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International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882

Volume 3 Issue 2, May 2014

Optical Fiber Transmission Amplifications for Ultra Long Haul


Applications
Ahmed Nabih Zaki Rashed
Electronics and Electrical Communications Engineering Department
Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Menouf 32951, Menoufia University, EGYPT

Abstract
This paper has presented the transmission systems
with employing Raman amplifier technology in forward
pumping directions in order to have put up with much
higher level of design complexities, when compared to
conventional transmission lines with doped fiber optical
amplifier. Even for the construction of a fundamental,
basic building block a unit of a fiber Raman amplifier
(FRA), the designer have to struggle with the problems
associated with the interactions between pump / signal
waves mediated by Raman process, have to wander
within the vast degrees of freedom given the choice of
pumping directions/ratios, and have to contemplate with
the wavelength dependent fiber loss/noise figure profiles.
Optimizing optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) and
designing ultra-long haul links with best signal quality
factor performances and minimum bit error rates, while
adjusting variables in the fiber length, Rayleigh penalty,
pump noise, nonlinear penalty, dispersion and gain
distribution is a problem which can be easily stated, but in
reality is not a process which can be easily achieved.
Keywords Optical signal processing, Performance
signature,
Raman
Amplifiers,
and
Photonic
Communications Engineering.

I. Introduction
Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is
basically frequency division multiplexing in the optical
frequency domain, where on a single optical fiber there
are multiple communication channels at different
wavelengths [1]. A WDM system uses a multiplexer at
the transmitter to join the signals together and a
demultiplexer at the receiver to split them apart. By using
WDM and optical amplifiers, they can accommodate
several generations of technology development in their
optical infrastructure [2]. Optical gain depends on the
frequency of the incident signal and also on the local
beam intensity. Dense wavelength division multiplexing
(DWDM) is a technology that puts data from different
sources together on an optical fiber, with each signal
carried at the same time on its own separate light
wavelength [3]. Optical amplifiers have several
advantages over regenerators. Optical amplifiers can be
more easily upgraded to a higher bit rate. In an optical
communication system, as the optical signals from the
transmitter propagate through optical fiber are attenuated
by it and losses are added by other optical components,
such as multiplexers and couplers which causes the signal
to become too weak to be detected. Before this the signal
strength has to be regenerated [4].

Most optical amplifiers amplify incident light


through stimulated emission, its main ingredient is the
optical gain realized when the amplifier is pumped to
achieve population inversion. The optical gain, in general,
depends not only on the frequency of the incident signal,
but also on the local beam intensity at any point inside the
amplifier [5]. To understand how optical amplification
works, the mutual or reciprocal action of electromagnetic
radiation with matter must be understood [6]. Optical
amplification uses the principle of stimulated emission
same as used in a laser. Optical amplifiers can be divided
into two basic classes: optical fiber amplifiers (OFAs)
and semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) [1]. An
amplifier can boost the (average) power of a laser output
to higher levels. It can generate extremely high peak
powers, particularly in ultra short pulses, if the stored
energy is extracted within a short time. It can amplify
weak signals before photo detection, and thus reduce the
detection noise, unless the added amplifier noise is large.
In long fiber-optic links for optical fiber communications,
the optical power level has to be raised between long
sections of fiber before the information is lost in the
noise. The combination of an erbium-doped fiber
amplifier (EDFA) and a fiber Raman amplifier (FRA or
RA) is called a hybrid amplifier (HA), the Raman-EDFA.
Hybrid amplifier provides high power gain. Raman
amplifier is better because it provides distributed
amplification within the fiber. Distributed amplification
uses the transmission fiber as the gain medium by
multiplexing a pump wavelength and signal wavelength.
It increases the length of spans between the amplifiers
and regeneration sites. So this provides amplification over
wider and different regions [7]. Hybrid Raman/erbiumdoped fiber amplifiers (HFAs) are an advance technology
for future. Hybrid Raman/erbium doped fiber amplifiers
are designed to maximize the long-haul transmission
distance [8].

II. Model and Equations Analysis


The evolution of the input signal power (Ps) and the
input pump power (Pp) propagating along the single mode
optical fiber in watt; can be quantitatively described by
different equations called propagation equations. The rate
of change of signal and pump power with the distance z,
can be expressed as mentioned in [9]:

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dPp
dz

Lp Pp ( z )

s
g Re ff Ps ( z ) Pp ( z )
p

dPs

Ls Ps ( z ) s g Re ff Ps ( z ) Pp ( z )
dz
p

(1)
(2)

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International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882
Volume 3 Issue 2, May 2014
Where s and p are the signal and pump wavelengths in
m respectively, z is the distance in km from z=0 to z=L,
Ls and Lp are the linear attenuation coefficient of the
signal and pump power in the optical fiber in km-1
respectively. Equation (1) can be solved when both sides
of the equation are integrated. When using forward
pumping, the pump power can be expressed as the
following expression [10]:
(3)
PPF z P poF exp Lp z
where PPoF is the input pump power in the forward
direction in watt at z=0. If the values of PP are substituted
in differential Eq. 2, and is integrated from z=0 to z=L for
the signal power in the forward, then the result
mathematical equation can be written as mentioned in
[10]:
g
PS z Pso exp R
Aeff

P L z
po
eff
Ls

(4)

where Pso and Ppo denotes to the input signal and pump
power respectively. This means that Ppo= PpoF in case of
forward pump and Ppo=PpoB in case of backward pump,
and Leff, is the effective length in km, over which the
nonlinearities still holds or stimulated Raman scattering
(SRS) occurs in the fiber and is defined as [11]:
Leff

1 exp Lp z

Lp

(5)

Recently, there have been many efforts to utilize fiber


Raman amplifier (FRA) in long-distance, high capacity
WDM systems. The net gain [12] is one of the most
significant parameters of the FRA. It describes the signal
power increase in the end of the transmission span and
presents the ratio between the amplifier accumulated gain
and the signal loss. It can be simply described by the
expression:
G net

PS ( z )
PS (0)

(6)

The intensity of the stimulated scattered light grows


exponentially once the incident pump power exceeds a
certain threshold value. The threshold pump power Pth is
defined as the incident power at which half of the pump
power is transferred to the Stokes field at the output end
of a fiber of length L. The threshold pump power satisfies
the condition [13]:
Pth

16
,
Leff g Re ff

(7)

For standard silica cable fiber, the transmitted signal


bandwidth per transmitted channel can be given by [14]:
B.W sig

0.4848
,
N ch z

(8)

Where Nch is the number of transmitted channels, is the


total pulse broadening after distance z which is given by
[15]:
(9)
D z ,
Where D is the total dispersion coefficient in fiber link
media in ps/nm.km, and is the spectral linewidth of
the optical source. This is mainly because FRA can
improve the optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) and
reduce the impacts of fiber nonlinearities [16], that is the
OSNR of the system after amplification can be:

OSNR dB 10 log10

PS ( z )
2 h c B.W Sig .

(10)

Where h is the Planck's constant (6.02 x10-34 J.sec), PS (z)


is the transmitted signal power after z distance, c is the
speed of light (3x108 m/sec), is the operating signal
wavelength in m, and B.Wsig is the transmitted signal
bandwidth. According to modified Shannon theorem, the
maximum bit rate per optical channel for supported
number of users, or the maximum capacity of the channel
for maximum subscribers is given by [17]:
B Sh B.W sig log 2 1 OSNR ,
(11)
Based on MATLAB curve fitting program, the
relationship between the signal quality factor (Q) with
both number of transmitted channels (Nch) and effective
length Leff in km and transmitted signal power after
distance z can be expressed as the following formula:

12.54
2.78
187.5
Q 28.65

2 2
3 3

N ch Leff
N ch Leff
N ch
Leff

P ( z ) ,dB(12)
S

Then the bit error rate (BER) can be expressed as a


function of Q in the following formula [18]:
2
Q
. exp
BER
,

.
Q
8

(13)

III. Results and Performance Analysis


The optical FRAs have been modeled and have been
parametrically investigated in different fiber cable medias
such as true wave reach fiber, non return to zero
dispersion shifted fiber (NZ-DSF), and single mode fiber
(SMF) with employing different multiplexing techniques
namely ultra wide wavelength division multiplexing
(UW-WDM) based on the coupled differential equations
of first order, and also based on the set of the assumed of
affecting operating parameters on the system model. In
fact, the employed software computed the variables under
the following operating parameters as shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Proposed operating parameters for performance
signature of Raman amplifiers [3, 5, 12, 18].
Operating
Symbol
parameter
Operating signal
s
wavelength
Operating pump
p
wavelength
Input signal
PSo
wavelength
Input pump power
Ppo
Forward
pump
rf
ratio
Signal attenuation
s
Pump attenuation
p
Spectral linewidth

of optical source
UW-WDM
Nch(UWchannels
WDM)
Transmission
z
distance
Types of fiber cable media
Effective area
Raman
gain
efficiency
Dispersion
coefficient

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Aeff
gReff
D

Value and unit


1.3 m
1.28 m
10 dBm
30 dBm
0.5
0.25 dB/km
0.3 dB/km
0.1 nm
10000 channels
0 z, km 400
True wave
reach fiber
55 m2
0.6 W1
km-1
25
ps/nm.km

NZ-DSF

SMF

72 m2
0.45
W1
km-1
20
ps/nm.km

85 m2
0.38
W1
km-1
16
ps/nm.km

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International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882
Volume 3 Issue 2, May 2014
Then the set of the series of the following figures are
shown below as the following can be obtained:
i) Fig. (1, 2) have assured that transmitted signal
power and pump power decrease with increasing
transmission distance. It is observed that true wave
reach fiber has presented transmitted signal and
pump powers with compared other transmission
mediums.
ii)Fig. (3, 4) have assured that signal gain and
threshold pump power decrease with increasing

transmission distance. It is observed that true wave


reach fiber has presented transmitted signal gain
and threshold pump power with compared other
transmission mediums.
iii) Fig. 5 has indicated that transmitted signal
bandwidth decreases with increasing transmission
distance. It is theoretically found that single mode
fiber medium has presented the highest transmitted
signal bandwidth with compared to other
transmission fiber mediums.

Transmitted signal power, Ps, dBm

14
True wave reach fiber
NZ-DSF
SMF

12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Transmission distance, Z, km
Fig. 1. Variations of transmitted signal power against variations of transmission distance at the assumed set of the operating
parameters.
30

True wave reach fiber


NZ-DSF
SMF

27.5

Pump power, Pp, dBm

25
22.5
20
17.5
15
12.5
10
7.5
5
2.5
0
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Transmission distance, Z, km
Fig. 2. Variations of pump power against variations of transmission distance at the assumed set of the operating parameters.

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178

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882
Volume 3 Issue 2, May 2014

40
True wave reach fiber
NZ-DSF
SMF

Signal gain, G dB

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Transmission distance, Z, km
Fig. 3. Signal gain in relation to transmission distance at the assumed set of the operating parameters.
5
True wave reach fiber
NZ-DSF
SMF

Threshold pump power, Pth dBm

4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Transmission distance, Z, km
Fig. 4. Threshold pump power in relation to transmission distance at the assumed set of the operating parameters.
Transmitted signal bandwidth, BWsig., GHz

1000
900

True wave reach fiber


NZ-DSF
SMF

800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Transmission distance, Z, km
Fig. 5. Transmitted signal bandwidth in relation to transmission distance at the assumed set of the operating parameters.

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179

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882
Volume 3 Issue 2, May 2014

Optical signal to noise ratio, OSNR, dB

35
True wave reach fiber
NZ-DSF
SMF

30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Transmission distance, Z, km
Fig. 6. Optical signal to noise ratio in relation to transmission distance at the assumed set of the operating parameters.

Shannon transmission bit rate, BSh, Tb/s

90

True wave reach fiber


NZ-DSF
SMF

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Transmission distance, Z, km
Fig. 7. Shannon transmission bit rate in relation to transmission distance at the assumed set of the operating parameters.

Signal transmission quality, Q, dB

40
True wave reach fiber
NZ-DSF
SMF

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Transmission distance, Z, km
Fig. 8. Signal transmission quality in relation to transmission distance at the assumed set of the operating parameters.

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180

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882
Volume 3 Issue 2, May 2014

10
True wave reach fiber
NZ-DSF
SMF

Signal bit error rate, BERx10-12

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Transmission distance, Z, km
Fig. 9. Signal bit error rate in relation to transmission distance at the assumed set of the operating parameters.
iv) Fig. 6 has indicated that optical signal to noise ratio increases with increasing transmission distance. It is
theoretically found that true wave reach fiber medium has presented the highest optical signal to noise ratio with
compared to other transmission fiber mediums.
Networks, Nonlinear Optics and Quantum Optics, Vol.
v) Fig. 7 has assured that Shannon transmission bit
44, No. 1, pp. 2539, 2012.
rate decreases with increasing transmission
[2] Ahmed Nabih Zaki Rashed, Abd El-Naser A. Mohammed,
distance. It is observed that single mode fiber has
Mohamed M. E. El-Halawany, and Mohammed S. F.
presented the highest transmitted signal bit rate
Tabour High Transmission Performance of Radio over
with compared other transmission mediums.
Fiber Systems over Traditional Optical Fiber
vi) Fig. 8 has indicated that signal transmission
Communication Systems Using Different Coding Formats
quality decreases with increasing transmission
for Long Haul Applications, Nonlinear Optics and
distance. It is theoretically found that true wave
Quantum Optics, Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 4163, 2012.
reach fiber medium has presented the highest
[3] Ch. Headley, G. Agrawal, Raman Amplification in Fiber
Optical Communication Systems, Elsevier, 2009.
signal transmission quality with compared to other
[4] M. Islam, Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications and
transmission fiber mediums.
Physical Principles, Springer, 2004.
vii) Fig. 9 has indicated that signal transmission bit
[5]
L.
Binh, T. Lhuynh, S. Sargent, A. Kirpalani, Fiber Raman
rate increases with increasing transmission
Amplification in Ultra-high Speed Ultra-long Haul
distance. It is theoretically found that true wave
Transmission: Gain Profile, Noises and Transmission
reach fiber medium has presented the lowest signal
Performance, Technical Report MECSE-1-2007, CTIE,
transmission bit rate with compared to other
Monash University, 2007.
transmission fiber mediums.
[6] H. B. Sharma1,T. Gulati, and B. Rawat, Evaluation of

IV. Conclusions
In a summary, the model has been investigated
forward pumping based fiber optical Raman amplifiers in
different optical fiber transmission medium systems over
wide range of the affecting parameters. It is observed that
transmitted signal power, pump power and its threshold
value, signal gain, optical signal to noise ratio,
transmitted signal bandwidth, signal transmission quality
and transmission bit rates decrease with increasing
transmission distance. As well as true wave reach fiber
has presented the highest systems transmission
performance compared to other transmission fiber
mediums under the same operating of conditions.

REFERENCES
[1] Ahmed Nabih Zaki Rashed, Abd El-Naser A. Mohammed,
Mohamed M. E. El-Halawany, and Mohamoud M. Eid
Optical Add Drop Multiplexers with UW-DWDM
Technique in Metro Optical Access Communication

Optical Amplifiers, International Journal of Engineering


Research and Applications (IJERA), Vol. 2, No. 1, pp.
pp.663-667, 2012.
[7] Q. Hen, J. Ning, H. Zhang, and Z. Chen, Novel Shooting
Algorithm for Highly Efficient Analysis of Fiber Raman
Amplifiers, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol., Vol. 24, No. 4,
pp. 1946-1952, 2006.
[8] Abd El-Naser A. Mohammed, Abd El-Fattah Saad, Ahmed
Nabih Zaki Rashed, and Hazem Hageen Low
Performance Characteristics of Optical Laser Diode
Sources Based on NRZ Coding Formats under Thermal
Irradiated Environments, International
Journal of
Computer Science and Telecommunications (IJCST), Vol.
2, No. 2, pp. 20-30, 2011.
[9] M. N. Islam, Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications,
IEEE J. of Select. Topics in Quantum Electron., Vol. 8,
No. 3, pp. 548559, 2008.
[10] A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, M. Santagiustina, and L. Ursini,
Polarized Backward Raman Amplification in Randomly
Birefringent Fibers, J. Lightwave Technol., Vol. 24, No.
3, pp. 40554063, 2009.
[11] Abd El Naser A. Mohammed, Osama S. Fragallah, Ahmed
Nabih Zaki Rashed, and Mohamed El-Abyad, New
Trends of Multiplexing Techniques Based Submarine

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International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882
Volume 3 Issue 2, May 2014

[12]

[13]
[14]

[15]

[16]

[17]

[18]

Optical Transmission Links for High Transmission


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Model in Single Mode Optical Fiber, IEEE Photon.
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Abd ElNaser A. Mohamed, Ahmed Nabih Zaki Rashed,
and Amina El-Nabawy, The Effects of the Bad Weather
on the Transmission and Performance Efficiency of Optical
Wireless Communication Systems, Canadian Journal on
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209-224, May 2012.
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S. Kumar, and H. Singh, Transmission Performance
6410 Gb/s WDM System Based on Optical Hybrid
Amplifiers Using RZ- Soliton Modulation Format at
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Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 7, pp. 7-12, July 2012.
Ahmed Nabih Zaki Rashed, Abd ElNaser A. Mohamed,
Sakr A. S. Hanafy, and Amira I. M. Bendary Electrooptic
Polymer Modulators Performance Improvement With
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systems, advanced optical communication networks,


wireless optical access networks, analog communication
systems,
optical
filters
and
Sensors,
digital
communication systems, optoelectronics devices, and
advanced material science, network management systems,
multimedia data base, network security, encryption and
optical access computing systems. As well as he is
editorial board member in high academic scientific
International research Journals. Moreover he is a reviewer
member and editorial board member in high impact
scientific research international journals in the field of
electronics,
electrical
communication
systems,
optoelectronics, information technology and advanced
optical communication systems and networks. His
personal
electronic
mail
ID
(Email:ahmed_733@yahoo.com). His published paper
under the title "High reliability optical interconnections
for short range applications in high speed optical
communication systems" has achieved most popular
download articles in Optics and Laser Technology
Journal, Elsevier Publisher in year 2013.

Authors Profile

Dr. Ahmed Nabih Zaki Rashed was


born in Menouf city, Menoufia State,
Egypt country in 23 July, 1976.
Received the B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D.
scientific degrees in the Electronics and
Electrical Communications Engineering
Department from Faculty of Electronic
Engineering, Menoufia University in
1999, 2005, and 2010 respectively.
Currently, his job carrier is a scientific lecturer in
Electronics and Electrical Communications Engineering
Department, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Menoufia
university, Menouf. Postal Menouf city code: 32951,
EGYPT. His scientific master science thesis has focused
on polymer fibers in optical access communication
systems. Moreover his scientific Ph. D. thesis has focused
on recent applications in linear or nonlinear passive or
active in optical networks. His interesting research mainly
focuses on transmission capacity, a data rate product and
long transmission distances of passive and active optical
communication networks, wireless communication, radio
over fiber communication systems, and optical network
security and management. He has published many high
scientific research papers in high quality and technical
international journals in the field of advanced
communication systems, optoelectronic devices, and
passive optical access communication networks. His areas
of interest and experience in optical communication

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