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the PSYCHESPACE

Vol. 1, No.1, 27-36, December

2007.

Dimensions of Organisational Climate


M. Balachandran

* & Immanuel Thomas **

INTRODUCTION

Abstract

The steady increase in the publication

of climate research is a reasonable indication that it is


becoming a major concern for managements and applied
behavioural scientists. However, considerable diversity
exists in definitions, approaches and dimensions as well
as the methodologies employed for research in the area.
This indicates that still more studies are required for
arriving at a consensus. The different tools available to
assessorganisational climate vary in the different aspects
stressed as important in organisational climate. In this
context, the present study attempts to identify the various
dimensions involved in perceived organisational climate
using a foctor analytical technique.

KEYWORDS:

*
**

Dimensions,

Organisational

Climate

Head, Department of Psychology, Tagore Arts


College, Pondicherry.
Head, Department of Psychology, University of
Kerala.

Organisational climate has been one of the


major construct used for comparing organisations and
is jointly determined by the procedures, strategies,
and physical environment, and the psychological
properties of its employees (Dunnette & Hough,
1998). However climate researchers have established
how the inherent variables of organisational climate
is related to factors like interpersonal relations
(Misra, 1983; Laldas, 1985; Bartlome & Laurant,
1986; Kumar & Anita, 1989), Participative
management (Ahuja, 1986; Virginia, Robert, &
James 1987; McCabe & Lewin, 1992), recognition
and encouragement (Grunberg & Oborne, 1992),
Grievance handling (Monappa & Saiyadain, 1990),
financial benefits (Trivedi & Mookerjee, 1989;
Barber, Dunham, & Formisano, 1992), degree of
formalisation
(Gregary & Burroughs,
1989),
communication (Hellweg & Philips, 1980), risk
taking (Aakar & Jacobson, 1987), Training (Blum
& Naylor, 1984), Recruitment and selection decision
(Mullins, 1982) etc.
Among the distinct theoretical approaches
researchers developed to study the concept of
organisational climate, the subjectivist approach
regard organisational climate as a perceptual and
cognitive structuring of the organisational situation
common to the organisational members. Accordingly,
in the organisation there is a continual flow of events
and actions, of routines and processes. Individual
encounter those various phenomena and try to
interpret them so that the surrounding world become
comprehensible. They create a "cognitive map"
for themselves;
with its help they can place
what they see and hear, thus becoming able to see

the

Dimensions of Organisationai

PSYCHESPACE

more meaning in it. When the members of the


organisation interact with one another, there is an
exchange of experiences and apperceptions; there
many personal cognitive maps confront one another
and are modified. In this way, common ways of
perceiving and interpreting
what happens in
organisational settings arise (Padaki, 1982).
Researchers construct special instruments
for measuring those aspects of climate that are
relevant to their question. Taguiri (1968) identified
five factors to explain climate: (1) Practices related
to providing a sense of direction or purpose to their
jobs-setting of objectives, planning and feedback (2)
Opportunities for individual initiative (3) Working
with competitive and competent supervisor, (4) cooperative and pleasant people (5) being with a profit
minded and sales-oriented company. Schneider and
Bartlett (1968) reported that management support,
management structure, concern for new employees,
intra-agency conflict, agent independence general
satisfaction are the five factors of climate. While
Khan, Wolfe, Quinn, Snock, & Rosenthal (1964)'s
factor analysis yielded five factors such as rules and
orientation, nurturance of subordinates, closeness of
supervision, universalism or the degree to which the
individual should identify with the organisation as a
whole, and promotion of achievement orientation.
Litwin & Stringer (1967) identified structure,
responsibility, reward, warmth, support, identity, risk,
standard and conflict as the organisational climate
dimensions.
In climate research the tendency seems
among researchers is to adopt a more general climate
questionnaire. Several of these are described in the
Iiterature, and the individual researcher usually chose
one of them. But even these broad climate
instruments must have stemmed from certain goals
and values. More or less consciously, the constructor
would have selected questions and variables with a
particular
organisational
effect
in mind.
Consequently, the questions and variables were not
immediately relevant to other more specific criteria.
The climate concept acquires greater theoretical and
practical importance when the link between the
studied climate dimensions and the effect variables

28

Climate

is more direct. Therefore it is expected that as we


move from general to more specific dimensions, we
are better able to understand and predict behaviour
in organisations on a basis of the climate concept.
Although articles treating climate as a multidimensional
concept are numerous and have
addressed a variety of variables and settings, they
appear to lack commonness. This is because, to a
large extent, the context and the shelf of information
available about the organisation
vary among
members and the number and types of dimensions
required vary among researchers.
Though researchers differ in defining
organisational climate, this study drew a general
agreement on four points before conceptulising, viz.,
(1) organisational climate is multi-dimensional in
nature, (2) is mostly a function of managerial policies
and practices, (3) is the collective perception of the
organisational members regarding the various aspects
of the organisation based on "the way that the
organisation
deals with its members and its
environment", and (4) the collective perception of
the organisational members reflect various aspects
of the organisation and the interaction of personal
and organisational characteristics.
Development of a new scale to measure the
organisational climate in the present study was
necessitated
by the fact that suitable scales,
standardised on the present socio-cultural context,
was not readily available. Another consideration,
which prompted the investigators to go for a new
measure, was that the present study envisaged in
identifying
the different dimensions
of the
organisational climate in the context of the peculiar
industrial environment in Kerala. The different steps
followed in the development of the scale are given
below:

Item Preparation
In the first phase of the development
of the scale an attempt was made to have a
correct conceptualisation of organisational climate
and its different dimensions.
This was made
possible through:

M. Balachandran

& Immanuel

Thomas

the

PSYCHESPACE

Table 1: The 't' values of the 68 items of the


Organisational CLimate Draft Scale

1. An exhaustive review of literature related


to the organisational climate factors;
2. The dimension of organisational climate
were decided through a pre-pilot study in
which a few executives and workers were
asked to describe the relevant internal work
environment of their organisations; and
3. discussions and informal interviews with
experts.

Rank No.
I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
II
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68

The next step in the construction of the


Organisational
Climate
Questionnaire
was
preparation of items for the test. A large number of
items were written in accordance with the dimensions
identified.
Many items were adopted from various
published sources which conveyed the idea of the
relevant organisational characteristics. Care was
taken to include both positively worded (favourable
climate) and negatively worded (unfavourable
climate) items in the draft scale. The final test items
were selected from a large pool of items after
scrutinising and checking out irrelevant, redundant
or ambiguous items. Expert suggestions were also
solicited while finalising the test items.
In the final form, the draft OCQ consisted
of a total of 68 items which represented different
aspects of organisational climate. Each item had five
response categories, viz., Strongly agree (A); Agree
(B); Undecided (C); Disagree (D); and Strongly
disagree (E). Of the total 68 items, 38 were 'true
keyed' and 30 were 'false keyed'.

Administration and Scoring


Organisational Climate Questionnaire is a
self-administering one. However, the investigator
may assist those who have difficulty in understanding
the items, or mode of responding to them. Instructions
are printed at the beginning. Response space, '[ ]'
are provided against each item, and the respondent
is required to write the appropriate letter representing
his response inside the bracket. The scores of the
responses were 5, 4, 3, 2, & 1 for the response A, B,
C, D & E, for a positive item. The scores were in
reverse order for a negative item. Sum of the scores
of all the different items constituted the total score
on the scale.

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Item No.
18
24
31
44
25
51
37
17
28
66
36
22
16
32
10
52
8
30
7
9
65
11
61
42
2
5
60
35
68
14
21
20
13
49
27
19
48
56
41
38
6
55
64
29
62
43
34
15
53
39
46
26
3
50
23
57
4
45
54
I
12
59
58
33
63
67
40
47

't' - value
20.67
19.95
17.28
16.88
16.87
16.55
15.56
15.45
15.38
15.05
14.78
14.42
13.41
13.12
13.04
12.60
12.43
11.81
11.63
11.61
11.61
11.57
11.56
11.51
11.28
11.06
10.64
10.42
10.19
10.18
9.80
9.79
9.73
9.67
9.47
9.02
8.98
8.98
8.93
8.62
8.38
8.34
8.09
8.08
8.05
7.96
7.84
7.64
7 .45
7.41
7.32
7.22
6.99
6.66
6.46
6.32
6.32
6.23
6.23
5.86
5.64
4.79
4.53
4.50
3.29
3.05
3.01
1.54

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Dimensions of Organisational

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Climate

-,
Indian situation, it seems difficult to
identify, assess and describe the actual status ofthe
work environment
because (a) organisations
generally disagree in permitting researchers to carry
on research during or after the work periods proceeds,
(b) management is sensitive in publishing the state
of their employees to the public and (c) as it interferes
the natural rhythm of work. However precautions
and remedies were planned and adopted to tackle
this situation.

Item Analyses
Item analyses of the scale was done using
Likert's method (Edwards, 1969). For this purpose,
a pilot study was conducted in which the scale
(together with a few other scales to be mentioned
later) was administered to a representative sample
of 300 subjects. The subjects were rank ordered on
the basis of the total scores in the draft-scale, and
the upper and lower one third of the subjects were
selected as the high and the low groups respectively.
The 't' values relating to the items are given in the
above Table 1. It is evident from the table that 67
out of 68 items differentiated between high and low
groups significantly. All the items (including the one
non-significant item) were retained in the final scale,
as the investigator intended to carry out a factor
analysis of the items in the scale and hence reduction
in the total number of items in the initial stage was
not very advisable.

Identification of Factors
Initial statistics relating to the analysis of
the items on the organisational climate questionnaire
showed that 18 factors had eigen values above 1.0.
together they accounted for 57.54 percentage of the
total variance. Though all these factors could be
considered significant, a closer scrutiny.revealed that
it would be more convenient to retain a fewer
member of factors, for reasons of parsimony and
interpretability of the factors obtained. Accordingly,
it was decided to retain the first 10 factors, which
together accounted for 44.17 percent of the total
variance. Important loadings on these factors (after
being subjected to varimax rotation) are described

30

below. It may be noted here that the factors, are


numbered in the order of percentage of variance
accounted for by them after rotation.
The rotated factor matrix of the items
from which the factors are extracted are given in
Appendix A.

Factor I: Welfare Concern


The items which had the highest loadings
on factor 1 were the following: (Factor loadings are
given in the brackets at the end and the serial number
of the item in the inventory at the beginning after
serial number).
1. (5)
We are adequately compensated for the occupational
hazards like accidents and
health problems (0.711)
2. (28) All the mandatory
health
facilities are available here
(0.676).
3. (25) This institution provides all
welfare facilities to the employees and theirfarnilies (0.659).
4. (32) The welfare facilities provided
by this institution are no less
than that of the other
institutions (0.647).
5. (42) Elaborate facilities for maintenance of health are provided
to the employees here (0.616).
6. (35) This institution provides the
employees
with adequate
amount of fresh air, water,
lighting etc. (0.594).
7. (18) Management does everything
to ensure the well-being of the
employees (0.569).
8. (24) The management is always
ready to solve problems and
grievances
of employees
(0.568).
9. (66) All the important decisions
necessary for the smooth running
of the institution are taken with
the knowledge and consent of
the employees (0.565).
10. (60) The workers have the freedom
to interact directly with the
management and express their
opinions (0.562).

M. Balachandran

11. (31)

] 2. (16)

13. (17)

14. (19)

15. (30)

16. (2)

& Immanuel

Thomas

the PSYCHESPACE

The management has always a


sympathetic attitude towards
employee problems (0.498).
The
employees
have
representation
in several
committees where decisions
are to be taken by consensus
(0.458).
The company has enough
facilities to deal with the
employees' grievances (0.440).
This institution offers several
attractive
benefits
at
superannuation (0.423).
In all the major decisions that
had an impact on the growth
and development
of the
institution, the opinions of the
employees too were taken into
consideration (0.385).
Before taking a decision, the
management always looks into
the opinion of the employees
(0.283).

4.

(59)

5.

(7)

6.

(21)

7.

(56)

8.

(11)

9.

(61)

10. (10)

It may be seen that the items which load


highly on this factor are all related to the
managements' interest and involvement in various
aspects of employee welfare, health facilities, extra
benefits, sympathetic attitude towards employee
problems, etc. Hence the investigator feels it proper
to label the factor as 'Welfare Concern'. This factor
could account for 9.31 % of the total variance.

11. (68)

12. (27)

Factor II: Norms and Standards


Items which load highly on the second factor
are given below:
1.

(64)

2.

(4)

3.

(65)

13. (39)

This institution have plans to


develop stage by stage (0.636).
The duties to be undertaken by
each of the employees are
meticulously
defined and
logically classified (0.632).
The secret of success of this
company
lies in its well
defined policies and discipline
(0.611).

The company has clear rules


and regulations regarding the
work of each and every
employee (0.575)
By employing
scientific
planning, this institution tries
to maximize the use of human
potential (0.573).
Well set out supervision
contributes
greatly to the
success of this institution
(0.543).
Strict
enforcement
of
discipline
without fear or
favour has improved
the
efficiency of this organisation
(0.537).
Our institution has clear rules
and regulations for the early
solution of day to day problems
(0.490).
The management is ready to
take any measure that lead to
progress
and growth
in
competition with other rival
institutions (0.451).
My supervisors give every
encouragement they can, in my
work (0.420).
Instead of being influenced by
the opinion of a few, our
management takes decisions
only after evaluating
all
aspects properly (0.356).
This institution selects fully
qualified candidates through
fair and unbiased evaluation
(0.317).
The management believes that
production will automatically
increase if the employees are
satisfied (0.307).

An examination of the items which load


highly on this factor indicate that the underlying
feature of the factor is the clarity of vision, proper
planning, and maintenance of proper norms and
standards by the management. This has prompted the
investigator to label it as 'Norms and Standards'. The
factor accounted for 7.16 per cent of the total variance.

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Dimensions of Organisationai

PSYCHESPACE

Factor III: Interpersonal Relations


The items with high loadings on this factor
are given below:
1. (15)
Since the employees of our
institution are divided among
themselves on the basis of
political affiliation and other
considerations,
mutual help
and co-operation is very low
(0.669).
2. (29)
Other than on the official
plane, the management does
not maintain any relation with
the employees (0.657).
3. (22) The relationship between the
employees and executives of
our institution
is strained
(0.628).
4. (36) The management always keeps
a distance in its relations with
the employees (0.625).
5. (8)
The power struggle among the
top executives is a big problem
in this institution (0.574).
6. (53) Nobody tries to draw the
attention of the authorities
towards our problems and
needs (0.410).

3.

(34)

4.

(55)

5.

(20)

6.

(14)

7.

(62)

There is no provision for


scientific job training by
experts in this institution
(0.612).
Majority of the employees of
this institution have got in
through bribary and undue
influence (0.594).
If the employees had been
given sufficient
training,
production
would
have
increased (0.565).
The methods
that
this
institution uses to recruit its
employees
are outdated
(0.556).
Lot of manpower is wasted
here due to heedless activities
(0.468).
The management considers
each and everyone, only on the
basis of one's position in the
job hierarchy (0.350).

Factor V Recognition and Encouragement


Items that represent this factor are given
below, with factor loadings in brackets.
1. (12) Our allowances are very poor
in the case of housing loans,
treatment facilities, pension,
etc. (0.532).
2. (51) Development of efficiency and
expertise is the major goal of
the management (0.482).
3. (37) Those who can bring about
achievements are always given
due recognition (0.477).
4. (44) Knowledge and expertise are
given due recognition
and
reward (0.464).

Factor IV Recruitment and Training


There were seven items with high loadings
on the fourth factor. These items and their loadings
are given below:
(41)

(48)

This factor could be identified based on the


above variables with the highest loadings on it. The
content of all these items relates to the organisation's
practices in the selection of employees and imparting
training to the selected ones. This justified naming
the factor as 'Recruitment and Training'. The factor
accounts for 4.79 per cent of the total variance.

It is evident from the content of the


items which loads highly in this factor that it is
concerned with various aspects of interaction
among the members of the organisation. The item
cover uch aspects as co-operation,
informal
relationships between management and employees
etc. hence the factor is named as 'Interpersonal
Relations'. Factor III accounted for 4.87 per cent of
the total variance.

1.

2.

Climate

Employees of this institution


are often faced with problems
resulting from lack of job
training (0.689).

32

M. Balachandran

5.

(49)

6.

(54)

7.

(46)

& Immanuel

Thomas

the

Management often makes use


of disciplinary procedures to
take
vengeance
at the
employees (0.367).
The fear of loss inhibits the
company from diversifying
(0.364).
The policies and instructions of
the company
are never
efficiency communicated to all
the workers (0.319).

PSYCHESPACE

administrative bottlenecks are also implied by some


of the items. Considering all these, the factor is
named as 'Fair Rewards'.

Factor VII: Job Security

It may be seen that the underlying theme of


the different items which load highly on this factor
is the amount of encouragement and recognition the
management extends to the employees. This led to
the labeling of the factor as 'Recognition and
Encouragement'. It may also be noted here that the
items contain the implied idea that the management
keeps a watchful eye on the performance of the
workers. The factor explains 3.59 per cent of the
total variance.

Items that constituted the factor are given


below, with factor loadings in brackets.
1. (40) There exists no fear of losing
the job for some reasons
(0.624).
2. (9)
The worker take an active role
in the discussions and meetings
that are held regularly to sort
out the daily problems (0.415).
3. (26) I have anxiety about the
security of my tenure (0.358).
The first 3 items which load highly on this
factor directly or indirectly related to the stability
and security of the job or perceived by the employee.
Hence the label 'Job Security' is believed to be
appropriate for this factor. The factor accounts for
3.19 per cent of the total variance.

Factor VI: Fair Rewards


Five variables loaded highly on the 6th
factor, which could explain 3.26 per cent of the total
variance. The loadings ranged between 0.756 and
0.316. Items and their loadings are cited below:
1. (38)
My salary
is very low
compared
to my labour
(0.748).
2. (45)
My salary is lower when
compared to the salary of other
having the same qualification
(0.748).
3. (13)
The work gets stalled waiting
for the approval of decisions by
the senior manager (0.368).
4. (6)
Even in small matters, one has
to depend on the superiors for
final decision (0.357).
5. (52)
Sincere and satisfactory work
is properly rewarded (0.316).

Factor VIII: Job Autonomy


The four items that constituted this factor
and their factor loadings are given below:
1. (57) If the responsibility for the
work were to rest solely upon
me, I could have performed
better (0.664).
2. (50) Unnecessary interference from
the part of executives makes
my work disorderly (0.640).
3. (43) I have no autonomy in my job
(0.423).
4. (23) The views of the employees get
no place in the policy decisions
(0.381).
An examination of the items which have
highest loadings on this factor indicates that all of
them are related to the degree of autonomy and
freedom the employee have with regard to their work.

It may be seen that the items generally


reflect the employee's concern about the fairness of
dealings ofthe management, especially with regard
to salary and rewards. Discrimination
and

Hence the factor is identified as 'Job Autonomy'.


This factor accounts for 3.11 per cent of the total
vanance.

33

the

Dimensions of Organisational

PSYCHESPACE

Climate

Factor X: Red Tapism

Factor IX: Freedom and Control


The four items that comprised this factor are
below:
(33) Due to strict disciplinary
actions, the employees of this
institution are in constant fear
of losing their job (0.536).
(63) Each and every member has
the freedom to determine the
quantum
of work to be
completed in a day (-0.451).
(67) Before taking every step the
employees are bound to take
orders from their superiors
(0.448).
(I)
All the staff of this institution
behave like members of a
single family (-0.384).

The last factor of the organisational climate


retained for the study explains 2.08 per cent of the
total variance. The items of this factor are given
below, with factor loadings in brackets.
1. (47) This institution
does not
hesitate to experiment with
ideas that does not give full
guarantee of success (0.644).
2. (58) Due to the complexity of the
legal and administrative
framework, new and original
ideas are not given the
recognition (0.423).
3. (3)
My abilities
are given
sufficient recognition by the
superiors
and co-workers
(0.309).

The ninth factor in the order of eigen value


account for 2.80 per cent of total variance, and could
be identified mainly on the basis of the four variables
with loadings ranging from 0.536 to 0.384. Of the
four items two were negatively loaded. The pattern
of positive and negative loadings pose some
difficulty in identifying and interpreting this factor.
The two items with positive loadings indicate that it
relates to the sense of security and freedom of the
employees. At the same time, the negative loadings
on the other two items indicate that a high score on
he factor is also associated with a low score on these
items. In other words the freedom do not imply a
complete freedom to choose one's own daily work
load. Negative loadings on the fourth item further

When one examines the content of the items


it becomes clear that the factor is related to
inefficiency
in functioning
due to details of
administrative procedure. Hence the factor is named
as 'Red Tapism'.

given
I.

2.

3.

4.

Reliability and Validity


The retest reliability of the test (with an
interval of 6 weeks) was found to be 0.96 (N = 75).
The split-half reliability of the test (after correction
using Spearman-Brown
Formula) was found
to be 0.94 (N = 300), and the Cronbach alpha 0.92
(N = 300).
As the items in the inventory
was
meticulously prepared after a thorough review of the
available literature and a pre-pilot study, the
investigator was able to make sure that all the relevant
content areas were adequately represented in the scale.
An examination of the items included in the scale
may justify the claim for content validity of it.

indicate that some amount of formal atmosphere is


also associated the factor. Thus, the picture that
emerges is that of a setup where the employee enjoys
a sense of security and freedom and at the same time
there is full control by the management with regard
to the quantum of work to be done and also in
maintaining a formal atmosphere. Conversely, in a
set up where there is no sense of freedom and job
security, there is not control and monitoring of the
work by the atmosphere. Taking into consideration
all these, the factor is labelled as 'Freedom and
Control' .

References
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Explaining
Management

R. (1987). The Role of Risk in

Differences
Journal,

in Profitability,

Ahuja, K. K. (1986). Personnel


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& Immanuel

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35

the

Dimensions

PSYCHESPACE

of Organisational

Climate

Appendix A: Rotated Factor Matrix of the Items in the Organisational Climate Questionnaire
FACTORS
SI. No. Item No.
(5)
(28)
(25)
(32)
(42)
(35)
6
( 18)
7
(24)
8
(66)
9
(60)
10
(31)
II
( 16)
12
( 17)
13
(19)
14
(30)
IS
(2)
16
(64)
17
(4)
18
(65)
19
(59)
20
(7)
21
(21)
22
(56)
23
(II)
24
(61)
25
(10)
26
(68)
27
(27)
28
(39)
29
(IS)
30
(29)
31
(22)
32
(36)
33
(8)
34
(53)
35
(41)
36
(48)
37
(34)
38
(55)
39
(20)
40
(14)
41
(62)
42
(12)
43
44
(5 I)
(37)
45
(44)
46
(49)
47
(54)
48
(46)
49
(38)
SO
(45)
51
(13)
52
(6)
53
(52)
54
(40)
55
(9)
56
(26)
57
(57)
58
(SO)
59
(43)
60
(23)
61
(33)
62
(63)
63
64
(67)
(I)
65
(47)
66
(58)
67
(3)
68
% of variance
1
2
3
4
5 .

I
0.7108
0.6759
0.6593
0.6474
0.6164
-0.5936
0.5692
0.5679
0.5650
0.5615
0.4975
0.4581
0.4399
0.4226
0.3846
0.2830
0.0908
0.0485
0.1257
-0.0918
0.1655
0.1538
0.1561
0.3267
0.2395
0.3182
0.2361
0.1408
0.2736
0.1385
0.1973
0.1736
0.2658
0.0291
-0.0644
0.0950
0.1383
0.1070
0.1627
0.0375
0.0982
0.1323
0.0997
0.2825
0.2484
0.2856
0.2097
0.0005
0.0019
0.1467
0.0737
0.1711
0.1701
0.2481
-0.0616
0.3658
0.0540
-0.0114
0.0849
0.1183
0.1378
0.0563
0.1541
0.1523
0.0390
0.0273
0.0558
0.0173
9.3108

II
0.0126
0.1397
0.1553
0.0945
0.0599
0.1232
0.2918
0.2909
0.1003
0.0663
0.1482
0.1393
0.3320
0.1224
0.1207
0.2006
0.6361
0.6322
0.6105
0.5752
0.5732
0.5428
0.5365
0.4901
0.4508
0.4204
0.3558
0.3173
0.3066
0.0529
-0.0450
0.1784
0.0230
0.2505
0.1036
0.0522
0.1353
0.0492
0.0777
0.1255
0.0143
-0.0789
0.0418
0.3822
0.3830
0.3887
-0.0321
0.2007
-0.0248
0.0317
0.0156
-0.0765
-0.0898
0.2429
0.1047
0.0991
0.0137
0.1476
0.1385
0.0885
-0.0482
-0.0680
0.9250
-0.1734
0.3612
0.1882
-0.1541
-0.0365
7.1584

III
0.0492
0.0426
0.1424
0.0972
0.0342
-0.0457
0.1842
0.1869
0.1311
0.1295
0.2896
0.0612
0.1509
0.1053
0.0830
0.1505
0.0251
-0.1187
0.0698
-0.0056
0.0989
0.0992
0.0736
-0.0437
0.1503
0.0585
0.0548
0.0188
0.0230
0.6691
0.6567
0.6284
0.6249
0.5740
0.4100
0.1300
0.0983
0.1190
0.0230
0.0732
0.0141
0.1714
0.1243
0.1084
0.1128
0.0846
0.2651
-0.0497
0.3175
0.1601
0.0843
0.1285
0.0826
0.1799
0.0054
0.0646
0.2008
0.1289
0.2498
0.3214
0.2050
0.1870
0.0330
0.0745
0.2588
0.0052
0.1136
0.0830
4.8703

IV
0.1311
0.1472
0.1212
0.1837
0.1532
0.0407
0.1140
0.1141
0.0720
0.0874
0.0380
0.0358
0.1647
0.0653
-0.0850
0.0785
-0.0648
0.1298
0.0866
-0.0398
0.1058
0.0587
0.0399
0.0714
0.1865
-0.0195
0.1382
0.3091
0.0339
0.0960
-0.0151
0.1572
0.1024
0.2212
0.1113
0.6890
0.6124
0.5940
0.5654
0.5559
0.4677
0.3498
0.0935
0.0370
-0.0075
0.0574
0.2019
0.2603
0.0978
0.1226
0.1047
0.2629
0.1455
0.1673
0.0800
0.0672
0.2370
0.1278
0.0797
0.0699
0.0614
0.2128
0.0187
0.0631
-0.0281
-0.2029
0.3085
0.2557
4.7917

V
0.0333
0.1528
0.1223
0.1612
0.1805
0.0282
0.0816
0.0591
0.1608
-0.1782
0.1114
0.0773
-0.0190
-0.0053
0.1794
0.2413
0.0839
-0.1906
0.1049
-0.1270
0.1785
0.0454
0.1881
-0.1136
0.2531
0.0421
0.1244
0.0737
-0.2234
0.0048
0.0570
0.3690
0.1366
0.1457
0.0745
-0.0370
0.0941
0.0683
-0.0039
0.0765
0.2135
0.2119
0.5321
0.4821
0.4768
0.4639
0.3671
0.3636
0.3185
-0.0112
0.0134
0.3135
0.2746
0.1934
-0.0496
0.1935
0.1287
0.0028
-0.0706
-0.9980
0.1598
-0.0519
0.0593
0.1866
-0.0861
-0.0483
0.1129
0.1329
3.5921

36

VI
-0.0725
-0.0344
0.2170
0.2307
0.0966
0.0814
0.1589
-0.0181
-0.0305
0.1014
-0.0143
0.0230
-0.0427
0.0653
0.0517
0.0022
-0.0257
0.0441
-0.0333
0.0200
-0.0474
0.0401
0.0263
0.1071
-0.0738
0.0138
0.0011
-0.0863
0.1949
0.0190
0.1015
0.0458
0.0701
0.0154
0.1415
0.0082
-0.0201
0.1314
0.0965
0.0511
0.2106
0.2867
0.0241
0.0441
0.0423
0.1017
-0.0462
0.1401
0.1960
0.7561
0.7481
0.3680
0.3572
0.3162
0.0365
0.1047
0.1719
0.0314
0.0474
0.0240
0.1265
0.0056
0.0680
0.1776
0.0414
0.0095
0.0187
0.1211
3.2551

VII
0.0070
-0.1186
-0.0542
-0.0469
-0.1570
-0.0370
0.0708
0.2963
0.2347
0.2785
0.2366
0.4406
0.3161
0.0546
0.3251
0.2478
0.0226
0.0368
0.1664
0.1610
-0.0513
-0.1152
-0.1149
0.2184
-0.0868
0.2246
0.0750
0.1223
0.1362
-0.0270
0.0025
0.1030
0.0566
-0.0407
01576
0.0259
0.0367
0.0636
-0.1231
0.1494
0.0076
0.0087
-0.1143
0.1216
0.2235
0.2335
0.1790
0.0634
0.1474
0.2665
0.0564
0.0174
0.0063
0.1538
0.6235
0.4153
0.3584
-0.0439
-0.0399
0.0668
0.0810
0.2979
0.0129
-0.0066
0.1530
-0.0036
0.1112
0.1127
3.1944

VIII
-0.0271
0.0551
-0.0352
-0.0436
0.0662
0.0229
0.0988
0.1800
0.2040
0.0229
0.1305
0.0655
0.1862
-0.0749
0.2881
0.0958
-0.0837
-0.0474
0.0465
0.0554
0.0182
0.1029
0.0794
0.1929
-0.1716
0.2509
0.2258
0.0802
0.1220
-0.0393
0.0695
0.1342
0.1776
0.1248
0.1107
0.0487
0.0073
-0.0416
0.0021
0.2323
0.2175
0.0381
-0.0571
0.1428
0.2043
0.1021
-0.0424
-0.1543
0.1298
0.0513
0.0407
0.1424
0.2215
-0.0219
-0.0637
0.0616
-0.1165
0.6637
0.6401
0.4226
0.3812
-0.0303
0.1732
0.0957
-0.0236
-0.0622
0.1097
0.3080
3.1149

IX
0.0605
-0.0197
-0.0378
-0.0683
-0.0062
0.1259
-0.1121
-0.0324
-0.1810
0.0811
-0.0599
0.1391
0.0101
0.0238
-0.0635
-0.1384
0.0817
0.0595
-0.2209
0.1518
-0.1519
-0.1175
-0.0707
-0.0045
-0.0741
0.0584
-0.1971
-0.2476
-0.1811
-0.0514
0.0154
0.1122
-0.0067
-0.0323
0.1398
0.0673
-0.0091
0.0477
0.0899
0.0247
-0.0540
0.1789
-0.0029
-0.1281
-0.0837
-0.0734
0.1177
0.2956
-0.0252
-0.0088
-0.0130
0.1426
0.2205
-0.0063
0.0691
-0.1123
0.2884
0.0768
0.2595
0.3656
-0.2222
0.5355
-0.4512
0.4484
-0.3838
0.0108
-0.1689
-0.0612
2.8031

X
-0.0641
0.1611
-0.1234
-0.1988
0.0380
0.2402
-0.0394
-0.1302
0.0910
0.0276
0.0033
-0.0956
-0.1074
0.2457
0.0297
-0.1380
-0.0286
0.0992
-0.0481
0.0128
0.0630
0.1694
-0.1225
-0.0877
0.0732
-0.1272
0.0333
0.0143
0.0183
-0.0330
-0.0195
0.0428
0.0308
0.0981
0.0435
-0.1590
0.0148
0.1161
-0.0846
0.0092
0.1302
-0.0449
-0.0176
0.0782
-0.0199
0.0496
0.1094
0.0575
-0.1621
-0.0285
0.0285
0.1253
0.2252
-0.0576
0.2933
-0.1144
0.0003
-0.0329
0.0774
0.0800
-0.1291
0.0054
0.0267
-0.1398
0.0277
0.6443
0.4228
0.3092
2.0774

Commuality (h2)
0.5400
0.5678
0.5766
0.5720
0.4596
0.4541
0.5168
0.5971
0.5162
0.4715
0.4440
0.4676
0.5021
0.2827
0.4051
0.3161
0.4404
0.4882
0.4940
0.4096
0.4410
0.4015
0.3947
0.4710
0.4353
0.4167
0.3165
0.3121
0.3250
0.4852
0.4914
0.5280
0.5374
0.4914
0.2579
0.5377
0.4331
0.4243
0.3923
0.4170
0.3860
0.3381
0.3362
0.5611
0.5494
0.5415
0.3526
0.3808
0.3163
0.6392
0.5894
0.4111
0.4165
0.3459
0.5086
0.4027
0.1287
0.5053
0.5870
0.4629
0.3265
0.4676
0.2763
0.3590
0.3810
0.4989
0.3797
0.3131
44.1682