. This
would be very costly and embarrassing for the company.

HISTORY

Shingo created a solution to completely eliminate


their problem

HISTORY
He then developed this mistake-proofing concept for the next 3 decades and
made the distinction between a mistake and a defect.
mistakes are inevitable since we are just human and we cannot be expected
to do everything perfectly all the time.

COMMON CAUSES OF DEFECTS


Current processes are unreal and incorrect
- the process that they follow may not be fit for the job or in some cases there are
steps in the process that was overlooked.

Variation in the process is too much and


unnecessary
- Too much variation may cause confusion which causes defects in the process.

COMMON CAUSES OF DEFECTS


The Variation in Raw Materials is
Disproportionate
- variation may cause confusion and the materials used may be interchanged thus
causing it to be disproportionate.

Accuracy of Measuring Device


- products require that the measurements are accurate because the products
made should all be of the same size. If measuring device is not accurate, defects
are made.

COMMON CAUSES OF DEFECTS

Human Mistake or Error


Employee's can be the cause of errors. It may be caused by poor training or by
ignorance of regulations. Some may be caused by poor memory, lack of focus or
making conclusions out of incomplete information given to them - deciding on their
own.

WHAT IS POKA YOKE?


The term Poka Yoke is also known as mistake-proofing or fail-safing. The
concept of Poka Yoke is to eliminate defects, in order to eradicate wastes and be
able to help workers use their time and mind for other productive tasks. The
concept refers to techniques/ methods which aim to lessen errors in production
and/ or their negative effects. Its method involves prevention, correction, and
detection of errors in production. The ideal process of Poka Yoke is to make sure
that the process of production is properly prepared before actually performing the
production. If it is not possible to prevent defects before production, Poka Yoke
acts as a detecting tool to eradicate defects as soon as possible.

CATEGORIES OF POKA YOKE

PREVENTION
DETECTION

CATEGORIES OF POKA YOKE - PREVENTION


Stop something from occurring a mistake or a problem. It is to
stop any abnormality in the process so that there will be no
errors. There are 2 approaches for the prevention based
Poka Yoke namely Control Method and Warning Method.

CATEGORIES OF POKA YOKE - PREVENTION


CONTROL METHOD
Senses the abnormality in the process and it shuts down the
operation. This is to avoid and prevent any errors in
happening in the operation.

CATEGORIES OF POKA YOKE - PREVENTION


WARNING METHOD
Avoids any errors too by simple lighting up the warning
signal. Although it is not like the control method that stops the
operation, warning method continues the operation, but it lets
the people know that there is something wrong in the
operation so that it can be taken out from the process.

CATEGORIES OF POKA YOKE - DETECTION


It is not always possible to prevent the errors, we also have
the detection, but it happens during the early process of the
operation so that it can be fixed at once. This is to further
lessen the cost of damage in the operation of products. There
are 3 approaches for the detection based Poka Yoke namely
Contact Method, Fixed Value Method, and Motion Step
Method.

CATEGORIES OF POKA YOKE - DETECTION


Contact Method: This method uses a direct mechanism in the operation to know if
there are any defects in the process. It comes direct contact with the defect and
notifies that there is an error or problem.
Fixed Value Method: This method is also known as Odd Part Out. It has a specific
number of rate, moves, and length of movement to know if there is a defect in the
operation process.
Motion Step Method: This method is to ensure that all the steps in the process will
be followed and no steps will be added.

WHAT MAKES A GOOD POKA YOKE DEVICE?


Simple and inexpensive, being useable by
any operator, being placed close to where the
mistakes occur, and being part of the
process.

METHODS OF POKA YOKE


The three basic methods for using poka yoke
recognized by Shigeo Shingo are contact
method, fixed-value or constant number
method, and motion step or sequence
method.

METHODS OF POKA YOKE - CONTACT METHOD


Functions by detecting whether a sensing device
makes contact with a part or object within the
process. It checks a physical characteristic such
as size, shape, or temperature in order to identify
product defects.

METHODS OF POKA YOKE - FIXED VALUE


When a fixed number of operations are required within a
process or when a product has a fixed number of parts that
are attached to it. A sensor counts the number of times a part
is used or a process is completed and releases the part only
when the right count is reached. It counts repetitions or parts
or weighs an item to ensure completeness. It alerts the
operator if a certain number of movements are not made.

METHODS OF POKA YOKE - MOTION STEP


Uses sensors to determine if a motion or a step in
the process has occurred. If the step has not
occurred or has occurred out of sequence, the
sensor signals a timer or other device to stop the
machine and signal the operator. This is done to
ensure that the steps of the process are done in
order.

INDUSTRY USES

AVIATION INDUSTRY
*Air travel is considered to be safer than road travel and all
other modes of transportation in the world. *
> De-Icing Chemicals: It will make it difficult to form ice on
the wings or planes when a certain freezing altitude is
attained.
> Auto-Pilot: Probably one of the most popular aviation terms
we know today. This device keeps the plan flying in case of
inclement weather or when the pilot is Ill-disposed of his
duties during flight.
> Fuel Jettisoning: Probably on of the most important device
during an emergency landing as this device prevent major
fires from fuel held in the tanks of the aircraft.

SPACE AVIATION INDUSTRY

The space industry would have to be the most invested


industry in the world to apply safety and precaution due
to the demand of accurate procedures to be constantly
carried out during space flight. Any small error in any
implementation of these procedures can lead to a major
disaster.
This industry therefore has developed many mistake
proof devices to ensure safety and to prevent errors
from ever occurring.

SPACE AVIATION INDUSTRY


Escape Capsules of the spacecraft.
It is designed to aid astronauts safely
return to earth in case there is an
emergency during any part of the
space mission. From launch, mid
flight, and flight in general. A motor in
the capsule fires over half a million
pounds of thrust to steer the capsule
away from the booster rocket. This
error proofing device has saved and
will save lives in case the launch of
the rocket will fail.

SERVICE INDUSTRY

In the service industry error prevention is very


important because there is direct and constant
interaction with the customer and any failure
would result in the losing a sale or a customer in
general. One of the most used and evident error
prevention system we see in the service industry
would have to be the Queue Management
Systems we see everywhere like banks,
restaurants, retail stores, and the like. They are
used
promptly
to
prevent
customer
dissatisfaction in the establishment.

SERVICE INDUSTRY

Another prevention method in this


industry would have to be the
electronic waiter pads to ensure that
the right order goes to the correct
table at the shortest possible time.

AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY
Start Up/ Ignition system of cars.
That the the systems goal was to
create a habit of the driver to make
sure he pushes on the brakes before
starting the vehicle. The vehicle is
designed not to start up until the
brakes are impressed upon. Same
goes with turning off the engine. The
Car must be in Parked before the
keys can be removed from the
vehicle.

ISSUES & CONCERNS


In real world situations, potentials of encountering defects,
malfunctions, errors, and such are high. Poka yoke's, also known
as mistake-proofing or fail-safing, aim is to reduce or
completely rid output with these errors, it supports the
business and its customers in several ways, specifically reducing
error cost and increasing customer satisfaction. However, Poka
Yokes success only considers internal factors resulting to errors
when there are occurrences of external elements that can also
contribute to malfunctioning/ error.

ISSUES & CONCERNS - SERVICE INDUSTRY

Queuing systems to monitor and prevent mistakes. Queuing ensures that


customers are assisted in order and in accordance to the service they require.
However, errors can occur when a customer fails to notice the queue. There are
also customers who require more than one service, yet only taking one number
which may result to confusion on the part of the service provider, this error can
be in the form of vollying the customer from one department to another, which
will definitely result to customer dissatisfaction

ISSUES & CONCERNS - AUTO/AVIATION IND


The common denominator for these industries would be the use of process
count in ensuring fail-proof output. Counting the number of parts, as well as the
number of processes, one unit of car or plane use and undergo can be a
measure to avoid output malfunction or error; But error can still occur after
production, even if the parts were properly installed and processes were
followed. External factors such as the users lack of training when it comes to
handling the output can cause malfunction; accidents can also happen even if
the engine is running well, this can be due to the users inattention which he/she
can later blame on the machineries. Other factors such as the products
inadequate design or natural disasters can be considered outside factors that
can cause errors.

SOURCES
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