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Scholars' Mine

Masters Theses

Student Research & Creative Works

1966

A study of modified plug designs for a globe valve


Robert W. Wagner

Follow this and additional works at: http://scholarsmine.mst.edu/masters_theses


Department: Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Recommended Citation
Wagner, Robert W., "A study of modified plug designs for a globe valve" (1966). Masters Theses. Paper 5724.

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A STUDY OF MODIFIED
PLUG DESIGNS
FOR
A GLOBE VALVE
BY
ROBERT W. WAGNER

THESIS
submitted to the faculty of the

UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI AT ROLLA


in partial fulfillment of the vork required tor the
Degree ot

MASTER OF SCIENCE IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rolla Misaouri

1966

Approved by

ii

ABSTRACT
This thesis presents an empirical study of the characteristics of a cylindrical skirted disk valve used as a
flow regulating device.

Holes were drilled in two separate

removable cylinders, which, when respectively attached to


the valve plug adapter, provided control of the flow rate.
These cylinders could be moved to permit exposure of more
or less flow area by means of the valve stem and crank
mechanism.

At the closed position of the valve no holes

were available for flow within the differential pressure


zone of the valve, while at the full-open position all the
drilled holes were within the flow zone of the valve, permitting maximum water flow rate.
The method used in adding the holes to the cylinders
was "cut and try" because the desired flow rate was already
determined before any holes were drilled.

In other words,

holes were drilled until the desired flow rate was achieved.
The flow rate through each cylinder was established
at several cylinder positions by means of the weir trough
measuring device.

This relationship was used to determine

the valve characteristic.

The valve characteristic is

merely a graphical comparison of the flow rate through the


valve versus the percent valve opening.
A second set of curves was plotted to find the relationship between the flow rate and the exposed flow area

iii

for each cylinder to establish a possible design criterion.


The cylindrical skirted disk plug exhibits a new and
accurate approach to fluid flow control.

The results of

this study indicate that the experimental procedure pursued can be used to obtain desired valve characteristics.

iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The author wishes to express his appreciation to Professor Archie Culp, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, University of Missouri at Rolla, whose suggestions
and guidance made this thesis possible.
Thanks are also extended to the engineering staff of
the Crane Company of Chicago, Illinois, especially Mr. T.
A. Rodda, Engineering Project Supervisor, for sup,gestions
and correspondence throughout this investigation.
Finally, appreciation is due my fellow graduate assistants, Mr. Donald Land 1 Mr. Michael Reyburn, Mr. Stephen
Thompson, and Mr. Gary Hinz for their assistance and encouragement during the course of this investigation.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ABSTRACT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

I.
II.
III.

INTRODUCTION.

6
11
11

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE.

v.
VI.
VII.
VIII.

RECOMMENDATIONS
BIBLIOGRAPHY.
VITA.

APPENDIX.

16

19

16

WEIR AND ORIFICE THEORY .

14

First Test Set-up


Second Test Set-up.
Test Procedure.

CONCLUSIONS

vi

DESIGN ANALYSIS AND PROCEDURE

IV.

vii

Equipment De sign.

Water Supply System



Measuring Devices

iv

DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS.

RESULTS

ii

REVIEW OF LITERATURE.
DISCUSSION.

17
17

23

28

29

31

32

33

vi

LIST OF TABLES
Table
(Note:

Page
these tables are in Appendix)

WEIR CALIBRATION

34

DATA COLLECTED ON THE LINEAR FLOW PLUG TEST

34

DATA COLLECTED ON THE LINEAR HEAD PLUG TEST

35

vii

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure

Page

.... ......

ASSEMBLED VALVE

VALVE TEST SECTION

CYLINDER AND STUD MOUNTED ON THE VALVE


CRANK MECHANISM

..

VALVE SEAL COMPONENTS

OVERALL VIEW OF TEST EQUIPMENT.

12

V-NOTCH WEIR

19

ORIFICE

22

(Note:

..

10

The remaining figures are in Appendix)

VALVE CHARACTERISTIC FOR THE LINEAR FLOW VALVE


PLUG.

36

HEAD VERSUS PERCENT VALVE OPENING FOR THE LINEAR


HEAD VALVE PLUG

37

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AREA CHANGE AND VALVE PLUG


POSITION CHANGE FOR THE LINEAR FLOW PLUG.

38

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AREA CHANGE AND VALVE PLUG


POSITION CHANGE FOR THE LINEAR HEAD PLUG.

39

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AREA CHANGE AND FLOW RATE


CHANGE FOR THE LINEAR FLOW VALVE PLUG . .

40

13

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AREA CHANGE AND FLOW RATE


CHANGE FOR THE LINEAR HEAD VALVE PLUG

41

14

COMPARISON OF YARNALL'S FLOW EQUATION AND THE


ORIFICE EQUATION FOR THE LINEAR FLOW PLUG

42

COMPARISON OF YARNALL'S FLOW EQUATION AND THE


ORIFICE EQUATION FOR THB LINEAR HEAD PLUG

42

WEIR FLOW EQUATION FLOw RATE VERSUS ACTUAL


FLOW RATE (WEIGHED)

43

9
10
11
12

15

16

I.

INTRODUCTION

There are two basic functions of a valve in a fluid flow


system.

These are; regulation of flow rate or regulation

of pressure.

The type of regulation studied in this inves-

tigation was the flow rate through a modified globe valve.


Specifically, the flow rate of water was evaluated both
experimentally and analytically.
There are countless uses of flow control or throttling
valves.

Hydraulic systems, oil transmission lines, and city

water supply systems represent a partial list of applications.


The use of throttling valves is as common as regulating
your shower or controlling the sprinkler for your lawn.
A continuing study of plug designs for globe valves
has been made in order to produce desired valve characteristics.

Again, the characteristic of a valve is a plot of

the flow rate versus percent opening of the valve.

A basic

problem encountered in designs using cylindrical plugs is


that of sealing the area between the cylinder and the seat
in order to constrain the flow to the configurations machined
in the wall of the cylinder.
The primary objective of this investigation, therefore,
was to design a cylindrical skirt plug for a globe valve
with a positive seal at the valve seat.

Two valve plug

configurations were tested in an attempt to achieve the predetermined valve characteristics.

A secondary objective

of this investigation was to try to establish a more deliberate design procedure for programming the valve characteristic.

II.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The study of control valves dates back over one hundred years.

Since then butterfly valves, plug valves, gate

valves, globe valves, and others too. numerous to mention


have been investigated and modified to fit almost every
flow requirement.

Therefore, to maintain conciseness, this

review will be limited to the globe valve and its derivatives.


Before 1900, piston type globe valves were already in
use in the steam engines of railroads and ships.

Seely

and Talbot (1) conducted experiments with globe valves in


1918, for the purpose of correlating the head loss within
small globe valves with various valve openings.

The prin-

ciple contribution of Seely and Talbot's study was the fact


that the head loss depended primarily upon the shape of
the exit passage of the valve.

Their conclusion that head

loss in a valve varied directly with the square of the flow


velocity has proved to be a very useful tool in hydraulic
studies.

Lansford (2), in a later study of globe valves,

verified these results.


In his treatise on hydraulics, Addison (3) disclosed
that although losses within globe valves ware rather large,
such valves made excellent flow regulators.
in

19~1,

Rhodes (4),

suggested several types of ported plug designs to

achieve desired valve characteristics.

One was solid disk

with a symmetrical parabolic cross section designed to


produce a parabolic flow relationship with percent of valve

lift.

He also mentioned the V-ported plug valve which pro-

duced a similar parabolic flow characteristic because of


the mathematical relationship between the area and the altitude of a triangle.

However, Rhodes' most significant

statement in relation to this study was:

"Where greater

accuracy is required than will result from the use of the


simple triangular shaped orifice, the plug is made with a
series of small orifices of different shapes so designed
as to give a total flow at any time exactly equivalent to
that needed for perfect control."
Beard (5)

completed a thorough investigation of V-port

and parabolic plug designs in 1957.

His emphasis of valve

rangeability, "the ratio of maximum to minimum flow over


which the usable flow characteristic exists," is something
every valve designer must bear in mind.

III.

DISCUSSION

The discussion is divided into two primary sections:


the first subdivision is concerned with the equipment requirements and experimental procedure, and the second eubdivision is concerned with analysis of the experimental results.

In addition, a section on experimental apparatus

discusses the purpose and capability of each piece of


equipment.
A section covering design analysis and experimental
procedure dwells on the methods used in designing the flow

PLUG ATTACHMENT

C.RANK AND STEM

DETACHABLE

MECHANISM

FIGURE l

ASSEMBLED VALVE

CYLINDER

c~ntrolling

device. and the procedure used in conducting

the- tests on the complete valve.

The remainder of the dis-

cussion tabulates and evaluates the experimental results


w~th

known weir and orifice theory in order to establish

a mathematical r .e lationship that .can . be used in future design

procedueea~ .

DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS
EQuipment Design - A-major portion of this research was concerned with the diign of a valve with a cylindrical skirt
plug.

For convenience. it was decided that the valve plug

J'IGU~l;

~~VE ~E~T

2
~ECTiON

would be fabricated to fit in an existing 3-inch diameter


Crane globe valve, since this commercial valve was already
installed in a pump test loop in the Mechanical Engineering
Laboratory.

The Crane valve stem, plug assembly, and seat

were removed from the body and the plug was modified.

The

cylindrical skirt plug illustrated in Figures 1 and 3 was


then installed in place of the plug and seat of the former
valve.

The seat of the new valve was machined to the same

thread pitch and pitch diameter of the original Crane seat


since it had to fit the threaded holder within the valve
body.
The modified valve seal contained three component parts;
the seat, the plug adapter, and the cylindrical skirt plug.
All three were machined from aluminum round stock.

The

purpose of the seat was to provide a machined surface upon


which the valve would seal in the closed position.

In or-

der to prevent water flow by the housing, a rubber seal,


which will be described later in the discussion, was installed.

The plug adapter serves as a connection between

the cranking mechanism, the stem, and the actual flow controlling device- the cylindrical skirt plug.

The purpose

of using detachable cylinders was to reduce the machining


time in case a cylinder had to be scrapped during the
test period.
The main difficulty associated with modification of
the valve was concerned with finding a method to seal the

valve from leaks while under fluid pressure.

Close atten-

tion was given to the means of sealing the gap between the
outside diameter of the cylindrical skirt plug and the
inside diameter of the seat.

This task was accomplished

by the use of a butyl ORing which was flexible enough to


allow

relati~e

mo~ion

between the cylinder and the seat.

In order to keep the diameter of the valve as close to 3


..,

,.

,,

inches as possible the outside diameter of the cylinder was


... !

set
at 3.000 +
.....
... .005 inches
. . and a suitable 0-Ring was chosen
..
to dynamically seal the cylinder. A # 337 Precision 0-Ring
(

.'

was used.

To insure a positive seal on the inside diameter

FlGURE 3
AND STUD MOUNTEb ON
THE VALVE CRANK MECHANISM

LillD1!~

of the 0-Rinr,, a .025 inch diametral squeeze was recommended by the manufacturer.

Since the inside diameter of the

0-Ring was 2.975 inches, an adequate seal was obtained for


pressure differentials up to 500 psi

accordin~

to the

manufacturer's specifications.
After the outside diameter of the cylinder was determined, the inside diameter of the seat was bored to allow
the cylinder to pass through with no interference or scarring.

At that time the slot tor containing the

O-Rin~

was

bored as close to the leading edge of the seat as possible


to prevent appreciable flow interference by the seat itself upon opening the valve.

A 45 chamfer was then turned

on the leading edge of the seat to mate with the

~5

bevel

on the plug adapter at the full-closed position of the


valve.
One of the principal machining problems was that of
maintaining the concentricity of the moving parts to insure that the cylinder would not bind or cock as the valve
was opened or reclosed.

To prevent this from occurring,

the cylinders were all initially bored to 2.750 inches,


faced and threaded at one end to fit the plug assembly.
The cylinders were then screwed on the plug and turned
down to the specified 3.000 inch outside diameter.

This

operation kept the cylinder concentric with the drive


stem.

As a final means to prevent binding and cocking,

the drive stem was connected to the plug in such a way as

10

to a.a..low only a "push" or '.' pulil" force to be transferred


to the plug.

Hence, the cylinder and plug assembly was

eonfJtrained to move only in,, horizontal translation removing


the possibility that the cylinder would unserew from the
p.).l,ig
par~

duri~g st,~ -

of

th~

movement . Figure 3 shows the component

-V8lX' c seal; the _s,a1f, the detachable cylinders,

and the plug . a.dapter.


The .. ctuJ. mechanicf. of the valve is simple.
t ~ oll~d

The con-

va.;c :J:able, v e.ter., _passes t hrou gh tbe inside of the

cylinder :rrom the hi g h p ressur e side of the valve to the

FIGURE

VALVE SEAL COMPONENTS

11

low pressure si d e-throus;rh whatever openinr: it "sees" in the


cylinder wall.

For water to flow, however, the openinps

must appear beyond the 0-Ring on the low pressure side


the seat.

o~

It is apparent here that the 0-Ring divides the

high and low pressure sides of the valve.

The

openin~s

mentioned above are discussed later in this thesis.


Water Supply System - The test set-up shown in Figure 5 was
used in all the tests performed on the valve.

The pumn used

was an Aurora centrifugal pump mechanically driven by a


General Electric d-e motor.

The pump capacity was 200

~al

lons per minute and it was already connected in the test


set-up.
The suction side of the pump is connected to a sump
below the lab floor, and the discharge side is connected
to the valve where it empties into the weir trou gh.

Upon

leaving the tank, the water flows back into the sump to
complete the circulation process.

The piping from the

pump to the valve has a nominal 3-inch inside diameter


which is the same diameter as the pipe at the valve outlet.
The pipe and valve extending above the test valve seen in
the over-all test set-up figure is used for another laboratory experiment and was shut off during these tests.
Measuring Devices -

Only two pressure

gau~es

were used in

the experiment and both were used in conjunction with the


pump to indicate the pump suction and discharge pressures.
The gauge on the suction side vas a

u.s.

Gauge with a range

13

weir was actually calibrated for several flow rates by collecting the water for a period of one to two minutes, depending upon the

ma~nitude

amount collected.

of the head, and

weighin~

the

A comparison of the calculated flow

r~te

obtained from the weir equation and the actual weighed flow
per second is illustrated in Figure 16.

The curve indicates

that the weir equation flow rate was nearly equal to the
actual flow rate- the maxirr.um error being about

5%.

The hook gauge mentioned in the previous paragraph was


calibrated in inches.

The vernier fixed to the frame of

the gauge allowed the head to be measured to 0.01 inch with


good accuracy.

To enhance the accuracy of reading the

head, flow straighteners were placed ahead of the hook


gauge in the flow stream, thereby reducing oscillations
within the measuring tube.

Also, to remove the effects of

approach from the head measurement, the


several feet ahead of the weir.

~auge

was nlaced

The phenomenon of adhesion

of the water to the side of the glass measuring tube was


compensated for by placing the point of the hook one-half
the distance from the center of the cross section to the
wall; i.e., an average reading was taken.

During the act-

ual test of the valves, the hook gauge was found to produce inconsistent results because of a vacuum above the
water level in the hook gauge.

The inconsistency was re-

moved by drilling a hole through the top of the instrument


to provide venting.

The actual procedure for


the hook gauge was sicple.

locatin~

the water level in

The viewer had to merely watch

the mirror image of the hook, while stationed below the


water level, until the actual hook and the mirror image
touched each other.

All head readings on the weir had to

be corrected to zero because the actual zero head readin r


was 8.57 inches on the hook gauge.

This zero reading was

determined by means of a hydraulic level.


DESIGN ANALYSIS AND PROCEDURE

Valve design is generally concerned with achieving a


desired valve characteristic which is important from the
standpoint of control of fluid flow.

This characteristic

is the variation of flow with the change of valve opening.


The valves designed for this study were developed using
two predetermined characteristics, which will be referred
to as control graphs.

They were:

A linear relationship

between the flow through the valve and the valve opening,
and a linear relationship between head on the weir (flow
measuring means) and the valve opening.
Before the first configuration was machined, the desired graph of flow versus percent valve opening was made
and a straight line relationship was chosen.

The chosen

characteristic passed through the origin of the plot to


the known flow at the full flow condition for the previous
3-inch Crane

~lobe

valve at maximum opening.

This vas done

to obtain maximum flow at the full-open position of the

15

valve.

The method emnloyed in

achievin~

a desired flow

was to drill holes in the detachable cylinder which allowed


the water to flow from the high pressure inside to the atmospheric pressure downstream from the vnlve.

The

actual

pressure drop across the valve will be discussed in a later


discussion.
A special procedure was used to drill the holes in the
cylinder in order to expedite the experimental procedure.
A random pattern of holes would involve too much experimenting time.

Therefore. a more expedient way was developed.

Since the thread pitch of the drive screw was found


to be

threads per inch. each one-half revolution resulted

in a 1/8 inch cylinder movement.

Therefore, the cylinder

was divided in 1/8 inch circular bands. each of which must


contain enough holes to meet the flow requirement for the
corresponding valve position.

In this way each successive

one-half revolution would add a new band of holes- no single hole of which would be divided by the sealing mechanism
(the 0-Ring).

To keep the holes within the respective bands,

a 3/32 inch diameter drill was used together with a

ri~id

clamping arrangement that insured that the hole centers


were in the same plane even though the cylinder had to be
removed and rotated each time a hole was drilled.
To determine the number of holes within each band,
reference was made to the two control graphs depicting the
desired flow characteristics.

Both cylinders were designed

16

with this procedure.

For each 1/8 inch advance of the cy-

linder from the full-closed position to the full-open position a corresponding flow rate existed on the respective
control graph.
cedure.

This was the criterion for the design pro-

Hence, the method was "cut and try" in that a

series of holes was drilled to prevent overrunning the


specified flow rate for the position.

When the flow rate

was accomplished, the cylinder was advanced to the next


position and the procedure was repeated.
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
First Test Set-up - The initial set-up was made to test the
feasibility of the valve itself, since the experimental setup including the pump, piping, and the flow measuring device
had been tested repeatedly by a Mechanical Engineering Systems Laboratory class. The first configuration machined
in the cylindrical shell was a triangular shaped hole.

The

opening was symmetrical on opposite sides of the cylinder.


The sum of the areas of the two configurations was equated
to the area of the entrance pipe in order to obtain the
maximum flow rate at the full-open position of the valve.
The triangle was isosceles and was positioned so that the
side opposite the apex was parallel and directly under the
periphery of the 0-Ring at the full-open position of the
valve.
Upon testing this cylinder, difficulties were encountered with severing of the 0-Ring during the valve advance-

17

ment period.

This was caused by the expansion of the r-

Ring in triangular non-seal areas of the cylinder, resulting in a pinching action on the 0-Ring by the

ed~es

sur-

rounding the triangle at the outside surface of the cylinder.

Hence, a different configuration had to be used which

would be compatible with the sealing device or a new sealing device would be required.
Second Test Set-up - With the small 3/32 inch diameter holes
as the new configuration, a new cylinder was tested and
found to perform very smoothly with only a slight vibration
at the initial position of the valve after it was unseated.
A preliminary test indicated that the head level in
the hook gauge was too oscillatory to be measured accurately, so a short flexible hose was connected to the hook gauge
inlet and extended to the center of the tank- keeping the
opening perpendicular to the flow so as not to add the velocity head of the flowing water.

This remedied the oscilla-

tion problem in the hook gauge, thus permitting experimental evaluation of the valve characteristic.
Test Procedure - The actual test procedure was simple and
could be performed by one man.

After the holes had been

drilled in the wall of the cylindrical skirt in accordance


with the design procedure, the cylinder was mounted on the
plug adapter and the complete valve was installed in the
housing.

The crank mechanism was advanced one-half revolu-

tion from the seated or full-closed position to allow the

18

first l/8 inch band to appear between the high and low pressure zone of the valve.

It is in this first band that the

holes were placed to allow just enough flow rate for the
initial valve position to correspond to the desired flow
rate from the control curves.
The d-e motor driving the pump was started and the
water in the weir trough was allowed to come to steadystate for the specific valve position.

Since the capaci-

tance of the weir trough was large, time was required to


reach steady-state conditions.

For small flow rates the

steady-state condition required approximately one-half


hour.
For each test position (one-half revolution of the
crank) the design procedure of "cut and try" was carried
out until the desired flow rate corresponding to the respective control curve was realized.

The procedure was

repeated until the full-open position was reached.

At

this time the overall test of the newly designed cylindrical skirt plug was completed.

The procedure for the final

test closely paralleled the previous procedure except that


readings of the pump suction pressure, pump discharge pressure, and the hook gauge were recorded for each valve position.

This operating procedure was repeated for the second

cylinder and the same readings were recorded for the valve
positions studied.

19

WEIR AND ORIFICE THEORY


Since the flow rate could not be measured directly
during the

ex~ertmental

procedure, it had to be calculated

using Yarnall's equation.

The following is the derivation

of the weir equation for a 90 V-notch weir.

Figure 6 ap-

plies to this derivation, where:

Q =total weir discharge in ft.

3 /sec.

static head on weir in ft.

h = static head at any distance below the water


surface in ft.

e =

included angle of V-notch, 90

cd

= coefficient

vm

= velocity of approach of upstream channe 1 in

of discharge for the weir

ft./sec.
dh = differential element of head.

FIGURE 6
V-NOTCH WEIR

20

Assumptions:
(1)

Torricelli's equation for discharge prevails for


weir discharge or V

(2)

avg

c (2gh)l.l2.

The velocity of approach is negligible, hence the


velocity head at the plate location is negligible.

Therefore,

and,

= Cd VdA

dQ

= Cd[2(H-

h)tan l/2e](2gh) 1 /2dh,

where,
dA
V

= 2(H - h)tan l/2edh


= (2gh)ll2. (Torricelli's

equation)

Hence,
Q

II

cd(/ [2H tan l/2e(2gh) 1 / 2 - 2h tan l/2e(2gh)l/2]dh),


0

which reduces to

Cd8/15(2g) 1 / 2 tan ~ 5 1 2
2

Since for V-notch weirs Cd has been experimentally found


to be 0.58, and e is 90

the above equation reduces to

Yarnall's equation which will be referred to as Equation


1 in the following discussion of experimental results,

(1)

21

In the following section. the discussion of experimental results. an analogy using orifice theory will be used
in an attempt to correlate the test results.

A brief deri-

vation will be given at this time concerning water flow


through orifices and will serve as a reference for that
article.

Figure

7 shows the location of the reference points

1 and 2 with the corresponding nomenclature:

v1
v2

= upstream
= velocity

velocity in ft./sec.
at the vena-contract a in ft./sec.

pl = pressure at the upstream position in lb!/ft~


pressure at the downstream position in lb!/ft~

=
=

= acceleration due to gravity in ft./sec~.

z1

= elevation

P2

specific weight in lb!/ft~

of flow at upstream position in ft.

z2 = elevation of flow at downstream position in ft.


Q

= volume

flow rate through the orifice in ft~/sec.

Al = area of inlet pipe in ft~

A2 = area of cross section of flow at vena-contracta


in ft~

area of orifice in ft~

Cv

discharge coefficient of the orifice

Cc = contraction coefficient of the orifice


Bernoulli's equation for steady flow is:

22

a z

.... r

.... !.
pl
vl

-----.--

CD Al

_A_~ 0

P2
v2

FIGURE 7
ORIFICE
but because the elevation change for a very small orifice
even for vertical flow is negligible,

According to the continuity equation,

hence,

which, when combined with Bernoulli's equation along with


the discharge and contraction coefficients of the orifice
yields Equation 2,
(2)

23

and Equation 3,
C

= CvCc//1-

C~(A/A 1 )2

( 3)

RESULTS
The resulting curves for the two cylinders tested
proves rather conclusively that nearly any desired valve
characteristic may be produced with the experimental procedure used in this investigation.

Figures 8 and 9 are the

basic experimental relationships that were produced from


the two cylinders tested.

Figure 8 shows that a linear

relationship between flow rate and percent valve opening


was accomplished.

Figure 9 reveals that the second re-

quirement of the investigation -

a linear relationship

between weir head and percent valve opening - was also


realized.

Although both curves were tested with the same

procedure at one-eighth inch advancements a check was made


at smaller intervals to see if the flow rates at the untabulated positions justified the plotted straight line
between the tabulated positions.

This investigation re-

vealed that the error in assuming the straight line relationship between tabulated positions was negligible.
Another important aspect of this investigation was
the relationship between area change and cylinder advance,
depicted by Figures 10 and 11.

For the linear head cylin-

drical skirt plug the curve was parabolic in nature, while


the linear flow plug had a very distinct linear curve

24

especially at smaller flow rates.

A further and more signi-

ficant analysis produced from these curves is shown, however, in the flow rate versus percent available area curves,
Figures 12 and 13.

These graphs indicate that for both

cylinders the curves did not differ appreciably from a


straight line; hence, the configuration area (the holes)
appeared to be directly proportional to , the flow rate.

In

orifice theory the flow rate was also found to vary directly with the area permitting flow, namely,

CA{2g6p/y;

hence, the analogy between the configuration flow through


the cylinders and simple orifice flow may now be supported.

First, however, in order to validate the use of this

orifice equation, the following three assumptions were


made:
1.

The cylindrical plug is an orifice plate and the


holes in the cylinder wall are considered as individual orifices.

2.

The roundness of the orifice plate is negli g ible


for each orifice because the 3/32 inch diameter
is small compared to the 3-inch diameter of the
cylinder.

3.

The high pressure side of the valve will be considered to be an infinite reservoir with a
stant pressure of 20 psig.

con~

25

The first two assumptions are self-explanatory due to


the geometry of the cylinder and the flow configurations.
The third, however, needs some explanation.

The pump dis-

charge pressure, recorded for each test position, indicated a variable pressure, first increasing, then decreasing
with increasing flow rates for both cylinders.

Since the

pressure did not change appreciably throughout the tests


and the head losses within the piping system amounted to
approximately 5 psi, the average pump discharge pressure
minus the head losses within the piping system resulted in
the 2 0 psi g pressure at the valve in let.

It must be kept

in mind here that a 3 psi pressure drop from the pump to


the valve is immediately accounted for because of the elevation change of the water.
With the assumptions stated, the coefficient C, of
the orifice flow equation may be evaluated.
second

assumpti~,

Since by the

the area of the individual orifices is

small in comparison with the reservoir area, the pipe


cross section, the A/A 1 term of Equation 3 is approximately
zero, hence,

Vennard (6) states that the product of Cc and Cv is 0.61


for a sharp edged orifice and 0.98 for a rounded edge orif i ce

An ave rage of t he s e two c o e f f i c i en t s y i e 1 de d 0 8 0

for the discharge coefficient since the sharpness or


roundness of the inside edge of the holes could not be

26

determined.

Therefore, Equation 2 can be reduced to Equa-

tion 4,
Q

( 4)

o.8oA/2g6p/y.

This equation evaluates the flow through a single hole


in the cylinder, where again, A, is the area of the hole
and

p is the pressure drop across the orifice - 20 psi -

since the gauge pressure of the low pressure side of the


valve was atmospheric pressure.

To find the total flow

rate for each valve position, Equation 4 was multiplied by


the total number of holes permitting flow.

The theoreti-

cal flow rate at each valve position, Equation 4, was then


plotted versus the actual flow rate found Dy the weir equation.

Figures 14 and 15 indicate an equality between the

actual weir flow rate and orifice flow rate for the low
flow rate positions of the valve.

The deviation of the

curves from the linear relationship at high flow rates was


expected, however, since the assumption of a constant pressure reservoir was no longer valid due to a finite upstream
velocity in the pipe at the highest flow positions of the
valve.

The fact that close spacing of orifices on a plate

reduces the flow capability of each orifice should not contribute a significant error since only the inlet flow stream
is affected by the close spacing of holes.

This type of

error would combine directly with the coefficient of discharge, a term that was already approximated.

As stated

above, the orifice flow equation was indeed a good

27

approximation of the flow rate and offers a mathematical


approach to the problem of flow control.

28

IV.

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this investigation have led to the following conclusions:

l.

Almost any flow characteristic can be achieved by


use of the cylindrical skirt plug - depending only on the cylinder size and stroke length.

2.

There exists a linear relationship between configuration area change and percent opening for the
valve plug with a linear characteristic.

3.

For small flow rates the orifice flow equation


offers a reliable mathematical approximation of
the flow rate, thus providing a means of predict~

ing the number of holes required to achieve a giv-

"

en flow rate.

4.

The flow rate at all but the full-open position


of the valve varied direct+y with the percent
available flow area.

5.

The head loss of the cylindrical skirt plug is


greater than the head loss of the ori g inal poppet
plug in the Crane valve.

6.

The type of plug designed offers an accurate flow


control capability from the O% to 60% open p ositions.

29

V.

RECOMMENDATIONS

In order to benefit from what has already been done,


the author suggests that the following minor changes be
made to improve the valve design, as well as system performance.

The primary suggestion is that more instrumen-

tation, particularly within the valve test section, be


added because the pressure drop across the cylinder portion of the valve is a critical factor in the valve's design.

A pressure tap above the valve, as well as below the

valve is suggested, since at low flow rates a small but


definite suction condition existed due to the vertical
drop in the pipe at the valve exit.

This condition could

be heard by obstructing the air flow into the flange with


the hands.
A second centrifugal pump, which is shown in the overall test set-up, might be coupled to stabilize and increase
the flow capability of the water supply system.

This would

also increase the stability of the upstream pressure in


the valve test section, a very desirable condition.
There are two basic changes within the valve itself
that would improve flow stability through the configuration.
One change would be to increase the lift of the valve by
redesigning the stem connection to allow more room for the
stroke.

Another possibility would be to remove the volume

on the stud beyond the outside

dia~eter

of the cylinder since

the valve actually doesn't have to seat at the "off" position.

30

Thus, the cylinder length could be increased to the constrained distance from the 0-Ring to the rear body of the
valve.

Both of these suggestions would increase the con-

trol stroke of the valve, the axial distance of the cylinder within which all the holes must be located.
Aside from the design changes, there are several areas
within the scope of this thesis that merit further investigation.

A study of higher flow phenomenon should be under-

taken to see if the control aspects of the valves studied


in this thesis are valid for higher flow rates.

A similar

study could be made of the pressure regulation capabilities


of the cylindrical skirt plug at small and large flow rates.
The effect of reducing the hole size should be investigated
to improve control of both pressure and flow rate.

An area

that also suggests turther investigation is that of a solid


plug using the percent area available for flow versus flow
rate curvea of this thesis as a design criterion.
One of the primary disadvantages of the cylindrical
skirt plug designed in this thesis is the large head loss
incurred by the directional change of the flow stream.
The head loss of the modified plug was larger than the
original poppet plug for all valve openings.

A second

disadvantage of the modified plug is concerned with contamination due to solid matter existing in the flow medium.
Because of the size of the holes clogging could become an
acute problem.

31

VI.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

l.

Seely, F.B. and Talbot, A.N. (1918), University of Illinois Experimental Station, Bulletin Number 105.

2.

Lansford, W.M. , (1943), University of Illinois Experimental Station, Bulletin Number 340.

3.

Addison, H. (1934), Applied Hydraulics, John Wiley and


Sons, Inc., New York.

4.

Rhodes, T.J. (1941), Industrial Instruments for Measurement and Control, McGraw-Hill Book Company,
Inc., New York and London.

5.

Beard, c.s . (1960) 1 Control Valves, Instruments Publishing Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

6.

Vennard, J.K. (1961), Elementary Fluid Mechanics, John


Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York and London.

1.

Eckman, D.P. (1958), Automatic Process Control, John


Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York and London.

8.

Caddell, J.R. (1956), Fluid Flow in Practice, Reinhold


Publishing Company, Inc.

9.

Prandtl, L., and T~etjens, O.G. (1934), Applied Hydroand Aeromechanics, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.,
New York and London.

10.

Dalby, W.E. (1906), Valves and Valve Gear Mechanisms,


Edward Arnold Publishing Co., London.

11.

Linford, A. (1949), Flow Measurement and Meters, E. and


F.N. Span Limited, London.

12.

Schmeer, L. (1909), The Flow of Water, D. Van Nostrand


and Company, New York.

13.

Rouse, H. (1938), Fluid Mechanics for Hydraulic Engineers, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York
and London.

32

VII.

VITA

The author was born January 20, 1943, in St. Louis,


Missouri.

He received his primary and secondary education

in Webster Groves, Missouri, a suburb of St. Louis-

In

September, 1960, he entered Colorado University, Boulder,


Colorado, then transferred to the University of Missouri
School of Mines and Metallurgy in February, 1961, where
he received his Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical
Engineering in May, 1964.
He has been enrolled in the Graduate School of the
University of Missouri at Rolla since September, 1964, and
has held a Graduate Assistantship in Mechanical Engineering during his enrollment in the Graduate School.
The author is a student member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the American Institute of
Aeronautics and Astronautics.

He is also a member of Tau

Beta Pi and Pi Tau Sigma engineering honor societies.

33

VIII.

APPENDIX

The following appendix contains Tables 1 to 3, tabulated data taken during the test period.

Table 1 is the

weir calibration curve, while Tables 2 and 3 represent recorded and calculated data pertinent to the test of each
cylinder.

Figures 8 through 16 are a series of plotted

curves representing the tabulated data in Tables l, 2, and

3.

34

TABLE 1
WEIR CALIBRATION
RUN NUMBER

HEAD (in.)

.1.360

2. 360

3.080

3. 910

TIME (sec.)

60

120

60

60

WEIGHT ( 1bs. )

45

330

285

604

DENSITY ( 1 bs. I ft.)

62.4

62.4

62.4

62.4

Qa(ft./sec.)

0.012

o.o44

0.076

0.161

Qth(rt./sec.)

0.011

0.045

0.077

0.151

TABLE 2
DATA COLLECTED ON THE LINEAR FLOW PLUG TEST

% VALVE OPENING
0

PUMP DISCHARGE PRESSURE


(psig)
0

FLOW RATE
(cfs)
0

14.3

27

0.035

28.6

30

0.104

42.9

30

0.156

57.2

28

0.196

71.5

27

0.241

85.8

24

0.298

100.0

23

0.348

35

TABLE 3
DATA COLLECTED ON THE LINEAR HEAD PLUG TEST

% VALVE OPENING
0

PUMP DISCHARGE PRESSURE


(psig)

FLOW RATE
(cfs)

16.6

27

0.055

33.2

29

0.027

49.8

30

0.083

66.4

28

0.163

83.3

24

0.280

100.0

23

0.375

:2

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75

VALVE CHARFIGURE 8
ACTERISTIC FOR THE LINEAR
FlOW VALVE PLUG
87.5

100
w

0\

PERCENT VALVE OPENING

"

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FIGURE 9 - HEAD VERSUS


PERCENT VALVE OPENING FOR
THE . LINEAR HEAD VALVE PLUG
87.5

100

w
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PERCENT VALVE OPENING

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FIGURE 10 - . RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN AREA CHANGE AND
VALVE PLUG R>SITION CHANGE
FUR THE LINEAR FIDW PLUG

:
;

'

75

..

87.5

-~

100

w
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PERCENT VALVE OPENING

I 11 I I. I I I I I 1-

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T7

90

a:
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40

:1n

FIGURE 11-

RELATIONSHIP

BETWEEN AREA CHANGE AND


VALVE PLUG R>SITION CHANGE

FOR THE LINEAR HEAD PLUG

62.5

75

f37.5

100
w

\0

PERCENT VALVE OPENING

-~-

. . ..

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17

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FIGURE 12 - RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN AREA. CHANGE AND
FIDW RATE CHANGE FOR THE
LINEAR FlOW VALVE PLUG

.. .
0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4
~

FLOW RATE (cubic feet per second)

..

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FIGURE 13 ':"
BETWEEN AREA CHANGE AND
FlOW RATE CHANGE FOR THE
LINEAR HEAD VALVE .PLUG

_- _

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RE~TIONSHIP

t- --

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FLOW RATE (cubic feet per second)

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FLOW RATE (cubic feet per second)

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t+r

FIGURE 14- COMPARISON


OF YARNALL'S FLOW EQUATION
2 ~~1!-1-t ~-: AND THE ORIFICE EQUATION
1-=:.: -~ 1 .: FOR THE LINEAR F'I.OW PLUG
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COMPARISON

FLOW EQUATION .
AND THE .ORIFICE EQUATION
,
FOR THE LINEAR HEAD PLUG
1

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0.2

0.3

YARNALL'S EQUATION
FLOW RATE {cubic feet per second)

0.4
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FIGURE 16 - WEIR FIDW:


EQUATION FIDW RATE VERSUS
ACTUAL FIDW RATE (WEIGHED )

riffll l !j~~.w:-:~~~~~LLIIIIIIII:J:l::!:t!llli::!:J.._------ ~
-i .

0
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0.2

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-.

.r:-

-.
ACTUAL FLOW RATE (cubic feet per second)