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European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA)

Part-66
JAR 66 CATEGORY B1
MODULE 15
uk GAS TURBINE
engineering ENGINES

CONTENTS
1 FUNDAMENTALS ........................................................................ 1-1
1.1 WORK, POWER & ENERGY ...................................................... 1-1
1.1.1 Work ............................................................................. 1-1
1.1.2 Power............................................................................ 1-1
1.1.3 Energy .......................................................................... 1-2
1.2 FORCE AND MOTION ............................................................... 1-3
1.2.1 Force............................................................................. 1-3
1.2.2 Velocity ......................................................................... 1-3
1.2.3 Acceleration .................................................................. 1-4
1.3 PRINCIPLES OF JET PROPULSION ......................................... 1-4
1.3.1 Thrust Calculation. ........................................................ 1-4
1.4 GAS TURBINES ......................................................................... 1-6
1.5 THE BRAYTON CYCLE ............................................................. 1-7
1.6 CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE AND VELOCITY . 1-9
1.6.1 Temperature and Pressure ........................................... 1-9
1.6.2 Velocity and Pressure ................................................... 1-10
1.6.3 How The Changes are Obtained. ................................. 1-10
1.7 DUCTS AND NOZZLES ............................................................. 1-10
Continuity equation. .................................................................... 1-10
1.7.2 Incompressible fluid flow. .............................................. 1-11
1.7.3 Bernoulli’s Theorem ...................................................... 1-11
1.7.4 Total energy. ................................................................. 1-12
1.8 CONTINUITY EQUATION AND BERNOULLI’S THEOREM ....... 1-13
1.8.1 Incompressible fluid. ..................................................... 1-13
1.8.2 Gas Laws ...................................................................... 1-15
1.9 SUBSONIC AIRFLOW THROUGH DIVERGENT AND CONVERGENT DUCTS 1-
16
Divergent Duct ............................................................................ 1-16
1.9.2 Convergent Duct ........................................................... 1-16
SONIC AIRFLOW THOUGH DIVERGENT AND CONVERGENT DUCTS 1-17
1.11 THE WORKING CYCLE ON A PRESSURE VOLUME DIAGRAM 1-18
1.12 ENGINE CONFIGURATIONS. .................................................... 1-19
1.12.1 Reaction engines .......................................................... 1-19
1.12.2 Power Engines .............................................................. 1-21
2 ENGINE PERFORMANCE ........................................................... 2-1
2.1 METHOD OF CALCULATING THE THRUST FORCES ............. 2-1
2.2 CALCULATING THE THRUST OF THE ENGINE ....................... 2-2
2.2.1 Comparison between thrust and horse-power ............... 2-6
2.3 ENGINE THRUST IN FLIGHT .................................................... 2-7
2.3.1 Effect of forward speed ................................................. 2-9
2.3.2 Effect of afterburning on engine thrust........................... 2-11
2.3.3 Effect of altitude ............................................................ 2-11
2.3.4 Effect of temperature..................................................... 2-13
2.4 PROPULSIVE EFFICIENCY ....................................................... 2-14

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2.5 FUEL CONSUMPTION AND POWER TO WEIGHT RELATIONSHIP 2-15


2.6 SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION ............................................. 2-16
2.6.1 SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION – DEFINITION ........ 2-16
2.7 FLAT RATING ............................................................................ 2-16
2.8 PERFORMANCE RATINGS ....................................................... 2-16
3 INLET ............................................................................................ 3-1
3.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................ 3-1
3.2 RAM COMPRESSION ................................................................ 3-1
3.2.1 Importance of Ram Compression .................................. 3-1
3.3 TYPES OF AIR INTAKES ........................................................... 3-2
3.3.1 PITOT INTAKES ........................................................... 3-2
3.3.2 DIVIDED ENTRANCE DUCT ........................................ 3-3
3.4 IDEAL INTAKE CONDITIONS .................................................... 3-4
3.5 INTAKE ANTI-ICING .................................................................. 3-5
3.5.1 Engine Hot Air Anti-icing ............................................... 3-5
3.5.2 Engine Electrical Anti-icing ............................................ 3-7
3.5.3 Oil Anti-ice .................................................................... 3-8
4 COMPRESSORS .......................................................................... 4-1
4.1 COMPRESSORS GENERAL...................................................... 4-1
4.2 CENTRIFUGAL FLOW ............................................................... 4-1
4.2.1 Operation ...................................................................... 4-3
4.3 THE AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSOR............................................ 4-5
Operation .................................................................................... 4-6
4.4 COMPRESSOR STALL AND SURGE ........................................ 4-13
4.4.1 Airflow Control System Principles.................................. 4-13
4.4.2 Compressor Characteristics .......................................... 4-17
4.4.3 Effect of Temperature on the Operating Point of the Airflow Control System 4-
18
4.5 AIR FLOW CONTROL SYSTEM – OPERATION ........................ 4-20
4.6 AEROFOIL THEORY AND THE AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSOR (CONTINUED) 4-
25
4.6.1 Speed of Airflow Over Blades ....................................... 4-25
4.6.2 Angle of Attack .............................................................. 4-25
Some Important Points about Angle of Attack ............................. 4-26
4.7 APPLICATION TO THE AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSOR ............. 4-27
4.7.1 Compressor RPM.......................................................... 4-27
4.7.2 Common Causes of Compressor Stall .......................... 4-27
4.7.3 Stagger Angle and End Bend ........................................ 4-27
4.7.4 Recent innovations........................................................ 4-27
4.8 AIRFLOW CONTROL ................................................................. 4-29
4.9 AIR BLEED VALVES (SUMMARY) ............................................. 4-29
4.10 VARIABLE INTAKE GUIDE VANES (SUMMARY) ...................... 4-29
4.11 MULTI-SPOOL COMPRESSORS (SUMMARY) ......................... 4-29
4.12 COMPARING THE FEATURES OF CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL FLOW
COMPRESSORS ................................................................................... 4-30

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4.12.1 Centrifugal .................................................................... 4-30


4.12.2 Axial Flow ..................................................................... 4-30
5 COMBUSTION SECTION ............................................................. 5-1
5.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................ 5-1
5.2 COMBUSTION PROCESS ......................................................... 5-1
5.3 FUEL SUPPLY ........................................................................... 5-3
5.4 TYPES OF COMBUSTION CHAMBER ...................................... 5-4
5.4.1 Multiple combustion chamber ........................................ 5-4
5.4.2 Tubo-annular combustion chamber ............................... 5-6
(Also known as Can-annular or Cannular.) ................................. 5-6
5.4.3 Annular combustion chamber ........................................ 5-7
5.4.4 Reverse Flow Combustion Chamber ............................. 5-9
5.5 COMBUSTION CHAMBER PERFORMANCE ............................ 5-10
5.5.1 Combustion intensity ..................................................... 5-10
5.6 COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY ..................................................... 5-11
5.7 COMBUSTION STABILITY ......................................................... 5-11
5.8 POLLUTION CONTROL ............................................................. 5-12
5.8.1 Introduction ................................................................... 5-12
5.8.2 Sources of Pollution ...................................................... 5-12
5.9 EMISSIONS................................................................................ 5-12
5.10 MATERIALS ............................................................................... 5-14
6 TURBINE SECTION ..................................................................... 6-1
6.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................ 6-1
6.2 ENERGY TRANSFER FROM GAS FLOW TO TURBINE ........... 6-5
6.3 CONSTRUCTION ....................................................................... 6-8
6.3.1 Nozzle guide vanes ....................................................... 6-8
6.3.2 Turbine discs................................................................. 6-9
6.3.3 Turbine blades .............................................................. 6-9
6.3.4 Dual alloy discs ............................................................. 6-11
6.4 COMPRESSOR-TURBINE MATCHING ..................................... 6-11
6.5 MATERIALS ............................................................................... 6-11
6.5.1 Nozzle guide vanes ....................................................... 6-11
6.5.2 Turbine discs................................................................. 6-11
6.5.3 Turbine blades .............................................................. 6-12
6.6 DYNAMIC BALANCING PRINCIPLES........................................ 6-16
6.6.1 Introduction ................................................................... 6-16
6.6.2 Centrifugal Force .......................................................... 6-17
6.6.3 Causes of Unbalance .................................................... 6-18
6.6.4 Objective of Balancing .................................................. 6-20
6.6.5 Definition of Unbalance ................................................. 6-20
6.6.6 Fan Balancing ............................................................... 6-23
7 EXHAUST ..................................................................................... 7-1
7.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................ 7-1
EXHAUST GAS FLOW .......................................................................... 7-3
7.3 CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS ......................................... 7-7

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7.4 NOISE REDUCTION .................................................................. 7-8


7.4.1 Sources of Engine Noise ............................................... 7-8
7.5 THRUST REVERSAL ................................................................. 7-18
7.5.1 Introduction ................................................................... 7-18
7.5.2 Requirement for Thrust Reversal .................................. 7-18
7.5.3 Layout and Operation of Typical Thrust Reversing Systems 7-19
7.5.4 Safety Features............................................................. 7-22
CFM 56 Thrust Reverser for Boeing 737-300 ............................. 7-22
8 BEARINGS, SEALS AND GEARBOXES ..................................... 8-1
8.1 BEARINGS ................................................................................. 8-1
8.1.1 Introduction ................................................................... 8-1
8.1.2 Ball Bearings ................................................................. 8-1
8.1.3 Roller Bearings ............................................................. 8-1
8.1.4 Other types of bearings ................................................. 8-1
8.2 BEARING CHAMBER OR SUMP ............................................... 8-3
8.2.1 Lubrication .................................................................... 8-3
8.2.2 Sealing .......................................................................... 8-3
8.2.3 Thread Seals................................................................. 8-4
8.2.4 Carbon Seal .................................................................. 8-5
8.2.5 Spring Ring Seal ........................................................... 8-5
8.2.6 Hydraulic Seal ............................................................... 8-6
8.3 ACCESSORY DRIVE GEARBOXES .......................................... 8-7
8.3.1 Introduction ................................................................... 8-7
8.3.2 Internal gearbox ............................................................ 8-7
8.3.3 Radial driveshaft ........................................................... 8-10
8.3.4 Direct drive .................................................................... 8-10
8.3.5 Gear train drive ............................................................. 8-10
8.3.6 Intermediate gearbox .................................................... 8-10
8.3.7 External gearbox ........................................................... 8-11
8.3.8 Auxiliary gearbox .......................................................... 8-12
8.3.9 Construction and Materials............................................ 8-14
9 LUBRICANTS AND FUEL ............................................................ 9-1
9.1 GAS TURBINE FUEL PROPERTIES AND SPECIFICATION ..... 9-1
9.2 FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION .................................................... 9-1
9.3 PROPERTIES ............................................................................ 9-3
9.3.1 Ease of Flow ................................................................. 9-3
9.3.2 Ease of Starting ............................................................ 9-3
9.3.3 Complete Combustion................................................... 9-3
9.3.4 Calorific Value ............................................................... 9-4
9.3.5 Corrosive Properties ..................................................... 9-4
9.3.6 Effects of By-Products of Combustion ........................... 9-5
9.3.7 Fire Hazards ................................................................. 9-5
9.3.8 Vapour Pressure ........................................................... 9-6
9.3.9 Fuel Boiling and Evaporation Losses ............................ 9-6
9.3.10 Methods of Reducing or Eliminating Fuel Losses .......... 9-6
9.3.11 Fuel additives ................................................................ 9-8
9.3.12 Safety precautions ........................................................ 9-8
9.4 GAS TURBINE OIL PROPERTIES AND SPECIFICATIONS ...... 9-9

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9.4.1 Viscosity........................................................................ 9-9


9.4.2 Hydro-Dynamics or Fluid Film Lubrication ..................... 9-9
9.4.3 Boundary Lubrication .................................................... 9-10
9.5 LUBRICATING OILS .................................................................. 9-10
9.6 TURBINE OILS ........................................................................... 9-11
9.6.1 First Generation Synthetic Oils ...................................... 9-12
9.6.2 Second Generation Synthetic Oils................................. 9-12
9.6.3 Third Generation Synthetic Oils..................................... 9-12
9.6.4 Safety Precautions ........................................................ 9-13
10 LUBRICATION SYSTEMS ........................................................... 10-1
10.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................ 10-1
10.2 BEARINGS ................................................................................. 10-1
10.3 ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEMS ........................................... 10-5
10.3.1 Pressure Relief Valve Re-circulatory System ................ 10-5
10.3.2 Recirculatory Oil System – Full Flow Type .................... 10-8
10.3.3 Advantages of Full Flow Lubrication .............................. 10-8
10.3.4 Expendable System ...................................................... 10-10
10.4 MAIN COMPONENTS ................................................................ 10-11
10.4.1 Oil Tank ........................................................................ 10-11
10.4.2 Oil Pumps ..................................................................... 10-12
10.4.3 oil cooling ...................................................................... 10-14
10.4.4 Pressure Filter............................................................... 10-15
10.4.5 Last Chance Filter ......................................................... 10-17
10.4.6 Scavenge Oil Strainers ................................................. 10-17
10.4.7 Magnetic Chip Detector ................................................. 10-18
10.4.8 De-aerator ..................................................................... 10-18
10.4.9 Centrifugal Breather ...................................................... 10-19
Pressure Relief Valve ................................................................. 10-19
10.4.11 By-Pass Valve ............................................................... 10-20
10.5 INDICATIONS AND WARNINGS ................................................ 10-21
10.5.1 Low Pressure Warning Lamp ........................................ 10-21
10.5.2 Oil Pressure, temperature and quantity indication ......... 10-21
10.6 OIL SEALS ................................................................................. 10-21
10.7 SERVICING ................................................................................ 10-21
11 ENGINE FUEL CONTROL SYSTEMS ......................................... 11-1
11.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................ 11-1
11.2 PURPOSE OF THE ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM ............................ 11-1
11.3 LAYOUT OF TYPICAL SYSTEM COMPONENTS ...................... 11-3
11.3.1 Aircraft Mounted Components ....................................... 11-3
11.3.2 The Engine LP fuel system ........................................... 11-3
11.3.3 The Engine HP Fuel System ......................................... 11-3
11.4 FACTORS GOVERNING FUEL REQUIREMENTS .................... 11-5
11.5 REQUIREMENTS OF THE ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM ................. 11-5
11.6 ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS .................................. 11-5
11.7 FUEL PUMPS ............................................................................. 11-5
11.7.1 Fuel Pump Requirements.............................................. 11-5

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11.7.2 Plunger-type Fuel Pump ............................................... 11-6


11.7.3 Gear-Type Fuel Pump................................................... 11-7
11.8 FUEL FLOW CONTROL ............................................................. 11-7
11.8.1 Basic Flow Control System ........................................... 11-8
11.9 HYDRO-MECHANICAL CONTROL UNITS ................................ 11-10
11.9.2 Barometric Controls ...................................................... 11-11
11.9.3 Proportional Flow Control. ............................................. 11-13
11.9.4 Acceleration Control Units ............................................. 11-14
11.10 ENGINE PROTECTION DEVICES ............................................. 11-18
11.10.1 Top Temperature Limiter. .............................................. 11-18
11.10.2 Power Limiter. ............................................................... 11-18
11.10.3 Overspeed Governor..................................................... 11-19
BURNERS ............................................................................................ 11-21
11.11.1 Atomiser Burners .......................................................... 11-21
11.11.2 Vaporising Burners........................................................ 11-26
11.11.3 Combustion and Airflow ................................................ 11-28
11.12 ELECTRONIC ENGINE CONTROL SYSTEMS .......................... 11-30
11.12.1 Supervisory Electronic Engine Control .......................... 11-30
11.12.2 FUEL CONTROL .......................................................... 11-32
11.12.3 General ......................................................................... 11-32
11.12.4 Full-Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC) .......... 11-37
12 AIR SYSTEMS .............................................................................. 12-1
12.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................ 12-1
12.2 INTERNAL COOLING AIRFLOW ............................................... 12-2
12.2.1 Low Pressure Air ........................................................... 12-2
12.2.2 Intermediate Pressure Air.............................................. 12-2
12.2.3 High Pressure Air .......................................................... 12-2
12.2.4 Differential Pressure Seals ............................................ 12-3
12.3 SEALING .................................................................................... 12-3
12.4 COOLING. .................................................................................. 12-5
12.5 TURBINE CASE COOLING – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION 12-9
12.5.1 Passive Clearance Control System. Figure 12.7. .......... 12-9
12.5.2 Active Clearance Control System. Figure 12.8. ............. 12-10
12.5.3 Low Pressure Turbine Clearance Control Valve ............ 12-11
12.6 EXTERNAL COOLING ............................................................... 12-13
12.6.1 External skin of aero-engine. ......................................... 12-13
12.6.2 Cooling of Accessories .................................................. 12-14
12.7 HP AIR FOR AIRCRAFT SERVICES.......................................... 12-15
External Air Tappings ................................................................. 12-15
12.8 ANTI-ICING SYSTEMS .............................................................. 12-18
13 STARTING AND IGNITION SYSTEMS ........................................ 13-1
13.1 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF GAS TURBINE ENGINE STARTING SYSTEMS 13-1
13.1.1 Purpose ........................................................................ 13-1
13.1.2 Essential Starting Requirements ................................... 13-1
STARTER MOTORS.............................................................................. 13-2
13.2.1 Electrical Starter Motor .................................................. 13-3

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13.2.2 Electric Starter/Generator.............................................. 13-3


13.2.3 Safety Interlocks ........................................................... 13-4
13.2.4 Air Turbo Starters .......................................................... 13-5
13.3 A300 STARTING SYSTEM ......................................................... 13-8
13.3.1 GE 6-50 Starting Procedure .......................................... 13-8
13.4 IGNITION SYSTEMS .................................................................. 13-12
13.4.1 High Energy Ignition Unit............................................... 13-12
13.4.2 Igniter Plug .................................................................... 13-14
13.4.3 Servicing the Ignition System ........................................ 13-14
14 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEMS ................................................ 14-1
14.1 INTRODUCTION. ....................................................................... 14-1
14.2 ENGINE SPEED INDICATORS. ................................................. 14-3
14.3 THRUST INDICATION................................................................ 14-7
14.3.1 Engine Pressure Ratio.EPR. ......................................... 14-7
14.3.2 Torque indication .......................................................... 14-9
14.3.3 Phase comparison Torquemeter ................................... 14-12
14.4 EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE .............................................. 14-13
14.4.1 Thermocouples ............................................................. 14-13
14.5 FUEL FLOW METERING ........................................................... 14-17
14.6 OIL ............................................................................................. 14-20
14.6.1 The Oil Pressure Indicator............................................. 14-20
14.6.2 Oil pressure warning light .............................................. 14-21
Oil Temperature. ......................................................................... 14-22
14.6.4 Oil Quantity ................................................................... 14-23
14.7 VIBRATION ................................................................................ 14-24
14.8 WARNING LIGHTS .................................................................... 14-24
15 THRUST AUGMENTATION ......................................................... 15-1
15.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................ 15-1
15.2 WATER INJECTION ................................................................... 15-1
15.2.1 Effects on Engine Power ............................................... 15-1
15.2.2 Methods of Applying Water/Methanol ............................ 15-1
15.2.3 Compressor Intake Injection (Turbo Prop) ..................... 15-2
15.2.4 Combustion Chamber Injection System ........................ 15-4
15.3 RE-HEAT (AFTER BURNING).................................................... 15-6
15.3.1 Purpose ........................................................................ 15-6
15.3.2 Revision of Thrust ......................................................... 15-6
15.3.3 Re-heat and By-pass Engines ....................................... 15-6
15.3.4 The Advantage of Re-heat ............................................ 15-6
15.3.5 The disadvantages of Re-heat ...................................... 15-7
15.3.6 Propelling Nozzles ........................................................ 15-7
15.3.7 Re-heat Nozzles ........................................................... 15-8
15.3.8 The Re-heat Jet Pipe .................................................... 15-10
16 TURBO-PROP ENGINES ............................................................. 16-1
16.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................ 16-1
16.2 TYPES OF TURBO-PROP ENGINES ........................................ 16-1
16.2.1 Coupled Power Turbine ................................................ 16-1

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16.2.2 Free Power Turbine ...................................................... 16-2


16.2.3 Compounded Engine .................................................... 16-3
16.3 REDUCTION GEARING ............................................................. 16-3
16.3.1 Simple Spur ‘Epicyclic’ .................................................. 16-4
16.3.2 Compound Spur Epicyclic ............................................. 16-6
16.3.3 Gear Train/Epicyclic ...................................................... 16-7
16.4 TURBO-PROP PERFORMANCE ............................................... 16-7
16.5 TURBO-PROP ENGINE CONTROL ........................................... 16-7
16.5.1 Integrated Control of RPM and Fuel Flow ..................... 16-8
16.5.2 Direct Control of Fuel Flow ............................................ 16-8
16.5.3 Direct Control of Blade Angle (Beta Control) ................. 16-8
16.6 ENGINE AND PROPELLER CONTROLS................................... 16-9
16.7 CONTROL OUTSIDE NORMAL FLIGHT RANGE ...................... 16-9
16.8 PROPELLER CONTROL ............................................................ 16-9
16.8.1 Constant Speed Unit ..................................................... 16-10
16.8.2 Manual and Automatic Feathering Controls .................. 16-10
16.8.3 Fixed and Removable Stops ......................................... 16-15
16.9 OVERSPEED SAFETY DEVICES .............................................. 16-16
17 TURBOSHAFT ENGINES ............................................................ 17-1
17.1 INTRODUCTION. ....................................................................... 17-1
17.2 FUEL CONTROL SYSTEM ........................................................ 17-4
17.3 ARRANGEMENTS ..................................................................... 17-6
17.4 DRIVE SYSTEMS....................................................................... 17-10
17.5 COUPLINGS .............................................................................. 17-13
18 AUXILLIARY POWER UNITS ...................................................... 18-1
18.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................ 18-1
18.2 GENERAL ARRANGEMENTS AND CONFIGURATION............. 18-3
18.2.1 Inlet Duct Arrangement ................................................. 18-7
18.2.2 Exhaust Duct Arrangement ........................................... 18-9
18.3 THE APU ENGINE ..................................................................... 18-10
18.4 FUEL CONTROL ........................................................................ 18-12
Mechanical Fuel Control ............................................................. 18-12
18.4.2 Speed Control ............................................................... 18-18
18.4.3 Mechanical Fuel Control Unit Operation ........................ 18-19
18.4.4 Electronic APU Fuel Control.......................................... 18-20
18.4.5 Electro/mechanical Fuel Control (FIGURE 18.26) ......... 18-21
18.5 APU OIL SYSTEM ...................................................................... 18-23
18.6 APU BLEED AIR SYSTEMS ....................................................... 18-25
18.6.1 direct from engine compressor ...................................... 18-25
18.6.2 SEPARATE LOAD COMPRESSOR .............................. 18-27
18.7 BAY COOLING ........................................................................... 18-28
18.7.1 Ram Air Cooling ............................................................ 18-28
18.7.2 Fan Air Cooling ............................................................. 18-28
18.8 APU POWERPLANT INSTALLATION. ....................................... 18-32
18.9 APU STARTING SEQUENCE .................................................... 18-34

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19 POWERPLANT INSTALLATION ................................................. 19-1


19.1 NACELLES OR PODS................................................................ 19-1
19.1.1 Cowlings ....................................................................... 19-1
19.1.2 Firewalls ........................................................................ 19-4
19.1.3 Cooling.......................................................................... 19-6
19.1.4 Acoustic Linings ............................................................ 19-8
19.1.5 Abradable Linings ......................................................... 19-11
19.2 ENGINE MOUNTS ..................................................................... 19-12
19.2.1 Wing Pylon Mounted Engine (Turbofan)........................ 19-12
19.2.2 Wing Mounted Engine (Turboprop) ............................... 19-14
19.2.3 Rear Fuselage Engine Turbofan.(Figure 19.14/15.) ...... 19-16
19.3 ENGINE DRAINS. ...................................................................... 19-18
19.3.1 Controlled Drains .......................................................... 19-18
19.3.2 Uncontrolled Drains....................................................... 19-20
19.4 ENGINE CONTROLS ................................................................. 19-22
19.4.1 Throttle Control Mechanical .......................................... 19-22
19.4.2 Turbofan Engine Controls. ............................................ 19-22
19.4.3 Turboprop Engine Controls ........................................... 19-24
19.5 ENGINE BUILD UNIT ................................................................. 19-29
19.5.1 Turbofan Engine ........................................................... 19-29
19.6 FIRE PREVENTION – BAYS OR ZONES................................... 19-38
19.7 INSTALLING AND REMOVING ENGINES. ................................ 19-40
19.7.1 Removal........................................................................ 19-40
19.7.2 Fitting ............................................................................ 19-48
19.7.3 Turbo Prop Engine Removal/Fit. ................................... 19-48
19.7.4 Flight Transit ................................................................. 19-48
20 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS ................................................... 20-1
20.1 FIRE DETECTORS .................................................................... 20-1
20.2 FIRE WIRE SYSTEMS ............................................................... 20-3
20.2.1 Resistance Type ........................................................... 20-3
20.2.2 Capacitance Type ......................................................... 20-3
20.2.3 Gas Operation Fire Wire ............................................... 20-4
20.2.4 Single Loop ................................................................... 20-5
20.2.5 Dual Loop ..................................................................... 20-5
Dual Loop Systems..................................................................... 20-6
20.3 FIRE AND LOOP FAULT INDICATION (E.C.A.M.) ..................... 20-8
20.4 FIRE SUPPRESSION ................................................................. 20-9
20.4.1 Types of Fire Suppression System................................ 20-11
One Shot System........................................................................ 20-11
20.4.2 Two Shot System (shared extinguishers) ...................... 20-12
20.4.3 Two Shot System (Single Head extinguishers).............. 20-14
20.5 EXTINGUISHERS ...................................................................... 20-16
20.5.1 Operating Head............................................................. 20-17
20.5.2 Safety Discharge ........................................................... 20-17
20.5.3 Discharge Tube Configuration ....................................... 20-18
20.5.4 Operating Time ............................................................. 20-19
20.5.5 Extinguishant ................................................................ 20-19

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20.6 INDICATIONS OF FIRE DETECTION ........................................ 20-20


20.6.1 Fire T Handle ................................................................ 20-20
20.6.2 Fire Bell......................................................................... 20-20
20.6.3 Fire Detection Test ........................................................ 20-22
20.7 DISCHARGE INDICATORS ....................................................... 20-23
20.7.1 Mechanical Indicators ................................................... 20-23
20.7.2 Electrical Indicators ....................................................... 20-23
20.8 CARTRIDGES OR SQUIBS ....................................................... 20-24
20.8.1 Life Control of Squibs .................................................... 20-24
INTENTIONALLY BLANK ...................................................................... 20-26
21 ENGINE MONITORING AND GROUND OPERATIONS. ............. 21-1
21.1 PROCEDURES FOR STARTING AND GROUND RUNNING..... 21-1
21.2 STARTING ................................................................................. 21-3
21.3 UNSATISFACTORY STARTS .................................................... 21-7
21.4 ENGINE STOPPING. ................................................................. 21-8
21.5 ENGINE FIRES .......................................................................... 21-9
21.6 INTERPRETATION OF ENGINE POWER OUTPUTS AND PARAMETERS. 21-10
21.7 TREND MONITORING. .............................................................. 21-22
21.7.1 On Ground Monitoring ................................................... 21-24
21.7.2 Air Washed Components .............................................. 21-24
21.7.3 Oil Washed Components .............................................. 21-32
21.7.4 Inspections .................................................................... 21-36
22 ENGINE STORAGE AND PRESERVATION. ............................... 22-1
22.1 STORAGE AND TRANSIT ......................................................... 22-1
22.1.1 Fuel System Inhibiting. .................................................. 22-1
22.1.2 Packing. ........................................................................ 22-2
22.1.3 Storage. ........................................................................ 22-3

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1 FUNDAMENTALS
1.1 WORK, POWER & ENERGY
Work, power, and energy are all interrelated. Work is the amount of movement a
given force causes; energy is the ability to do work, and power is the rate of doing
work.
1.1.1 WORK
In its technical sense, work is the product of force and distance, and work is done
only when a force causes movement. We can see this by the formula:
Work = Force x Distance
We normally measure distance in feet or inches, and force in pounds or ounces.
This allows us to measure work in foot-pounds or inch-ounces.
Example:
To find the amount of work done when a 500 pound load is lifted for a distance of
6 feet, we can use the formula:
Work = Force x Distance
= 500 X 6
= 3,000 foot-pounds
1.1.2 POWER
The rate of doing work is called power, and it is defined as the work done in unit
time. As a formula, this would be:
power = work done
time taken
Power is expressed in several different units, such as the watt, ergs per second,
and foot-pounds per second. The most common unit of power in general use in
the United States is the horsepower. One horsepower (hp) is equal to 550 ft-lb’s
or 33000 ft-1b/min. In the metric system the unit of power is the watt (W) or the
kilowatt (kW). One hp is equal to 746 watts; and 1 kW = 1.34 hp.
Example:
To compute the power necessary to raise an elevator containing 10 persons a
distance of 100 ft in 5 s (assuming the loaded elevator weighs 2500 lb), proceed
as follows:
Power = work done = 2500 x 100 = 50,000 ft-lb’s/sec
Time taken 5

Since 1hp = 550 ft-lb’s/sec then required hp = 50,000


550
= 90.9 hp (67.81 kw assuming no friction losses)

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1.1.3 ENERGY
The term energy may be defined as the capacity for doing work. There are two
forms of energy: potential energy and kinetic energy.
1.1.3.1 POTENTIAL ENERGY
Potential energy is the stored energy possessed by a system, because of the
relative positions of the components of that system. If work done raises an object
to a certain height, energy will be stored in that object in the form of the
gravitational force. This energy, waiting to be released is called potential energy.
The amount of potential energy a system possesses is equal to the work done on
the system previously.
Potential energy can be found in forms other than weights and height. Electrically
charged components contain potential (electrical) energy because of their position
within an electric field. An explosive substance has chemical potential energy that
is released in the form of light, heat and kinetic energy, when detonated.
Example :
A weight of 50 pounds is raised 5 feet. Using the formula:
Potential Energy = Force x Distance
= 50 x 5
= 250 ft-lb’s.
Note: That energy is expressed in the same units as those used for work and in all
cases energy is the product of force x distance.
1.1.3.2 KINETIC ENERGY
Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by an object, resulting from the motion of
that object. The magnitude of that energy depends on both the mass and speed
of the object. This is demonstrated by the simple equation:
Energy =½mv2 or w v2
2g
where m = mass, v = velocity (in feet or metres per second), w = weight, g =
gravity (32 ft/sec2 or 9.81m/sec2).
All forms of energy convert into other forms by appropriate processes. In this
process of transformation, either form of energy can be lost or gained but the total
energy must remain the same.
Example:
A weight of 50lbs dropped from a height of 5 ft has kinetic energy of
KE = 50 x 25
2 x 32
= 19.53 ft-lb’s

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1.2 FORCE AND MOTION


1.2.1 FORCE
Force may be defined as a push or a pull upon an object. In the English system
the pound (1b) is used to express the value of a force. For example, we say that a
force of 30 lb is acting upon a hydraulic piston.
A unit of force in the metric system is the newton (N). The newton is the force
required to accelerate a mass of 1 kilogram (kg) 1 meter per second per second
(m/s2).
The dyne (dyn) is also employed in the metric system as a unit of force. One dyne
is the force required to accelerate a mass of 1g 1 centimetre per second per
second (cm/s2). One newton is equal to 100,000 dynes (0.225 Ib).
1.2.2 VELOCITY
It is common to find people confusing the terms velocity and speed when
describing how fast an object is moving. The difference is that speed is a scalar
quantity, whilst the term velocity refers to both speed and direction of an object.
The full definition of velocity is that it is the rate at which its position changes, over
time, and the direction of the change.
The simple diagram below shows how an aircraft, which flies the irregular path
from 'A' to 'B' in an hour, (a speed of 350 mph), has an actual velocity of 200 mph
in an East-Northeast direction.

Path of Aircraft
B

350 Ml (563 Km)

200 Ml (322 Km)


N

A C

Diagram Showing Difference Between Velocity and Speed


Figure 1.1.

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1.2.3 ACCELERATION
This term describes the rate at which velocity changes. If an object increases in
speed, it has positive acceleration; if it decreases in speed, it has negative
acceleration. A reference to Newton's Second law of Motion will explain the
principles of acceleration. Acceleration can be in a straight line, which is referred
to a linear acceleration and it can apply to rotating objects whose speed of rotation
is increasing, (or decreasing), when it is called angular acceleration.
1.3 PRINCIPLES OF JET PROPULSION

Newton’s Laws of Motion. To understand the basic principles of jet propulsion it is


necessary to understand the practical application of Sir Isaac Newton's Laws of
Motion. There are three laws.
1. The First Law States. A mass will remain stationary until acted upon by a
force. If the mass is already moving at a constant speed in a straight line, it will.
continue to move at that constant speed in a straight line until acted upon by a
force.
2. The Second Law States. When a force acts on a mass the mass will
accelerate in the direction in which the force acts.
3. The Third Law States. To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
The function of any propeller or gas turbine engine is to produce THRUST, (or a
propulsion force), by accelerating a mass of air or gas rearwards. If we apply
Newton's Laws of Motion to aircraft propulsion it can be said that:-
 a FORCE must be applied in order to accelerate the mass of air or gas: first
law,

the acceleration of the mass is proportional to the force applied: second law,
 there must be an equal and opposite reaction, in our case this is THRUST, a
forward acting force: third law.
1.3.1 THRUST CALCULATION.
The amount of thrust produced depends upon two things:-

the MASS of air which is moved rearwards in a given time,


 the ACCELERATION imparted to the air.
It can be expressed as:- Thrust = Mass x Acceleration
The MASS is defined as “the quantity of matter in a body".
It is expressed as W
g
Where:- W = the weight of the body (in lb’s or newtons) and

g = the gravitational constant (taken as 32 ft/sec/sec or 9.81 m/sec2)


The ACCELERATION imparted to the air is the difference between its inlet and
outlet velocity.

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If we let: -
V2 = the air velocity at exit (in ft/sec/sec or 9.81m/sec2)
and
V1 = the air velocity at inlet (in ft/sec/sec or 9.81m/sec2)
It may be expressed as V2 – V1
Taking these expressions for Mass and Acceleration, the thrust produced by an
engine or propeller can be calculated from the following formula:-

THRUST =
W
V2 - V1
g
Example 1.
The airflow through a propeller is 256 lbs/sec, Inlet velocity 0 ft/sec, outlet velocity
700 ft/sec.
Thrust developed will be:

THRUST =
W
V2 - V1
g
THRUST = 256 x (700 – 0)
32
= 5600 lbs
Example 2.
The mass airflow through a gas turbine engine is 128lbs/sec, inlet velocity is 0
ft/sec, outlet velocity is 1400 ft/sec. Using the formula :
THRUST = 128 x (1400 – 0)
32
= 5600lbs
By comparing both examples, you can see that the gas turbine produced the same
thrust as the propeller by giving a greater acceleration to a smaller mass. It can
be said that a propeller accelerates a large mass slowly whilst the gas turbine
produces the same thrust by giving a greater acceleration to a smaller mass.
Note that in both of the examples the inlet velocity was zero ft/sec. The aircraft
was stationary so the thrust produced is referred to as STATIC THRUST.

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1.4 GAS TURBINES


A gas turbine engine is essentially a heat engine using a mass of air as a working
fluid to provide thrust. To achieve this, the mass of air passing through the engine
has to be accelerated, which means that the velocity, (or kinetic energy), of the air
is increased. To obtain this increase, the pressure energy is first of all increased,
followed by the addition of heat energy, before final conversion back to kinetic
energy in the form of a high velocity jet efflux.
The simplest form of gas turbine engine is the turbojet engine, which has three
major parts; the compressor, the combustion section and the turbine. A shaft
connects the compressor and the turbine to form a single, rotating unit. These
engines produce thrust in the manner described in the Brayton Cycle.
The simplest turbojet engine is the unit shown below with a single
centrifugal(Double Entry)compressor and a single stage turbine. This type of
engine can still be found in certain special installations but generally, they have
been superseded by engines with axial compressors and multiple stage turbines.
The advantages and disadvantages of the two types of compressor will be
discussed in depth later in this module

Simple Centrifugal Gas Turbine (Derwent)


Figure 1.2.

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1.5 THE BRAYTON CYCLE


The working cycle of the gas turbine engine is similar to that of the four-stroke
piston engine. There is induction, compression, ignition and exhaust in both
cases, although the process is continuous in a gas turbine. Also, the combustion
in a piston engine occurs at a constant volume, whilst in a gas turbine engine it
occurs at a constant pressure.

The Working Cycle.


Figure 1.3.

The cycle, upon which the gas


turbine engine functions, in its
simplest form, is the Brayton
cycle, which is represented by
the pressure/volume diagram,
shown in figure 1.4.

The Brayton Cycle.


Figure 1.4.

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• The air entering the engine is compressed.


• Heat is added to the air by burning fuel at a constant pressure, thereby
considerably increasing the volume of the resulting gas.
• The gases resulting from combustion expand through the turbine, which
converts some of the energy in the expanding gases into mechanical energy
to drive the compressor.
• The remainder of the expanding gases are propelled through the turbine and
jet pipe back to the atmosphere where they provide the propulsive jet.
There are three main stages in the engine working cycle during which the changes
discussed occur:
• During compression. Work is done on the air. This increases the pressure
and temperature and decreases the volume of air.
• During combustion. Fuel is added to the air and then burnt. This increases
the temperature and volume of the gas, whilst the pressure remains almost
constant (the latter being arranged by design in a gas turbine engine).
• During expansion. Energy is taken from the gas stream to drive the
compressor via the turbine; this decreases the temperature and pressure,
whilst the volume increases. The rapidly expanding gases are propelled
through the turbine and jet pipe to give a final momentum that is much greater
than the initial momentum; it is this change in momentum which produces the
propulsive jet.

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1.6 CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE AND VELOCITY .


1.6.1 TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE
The changes in temperature and pressure of the gases through a gas turbine
engine are illustrated in Figure 1.5 The efficiency with which these changes are
made will determine to what extent the desired relations between pressure,
temperature and velocity are obtained. The more efficient the compressor, the
higher is the pressure generated for a given work input - i.e. for a given
temperature rise of the gas. Conversely, the more efficiently the turbine uses the
expanding gas, the greater is the output of work for a given temperature drop in
gas.

Gas Flow Through an Engine


Figure 1.5

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1.6.2 VELOCITY AND PRESSURE


During the passage of the air (gas) through the engine, aerodynamic and energy
requirements demand changes in its velocity and pressure. For example, during
compression a rise in the pressure of the air is required with no increase in its
velocity. After the air has been heated and its internal energy increased by
combustion, an increase in the velocity of the gases is necessary to cause the
turbine to rotate. Also at the propelling nozzle, a high velocity is required, for it is
the change in momentum of the air that provides the thrust on the aircraft. Local
decelerations of gas flow are also required - for example, in the combustion
chambers to provide a low velocity zone for the flame.
1.6.3 HOW THE CHANGES ARE OBTAINED.
The various changes in temperature, pressure and velocity are effected by means
of the ducts through which the air (gas) passes on its way through the engine.
When a conversion from kinetic energy to pressure energy is required, the ducts
are divergent in shape. Conversely, when it is required to convert the energy
stored in the combustion gases to velocity, a convergent nozzle is used. The
design of the passages and nozzles is of great importance, for upon their good
design depends the efficiency with which the energy changes are effected. Any
interference with the smooth flow of gases creates a loss in efficiency and could
result in component failure because of vibration caused by eddies or turbulence of
the gas flow.
1.7 DUCTS AND NOZZLES
1.7.1 CONTINUITY EQUATION.
If we consider the machine to be an open-ended duct (Fig 1.6.), we find that the
mass flow per second will depend on the density of the fluid and the volume
flowing per sec:

Open Ended Duct to Illustrate Continuity Equation


Figure 1.6.

Now volume flow = Area of duct x distance travelled (L)


Time (sec)

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But the distance travelled per second = Velocity.


Therefore, Mass flow = density x area x velocity.
This is known as the ‘continuity equation’ and it is true for any steady flow system
regardless of changes in the cross-sectional area of the duct.
1.7.2 INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUID FLOW.
Now consider an incompressible fluid as it flows through the duct system shown in
the fig. 1.7. We know that the mass flow is of a constant value and, naturally, as
the fluid enters the larger cross sectional area it will take up the new shape and
the initial volume will now occupy less length in the duct. Therefore, in a given
time, less distance is travelled and the velocity is reduced.
Thus we conclude that if the mass flow is to remain constant, as it must, an
increase in duct area must be accompanied by a reduction in flow velocity, and a
decrease in duct area must bring about an increase in velocity; we can express
this action as – velocity varies inversely with changes in duct area.

Duct System
Figure 1.7.

1.7.3 BERNOULLI’S THEOREM


This theorem can be related to the relationship between pressure and velocity
existing in the air flowing through a duct, such as a jet engine. The theorem states
that the total energy per unit mass is constant for a fluid moving inside a duct and
that total energy consists mainly of pressure energy and kinetic energy:
 Pressure energy.
In gas or fluid flow the pressure energy is more often called ‘static pressure’ and it
can be defined as the pressure that would be felt by a body which was submerged
in the medium (gas or fluid) and moving at the same velocity as the medium.

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 Kinetic energy.
This kind of energy is more often called ‘dynamic pressure’ and this term is used
to define the extra pressure created by the movement of the medium. Dynamic
pressure is proportional to ½ mass x velocity 2 (ie. ½mv2).
When the medium (gas or fluid) is moving, the total energy = static pressure +
dynamic pressure.
Consider a duct which is filled with an incompressible fluid and pressurised from
one end by an external force (Fig 1.8.). The other end of the duct is sealed by a
valve, which can be opened or closed, and a pressure gauge is fitted into the wall
of the duct to indicate the static pressure (PS). With the valve closed, static
pressure and total energy are the same. However, when the valve is opened to
allow a fluid flow, the circumstances changes and, although the total energy must
remain the same, it now consists of static pressure + dynamic pressure. As the
velocity V increases, so dynamic pressure increases and the static pressure is
reduced.

Duct with Flow Control Valve


Figure 1.8.

1.7.4 TOTAL ENERGY.


Total energy can be measured as a ram pressure and is usually called the ‘total
head’ or pitot pressure (PT). It is measured by placing a ram tube in the fluid flow.
The ram tube must be parallel to the flow with its open end facing the flow. A
gauge connected into such a tube always records the total head (pitot) pressure
regardless of the rate of flow, refer to Fig 1.9.

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In a situation where there is a no fluid flow, the static pressure (PS) gauge, and the
total head pressure (PT) gauge will show the same value, but when there is a fluid
flow, the total pressure reading remains the same although the static pressure
drops.

Illustration of Pitot and Static Pressures


Figure 1.9.

1.8 CONTINUITY EQUATION AND BERNOULLI’S THEOREM


1.8.1 INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUID.
The combined effect of the continuity equation and Bernoulli’s theorem produces
the effects shown, when a steady flow of incompressible fluid flows through a duct
of varying cross sectional area (Fig 1.10.).

Duct of Varying Cross Sectional Area


Figure 1.10.
The effects of a steady flow of incompressible fluid flows through a duct of varying
cross sectional area shows:

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 Mass flow remains constant as cross-sectional area of duct (and velocity)


change.
 Total pressure remains constant, but static pressure (PS) changes as area
(and velocity) change.

1.8.1.1 Compressibility Fluid (Atmosphere).


Compressible fluid flow refers to the air flow through a gas turbine engine and,
because the air is compressible, flow at subsonic speeds causes a change in the
density of the air as it progresses through the engine.
The air entering the duct at section A (Fig 1.11), consists of air at pressure (P1)
and velocity (V1); then as the air enters the increased area of the duct at B it will
spread out to fill the increased area and this will cause the air flow to slow down
(continuity equation) and give a change in velocity to V2. The static pressure of
the air will increase (Bernoulli’s theorem) to become P2 in the wider section of the
duct and, because air is compressible, the air density will increase as it is
compresses by the rise in pressure in section B of the duct.

Airflow Through a Duct Section


Figure 1.11.

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1.8.1.2 Diffuser action.


The flare, which increases the area of the duct, is known as a diffuser (Fig
1.12.)and its shape determines the rate of compression and the amount by which
the air is compressed. For best results, the airflow must remain smooth and,
because of this, a most important design feature is the angle of divergence. When
air is compressed by this process it is called subsonic diffusion and it is a principle
that is used extensively in jet engine design.

Diffuser Section
Figure 1.12.

1.8.2 GAS LAWS


In addition to the preceding information, the following gas laws are closely related
to the function of a gas turbine engine:
 Boyle’s Law. This law is related to temperature and pressure of a gas. It
states that if the temperature T remains constant, the volume V of a given mass
varies inversely as the pressure P exerted upon it (ie. PV = Constant).
 Charles’ Law. This law states that the volume V of a given mass of gas
increases by 1/273 of its volume at 0°C for a rise of 1°C when the pressure P of
the gas is kept constant. These laws are now combined in what is called the
ideal gas law. It gives the relationship:
PV = RT where: P = pressure
V = volume
R = a constant
T = absolute temperature in K

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1.9 SUBSONIC AIRFLOW THROUGH DIVERGENT AND CONVERGENT


DUCTS
1.9.1 DIVERGENT DUCT

A divergent duct widens out as the airflow progresses through it. At subsonic
speeds the effect of this kind of duct is to decrease the velocity and increase the
pressure and temperature of the air passing through it.

Divergent Duct.
Figure 1.13.

1.9.2 CONVERGENT DUCT

A convergent duct is such that the space inside reduces as the airflow progresses
through it. At subsonic speeds the effect of this kind of duct is to increase the
velocity and decreases the pressure and temperature of the air passing through it.

Convergent Duct.
Figure 1.14.

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1.10 SONIC AIRFLOW THOUGH DIVERGENT AND CONVERGENT DUCTS

When a flow of fluid (i.e. gas) flows at sonic speed through a convergent duct a
shock wave forms at the exit area of the duct - The exit area is said to be choked.
The shock wave forms a restriction to the fluid and pressure will increase,
temperature will increase and velocity will decrease.

A Con-Di Nozzle
Figure 1.14.
When a gas flow reaches sonic velocity in a convergent duct the nozzle will choke
and the pressure will increase. To prevent a pressure rise that would eventually
prevent a 'fluid' flow and completely choke the duct a divergent section is added
making the duct convergent/divergent (Con/DI). The pressure of gas released into
the divergent section of the nozzle causes the velocity of the 'fluid' to increase,
pressure to decrease, and therefore temperature to decrease. Gas pressure acts
on the walls of the divergent section, this pressure gives additional thrust that is
known as pressure thrust.

Airflow Through a Con-Di Nozzle or Venturi.


Figure 1.15.

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1.11 THE WORKING CYCLE ON A PRESSURE VOLUME DIAGRAM

Air is drawn from the atmosphere (Ambient Air) into the compressor. The
compressor raises the pressure of the air (A to B) on diagram. If the pressure of
the air is increased the volume is decreased. The air passes to the combustion
system and heat is added by burning fuel with a proportion of the air. From the
diagram (B to C) it is seen that combustion takes place at constant pressure so the
gas turbine working cycle is known as the constant pressure cycle. In the
combustion system the air expands rearwards and the volume of the gas
increases and the gas kinetic energy increases. The gas flow passes to the
turbine section to drive the turbine (s), energy is extracted and the pressure
decreases. The gas passes via an exhaust unit to the propelling nozzle which
forms a convergent duct. The velocity of the gas increases. The reaction to the
high velocity jet produces thrust (C to D on diagram).

Changes in Temperature, Pressure and Velocity and the Brayton Cycle


Figure 1.16.

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1.12 ENGINE CONFIGURATIONS.


There are two main types of gas turbine engines:
 Reaction engines, which derive their thrust by jet reaction
 Power engines, which provide a mechanical output to drive another device.

1.12.1 REACTION ENGINES


These can be divided into several categories.
a. Turbojet engines. The turbojet was the first type of jet engine developed. In this
engine all the air passes through the core engine (i.e. the compressor,
combustor and turbine). The engine may be single shaft as in the Avon engine,
or twin shafted as in the Olympus 593 fitted to Concorde.
These engines are noisy and are not the most fuel efficient for normal use,
however for high altitude high speed flight they are in a class of their own.

Turbo jet Engines.


Figure 1.17.

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b. Low and Medium By-pass or turbofan engines. These engines will have two or
three shafts. The Low Pressure (LP) shaft drives a larger diameter compressor.
Some of the air produced by-passes the core engine (hence the name) and is
used to provide thrust. The core airflow provides power for the compressors
and thrust. These engine are quieter than turbojets and more fuel efficient. The
Spey and Tay engines fall into this category.
The by-pass ratio is determined by the ratio of the air in flowing through the by-
pass to the air passing through the core of the engine. Low by-pass less than
2:1, medium by-pass 2:1 to 4:1, high by pass greater than 5:1.

Low By-pass Twin Spool Engine (Spey)


Figure 1.17.
c. High by-pass turbofan engines. These engines have very large fans driven by
a relatively small core engine. Often the fan is geared to run at a lower speed
than the LP turbine, which gives the turbine mechanical advantage and also
allows it to run at higher speed where it is more efficient. The ALF 502, RB211
and the Trent engines are all high by-pass
High by-pass engines
are very fuel efficient,
powerful and quiet.
These engines have a
very large diameter
which does give drag
problems, and are not
suitable for high
speed flight as the
blade tips will suffer
compressibility
problems as they
A Three Spool High By-pass Engine (RB211)
Figure 1.18. approach the speed
of sound.

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1.12.2 POWER ENGINES


Power producing engines come in two main forms Turboprop and turboshaft.
a. Turboprop Engines. Turboprop engines extract most of the energy from the
gas stream and convert it into rotational energy to drive a propeller. The
engines are either single or twin shaft and may be direct drive where the LP or
main shaft drive the propeller through a gearbox, or they may have a separate
power turbine to drive the propeller. Turboprop engines differ from high by-
pass turbofans in that the propeller does not have an intake to slow and
prepare the air before passing through it. The propeller therefore has to meet
the demands of airspeed etc. Examples of turboprops are the Dart, PW125
and Tyne engines.

Turboprop Engines
Figure 1.19.

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b. Turboshaft Engines. These engines are used in helicopters. They share


many of the attributes of turboprop engines, but are usually smaller. They do not
have propeller control systems built into the engine and usually do not have many
accessories attached such as generators etc. as these are driven by the main
rotor gearbox. Modern turboshaft and turbo prop engines run at constant speed
which tends to prolong the life of the engine and also means that they are more
efficient as the engine can run at its optimum speed all the time.

Turboshaft Engine with Free power Turbine. (Gem)


Figure 1.20.

There are other types of engine such as ram jets, pulse jets, turbo-ram jet and
turbo - rockets, but none of these are used commercially if at all.

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2 ENGINE PERFORMANCE
2.1 METHOD OF CALCULATING THE THRUST FORCES
The thrust forces or gas loads can be calculated for the engine, or for any flow
section of the engine, provided that the areas, pressures, velocities and mass flow
are known for both the inlet and outlet of the particular flow section.
The distribution of thrust forces shown in Fig 2.1. can be calculated by considering
each component in turn and applying some simple calculations. The thrust
produced by the engine is mainly the product of the mass of air passing through
the engine and the velocity increase imparted to it (ie. Newtons Second Law of
Motion), however the pressure difference between the inlet to and the outlet from
the particular flow section will have an effect on the overall thrust of the engine and
must be included in the calculation.
FORWARD GAS LOAD 57836 lbs REARWARD GAS LOAD 46678 lbs
TOTAL THRUST 11158 lbs

Thrust Distribution of a Typical Single Spool Axial Flow Engine.


Figure 2.1.
To calculate the resultant thrust for a particular flow section it is necessary to
calculate the total thrust at both inlet and outlet, the resultant thrust being the
difference between the two values obtained.

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Calculation of the thrust is achieved using the following formula:


Wv J
Thrust = ( A  P ) 
g
Where A = Area of flow section in sq. in.
P = Pressure in lb. per sq. in.
W = Mass flow in lb. per sec.
VJ = Velocity of flow in feet per sec.
g = Gravitational constant 32.2 ft. per sec. per sec.
2.2 CALCULATING THE THRUST OF THE ENGINE
When applying the above method to calculate the individual thrust loads on the
various components it is assumed that the engine is static. The effect of aircraft
forward speed on the engine thrust will be dealt with later. In the following
calculations ‘g’ is taken to be 32 for convenience.
Compressor casing
To obtain the thrust on the compressor casing, it is necessary to calculate the
conditions at the inlet to the compressor and the conditions at the outlet from the
compressor. Since the pressure and the velocity at the inlet to the compressor are
zero, it is only necessary to consider the force at the outlet from the compressor.
Therefore, given that the compressor –
OUTLET Area (A) = 182 sq. in.
Pressure (P) = 94 lb. per sq. in. (gauge)
Velocity (vj) = 406 ft. per sec.
Mass flow (W) = 153 lb. per sec.
The thrust
Wv j
= ( A  P)  0
g

153  406
= (182  94)  0
32
= 19,049lb. of thrust in a forward direction.

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Total Thrust of the Compressor.


Figure 2.2.

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International Standard Atmosphere


Figure 2.3.

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Choked Nozzle
Considering the formula for thrust under “choked” nozzle conditions:
Wv J
Thrust = ( P  P0 )A +
g
Where: P = Pressure
P = Ambient Pressure
A = Area
W = Mass Flow
V = Velocity
It can be seen that the thrust can be further affected by a change in the mass flow
rate of air through the engine and by a change in jet velocity. An increase in mass
airflow may be obtained by using water injection to cool the air and increases in jet
velocity by using after-burning.
Changes in ambient pressure and temperature considerably influence the thrust
of the engine. This is because of the way they affect the air density and hence the
mass of air entering the engine for a given engine rotational speed.
Thrust Correction - Turbojet
To enable the performance of similar engines to be compared when operating
under different climatic conditions, or at different altitudes, correction factors must
be applied to the calculations to return the observed values to those which would
be found under I.S.A. conditions. For example, the thrust correction for a turbo-jet
engine is:
30
Thrust (lb) (corrected) = thrust (lb) (observed) x
PO
 Where P0 = atmospheric pressure in inches of mercury (in Hg)
(observed)
30 = I.S.A. standard sea level pressure (in Hg)
Shaft Horsepower Correction - Turboprop
The observed performance of the turbo-propeller engine is also corrected to I.S.A.
conditions, but due to the rating being in s.h.p. and not in pounds of thrust the
factors are different. For example, the correction for s.h.p. is:
30 273  15
S.h.p. (corrected) = s.h.p. (observed)  
PO 273  TO
Where P0 = atmospheric pressure (in Hg) (observed)
T0 = atmospheric temperature in deg. C (observed)
30 = I.S.A. standard sea level pressure (in Hg)
273 + 15 = I.S.A. standard sea level temperature in deg. K
273 + T0 = Atmospheric temperature in deg. K

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Equivalent Shaft Horsepower (EHP)


In practice there is always a certain amount of jet thrust in the total output of the
turbo-propeller engine and this must be added to the s.h.p. The correction for jet
thrust is the same as that specified earlier.
To distinguish between these two aspects of the power output, it is usual to refer
to them as s.h.p. and thrust horse-power (t.h.p.). The total equivalent horse-power
is denoted by t.e.h.p. (sometimes e.h.p.) and is the s.h.p. plus the s.h.p. equivalent
to the net jet thrust. For estimation purposes it is taken that, under sea-level static
conditions, one s.h.p. is equivalent to approximately 2.6 lb. of jet thrust. Therefore:
jet thrust lb.
t.e.h.p. = s.h.p. 
2.6
The ratio of jet thrust to shaft power is influenced by many factors. For instance,
the higher the aircraft operating speed the larger may be the required proportion of
total output in the form of jet thrust. Alternatively, an extra turbine stage may be
required if more than a certain proportion of the total power is to be provided at the
shaft. In general, turbo-propeller aircraft provide one pound of thrust for every 3.5
h.p. to 5 h.p.
2.2.1 COMPARISON BETWEEN THRUST AND HORSE-POWER
Because the turbo-jet engine is rated in thrust and the turbo-propeller engine in
s.h.p., no direct comparison between the two can be made without a power
conversion factor. However, since the turbo-propeller engine receives its thrust
mainly from the propeller, a comparison can be made by converting the horse-
power developed by the engine to thrust or the thrust developed by the turbo-jet
engine to t.h.p.; that is, by converting work to force or force to work. For this
purpose, it is necessary to take into account the speed of the aircraft.
FV
t.h.p. is expressed as
550 ft. per sec
Where F = lb of thrust
V = aircraft speed (ft. per sec)

Since one horse-power is equal to 550ft.lb. per sec. and 550 ft. per sec. is
equivalent to 375 miles per hour, it can be seen from the above formula that one
lb. of thrust equals one t.h.p. at 375 m.p.h. It is also common to quote the speed
in knots (nautical miles per hour); one knot is equal to 1.1515 m.p.h. or one pound
of thrust is equal to one t.h.p. at 325 knots.
Thus if a turbo-jet engine produces 5,000 lb. of net thrust at an aircraft speed of
5,000  600
600 m.p.h. the t.h.p. would be  8,000
375

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However, if the same thrust was being produced by a turbo-propeller engine with a
propeller efficiency of 55 percent at the same flight speed of 600 m.p.h., then the
100
t.h.p. would be: 8,000   14,545
55
Thus at 600 m.p.h. one lb. of thrust is the equivalent of about 3 t.h.p.
2.3 ENGINE THRUST IN FLIGHT
Since reference will be made to gross thrust, momentum drag and net thrust, it will
be helpful to define these terms:
Gross or total thrust is the product of the mass of air passing through the engine
and the jet velocity at the propelling nozzle, expressed as:
Wv J
( P  P0 )A +
g
The momentum drag is the drag due to the momentum of the air passing into the
WV
engine relative to the aircraft velocity, expressed as where:
g
W = Mass flow in lb. per sec.
V = Velocity of aircraft in feet per sec.
G = Gravitational constant 32.2 ft. per sec. per sec.
 WVJ
 Momentum Thrust 
WV wv  g
Momentum Drag   Gross Thrust  ( P  Po ) A  J 
g g   Pr essure Thrust  ( P  PO ) A

The net thrust or resultant force acting on the aircraft in flight is the difference
between the gross thrust and the momentum drag. From the definitions and
formulae stated earlier under flight conditions, the net thrust of the engine,
W Vj  V 
simplifying, can be expressed as: P  Po  A 
g
All pressures are total pressures except P which is static pressure at the propelling
nozzle
W = Mass of air passing through engine (lb. Per sec.)
VJ = Jet velocity at propelling nozzle (ft. per sec)
P = Static pressure across propelling nozzle (lb. Per sq. in)
PO = Atmospheric pressure (lb. Per sq. in)
A = Propelling nozzle area (sq. in)
V = Aircraft speed (ft. per sec.)
G = Gravitational constant 32.2

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The Balance of Forces and Expression for Thrust and Momentum Drag.
Figure 2.4.

Graph of Thrust Against Forward Speed.


Figure 2.5.

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2.3.1 EFFECT OF FORWARD SPEED


Since reference will be made to ‘ram ratio’ and Mach number, these terms are
defined as follows:
Ram ratio is the ratio of the total air pressure at the engine compressor entry to
the static air pressure at the air intake entry.
Mach number is an additional means of measuring speed and is defined as the
ratio of the speed of a body to the local speed of sound. Mach 1.0 therefore
represents a speed equal to the local speed of sound.
From the thrust equation, it is apparent that if the jet velocity remains constant,
independent of aircraft speed, then as the aircraft speed increases the thrust
would decrease in direct proportion. However, due to the ‘ram ratio’ effect from
the aircraft forward speed, extra air is taken into the engine so that the mass
airflow and also the jet velocity increase with aircraft speed. The effect of this
tends to offset the extra intake momentum drag due to the forward speed so that
the resultant loss of net thrust is partially recovered as the aircraft speed
increases. A typical curve illustrating this point is shown in the figure 2.5.
Obviously, the ‘ram ratio’ effect, or the return obtained in terms of pressure rise at
entry to the compressor in exchange for the unavoidable intake drag, is of
considerable importance to the turbo-jet engine, especially at high speeds. Above
speeds of Mach 1.0, as a result of the formation of shock waves at the air intake,
this rate of pressure rise will rapidly decrease unless a suitably designed air intake
is provided; an efficient air intake is necessary to obtain maximum benefit from the
ram ratio effect.
As aircraft speeds increase into the supersonic region, the ram air temperature
rises rapidly consistent with the basic gas laws. This temperature rise affects the
compressor delivery air temperature proportionally and, in consequence, to
maintain the required thrust, the engine must be subjected to higher turbine entry
temperatures. Since the maximum permissible turbine entry temperature is
determined by the temperature limitations of the turbine assembly, the choice of
turbine materials and the design of blades and stators to permit cooling are very
important.
With an increase in forward speed, the increased mass airflow due to the ‘ram
ratio’ effect must be matched by the fuel flow and the result is an increase in fuel
consumption. Because the net thrust tends to decrease with forward speed, the
end result is an increase in specific fuel consumption (s.f.c.), as shown by the
curves for a typical turbo-jet engine in the figure 2.6.
At high forward speeds at low altitudes, the ‘ram ratio’ effect causes very high
stresses on the engine and, to prevent over-stressing, the fuel flow is automatically
reduced to limit the engine speed and airflow.

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Effects of speed on Thrust and Fuel Consumption.


Figure 2.6.

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2.3.2 EFFECT OF AFTERBURNING ON ENGINE THRUST


At take-off conditions, the momentum drag of the airflow through the engine is
negligible, so that the gross thrust can be considered to be equal to the net thrust.
If after-burning is selected, an increase in take-off thrust in the order of 30 percent
is possible with the pure jet engine and considerably more with the by-pass
engine. This augmentation of basic thrust, is of greater advantage for certain
specific operating requirements.
Under flight conditions, however, this advantage is even greater, since the
momentum drag is the same with or without after-burning and, due to the ram
effect, better utilisation is made of every pound of air flowing through the engine.
2.3.3 EFFECT OF ALTITUDE
With increasing altitude the ambient air pressure and temperature are reduced.
This affects the engine in two inter-related ways:-
The fall of pressure reduces the air density and hence the mass airflow into the
engine for a given engine speed. This causes the thrust or s.h.p. to fall. The fuel
control system adjusts the fuel pump output to match the reduced mass airflow, so
maintaining a constant engine speed.
The fall in air temperature increases the density of the air, so that the mass of air
entering the compressor for a given engine speed is greater. This causes the
mass airflow to reduce at a lower rate and so compensates to some extent for the
loss of thrust due to the fall in atmospheric pressure. At altitudes above 36,089
feet and up to 65,617 feet, however, the temperature remains constant, and the
thrust or s.h.p. is affected by pressure only.
Graphs showing the typical effect of altitude on thrust and fuel consumption are
illustrated in Figure 2.7.

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Effects of Altitude on Thrust and Fuel Consumption.


Figure 2.7.

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2.3.4 EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE


On a cold day the density of the air increases so that the mass of air entering the
compressor for a given engine speed is greater, hence the thrust or s.h.p. is
higher. The denser air does, however, increase the power required to drive the
compressor or compressors; thus the engine will require more fuel to maintain the
same engine speed or will run at a reduced engine speed if no increase in fuel is
available.
On a hot day the density of the air decreases, thus reducing the mass of air
entering the compressor and, consequently, the thrust of the engine for a given
r.p.m. Because less power will be required to drive the compressor, the fuel
control system reduces the fuel flow to maintain a constant engine rotational
speed or turbine entry temperature, as appropriate; however, because of the
decrease in air density, the thrust will be lower. At a temperature of 45C,
depending on the type of engine, a thrust loss of up to 20 percent may be
experienced. This means that some sort of thrust augmentation, such as water
injection, may be required.
The fuel control system, controls the fuel flow so that the maximum fuel supply is
held practically constant at low air temperature conditions, whereupon the engine
speed falls but, because of the increased mass airflow as a result of the increase
in air density, the thrust remains the same. For example, the combined
acceleration and speed control (CASC) fuel system schedules fuel flow to maintain
a constant engine r.p.m., hence thrust increases as air temperature decreases
until, at a predetermined compressor delivery pressure, the fuel flow is
automatically controlled to maintain a constant compressor delivery pressure and,
therefore, thrust, Figure 2.8. illustrates this for a twin-spool engine where the
controlled engine r.p.m. is high pressure compressor speed and the compressor
delivery pressure is expressed as P3. It will also be apparent from this graph that
the low pressure compressor speed is always less than its limiting maximum and
that the difference in the two speeds is reduced by a decrease in ambient air
temperature. To prevent the L.P. compressor overspeeding, fuel flow is also
controlled by an L.P. governor which, in this case, takes a passive role.

The Effect of Air


Temperature on
a Typical Twin
Spool Engine
Figure 2.8.

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2.4 PROPULSIVE EFFICIENCY


Performance of the jet engine is not only concerned with the thrust produced, but
also with the efficient conversion of the heat energy of the fuel into kinetic energy,
as represented by the jet velocity, and the best use of this velocity to propel the
aircraft forward, ie. the efficiency of the propulsive system.
The efficiency of conversion of fuel energy to kinetic energy is termed thermal or
internal efficiency and, like all heat engines, is controlled by the cycle pressure
ratio and combustion temperature. Unfortunately this temperature is limited by the
thermal and mechanical stresses that can be tolerated by the turbine. The
development of new materials and techniques to minimise these limitations is
continually being pursued.
The efficiency of conversion of kinetic energy to propulsive work is termed the
propulsive or external efficiency and this is affected by the amount of kinetic
energy wasted by the propelling mechanism. Waste energy dissipated in the jet
wake, which represents a loss, can be expressed as
W (v j  V ) 2
where (vJ - V) is the waste velocity.
2g
It is therefore apparent that at the aircraft lower speed range the pure jet stream
wastes considerably more energy than a propeller system and consequently is
less efficient over this range. However, this factor changes as aircraft speed
increases, because although the jet stream continues to issue at a high velocity
from the engine, its velocity relative to the surrounding atmosphere is reduced
and, in consequence, the waste energy loss is reduced.

Efficiency Plots of Differing Types of Engine to Airspeed


Figure 2.9.

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2.5 FUEL CONSUMPTION AND POWER TO WEIGHT RELATIONSHIP


Primary engine design considerations, particularly for commercial transport duty,
are those of low specific fuel consumption and weight. Considerable improvement
has been achieved by use of the by-pass principle and by advanced mechanical
and aerodynamic features and the use of improved materials. With the trend
towards higher by-pass ratios, in the range of 15:1, the triple-spool and contra-
rotating rear fan engines allow the pressure and by-pass ratios to be achieved with
short rotors, using fewer compressor stages, resulting in a lighter and more
compact engine.
S.f.c. is directly related to the thermal and propulsive efficiencies; that is, the
overall efficiency of the engine. Theoretically, high thermal efficiency requires high
pressures which in practice also means high turbine entry temperatures. In a pure
turbo-jet engine this high temperature would result in a high jet velocity and
consequently lower the propulsive efficiency. However, by using the by-pass
principle, high thermal and propulsive efficiencies can be effectively combined by
by-passing a proportion of the L.P. compressor or fan delivery air to lower the
mean jet temperature and velocity. With advanced technology engines of high by-
pass and overall pressure ratios, a further pronounced improvement in s.f.c. is
obtained.
The turbines of pure jet engines are heavy because they deal with the total airflow,
whereas the turbines of by-pass engines deal only with part of the flow; thus the
H.P. compressor, combustion chambers and turbines, can be scaled down. The
increased power per lb. of air at the turbines, to take advantage of their full
capacity, is obtained by the increase in pressure ratio and turbine entry
temperature. It is clear that the by-pass engine is lighter, because not only has the
diameter of the high pressure rotating assemblies been reduced, but the engine is
shorter for a given power output. With a low by-pass ratio engine, the weight
reduction compared with a pure jet engine is in the order of 20 per cent for the
same air mass flow.
With a high by-pass ratio engine of the triple-spool configuration, a further
significant improvement in specific weight is obtained. This is derived mainly from
advanced mechanical and aerodynamic design, which in addition to permitting a
significant reduction in the total number of parts, enables rotating assemblies to be
more effectively matched and to work closer to optimum conditions, thus
minimising the number of compressor and turbine stages for a given duty. The
use of higher strength lightweight materials is also a contributory factor.
For a given mass flow, less thrust is produced by the by-pass engine due to the
lower exit velocity. Thus, to obtain the same thrust, the by-pass engine must be
scaled to pass a larger total mass airflow than the pure turbo-jet engine. The
weight of the engine, however, is still less because of the reduced size of the H.P.
section of the engine. Therefore, in addition to the reduced specific fuel
consumption, an improvement in the power-to-weight ratio is obtained.

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2.6 SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION


When comparing engine performance, one of the most important considerations is
how efficiently the power is produced. The amount of fuel consumed to produce a
given horsepower lbs. thrust is known as “specific fuel consumption” or SFC. A
typical aircraft fuel system measures the volume of fuel consumed. This is
displayed in pounds per hour or PPH. To calculate fuel flow, specific fuel
consumption found on the customer data sheet, is multiplied by the horsepower
lbs. thrust produced.
2.6.1 SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION – DEFINITION
SFC = SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION is defined as the lbs of fuel used per
HP/lbs of thrust per hour
2.7 FLAT RATING
“Flat rating” is used by aircraft manufacturers when they select an engine that has
a capability greater than the requirements of the aircraft. They then limit the power
output of the engine. There are three distinct benefits derived from flat rating.
One is the engine will have the ability to make take-off power at lower turbine
temperatures over a wide range of outside air temperatures and pressure
altitudes. Performance at altitude will be greatly enhanced. These two benefits
result in the third benefit, longer engine life. A fourth benefit available on some
engines is, a reserve of power which can be used to boost performance in an
emergency ie. Loss of an engine during take - off.
2.8 PERFORMANCE RATINGS
In the chart, performance ratings are compared on –1 through –12 engines.
Notice the modifiers on the –1, -5, -6, -8 and –10 engines. These temperatures
represent the effects of flat rating engines. Each engine will make take-off power
below their turbine temperature limits to the ambient temperatures indicated.
Engines that are not flat rated, such as the –3 or –11, would be unable to make
take-off power below their turbine temperature limits when operating in conditions
above 59F outside air temperatures.

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3 INLET
3.1 INTRODUCTION
An air intake should deliver air to the engine compressor with a minimum loss of
energy and at a uniform pressure under all engine operating conditions. The inlet
duct is built in the shape of a subsonic divergent diffuser, so that the kinetic energy
of the rapidly moving air can be converted into a ram pressure rise within the duct.
This condition is referred to as “Ram Recovery”.
3.2 RAM COMPRESSION
The degree of Ram Compression depends upon the following:-
i. Frictional losses at those surfaces ahead of the intake entry which are
“wetted” by the intake airflow.
ii. Frictional losses at the intake duct walls.
iii. Turbulence losses due to accessories or structural members located in the
intake.
iv. Aircraft speed.
v. In a turbo-prop, drag and turbulence losses due to the prop blades and
spinner.
Ram compression causes a re-distribution in the forms of energy existing in the
air-stream. As the air in the intake is slowed up in endeavouring to pass into and
through the compressor element against the air of increasing pressure and density
which exists therein so the kinetic energy of the air in the intake decreases. This
is accompanied by a corresponding increase in its pressure and internal energies
and consequently compression of the air-stream is achieved within the intake, thus
converting the unfavourable intake lip conditions into the compressor inlet
requirements.
Although ram compression improves the performance of the engine, it must be
realised that during the process there is a drag force on the engine and hence the
aircraft. This drag must be accepted since it is a penalty inherent in a ram
compression process. (The added thrust more than makes up for this drag).
3.2.1 IMPORTANCE OF RAM COMPRESSION
At subsonic flight speeds, the ram pressure ratio is apparently quite small, say
1.33: 1 at 0.8M. Nevertheless, since the pressure rise due to ram compression is
multiplied by the pressure ratio of the compressor, the ram pressure rise becomes
significant even at subsonic speeds.
Furthermore, the greater the forward speed of the aircraft becomes, the more
significant is the ram compression; e.g. at 1.5M the ram pressure ratio may be
about 3.5 : 1, and at 2.5M about 8 : 1.

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3.3 TYPES OF AIR INTAKES


3.3.1 PITOT INTAKES
This intake is suitable for subsonic or low supersonic speeds. Examples, 707,
747, A300B, Tristar, etc. The intake is usually short and is very efficient because
the duct inlet is located directly ahead of the engine compressor. As the duct
length increases, the risk of small airflow disturbances and pressure drop is
increased. This inlet makes maximum use of ram effect until sonic speed is
approached when efficiency falls due to shock wave formation at the intake lip.
Pitot inlets can however suffer from inlet turbulences at high angles of attack
and/or at low speeds.

Pitot Type Intakes.


Figure 3.1.

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The pitot type intake can be used for engines that are mounted in pods or in the
wings although the latter sometimes requires a departure from the circular cross
section due to the wing thickness.

Wing Leading Edge Intakes


Figure 3.2
3.3.2 DIVIDED ENTRANCE DUCT

On a single engine aircraft with fuselage mounted engines, either a wing root inlet
or a side scoop inlet may be used. The wing root inlet presents a problem to
designers in the forming of the curvature necessary to deliver the air to the engine
compressor. The side scoop inlet is placed as far forward of the compressor as
possible to approach the straight line effect of the single inlet. Both types suffer
faults, in a yaw or turn, a loss of ram pressure occurs on one side of the intake and
separated, turbulent boundary layer air is fed to the engine compressor.

Divided Intakes.
Figure 3.3.

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3.3.3 SUPERSONIC INTAKES


At supersonic speeds, the pitot type of air intake is unsuitable due to the severity
of shock waves which form and progressively reduce the intake efficiency as
speed increases. To overcome this problem the compression intake was
designed.

Supersonic Intakes.
Figure 3.4.
This type of intake produces a series of mild shock waves without reducing the
intake efficiency, as the aircraft speed increases, so also does the intake
compression ratio. At high mach numbers it becomes necessary to have an air
intake which has a variable thrust area and spill doors to control the column of air.
3.4 IDEAL INTAKE CONDITIONS
For air to flow smoothly through a compressor, its velocity should be about 0.5
mach at the compressor inlet; this includes aircraft flying faster than the speed of
sound. Hence intakes are designed to decelerate the free stream airflow to this
condition over the range of aircraft speeds. Intakes should also convert the kinetic
energy into pressure energy without undue shock or energy loss. This means
that the ideal compressor inlet pressure should be the same as the total head
pressure at the intake lip.
(Total head pressure = stagnation pressure, ie. static and dynamic pressure).

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Intake Efficiency
The magnitude of the losses occurring in an intake during ram compression are
measured by means of the intake efficiency. Typical optimum efficiencies of some
common types of intake, at subsonic speeds assuming straight-through flow, are:
a Turbo-jet engine Pitot 99 to 96%
Wing root 95 to 87%
Side 89 to 80%
b Turbo-prop engine Annular 82 to 74% (DART)
In cases where the direction of flow of the air is reversed within the intake, these
values are reduced by about 10%.
3.5 INTAKE ANTI-ICING
Operations of present day aircraft necessitates flying in all weather conditions plus
the fact that high velocity air induced into the intakes means a provision must be
made for ice protection. There are three systems of thermal anti-icing; hot air, hot
oil or electrical There is, however, one disadvantage and that is the loss of
engine power. This loss must be corrected for on ground runs and power checks.
3.5.1 ENGINE HOT AIR ANTI-ICING
The hot air system provides surface heating of the engine and/or power plant
where ice is likely to form. The affected parts are the engine intake, the intake
guide vanes, the nose cone, the leading edge of the nose cowl and, sometimes,
the front stage of the compressor stator blades. The protection of rotor blades is
rarely necessary, because any ice accretions are dispersed by centrifugal action.
The hot air for the anti-icing system is usually taken from the latter stages of the
HP compressor and externally ducted, through pressure regulation valves, to the
parts requiring protection. When the nose cowl requires protection, hot air
exhausting from the air intake manifold may be collected and ducted to the nose
cowl. Exhaust outlets are provided to allow the air to pass into the compressor
intake or vent to atmosphere, thus maintaining a flow of air through the system.

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Hot Air Anti-Icing.


Figure 3.5.

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3.5.2 ENGINE ELECTRICAL ANTI-ICING


There are two methods of electrical anti-icing:
1. Spray mat
2. Heater mats.
3.5.2.1 Spray Mat
The spray mat is so called because the conductor element is sprayed onto the
base insulator to protect the spray mat from damage. An outer coating is sprayed
on, sometimes called “Stone Guard” or “Erocoat”.

Spraymat Construction.
Figure 3.6.

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3.5.2.2 Heater Mats

Heater Mat Construction.


Figure 3.7.

Heater mats differ in design and construction according to their purpose and
environment. The latest mats have elements which are made from a range of
alloys woven in continuous filament glass yarn. Other elements are made from
nickel chrome foil. The insulating material is usually polytetrafluoroethylene
(PTFE) and the electrical control may be continuous or intermittent.

3.5.3 OIL ANTI-ICE


Oil anti-ice supplements the other two systems (hot air/electrical) and will also
assist in cooling the oil system.

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Hot Oil Anti-Ice


Figure 3.8.

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Intentionally Blank

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4 COMPRESSORS
4.1 COMPRESSORS GENERAL
Compressors impart energy to the air stream raising its pressure and temperature.
They are designed to operate efficiently over as wide a range of operating
conditions as possible. The two basic types of compressor are:
a Centrifugal flow
b Axial flow
4.2 CENTRIFUGAL FLOW
The figure below illustrates different types of centrifugal compressors.

Types of Centrifugal Impeller.


Figure 4.1.

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A Double Entry Centrifugal Compressor


Figure 4.2.

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4.2.1 OPERATION
The centrifugal impeller is rotated at high speed by the turbine and centrifugal
action causes the air between the impeller vanes to accelerate radially outwards
until it is thrown off at the tip into the diffuser. The radial movement of the air
across the impeller, from eye to tip, causes a drop in air pressure at the eye and
the faster the impeller is turning, the lower the pressure at the eye becomes. The
low pressure existing at the eye of the revolving impeller induces a continuous flow
of air through the engine intake and into the eye of the impeller. The air, in turn, is
accelerated across the impeller and passed into the diffuser. The kinetic energy in
the air is then converted to pressure energy ready to enter the combustion
chamber. The action of the diffuser is illustrated in figure 4.3.

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VANELESS
SPACE

Centrifugal Compressor Function.


Figure 4.3.

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The final volume and mass airflow delivered by the centrifugal compressor is
dependent on:
a Pressure ratio
b Operating RPM
c Diameter of the impeller
NOTE: This is assuming a constant air density at the inlet of the compressor.
4.2.1.1 Pressure Ratio
The ratio of the inlet pressure to outlet pressure of the compressor is called
pressure ratio. The higher the pressure of the air the more efficiently the thrust will
be produced with a corresponding improvement to the fuel economy of the engine.
The maximum pressure ratio normally obtainable from a single stage centrifugal
compressor is approximately 5:1 and from a two stage, approximately 8:1.Design
of the more modern centrifugal compressors sees them approaching pressure
ratios of 15:1.
4.2.1.2 Diameter of Impeller
A large impeller will deliver a greater mass of air than a small impeller, however a
large diameter compressor leads to an increase in the frontal area of the engine
causing excess drag forces on the aircraft.
4.3 THE AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSOR
The axial flow compressor is by far the most popular type of compressor and,
although it is more difficult to manufacture, it is a more efficient compressor.
Handling a larger mass of air for any given diameter, it produces more power; and
because the compression ratio is high – at least 9:1 and, it can be very much
higher – it is a more economical engine. The airflow through the engine is parallel
with the axis, hence the name ‘axial flow compressor’.
The compressor consists of a single or multi-rotor assembly that carries blades of
aerofoil section; it is mounted in a casing, which also houses the stator blades.
The axial flow compressor increases the pressure of the air gradually (by
approximately 1.2:1 per stage) over a number of ‘stages’, each stage comprising
of a row of ‘rotor blades’, followed by a row of ‘stator blades’. Both the rotor and
stator blades are of aerofoil section and form divergent passageways between
adjacent blades of the same row. Figure 4.4 refers.

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Axial Flow Compressor Function.


Figure 4.4.

4.3.1 OPERATION
The compressor rotor spool is driven by the turbine. The rotor blades accelerate
the air rearwards, inducing a continuous flow of air into the inlet of the combustion
chamber. The airflow emerges from the rotor stage with an increase in velocity,
due to the rotating action of the blades, and with a rise in pressure and
temperature caused by flowing through the divergent passage formed by the rotor.

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The airflow then passes through the divergent passages formed by the stator
blades which convert some of the kinetic energy into pressure energy and directs
the airflow onto the next set of rotors at the correct angle. The airflow emerges
from each stage at approximately the same velocity as it entered, but with an
increase (approximately 1.2:1) in pressure and, an increase in temperature. See
graph below.

Combined Graph of Airflow Through an Axial Compressor.


Figure 4.5.

To present the airflow onto the first stage rotor blades at a suitable angle, some
engines have inlet guide vanes in the air intake casing. The last row of stator
blades is normally of wider chord than the preceding ones and serve to straighten
the airflow before it enters the combustion system.
In order to maintain the overall axial velocity more or less constant, the
passageway between the stator casing and the compressor rotor forms a
convergent duct in the direction of airflow, with long blades at the low pressure end
and progressively shorter ones towards the high pressure end. (Figure 4.6 refers)

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Axial Compressor Layouts.


Figure 4.6.

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The stator vanes are secured into the compressor casing or into stator vane
retaining rings, which are themselves secured to the casing.

Axial Compressor Configuration Details.


Figure 4.7.
The stator vanes are positively locked in such a manner that they will not rotate
around the casing. NOTE: Some stator vanes are variable to give variable airflow
control, but these will be looked at when airflow control is studied.

Compressor Blade Attachment Methods


Figure 4.8

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Compressor Blade Attachment


Figure 4.9

The engine rotor assembly forms a hollow “drum” and is supported in ball and
roller bearings and coupled to a turbine shaft. The rotor discs make up the drum
and the rotor blades are attached as shown in the figure. On some smaller
engines it becomes difficult to design a practical fixing, this is overcome by
designing and producing blades integral with the disc and is called a “BLISK”.

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1 Extension Shaft Drive Stub 2 1st Stage Disk


3 Balance Weight 4 1st Stage Rotor Blades
5 Shroud Rings 6 7th Stage Rotor Blades
7 Air Inlet to Rotor Drum 8 1st Stage Blade Locking Strips
9 Front Main Bearing Housing

Axial Compressor Rotor Details.


Figure 4.10.

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Axial Compressor Stator Details


Figure 4.11

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The mass and final volume of the airflow delivered by the compressor is
dependent on:
a. Pressure Ratio. Dependent on the number of stages employed. Axial flow
compressors can achieve a much higher value than centrifugal.
b. Diameter. For a similar mass flow capability, the axial flow compressor can be
made smaller in diameter than the centrifugal type.
c. Operating RPM. As with the centrifugal type, the RPM and hence the mass
flow, is controlled by varying the amount of fuel delivered to the combustion
system, but because of the way that the pressure rise takes place, the
maximum pressure ratio in an axial flow compressor is achieved at a lower
RPM, than in a centrifugal compressor.
4.4 COMPRESSOR STALL AND SURGE
‘Surge’ can occur in both centrifugal and axial flow compressors and is the
reversal of the airflow in the compressor. It is a very undesirable condition, which
can rapidly cause serious damage to the engine.
In an axial flow compressor, ‘surge’ is nearly always preceded by stalling of some
of the compressor blades. An aerofoil is said to be in a stalled condition when the
airflow over its surface has broken down and no lift is being produced. If a row of
compressor blades stall, then they will not be able to pass the airflow rearwards to
the next stage and the airflow to the combustion chamber will ultimately stop.
The lack of rearward airflow will allow the air in the combustion chamber to flow
forward into the compressor until it reaches the row of stalled blades. Then a
violent backwards and forwards oscillation of the airflow is likely to occur, which
can rapidly cause extensive damage to the compressor blades and also over-
heating of the combustion and turbine assemblies.
Stalling of the compressor blades can occur for various reasons and to appreciate
how the condition comes about, a review of aerofoil theory and its application to
the compressor is required.
4.4.1 AIRFLOW CONTROL SYSTEM PRINCIPLES
4.4.1.1 Compressor Stall and Surge
For any given engine there is only one set of conditions, mass flow, pressure ratio
and rpm, at which all the compressor components are operating at their optimum
effect. Compressors are designed to be most efficient in the higher rpm range of
operation. The point at which the compressor reaches its maximum efficiency is
known as the DESIGN POINT. Under design conditions the compressor produces
Volume 2
a given compression ratio (ie. ) and the axial velocity (average velocity)
Volume 1
of the gas remains approximately constant from the front to the rear of the
compressor.

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The Angle of Attack of the airflow to the compressor aerofoil blades will be at its
optimum. This is the design condition and the compressor is operating at its
optimum performance. Although compression ratio varies with rpm it is not
proportional to rpm. This fact emerges due to the fixed blade angles, which can
only be correct at the design point. To illustrate this fact, refer to the diagram
showing rpm and compression ratio. Consider a compressor running at 8,000 rpm
and its compression ratio is 10:1. Let us say that the volume of air entering the
compressor is 100cm3. The volume of the air passing through the fixed outlet
annulus of the compressor will be 10cm3.

10:1
COMPRESSION RATIO

4:1

4000 8000

RPM
Graph of Compression Ratio to RPM.
Figure 4.12.
Compressor R.P.M = 8,000 Compressor R.P.M. = 4,000
Compression Ratio = 10:1 Compression Ration = 4:1
Volume of gas (V1) = 100cm3 Volume of gas (V1) = 50cm3
Volume of gas (V2) = 10cm3 Volume of gas (V2) = 12.5cm3

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Now consider the same compressor operating at 4,000 rpm, the volume of air
entering the compressor will be halved, eg. 50cm 3 there will also be a reduction in
compression ratio to 4:1. Therefore the volume of air passing through the
compressor fixed outlet annulus will be 12.5cm3. The following conditions will
occur:
a. Axial velocity will increase as it moves towards the rear stages relative to the
front Low pressure stages.
b…Since all stages are rotating at the same speed, there will be a NEGATIVE
angle of attack at the rear high pressure stages and a POSITIVE angle of attack at
the front low pressure stages.

Front Rear

Effect of Velocity on Blade Angle.


Figure 4.13.

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Due to the increased velocity at the rear of the compressor, the outlet of the
compressor will choke as the airflow reaches sonic velocity. At this point there will
be a dramatic reduction in axial velocity resulting in the front compressor blades
stalling. The end result will be compressor surge. To overcome the problem, a
bleed valve is normally fitted in an intermediate stage of the compressor to bleed
off the excess volume of air. This relieves the rear stages of the excess air
causing choking while inducing an increased axial airflow through the early stages
of the compressor, thus establishing conditions which are not conducive of stall
and surge. Unfortunately this bleed valve does not completely cure the problem of
stall as far as the first rotor stages are concerned and stall is still likely to occur.
The blades stall when the angle of attack increases to too large a value. To
overcome this problem, inlet guide vanes are used to pre-swirl the air onto the
rotor blades. The effect of pre-swirling the air alters the angle of attack from a
large value to the correct angle of attack. See figure 4.14.

Effect of Variable Guide Vane on Compressor Stage


Figure 4.14

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4.4.2 COMPRESSOR CHARACTERISTICS


When a compressor is designed it is essential to establish the points at which it is
likely to surge. Tests are carried out to determine the relationship between
pressure ratio and mass flow at speeds covering the whole working range of the
compressor. The results are recorded on a series of curves known as surge lines.
To obtain the curves, the compressor is run at a constant speed, the mass airflow
is gradually decreased and during this test the pressure ratio is carefully
monitored. As the mass airflow reduces, there is an increase in pressure ratio.
Eventually the compressor airflow becomes turbulent and the compressor surges.
When this occurs, there is a rapid drop in pressure. The tests are carried out at
various speeds until the whole working range of the compressor has been
covered. During the test the points at which turbulence occurred at the various
speeds are plotted. The points are then connected by drawing a line, this line is
the surge line of the particular compressor being tested. During normal operation
the engine is never allowed to operate beyond the surge line. A safety margin is
established and the fuel and airflow control systems are adjusted so the engine
will run within the safe limits. Figure 4.15 refers.

UNSTABLE SAFETY
AREA MARGIN
PRESSURE RATIO - Increasing

SURGE LINE

WORKING LINE
100
%
90%
80% CONSTANT
60% 70% RPM LINES

AIRFLOW - Increasing

Engine working line and surge margin.


Figure 4.15.

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4.4.3 EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE OPERATING POINT OF THE AIRFLOW


CONTROL SYSTEM
A change in temperature will affect mass airflow, compressor pressure ratio fuel
flow and engine performance. The effect of a reduced temperature on the
compressor at a fixed rpm being that the performance is comparable with that at a
higher rpm at STANDARD TEMPERATURE.
Consider an engine running at 10,000 rpm, the temperature of the day is 2ºC. If
this is corrected for standard conditions (ISA 15ºC) the corrected rpm will be
10,235 see below.
Observed rpm = 10,000 rpm
N
Corrected rpm =

ISAinK
T ambient in K 273  2
Where  = =
ISA in K 273  15
10,000
 corrected rpm =
275
288
10,000
=
0.977
Corrected rpm = 10,235
From the above it is clear that temperature has an effect on the compressors mass
flow rate. This is compounded further by the effect that temperature has a direct
effect on the speed of sound and hence when the compressor chokes.
It must be understood that if the engine is running at a fixed rpm and the
temperature of the air is altered, the actual rpm of the compressor will be
unaffected. However, the temperature change will affect the mach number of
mass airflow and it is the speed of the compressor relative to the speed of the
airflow (ie. Mach. Number) which is the critical factor. A decrease in temperature
will raise the mach. Number. The mach. Number is the:
SPEED OF THE OBJECT
LOCAL SPEED OF SOUND

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The speed of the object is the compressor blade, if as previously stated, the mach.
Number is raised with a decrease in temperature, the ‘fixed’ blade speed relative
to the speed of the air, will be increased. To cater for this situation the operating
point at which the variable inlet guide vanes move will have to be altered for
varying air temperatures. To achieve this the actuator or ram of an airflow control
system is temperature compensated. On a ‘cold’ day, the variable inlet guide
vanes will operate earlier than on a ‘warm’ day.

Variation of Mach Number with Temperature.


Figure 4.16.

At a temperature of +60F Local speed of sound is Mach 0.9 , no need for the
VIGV’s as the compressor out let is not choked.
At a temperature of –40°F Local speed of sound is Mach 1.0, the compressor
outlet is choked, the first stages may stall, VIGV’s
must start to open.

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4.5 AIR FLOW CONTROL SYSTEM – OPERATION


The stages of the compressor are matched to give the highest efficiency in the
speed range maximum rev/min. To extend the range of smooth operation over
lower engine speeds, variable-incidence intake guide vanes and/or an air bleed
valve are fitted. In the lower speed range the bleed valve opens to allow some of
the air to escape from the rear stages of the compressor, thus restricting the mass
air flow through the later stages and preventing an unstable flow pattern.
When the bleed valve is open, the guide vanes if fitted are partially closed; at
higher engine speeds, when the bleed valve is closed, the guide vanes if fitted
move progressively towards the open position. The vanes are operated by a
hydraulic ram which incorporates its own control mechanism and which receives a
signal of engine speed in terms of hydraulic pressure from the engine speed
governor in the fuel pump.

Combined Bleed Valve and Variable Guide Vane Operating System.


Figure 4.17.

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Intake Guide Vane Ram Setting Curve.


Figure 4.18.

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Air Bleed Valve


Figure 4.19.

Intake Guide
Variable Vane
Guide Ram
Vane Setting Curve.
Hydraulic
Figure 4.18.
Actuator Figure 4.20.

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To further improve airflow control, some engines will adopt a system of Variable
Stator Vanes (VSV’s) as well as Variable Inlet Guide Vanes (VIGV’s) figure 4.21.

Variable IGV and Stator Vanes.


Figure 4.21.

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Inlet Guide Vane and Variable stator Blade Linkwork.


Figure 4.22.

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4.6 AEROFOIL THEORY AND THE AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSOR


(CONTINUED)
The blades of the axial flow compressor are aerofoils and as such behave in a
similar way to aircraft mainplanes and propeller blades. The airflow across their
surfaces produces lift and the amount of lift produced by an aerofoil depends on:
a Its shape, area and smoothness of its surface.
b the speed of airflow over the aerofoil.
c the angle at which the aerofoil meets the air.
Once manufactured, their area and shape will remain the same unless they are
damaged in any way. Assuming the blades are in good condition, the variables
will be the speed of the airflow and the angle at which the blades meet the air
(angle of attack).
4.6.1 SPEED OF AIRFLOW OVER BLADES
This will vary with the rpm of the compressor rotor. The faster the rotor turns, then
the faster the air flows over the blades. This will result in an increase in the axial
velocity of the airflow through the compressor.
4.6.2 ANGLE OF ATTACK
This will vary with the combination of the rotational velocity of the blades and the
axial velocity of the airflow. In the normal course of events, the angle of attack
(VA) becomes progressively smaller as the compressor moves from a low rpm to a
high rpm.(VT)

VT VT
VT
VA VA VT
VA

VA
Low R.P.M R.P.M Increasing High R.P.M

High angle Angle of attack Low angle


of attack decreasing of attack

Change of Angle of Attack Due to Increase in RPM.


Figure 4.23.

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4.6.3 SOME IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT ANGLE OF ATTACK

Airflow Over an Aerofoil


Figure 4.24.
An aerofoil can only produce lift between certain limits of angle of attack. 0 -
approx. 15.

At very large angles of attack the airflow breaks down and the aerofoil stalls.

At High Angles of Attack the Blade Will Stall.


Figure 4.25
The greater the angle of attack (up to the stalling angle), the greater the lift and,
also, the greater the drag. This means that a greater effort will be required to
move the aerofoil through the air.

Lift/drag Vectors for Different Angles of Attack.


Figure 4.26.

All aerofoils have an ‘optimum’ angle of attack at which they produce most lift for
the least drag. (‘Lift/drag ratio’) [2-4°].

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4.7 APPLICATION TO THE AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSOR


In order for the compressor to deliver a high mass airflow for a minimum effort
required to drive it, it is important that all the compressor blades are operating
close to their optimum angle of attack at the designed optimum rpm of the engine.
This is achieved by setting the blades onto the rotor assembly at a large enough
angle so as to make allowance for the automatic reduction in angle of attack that
will occur with increase in rpm.
4.7.1 COMPRESSOR RPM
An axial flow compressor is designed to operate at maximum speeds in the region
of 8000-10,000 rpm, depending on size. At this rpm the engine will be producing a
large amount of thrust and in order to vary the thrust it is necessary to vary the
compressor rpm.
When the compressor is operating at speeds below its designed rpm range, the
axial velocity of the airflow through the compressor will decrease which will cause
an increase in the angle of attack of the compressor blades. At low rpm, such as
idling, the reduced axial velocity of the airflow may cause the angle of attack of
some of the blades to increase beyond their stalling angle.
A slight amount of LP blade stalling during ‘off design’ conditions is to be expected
and only becomes a problem if a complete row of blades stall.
4.7.2 COMMON CAUSES OF COMPRESSOR STALL
Compressor stall normally occurs at low rpm and can be induced by:
a disturbance of smooth airflow due to damaged or dirty blades.
b disturbance of smooth airflow caused by damaged aircraft air intake.
c high combustion chamber pressure caused by over-fuelling during engine
acceleration.
4.7.3 STAGGER ANGLE AND END BEND
The rotor blades are of airfoil section and usually designed to give a pressure
gradient along their length to ensure that the air maintains a reasonably uniform
axial velocity. The higher pressure towards the tip balances out the centrifugal
action of the rotor on the airstream. To obtain these conditions, it is necessary to
'twist' the blade from root to tip to give the correct angle of incidence at each point.
Air flowing through a compressor creates two boundary layers of slow to stagnant
air on the inner and outer walls. In order to compensate for the slow air in the
boundary layer a localised increase in blade camber both at the blade tip and root
has been introduced. The blade extremities appear as if formed by bending over
each corner, hence the term 'end-bend' Figure 4.27.
4.7.4 RECENT INNOVATIONS
The latest engines incorporate blades that have been designed and profiled using
3-D design techniques. This produces blades, which are curved in 3 dimensions,
which are more aerodynamically efficient. Figure 4.28.

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Stagger Angle and End Bend


Figure 4.27.

3-D Blades
Figure 4. 28.

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4.8 AIRFLOW CONTROL


The higher the pressure ratio required from a compressor, the greater the number
of compressor stages needed. The more stages there are, the more difficult
becomes the problem of matching all the blades in both size and angle of
attachment to make the compressor operate satisfactorily over a wide range of
rpm.
In order to maintain the airflow stability and reduce the tendency of high pressure
ratio compressors to stall under certain conditions of aircraft flight and engine
handling, methods of airflow control have already been discussed.
4.9 AIR BLEED VALVES (SUMMARY)
The air bleed valve is operated automatically in response to signals of compressor
rpm. It is in the open position below a certain critical rpm and bleeds air away
from the centre stages of the compressor, ducting it overboard to atmosphere.
This has the effect of increasing the axial velocity of the airflow through the early
stages of the compressor, thereby reducing the angle of attack of the blades in
that area. This prevents the early stages of the compressor from passing more air
to the rear stages than can be accommodated in the space available.
Above the critical rpm range the bleed valve is closed and all the air available from
the compressor passes to the combustion system.
4.10 VARIABLE INTAKE GUIDE VANES (SUMMARY)
All intake guide vanes give a certain amount of swirl to the incoming airflow. The
swirl is in the direction of rotation of the compressor and the amount of swirl
determines the angle of attack of the first stage rotor blades. The greater the
degree of swirl imported by the IGV’s then the smaller the resultant angle of attack
of the first stage rotor blades.
Variable IGV’s present the air onto the first stage rotor blades with a maximum
swirl angle during operation in the critical low rpm range and progressively reduce
the degree of swirl in response to signals of compressor rpm. When operating at
high rpm the airflow enters the compressor more or less axially.
4.11 MULTI-SPOOL COMPRESSORS (SUMMARY)
Pressure ratios in excess of approximately 9:1 are best achieved by splitting the
compressor into two independent sections as shown in the figure 4.29.

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Twin Spool Engine


Figure 4.29.

The total number of stages of compression is divided between two spools, each
spool being driven at a different speed by separate turbines. This eases the
problems of compressor blade matching and results in a very powerful, efficient
and flexible engine.
4.12 COMPARING THE FEATURES OF CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL FLOW
COMPRESSORS
4.12.1 CENTRIFUGAL
Merits.
 Simplicity, cheaper, lighter, less prone to damage by FOD.
 Not critical to surge and stall.
 Will tolerate icing conditions.
Associated Problems
 Max pressure ratios 4:1 or 5:1. (on early types)
 Capacity limited by tip speed.
 Larger diameter of engine which leads to more drag.
 Severe directional changes of gas flow which leads to friction.
 High specific fuel consumption.
4.12.2 AXIAL FLOW
Merits
 High Pressure Ratio.
 Low specific fuel consumption.
 More capacity for development.
 Greater axial thrust.
Associated Problems
 Complex and expensive to produce.
 Critical to stall/surge.

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5 COMBUSTION SECTION
5.1 INTRODUCTION
The combustion chamber has the difficult task of burning large quantities of fuel,
supplied through the fuel burners, with extensive volumes of air, supplied by the
compressor, and releasing the heat in such a manner that the air is expanded and
accelerated to give a smooth stream of uniformly heated gas at all conditions
required by the turbine. This task must be accomplished with the minimum loss in
pressure and with the maximum heat release for the limited space available.
The amount of fuel added to the air will depend upon the maximum temperature
rise required and, as this is limited by the materials from which the turbine blades
and nozzles are made, the rise must be in the range of 700 to 1,200 deg.C.
Because the air is already heated by the work done during compression, the
temperature rise required at the combustion chamber may be between 500 and
800 deg.C. Since the gas temperature required at the turbine varies with engine
speed, and in the case of the turbo-prop engine upon the power required, the
combustion chamber must also be capable of maintaining stable and efficient
combustion over a wide range of engine operating conditions.
Efficient combustion has become more and more important because of the rapid
increase in commercial aircraft traffic and the consequent increase in atmospheric
pollution, which is seen by the general public as exhaust smoke.
5.2 COMBUSTION PROCESS
Air from the engine compressor enters the combustion chamber at a velocity up to
500 feet per second, but because at this velocity the air speed is far too high for
combustion, the first thing that the chamber must do is to diffuse it, i.e. decelerate
it and raise its static pressure. Because the speed of burning kerosene at normal
mixture ratios is only a few feet per second, any fuel lit even in the diffused air
stream, which now has a velocity of about 80 feet per second, would be blown
away. A region of low axial velocity has therefore to be created in the chamber, so
that the flame will remain alight throughout the range of engine operating
conditions.

In normal operation, the overall air/fuel ratio of a combustion chamber can vary
between 45:1 and 130:1. Kerosene, however, will only burn efficiently at, or close
to, a ratio of 15:1, so the fuel must be burned with only part of the air entering the
chamber, in what is called a primary combustion zone. This is achieved by means
of a flame tube (combustion liner) that has various devices for metering the airflow
distribution along the chamber.

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Typical Combustion Chamber


Figure 5.1.

Approximately 20 per cent of the air mass flow is taken in by the snout or entry
section. Immediately downstream of the snout are swirl vanes and a perforated
flare, through which air passes into the primary combustion zone. The swirling air
induces a flow upstream of the centre of the flame tube and promotes the desired
recirculation. The air not picked up by the snout flows into the annular space
between the flame tube and the air casing.
Through the wall of the flame tube body, adjacent to the combustion zone, are a
selected number of holes through which a further 20 per cent of the main flow of
air passes into the primary zone. The air from the swirl vanes and that from the
primary air holes interacts and creates a region of low velocity recirculation. This
takes the form of a toroidal vortex similar to a smoke ring, and has the effect of
stabilising and anchoring the flame. The recirculating gases hasten the burning of
freshly injected fuel droplets by rapidly bringing them to ignition temperature.

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It is arranged that the conical fuel spray from the burner intersects the recirculation
vortex at its centre. This action, together with the general turbulence in the
primary zone, greatly assists in breaking up the fuel and mixing it with the
incoming air.
The temperature of the combustion gases released by the combustion zone is
about 1,800 to 2,000 deg.C., which is far too hot for entry to the nozzle guide
vanes of the turbine. The air not used for combustion, which amounts to about 60
per cent of the total airflow, is therefore introduced progressively into the flame
tube. Approximately half of this is used to lower the gas temperature before it
enters the turbine and the other half is used for cooling the walls of the flame tube.
Combustion should be completed before the dilution air enters the flame tube,
otherwise the incoming air will cool the flame and incomplete combustion will
result.
An electric spark from an igniter plug initiates combustion and the flame is then
self-sustaining.
The design of a combustion chamber and the method of adding the fuel may vary
considerably, but the airflow distribution used to effect and maintain combustion is
always very similar to that described.

Apportioning the Airflow


Figure 5.2
5.3 FUEL SUPPLY
So far little has been said of the way in which the fuel is supplied to the air stream.
In general, however, two distinct principles are in use, one based on the injection
of a finely atomised spray into a recirculating air stream, and the other based on
the pre-vaporisation of the fuel before it enters the combustion zone.
Although the injection of fuel by atomiser jets is the most common method, some
engines use the fuel vaporising principle. In this instance, the flame tube is of the
same general shape as for atomisation, but has no swirl vanes or flare. The
primary airflow passes through holes in a baffle plate that supports a fuel feed
tube.

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A Vaporising Combustion Chamber.


Figure 5.3.
The fuel is sprayed from the feed tube into vaporising tubes that are positioned
inside the flame tube. These tubes bend through 180 degrees and, as they are
heated by combustion, the fuel vaporises before passing forwards into the flame
tube. The primary airflow passes down the vaporising tubes with the fuel and also
through large (secondary) nozzles, which provide 'fans' of air to sweep the flame
rearwards. Cooling and dilution air is metered into the flame tube in a manner
similar to the atomiser flame tube. Vaporisers require starter spray nozzles to set
the light up process in motion.
5.4 TYPES OF COMBUSTION CHAMBER
There are three main types of combustion chamber at present in use for gas
turbine engines. These are the multiple chamber, the tubo-annular chamber and
the annular chamber.
5.4.1 MULTIPLE COMBUSTION CHAMBER
This type of combustion chamber is used on centrifugal compressor engines and
the earlier types of axial flow compressor engines. It is a direct development of
the early type of Whittle combustion chamber. The major difference is that the
Whittle chamber had a reverse flow as this created a considerable pressure loss,
the straight through multiple chamber was developed by Joseph Lucas Limited.
The chambers are disposed around the engine and compressor delivery air is
directed by ducts to pass into the individual chambers. Each chamber has an
inner flame tube around which there is an air casing. The air passes through the
flame tube snout and also between the tube and the outer casing as already
described.
The separate flame tubes are all interconnected. This allows each tube to operate
at the same pressure and also allows combustion to propagate around the flame
tubes during engine starting.

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Multiple Combustion Chambers.


Figure 5.4.

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5.4.2 TUBO-ANNULAR COMBUSTION CHAMBER


(ALSO KNOWN AS CAN-ANNULAR OR CANNULAR.)
The tubo-annular combustion chamber is a combination of the multiple and
annular types. A number of flame tubes are fitted inside a common air casing.
The airflow is similar to that already described and this arrangement embodies the
ease of overhaul and testing of the multiple system with the compactness of the
annular system.

Turbo-Annular Combustion System


Figure 5.5.

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5.4.3 ANNULAR COMBUSTION CHAMBER


This type of combustion chamber consists of a single flame tube, completely
annular in form, which is contained in an inner and outer casing. The airflow
through the flame tube is similar to that previously described, the chamber being
open at the front to the compressor and at the rear to the turbine nozzles.
The main advantage of the annular chamber is that, for the same power output,
the length of the chamber is only 75 per cent of that of a tubo-annular system for
an engine of the same diameter, resulting in considerable saving of weight and
production cost. Another advantage is that because interconnectors are not
required, the propagation of combustion is improved.
In comparison with a tubo-annular combustion system, the wall area of a
comparable annular chamber is much less; consequently, the amount of cooling
air required to prevent the burning of the flame tube wall is less, by approximately
15 per cent. This reduction in cooling air raises the combustion efficiency, to
virtually eliminate unburnt fuel, and oxidises the carbon monoxide to non-toxic
carbon dioxide, thus reducing air pollution.
The introduction of the air spray type burner to this type of combustion chamber
also greatly improves the preparation of fuel for combustion by aerating the over-
rich pockets of fuel vapour close to the burner; this results in a large reduction in
initial carbon formation.
A high by-pass ratio engine will also reduce air pollution, since for a given thrust
the engine burns less fuel.

An Air Spray Fuel Nozzle.


Figure 5.6.

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A Spray Nozzle.
Figure 5.6.

Annular Combustion Chamber.


Figure 5.7.

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5.4.4 REVERSE FLOW COMBUSTION CHAMBER


Reverse flow combustion chambers are used where the engine length is critical or
where the thrust of the engine is not being produced by the exhaust of the primary
air. They are often found on APU’s, turboprop and turbo-shaft engines or their
derivatives such as the ALF 502 and LF507 engines used in the BAE 146 and RJ
aircraft.
By wrapping the combustion chamber around other components such as turbines
the length of the engine can be significantly reduced. Losses in thrust do occur
due to the changes in airflow and direction of pressure forces. This is not important
in the types of engine where they are used as the majority of the thrust is derived
by other sources.
They are often found on engines with compound compressors, which have a
centrifugal stages as the last stage of compression.

Reverse Flow Combustion Chamber.


Figure 5.8.

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5.5 COMBUSTION CHAMBER PERFORMANCE


A combustion chamber must be capable of allowing fuel to burn efficiently over a
wide range of operating conditions without incurring a large pressure loss. In
addition, if flame extinction occurs, then it must be possible to relight. In
performing these functions, the flame tube and burner atomiser components must
be mechanically reliable.
Because the gas turbine engine operates on a constant pressure cycle, any loss of
pressure during the process of combustion must be kept to a minimum. In
providing adequate turbulence and mixing, a total pressure loss varying from
about 5 to 10 per cent of the air pressure at entry to the chamber is incurred.
5.5.1 COMBUSTION INTENSITY
The heat released by a combustion chamber or any other heat generating unit is
dependent on the volume of the combustion area. Thus, to obtain the required
high power output, a comparatively small and compact gas turbine combustion
chamber must release heat at exceptionally high rates.
For example, a Rolls-Royce Spey engine will consume in its ten flame tubes 7,500
lb. of fuel per hour. The fuel has a calorific value of approximately 18,550 British
Thermal Units per lb., therefore each flame tube releases nearly 232,000 British
Thermal Units per minute. Expressed in another way, this is an expenditure of
potential heat at a rate equivalent to approximately 54,690 horsepower for the
whole engine.

Graph of Combustion Efficiency to Overall Air/Fuel Ratio.


Figure 5.9.

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5.6 COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY


The combustion efficiency of most gas turbine engines at sea-level take-off
conditions is 100 per cent which reduces to 98 per cent at altitude cruise
conditions. The values vary as shown in because of the reducing air pressure,
temperature and fuel/air ratio.
5.7 COMBUSTION STABILITY
Combustion stability means smooth burning and the ability of the flame to remain
alight over a wide operating range.
For any particular type of combustion chamber there is both a rich and a weak limit
to the air/fuel ratio, beyond which the flame is extinguished. An extinction is most
likely to occur in flight during a glide or dive with the engine idling, when there is a
high airflow and only a small fuel flow, i.e. a very weak mixture strength.
The range of air/fuel ratio between the rich and weak limits is reduced with an
increase of air velocity, and if the air mass flow is increased beyond a certain
value, flame extinction occurs. A typical stability loop is illustrated. The operating
range defined by the stability loop must obviously cover the required air/fuel ratios
and mass flow of the combustion chamber.
The ignition process has weak and rich limits similar to those shown for stability.
The ignition loop, however, lies within the stability loop, since it is more difficult to
establish combustion under ‘cold' conditions than to maintain normal burning.

Combustion Stability Limits


Figure 5.10.

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5.8 POLLUTION CONTROL


5.8.1 INTRODUCTION
Pollution of the atmosphere by gas turbine engines falls into two categories; visible
(ie. smoke) and invisible constituents (eg. oxides or nitrogen, unburnt
hydrocarbons, oxides of sulphur and carbon monoxide). The combination of the
traditional types of HP burner (eg. Duplex) with increasing compression ratios has
led to visible smoke during take-off and climb. The very strong public opinion
against pollution of the atmosphere has forced engine manufacturers to develop
methods of reducing smoke and other emissions.
5.8.2 SOURCES OF POLLUTION
Pollution occurs from incomplete combustion. When engines with high
compression ratios (ie. above 15:1) are fitted with the traditional type of atomising
burner, the high temperature, pressure and low turbulence within the combustion
chamber prohibits adequate atomisation of the fuel when the engine is operating
at low altitude, thus causing the formation of carbon particles. This can be
reduced to an acceptable level by improving the airflow inside the combustion
chamber and by introducing burners that are not so susceptible to changes in
pressure
5.9 EMISSIONS
The unwanted pollutants which are found in the exhaust gases are created within
the combustion chamber. There are four main pollutants which are legislatively
controlled; unburnt hydrocarbons (unburnt fuel), smoke (carbon particles), carbon
monoxide and oxides of nitrogen. The principal conditions which affect the
formation of pollutants are pressure, temperature and time.
In the fuel rich regions of the primary zone, the hydrocarbons are converted into
carbon monoxide and smoke. Fresh dilution air can be used to oxidise the carbon
monoxide and smoke into non-toxic carbon dioxide within the dilution zone.
Unburnt hydrocarbons can also be reduced in this zone by continuing the
combustion process to ensure complete combustion.
Oxides of nitrogen are formed under the same conditions as those required for the
suppression of the other pollutants. Therefore it is desirable to cool the flame as
quickly as possible and to reduce the time available for combustion. This conflict
of conditions requires a compromise to be made, but continuing improvements in
combustor design and performance has led to a substantially 'cleaner' combustion
process.

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Olympus 593 Smoke Results


Figure 5.11.

Main
Pilot fuel
fuel

Dump Main stage


diffuser
Exhaust gases to
turbine
Compressor
Pilot
air
stage

BMW Rolls Royce are testing an axially staged combustion chamber for the BR715
engine, they claim it will cut the NOx by 50% without increasing CO, UHC and smoke
emissions.
Figure 5.12.
x
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5.10 MATERIALS
The containing walls and internal parts of the combustion chamber must be
capable of resisting the very high gas temperature in the primary zone. In
practice, this is achieved by using the best heat resisting materials available, the
use of high heat resistant coatings and by cooling the inner wall of the flame tube
as an insulation from the flame.
The combustion chamber must also withstand corrosion due to the products of the
combustion, creep failure due to temperature gradients and fatigue due to
vibrational stresses.

Methods of Cooling the Flame Tube.


Figure 5.13.

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6 TURBINE SECTION
6.1 INTRODUCTION
The turbine has the task of providing the power to drive the compressor and
accessories and, in the case of engines which do not make use solely of a jet for
propulsion, of providing shaft power for a propeller or rotor. It does this by extracting
energy from the hot gases released from the combustion system and expanding
them to a lower pressure and temperature. High stresses are involved in this
process, and for efficient operation, the turbine blade tips may rotate at speeds over
1,500 feet per second. The continuous flow of gas to which the turbine is exposed
may have an entry temperature between 850 and 1,700 deg.C. and may reach a
velocity of over 2,500 feet per second in parts of the turbine.

A Triple Stage Turbine with a Single Shaft.


Figure 6.1.

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To produce the driving torque, the turbine may consist of Several stages each
employing one row of stationary nozzle guide vanes and one row of moving blades.
The number of stages depends upon the relationship between the power required
from the gas flow, the rotational speed at which it must be produced and the diameter
of turbine permitted.
The number of shafts, and therefore turbines, varies with the type of engine., high
compression ratio engines usually have two shafts, driving high and low pressure
compressors. On high by pass ratio fan engines that feature an intermediate
pressure system, another turbine may be interposed between the high and low
pressure turbines, thus forming triple-spool system. On some engines, driving torque
is derived from a free-power turbine. This method allows the turbine to run at its
optimum speed because it is mechanically independent of other turbine and
compressor shafts.

A Multi Stage Turbine driving Two Shafts.


Figure 6.2.

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The mean blade speed of a turbine has considerable effect on the maximum
efficiency possible for a given stage output. For a given output the gas velocities,
deflections, and hence losses, are reduced in proportion to the square of higher
mean blade speeds. Stress in the turbine disc increases as the square of the speed,
therefore to maintain the same stress level at higher speed the sectional thickness,
hence the weight, must be increased disproportionately. For this reason, the final
design is a compromise between efficiency and weight. Engines operating at higher
turbine inlet temperatures are thermally more efficient and have an improved power
to weight ratio. By-pass engines have a better propulsive efficiency and thus can
have a smaller turbine for a given thrust.

A Multi Stage Turbine Driving Three Shafts.


Figure 6.3.

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A Free Power Turbine.


Figure 6.4.
The design of the nozzle guide vane and turbine blade passages is based broadly on

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aerodynamic considerations, and to obtain optimum efficiency, compatible with


compressor and combustion design, the nozzle guide vanes and turbine blades are
of a basic aerofoil shape. There are three types of turbine; impulse, reaction and a
combination of the two known as impulse-reaction. In the impulse type the total
pressure drop across each stage occurs in the fixed nozzle guide vanes which,
because of their convergent shape, increase the gas velocity whilst reducing the
pressure. The gas is directed onto the turbine blades which experience an impulse
force caused by the impact of the gas on the blades. In the reaction type the fixed
nozzle guide vanes are designed to alter the gas flow direction without changing the
pressure. The converging blade passages experience a reaction force resulting from
the expansion and acceleration of the gas. Normally gas turbine engines do not use
pure impulse or pure reaction turbine blades but the impulse-reaction combination.
The proportion of each principle incorporated in the design of a turbine is largely
dependent on the type of engine in which the turbine is to operate, but in general it is
about 50 per cent impulse and 50 per cent reaction. Impulse-type turbines are used
for cartridge and air starters.

Comparison between a Pure Impulse Turbine and an Impulse Reaction Turbine.


Figure 6.5.
6.2 ENERGY TRANSFER FROM GAS FLOW TO TURBINE
It will be seen that the turbine depends for its operation on the transfer of energy
between the combustion gases and the turbine. This transfer is never 100 per cent
because of thermodynamic and mechanical losses.

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When the gas is expanded by the combustion process, it forces its way into the
discharge nozzles of the turbine where, because of their convergent shape, it is
accelerated to about the speed of sound which, at the gas temperature, is about
2,500 feet per second. At the same time the gas flow is given a 'spin' or 'whirl' in the
direction of rotation of the turbine blades by the nozzle guide vanes. On impact with
the blades and during the subsequent reaction through the blades, energy is
absorbed, causing the turbine to rotate at high speed and so provide the power for
driving the turbine shaft and compressor.

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The torque or turning power applied to the turbine is governed by the rate of gas flow
and the energy change of the gas between the inlet and the outlet of the turbine
blades. The design of the turbine is such that the whirl will be removed from the gas
stream so that the flow at exit from the turbine will be substantially 'straightened out'
to give an axial flow into the exhaust system (Part 6). Excessive residual whirl
reduces the efficiency of the exhaust system and also tends to produce jet pipe
vibration which has a detrimental effect on the exhaust cone supports and struts.
It will be seen that the nozzle guide
vanes and blades of the turbine are
'twisted', the blades having a stagger
angle that is greater at the tip than at
the root. The reason for the twist is to
make the gas flow from the
combustion system do equal work at
all positions along the length of the
blade and to ensure that the flow
enters the exhaust system with a
uniform axial velocity. This results in
certain changes in velocity, pressure
and temperature occurring through the
turbine.
The 'degree of reaction' varies from
root to tip, being least at the root and
highest at the tip, with the mean
section having the chosen value of
Twisted Contour of Blades about 50 per cent.
Figure 6.6.

Gas Flow Pattern Through a Nozzle and Turbine.


Figure 6.7.

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The losses which prevent the turbine from being 100 per cent efficient are due to a
number of reasons. A typical uncooled three-stage turbine would suffer a 3.5 per
cent loss because of aerodynamic losses in the turbine blades. A further 4.5 per cent
loss would be incurred by aerodynamic losses in the nozzle guide vanes, gas
leakage over the turbine blade tips and exhaust system losses; these losses are of
approximately equal proportions. The total losses result in an overall efficiency of
approximately 92 per cent.
6.3 CONSTRUCTION
The basic components of the turbine are the combustion discharge nozzles, the
nozzle guide vanes, the turbine discs and the turbine blades. The rotating assembly
is carried on bearings mounted in the turbine casing and the turbine shaft may be
common to the compressor shaft or connected to it by a self-aligning coupling.
6.3.1 NOZZLE GUIDE VANES

The nozzle guide vanes are of an aerofoil shape with the passage between adjacent
vanes forming a convergent duct. The vanes are located in the turbine casing in a
manner that allows for expansion.
The nozzle guide vanes are usually of hollow form and may be cooled by passing
compressor delivery air through them to reduce the effects of high thermal
stresses and gas loads.

Typical Nozzle Guide Vane Construction.


Figure 6.8.

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6.3.2 TURBINE DISCS


Turbine discs are usually manufactured from a machined forging with an integral
shaft or with a flange onto which the shaft may be bolted. The disc also has, around
its perimeter, provision for the attachment of the turbine blades.
To limit the effect of heat conduction from the turbine blades to the disc a flow of
cooling air is passed across both sides of each disc.
6.3.3 TURBINE BLADES
The turbine blades are of an aerofoil shape, designed to provide passages between
adjacent blades that give a steady acceleration of the flow up to the 'throat', where
the area is smallest and the velocity reaches that required at exit to produce the
required degree of reaction.

Methods of Turbine Blade Attachment.


Figure 6.9.
The actual area of each blade cross-section is fixed by the permitted stress in the
material used and by the size of any holes which may be required for cooling
purposes. High efficiency demands thin trailing edges to the sections, but a
compromise has to be made so as to prevent the blades cracking due to the
temperature changes during engine operation.
The method of attaching the blades to the turbine disc is of considerable importance,
since the stress in the disc around the fixing or in the blade root has an important
bearing on the limiting rim speed. The blades on the early Whittle engine were
attached by the de Laval bulb root fixing, but this design was soon superseded by the
'fir-tree' fixing that is now used in the majority of gas turbine engines. This type of
fixing involves very accurate machining to ensure that the loading is shared by all the
serration’s. The blade is free in the serration’s when the turbine is stationary and is
stiffened in the root by centrifugal loading when the turbine is rotating. Various
methods of blade attachment are shown; however, the B.M.W. hollow blade and the
de Laval bulb root types are not now generally used on gas turbine engines.

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A gap exists between the blade tips and casing, which varies in size due to the
different rates of expansion and contraction. To reduce the loss of efficiency through
gas leakage across the blade tips, a shroud is often fitted. This is made up by a
small segment at the tip of each blade which forms a peripheral ring around the blade
tips. An abradable lining in the casing may also be used to reduce gas leakage.
Active Clearance Control (A.C.C.) is a more effective method of maintaining minimum
tip clearance throughout the flight cycle. Air from the compressor is used to cool the
turbine casing and when used with shroudless turbine blades, enables higher
temperatures and speeds to be used.

Active Tip Clearance Control.


Figure 6.10.

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6.3.4 DUAL ALLOY DISCS

Very high stresses are imposed on the


blade root fixing of high work rate turbines,
which make conventional methods of blade
attachment impractical. A dual alloy disc,
or 'blisk' as shown in fig. 6.11., has a ring
of cast turbine blades bonded to the disc.
This type of turbine is suitable for small
high Power helicopter engines.

Section Through a Dual Alloy Disc.


Figure 6.11.

6.4 COMPRESSOR-TURBINE MATCHING


The flow characteristics of the turbine must be very carefully matched with those of
the compressor to obtain the maximum efficiency and performance of the engine. If,
for example, the nozzle guide vanes allowed too low a maximum flow, then a back
pressure would build up causing the compressor to surge; too high a flow would
cause the compressor to choke. In either condition a loss of efficiency would very
rapidly occur.
6.5 MATERIALS
Among the obstacles in the way of using higher turbine entry temperatures have
always been the effects of these temperatures on the nozzle guide vanes and turbine
blades. The high speed of rotation which imparts tensile stress to the turbine disc
and blades is also a limiting factor.
6.5.1 NOZZLE GUIDE VANES
Due to their static condition, the nozzle guide vanes do not endure the same
rotational stresses as the turbine blades. Therefore, heat resistance is the property
most required. Nickel alloys are used, although cooling is required to prevent
melting. Ceramic coatings can enhance the heat resisting properties and, for the
same set of conditions, reduce the amount of cooling air required, thus improving
engine efficiency.
6.5.2 TURBINE DISCS
A turbine disc has to rotate at high speed in a relatively cool environment and is
subjected to large rotational stresses. The limiting factor which affects the useful disc
life is its resistance to fatigue cracking.

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In the past, turbine discs have been made in ferritic and austenitic steels but nickel
based alloys are currently used. Increasing the alloying elements in nickel extend the
life limits of a disc by increasing fatigue resistance. Alternatively, expensive powder
metallurgy discs, which offer an additional 10% in strength, allow faster rotational
speeds to be achieved.
6.5.3 TURBINE BLADES
A brief mention of some of the points to be considered in connection with turbine
blade design will give an idea of the importance of the correct choice of blade
material. The blades, while glowing red-hot, must be strong-enough to carry the
centrifugal loads due to rotation at high speed. A small turbine blade weighing only
two ounces may exert a load of over two tons at top speed and it must withstand the
high bending loads applied by the gas to produce the many thousands of turbine
horsepower necessary to drive the compressor. Turbine blades must also be
resistant to fatigue and thermal shock, so that they will not fail under the influence of
high frequency fluctuations in the gas conditions, and they must also be resistant to
corrosion and oxidisation. In spite of all these demands, the blades must be made in
a material that can be accurately formed and machined by current manufacturing
methods-
From the foregoing, it follows that for a particular blade material and an acceptable
safe life there is an associated maximum permissible turbine entry temperature and a
corresponding maximum engine power. It is not surprising, therefore, that
metallurgists and designers are constantly searching for better turbine blade
materials and improved methods of blade cooling.

Over a period of operational time


the turbine blades slowly grow in
length. This phenomenon is
known as 'creep' and there is a
finite useful life limit before failure
occurs.

Effect of Heat on Creep at Fixed Load.


Figure 6.12.

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Effect of Load on Creep at Constant Temperature.


Figure 6.13.

The early materials used were high temperature steel forgings, but these were rapidly
replaced by cast nickel base alloys which give better creep and fatigue properties.
Close examination of a conventional turbine blade reveals a myriad of crystals that lie
in all directions (equi-axed). Improved service life can be obtained by aligning the
crystals to form columns along the blade length, produced by a method known as
'Directional Solidification'. A further advance of this technique is to make the blade
out of a single crystal. Each method extends the useful creep life of the blade and in
the case of the single crystal blade, the operating temperature can be substantially
increased.
A non-metal based turbine blade can be manufactured from reinforced ceramics.
Their initial production application is likely to be for small high speed turbines which
have very high turbine entry temperatures.

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Various turbine Blade Crystal Structures.


Figure 6.14.

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Comparison of Turbine Blade Life Properties.


Figure 6.15.

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6.6 DYNAMIC BALANCING PRINCIPLES


6.6.1 INTRODUCTION
We must all be familiar with the effects of unbalance in one form or another, but
perhaps the most common effect is that arising from wheel unbalance in motor cars.
At resonance conditions it causes wobble or bounce, the effects of which are
transmitted to the driver through the steering column. This effect may be so violent
as to make the car unsafe or at least uncomfortable to ride in, and the continual
vibratory movements set up, even outside the resonance range will increase the rate
of wear on the various linkages and add to driver and passenger fatigue.
In order to increase passenger comfort, reduce wear and noise levels and also to
increase the life of the engine between overhauls, design effort is put into the various
aspects of minimising vibration in aero-engines. Design features are also included to
permit correction of unbalance forces.
Efforts are made to design engine bearing housings and carcasses with suitable
stiffness to avoid resonance in the engine running range. In addition, precise
balancing instructions are issued to control the rotating forces on the bearings which
could:-
a) be transmitted to other parts of the engine or airframe structure.
b) lead to engine failure in extreme cases.
The loads on the bearings are of three main forms. These are:
a) thrust loads due to the engine doing work.
b) journal loads due to the dead weight of engine parts.
c) unbalance loads.

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6.6.2 CENTRIFUGAL FORCE

Centrifugal Forces.
Figure 6.16..
Centrifugal force acts on every particle which makes up the mass of the rotating
element impelling each particle outwards and away from the axis, about which it is
rotating, in a radial direction.
If the mass of the rotating element is EVENLY DISTRIBUTED about the axis of
rotation, the part is BALANCED and rotates WITHOUT VIBRATION. However, if
there is a greater mass on one side of the rotor than the other, the centrifugal force
acting on this heavy side exceeds the centrifugal force on the light side and pulls the
entire assembly in the direction of the heavy side.

Eccentric Mass.
Figure 6.17.

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The rotor has a heavy mass M on one side. The centrifugal force exerted by M
causes the entire rotor to be pulled in the direction of force F.
6.6.3 CAUSES OF UNBALANCE
Unbalance may be caused by a variety of factors occurring singly or in combination
with others. These factors include:-
a) Eccentricity
Eccentricity exists when the geometric centreline of a part or assembly does not
coincide with its axis of rotation. This may be as a result of locating features (eg.
spigot location, bolt holes, splines, serration’s, couplings), being eccentric to the
bearing location.

Eccentricity.
Figure 6.18.

b) Variation in Wall Thickness

Variation in Wall Thickness.


Figure 6.19.

Variation in wall thickness may be as a result of eccentricity between an inner and


outer diameter of a cylindrical type feature, or it may be as a result of a difference in
thickness between a radial section of a disk type feature and the section diametrically
opposite.

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c) Blade Distribution
Unbalance can be caused by an unequal or unsymmetrical arrangement of a set of
blades, either by reference to their mass moments or their dead weights depending
on the size of the blades. This can be as a result of faulty weighting, inaccurate or
illegible recording or assembly errors.
d) Unsymmetrical Features
These may be due to manufacturing processes, such as blow holes in castings or
design features such as offset holes, locating dogs, slots, keyways, etc.

Unsymmetrical Features
Figure 6.20.

e) Distortion
This can be caused by stress relieving, eg. after welding, or by unequal thermal
growth during running.
f) Fits and Clearances
Clearance between mating parts allows relative movement of the parts and a
consequent shift of the axis of rotation during running (or even during balancing).
Joints incompletely assembled, eg. chamfers fouling radii, abutment faces not pulled
together, may cause a ‘bent’ rotor or an unsuitable joint, which may cause a shift
during running. It is important to prevent separate locating, or fixing, features from
influencing each other eg. bolt holes, spigot locations, serration’s, etc. must be
geometrically controlled to prevent ‘fighting’ between more than one feature. See
also the section on tooling, adapters, drives, dummy rotors, etc.

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g) Swash

Swash.
Figure 6.21.
Swash is caused by out of squareness of abutment faces relative to the bearing
diameter, abutment faces not being parallel across the component, eg. spacers,
adjusting washers, disks, etc. It is important that the bolted joints are tightened in
sequence and in increments according to the torquing instructions.
h) Miscellaneous
Foreign bodies inside assemblies, oil accumulation, carbon deposits, usually found
when check balancing after running.
6.6.4 OBJECTIVE OF BALANCING
The objective of balancing is to determine how the unbalanced mass of the rotor
must be compensated for in order to keep the bearings free of centrifugal force
loading.
6.6.5 DEFINITION OF UNBALANCE
Unbalance can be defined as that condition which exists in a rotor when vibratory
force or motion is imparted to its bearings as a result of centrifugal forces.
Unbalance will, in general, be distributed throughout the rotor but can be reduced to:-
a) static unbalance
b) couple unbalance
c) dynamic unbalance

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Static Unbalance
In a gas turbine engine, static unbalance is primarily associated with thin discs such
as turbine wheels or single compressor discs. It can be corrected by adding mass to
the light side of the rotor. This can be achieved by a single weight DIAMETRICALLY
OPPOSITE to the out of balance or by adding a number of smaller distributed
weights having the same effect as a single weight. (This distribution can be
determined by vectors).

Static Balance.
Figure 6.22.

Unbalance in a Long Rotor


If a rotor is checked for static balance using knife edges it is possible to correct an
out of balance condition to one end of the rotor by a correction weight at the other
end of the rotor. Although in static balance, the rotor may now suffer from other kinds
of unbalance. These are couple and dynamic unbalance.

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Couple Unbalance
This arises when two EQUAL unbalance masses are positioned at opposite ends of a
rotor and spaced at 180 from each other. If placed on knife-edges, the rotor would
be statically balanced. However, when the rotor is rotated, the out of balance
masses will cause a centrifugal force to act at each end and hence each end will
vibrate independently as shown in figure 6.23.

Couple Unbalance.
Figure 6.23.

Dynamic Unbalance
This occurs when the unbalanced masses may be either unequal in size or
positioned at some angle other than 180 to each other, or even both of these
conditions. These unbalanced forces now cause the rotor to vibrate.

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6.6.6 FAN BALANCING


Before we look at fan balancing we must first look at vibration analysis techniques
adopted on modern gas turbines and the reason for doing it. One of the
requirements of an on-condition maintenance policy is that defects can be detected
sufficiently early to permit rectification before secondary damage occurs. The
analysis of engine vibration signatures is becoming an increasingly important tool for
detecting early failure in mechanical components.
A vibration monitoring system begins with a sensor, which may be a velocity
transducer or a peizo electric accelerometer. They both convert the mechanical
vibration of the machine into an electrical signal proportional to the vibrations
produced and together with the associated electrical circuitry feed signals to either
cockpit mounted gauges warning systems or a separate vibration analyser.

Velocity Transducer
This device operates on the principle of a permanent magnet to move within a coil,
inducing voltage. Because of the moving parts with all the inherent disadvantages of
wear, friction, etc. they have been superseded by the peizo electric principle.

Peizo Electric Accelerometer


In this device, vibrating forces are transmitted to a peizo electric disc the resultant
deformation of the disc produces an electrical charge. Accelerometers have a
greater frequency range than velocity transducers and their lack of moving parts
makes them a much more stable and reliable means of collecting the basic vibration
signal.
Many different specifications for accelerometers and transducers are available and
some of the considerations which govern their choice are:-

(1) DYNAMIC RANGE. The amplitude range over which the device is required to
perform.
(2) SENSITIVITY. The severity of the vibration liable to be encountered.
(3) FREQUENCY RESPONSE. The full operating frequency range required.
(4) TEMPERATURE RANGE. The upper and lower temperature extremities to
which the device will be subjected and also any heat soak conditions.

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Peizo Electric Transducer.


Figure 6.24.

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Figure 6.24. shows a schematic diagram of a typical peizo electric accelerometer.


The top nut is torque loaded to give the correct starting datum on the peizo crystal.
When subjected to a force (caused by engine vibration) the piezo electric crystal
produces an electric charge on its opposite faces. The output is fed to a charge
amplifier, which produces the voltage required for the cockpit indicator or frequency
analyser. Most modern transducers employ a synthetic piezo electric such as lead
zirconate in preference to natural quartz crystal because of the higher sensitivity for
the same force. In many cases, however, the choice of transducer will be dictated by
the operating temperature. The maximum allowable temperature for transducers is
typically 260C so they have to be sited on fan casings or in the by-pass ducting.
Transducers may be fitted in more than one plane or more than one location. The
analyser can then be used to select a ‘broadband’ or overall vibration measurement,
which will give a quick guide to the condition of the engine.
Vibration monitoring varies greatly from aircraft to aircraft. The operator’s
requirements and the technology of the aircraft will dictate the equipment fitted.
Large commercial aircraft will have fitted a flight deck indication of the vibration levels
of engine spools, N1, N2, N3. Their main function is to warn the crew of a malfunction,
ie. shed blade. The sensitivity of the vibration sensors may not be good enough for
detailed condition monitoring or fan balancing. Extra vibration sensors are fitted to
enable these functions to be carried. There are some modern aircraft, which will
carry as a permanent fixture, eg. equipment that can carry out all vibration analysis
requirement.

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7 EXHAUST
7.1 INTRODUCTION
Aero gas turbine engines have an exhaust system which passes the turbine
discharge gases to atmosphere at a velocity, and in the required direction, to provide
the resultant thrust. The velocity and pressure of the exhaust gases create the thrust
in the turbo-jet engine, but in the turbo-propeller engine only a small amount of thrust
is contributed by the exhaust gases, because most of the energy has been absorbed
by the turbine for driving the propeller. The design of the exhaust system therefore,
exerts a considerable influence on the performance of the engine. The areas of the
jet pipe and propelling or outlet nozzle affect the turbine entry temperature, the mass
airflow and the velocity and pressure of the exhaust jet.
The temperature of the gas entering the exhaust system is between 550 and 850
deg.C. according to the type of engine and with the use of afterburning can be 1,500
deg.C. or higher. Therefore, it is necessary to use materials and a form of
construction that will resist distortion and cracking, and prevent heat conduction to
the aircraft structure.

A Basic Exhaust System.


Figure 7.1.

A basic exhaust system is shown in fig. 7.1. The use of a thrust reverser, noise
suppressor and a two position propelling nozzle entails a more complicated system
as shown in fig. 7.2. The low by-pass engine may also include a mixer unit to
encourage a thorough mixing of the hot and cold gas streams.

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An Exhaust System with a Thrust Reverser and Variable area propelling nozzle.
Figure 7.2.

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7.2 EXHAUST GAS FLOW


Gas from the engine turbine enters the exhaust system at velocities from 750 to
1,200 feet per second but, because velocities of this order produce high friction
losses, the speed of flow is decreased by diffusion. This is accomplished by having
an increasing passage area between the exhaust cone and the outer wall as shown
in fig. 7.3. The cone also prevents the exhaust gases from flowing across the rear
face of the turbine disc. It is usual to hold the velocity at the exhaust unit outlet to a
Mach number of about 0.5, i.e. approximately 950 feet per second. Additional losses
occur due to the residual whirl velocity in the gas stream from the turbine. To reduce
these losses, the turbine rear struts in the exhaust unit are designed to straighten out
the flow before the gases pass into the jet pipe.

Exhaust Cone Detail


Figure 7.3.
The exhaust gases pass to atmosphere through the propelling nozzle, which is a
convergent duct, thus increasing the gas velocity. In a turbo-jet engine, the exit
velocity of the exhaust gases is subsonic at low thrust conditions only. During most
operating conditions, the exit velocity reaches the speed of sound in relation to the
exhaust gas temperature and the propelling nozzle is then said to be 'choked'; that is,
no further increase in velocity can be obtained unless the temperature is increased.
As the upstream total pressure is increased above the value at which the propelling
nozzle becomes ‘choked', the static pressure of the gases at the exit increases above
atmospheric pressure. This pressure difference across the propelling nozzle gives
what is known as 'pressure thrust' and is effective over the nozzle exit area. This is
additional thrust to that obtained due to the momentum change of the gas stream.

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With the convergent type of


nozzle a wastage of energy
occurs, since the gases leaving
the exit do not expand rapidly
enough to immediately achieve
outside air pressure.
Depending on the aircraft flight
plan, some high pressure ratio
engines can with advantage
use a convergent-divergent
nozzle to recover some of the
wasted energy This nozzle
utilises the pressure energy to
obtain a further increase in gas
velocity and, consequently, an
increase in thrust.

Gas Flow Through a Convergent Divergent Nozzle


Figure 7.4.

From the illustration (fig. 7.4), it will be seen that the convergent section exit now
becomes the throat, with the exit proper now being at the end of the flared divergent
section. When the gas enters the convergent section of the nozzle, the gas velocity
increases with a corresponding fall in static pressure. The gas velocity at the throat
corresponds to the local sonic velocity. As the gas leaves the restriction of the throat
and flows into the divergent section, it progressively increases in velocity towards the
exit. The reaction to this further increase in momentum is a pressure force acting on
the inner wall of the nozzle. A component of this force acting parallel to the
longitudinal axis of the nozzle produces the further increase in thrust.
The propelling nozzle size is extremely important and must be designed to obtain the
correct balance of pressure, temperature and thrust. With a small nozzle these
values increase, but there is a possibility of the engine surging, whereas with a large
nozzle the values obtained are too low.
A fixed area propelling nozzle is only efficient over a narrow range of engine
operating conditions. To increase this range, a variable area nozzle may be used
(Fig. 7.2.). This type of nozzle is usually automatically controlled and is designed to
maintain the correct balance of pressure and temperature at all operating conditions.
In practice, this system is seldom used as the performance gain is offset by the
increase in weight. However, with afterburning a fully variable area nozzle is
necessary.
The by-pass engine has two gas streams to eject to atmosphere, the cool by-pass
airflow and the hot turbine discharge gases.

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In a low by-pass ratio engine, the two flows are combined by a mixer unit (fig. 7.5.)
which allows the by-pass air to flow into the turbine exhaust gas flow in a manner that
ensures thorough mixing of the two streams.

Low By-pass Mixer


Figure 7.5.

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In high by-pass ratio engines, the two streams are usually exhausted separately.
The hot and cold nozzles are co-axial and the area of each nozzle is designed to
obtain maximum efficiency. However, an improvement can be made by combining
the two gas flows within a common, or integrated, nozzle assembly. This partially
mixes the gas flows prior to its ejection to atmosphere. An example of both types of
high by-pass exhaust system is shown in fig. 7.6.

High By-pass Engine Exhaust Systems.


Figure 7.6.

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7.3 CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS

The exhaust system must be capable of withstanding the high gas temperatures and
is therefore manufactured from nickel or titanium. It is also necessary to prevent any
heat being transferred to the surrounding aircraft structure. This is achieved by
passing ventilating air around the jet pipe, or by lagging the section of the exhaust
system with an insulating blanket. Each blanket has an inner layer of fibrous
insulating material contained by an outer skin of thin stainless steel, which is dimpled
to increase its strength. in addition, acoustically absorbent materials are sometimes
applied to the exhaust system to reduce engine noise.
When the gas temperature is very high (for example, when afterburning is employed),
the complete jet pipe is usually of double-wall construction with an annular space
between the two walls. The hot gases leaving the propelling nozzle induce, by
ejector action, a flow of air through the annular space of the engine nacelle. This
flow of air cools the inner wall of the jet pipe and acts as an insulating blanket by
reducing the transfer of heat from the inner to the outer wall.
The cone and streamline fairings in the exhaust unit are subjected to the pressure of
the exhaust gases; therefore, to prevent any distortion, vent holes are provided to
obtain a pressure balance.
The mixer unit used in low by-pass ratio engines consists of a number of chutes
through which the by-pass air flows into the exhaust gases. A bonded honeycomb
structure is used for the integrated nozzle assembly of high by-pass ratio engines to
give lightweight strength to this large component.
Due to the wide variations of temperature to which the exhaust system is subjected, it
must be mounted and have its sections joined together in such a manner as to allow
for expansion and contraction without distortion or damage.

An Insulation Blanket
Figure 7.7

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7.4 NOISE REDUCTION


The problem of engine noise has always been associated with aircraft. Increases in
engine power have given rise to increases in noise and the indications are that the
increasing power trend will continue even more rapidly in future. High noise levels
are responsible for psychological and physiological damage to humans and can also
cause structural damage to aircraft; this has led to limits being set on maximum noise
levels of aircraft by airport authorities and it appears that these limitations will be
even more severe in future. The unit that is commonly used for measuring the noise
annoyance level is the perceived noise decibel (PNdB). A PNdB is a measure of
noise annoyance that take into account the pitch as well as the pressure (decibel) of
a sound.

Comparative Noise Levels of Various Engine Types.


Figure 7.8.
The figure compares the noise level bands of various jet engine types (a busy
restaurant will be 75-80 PNdB).

7.4.1 SOURCES OF ENGINE NOISE


To understand the problem of engine noise suppression, it is necessary to have a
working knowledge of the noise sources and their relative importance. The noise
from the jet engine mainly originates from three sources:

a) Exhaust jet
b) Turbine
c) Compressor and/or front fan.

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Exhaust Jet
Jet noise is an externally generated source, which radiates in a rearward direction. It
is caused by the mixing process of the high-speed exhaust gases with the
surrounding air. In the mixing regions, a severe gradient of velocity exists normal to
the jet and due to the viscosity of the air, this gradient produces vortices and shear
forces which, in turn, produce quadrupole noise sources.

Noise Production in Sub & Super Sonic Air Flows.


Figure 7.9

The noise produced by such a source will be proportional to p2Vje8, where p is the air
density and Vje is the jet efflux velocity.

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Typical Quadrupole Noise Sources.


Figure 7.10.
Turbine Noise
Noise from the turbine is made up from two sources:
a. White Noise. “White”, random or background noise is caused by the reaction of
each blade to the passage of air over its surface. There will always be noise from
eddy shedding in the blade wake reacting back on the blade and causing random
fluctuations over the blade surface (this source of noise may be likened to that
produced by opening the quarter-light window on a car). Random noise will also
be caused by turbulence in the air stream, which is sensed by the blade as a
change in incidence with corresponding lift fluctuations and hence noise.
b. Discrete Noise. Discrete noise is produced by the regular passage of rotating
blades through the wakes from the preceding stationary vanes. If the space
between vanes and blades is small, there is a cyclic interaction between pressure
field. This can be overcome to some extent by design, ie. increasing the space.
An additional source of discrete tones is caused by the rotating stage sensing
changes of incidence and hence lift pressure, passing through the wakes of the
upstream vanes.

Compressor and Fan Noise


Compressor noise whilst significant, was relatively small compared with the exhaust
noise generated by turbojet and low by-pass engines. However as fans have got
larger and by-pass ratios have increased the noise generated by the fan and
compressor may well exceed that produced by the exhaust.

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Resultant Engine Noise


Noise from an engine is the combination of noises produced by the compressor, the
turbine and the nozzle. With the low by-pass engine, the exhaust noise level drops
as the velocity of the exhaust gases is reduced and the turbine noise level drops as
LP turbine mass flows and velocities are relatively reduced; but LP compressor noise
becomes significant over a wider range of thrust. As the by-pass ratio is increased,
the exhaust jet and turbine noise levels continue to drop and the LP compressor (fan)
noise level continues to rise. This trend continues until the exhaust jet noise level is
less than the turbine noise level and the fan noise reaches a level comparable with
exhaust jet of a pure jet engine. There will be no such increase in the fan noise if a
single-stage fan without IGV’s is aerodynamically suitable; instead, a significant
decrease to a level comparable to the turbine noise will occur, as illustrated in the
figure 7.12. This is because the more powerful elements of discrete tone and
background noise are obviated.

Comparison of Noise Sources of Low and High By-pass Engines.


Figure 7.12.

Noise Suppression
It has been seen that the first step towards noise suppression is at the design stage
of the rotating and static parts of the engine. Thereafter, further reduction in the
noise level emanating from a particular engine may be achieved by the incorporation
of special materials and innovations during its construction. These additional
methods of noise suppression are briefly described as:
a) Absorption by acoustic linings.
b) Turbine, compressor and fan noise alleviated by control of nozzle area and
shape.

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c) Reduction of exhaust jet noise by mixing.


d) Fan duct cowling design

Acoustic Linings
One method of suppressing the noise from the fan stage of a high by-pass ratio
engine is to incorporate a noise absorbent liner around the inside wall of the by-pass
duct. The lining comprises a porous face-sheet, which acts as a resistor to the
motion of the sound waves and is placed in a position such that it senses the
maximum particle displacement in the progression of the wave. The depth of the
cavity between absorber and solid backing is the tuning device, which suppresses
the appropriate part of the noise spectrum. The figure shows two types of noise
absorbent line; the figure shows the location of a liner to suppress fan noise from a
high by-pass ratio engine and also the use of a liner to suppress the noise from the
engine core. The disadvantage of using liners for reducing noise are the addition of
weight and the increase in specific fuel consumption caused by increasing the friction
of the duct walls.

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Noise Absorbing Materials and Location.


Figure 7.13

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Nozzle Area and Shape Control


In a high by-pass ratio engine with a single-stage fan without inlet guide vanes, the
predominant sources governing the overall noise level are the fan and turbine. If the
fan speed can be reduced without loss of thrust, then the engine noise level would be
reduced. At conditions below maximum thrust, the multi-spool engine enables this to
be accomplished by using a variable area nozzle to mechanically reduce the area of
the hot stream final nozzle. This causes the speed of the LP turbine and its
associated compressor spool to be reduced, producing a corresponding reduction in
fan and turbine noise levels. However, the velocity of the hot stream will increase,
producing a corresponding rise in exhaust jet noise. If the final nozzle area is
reduced until the noise level of the fan, turbine and exhaust are of the same order,
the optimum mean noise level for the engine will have been achieved. This normally
occurs when the area of the hot stream final nozzle is reduced by approx. 50%. At
the optimum nozzle area, the noise radiated towards the ground can be further
reduced by a change in the geometrical shape of the nozzle.

Variable Area Nozzle


Figure 7.14.

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7.4.1.1 Exhaust Jet Mixing


Figure 7.12. shows that the noise from the exhaust jet is the main contributor to the
total noise generated by a low by-pass ratio turbo-fan. For a turbo-jet the noise from
the exhaust is an even greater contributor to the whole. Fortunately it is
comparatively easy to reduce the noise by increasing the mixture rate of the exhaust
gases with the atmosphere. This can be achieved by increasing the contact area of
the atmosphere with the gas stream by incorporating a corrugated or lobe-type
suppresser in the propelling nozzle.

The addition of a corrugate nozzle


gives the effect shown in figure 7.16.
In the corrugated nozzle, atmospheric
air flows down the outside corrugations
and into the exhaust jet to promote
rapid mixing. In the lobe-type nozzle,
the exhaust gases are divided to flow
through the lobes and a small central
nozzle. This forms a number of
separate exhaust jets which rapidly mix
with the air entrained by the
suppresser lobes. Deep corrugations
or lobes give a greater noise reduction,
but the penalties incurred limit the size
of the suppressers, eg. to achieve the
required nozzle area, the overall
diameter of the suppresser may have
to be so large that excessive drag
results.
A nozzle may be designed to give a
large reduction in noise level, but this
could incur a considerable weight
penalty due to the additional
strengthening required. A compromise
that gives a noticeable reduction in
noise level with the minimum sacrifice
of engine thrust or increase in weight
is, therefore, the designer’s aim.

Type of Noise Suppressor.


Figure 7.15.

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Improved Mixing by Corrugated Nozzle.


Figure 7.16.

7.4.1.2 Recent Developments in Fan noise suppression


Rolls-Royce and GE are presently developing modified Trent and CF6 engines,
respectively, which aim to reduce noise by incorporating chevron/saw tooth profiles to
trailing edges of the fan and exhaust ducts. The manufacturers are also
implementing extended areas of acoustic nacelle lining. In the case of the Trent
proof of-concept study, the acoustic liner area is increased by 30 per cent to 95 sq ft.

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The Rolls-Royce programme, in conjunction with Boeing, is already commencing test


flights of a modified Trent 800-powered B777-200ER as part of an overall effort to
comply with ICAO Stage IV and QC2 noise levels - a pressing requirement necessary
for future operations out of London's Heathrow airport. To this end, Rolls-Royce's
new technology may be applicable to B747s either on a retrofit or new-build basis,
and the team expects jet noise reductions of at least 3 EPNdB at ground level.
Moreover, the modified fan case is expected to confer fan-noise reductions of 1.2
EPNdB and 7 EPNdB from inside the cabin - particularly regarding the frequencies
which cause a "fan-buzz" signature. GE meanwhile, is also targeting future Airbus
and Boeing aircraft operations with its modified CF6 engine. This has been statically
tested in the autumn of 2002, with modified ducts and a new nozzle centrebody, for
applicability to existing A300/A310s.
According to GE, a peak jet noise reduction of 3.5dB is anticipated, while perceived
reductions are in the order of ldB. GE intends to implement the new configuration
into all its new-build CF6 engines from 2003. Like Rolls-Royce, GE is also targeting
its big-fan modifications in conjunction with Boeing to facilitate ICAO Stage IV/QC2
compliant B747 operations in the near future.

These serrated ducts will improve flow mixing and reduce noise on the Trent 800.
Figure 7.17.

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7.5 THRUST REVERSAL


7.5.1 INTRODUCTION
Thrust reversal is a means of reducing the landing run of an aircraft without
excessive use of wheel brakes or the use of braking parachutes. On a propeller
driven aircraft (piston and turbo prop), reverse thrust can be obtained by reversing
the pitch of the propellers. On a pure turbo-jet this is not possible and the only simple
and effective way of slowing the aircraft down quickly is to reverse the power as a
deceleration force. This method is much safer than wheel brakes when landing on
ice or snow covered runways. It can on some aircraft also be used to reduce speed
in flight thus allowing a rapid rate of descent without an air brake system. The
difference in landing distances between the same aircraft without reverse thrust and
using reverse, is shown.

Effect of Thrust Reverse on Landing Run


Figure 7.18.

7.5.2 REQUIREMENT FOR THRUST REVERSAL


To obtain reverse thrust, the jet efflux must be given a forward component of velocity.
The mechanism to achieve this should fulfil the following requirements:
a. A reasonable amount of thrust (50% of take-off thrust would be adequate) should
be available in the reverse direction.
b. The reverser should not affect the normal working of the engine and there should
be no appreciable loss of thrust or increase in specific fuel consumption (SFC).
c. When in use, the reverser should not cause debris or excessive amounts of hot
air to enter the intake.
d. The discharged hot gases should not impinge on parts of the aircraft (eg.
nacelles, tyres, landing flaps, cabin windows, etc.). Impingement of the turbulent
gas stream may cause damage by vibration as well as by heating.
e. Fire hazards must be avoided. Hydraulic and lubricating systems should not be
fitted near the jet pipe.
f. Weight, complexity and cost must be kept to a minimum.

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g. The reverser must not operate until required to do so. It is necessary to ensure
that:
1. Accidental selection of reverse thrust is impossible.
2. No single failure in the operating system selects reverse thrust.
3. The thrust changing elements are biased away from the reverse thrust
position.
7.5.3 LAYOUT AND OPERATION OF TYPICAL THRUST REVERSING SYSTEMS

Clamshell door system


The clamshell door system is a pneumatically operated system, as shown in detail in
fig. 7.19. Normal engine operation is not affected by the system, because the ducts
through which the exhaust gases are deflected remain closed by the doors until
reverse thrust is selected by the pilot.
On the selection of reverse thrust, the doors rotate to uncover the ducts and close the
normal gas stream exit. Cascade vanes then direct the gas stream in a forward
direction so that the jet thrust opposes the aircraft motion.
The clamshell doors are operated by pneumatic rams through levers that give the
maximum load to the doors in the forward thrust position; this ensures effective
sealing at the door edges, so preventing gas leakage. The door bearings and
operating linkage operate without lubrication at temperatures of up to 600 deg.C.

Clamshell Doors.
Figure 7.19.

Bucket target system


The bucket target system is hydraulically actuated and uses bucket-type doors to
reverse the hot gas stream. The thrust reverser doors are actuated by means of a
conventional pushrod system. A single hydraulic powered actuator is connected to a
drive idler, actuating the doors through a pair of pushrods (one for each door).
The reverser doors are kept in through the drive idler. The hydraulic actuator
incorporates a mechanical lock in the stowed (actuator extended) position.

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In the forward thrust mode (stowed) the thrust reverser doors form the convergent-
divergent final nozzle for the engine.

Bucket Type Thrust Reverser.


Figure 7.20.

Cold stream reverser system


The cold stream reverser system can be actuated by an air motor, the output of
which is converted to mechanical movement by a series of flexible drives, gearboxes
and screwjacks, or by a system incorporating hydraulic rams.
When the engine is operating in forward thrust, the cold stream final nozzle is 'open'
because the cascade vanes are internally covered by the blocker doors (flaps) and
externally by the movable (translating) cowl; the latter item also serves to reduce
drag.
On selection of reverse thrust, the actuation system moves the translating cowl
rearwards and at the same time folds the blocker doors to blank off the cold stream
final nozzle, thus diverting the airflow through the cascade vanes.

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Cold Stream Reverser.


Figure 7.21.

7.5.3.1 Combination Reversers


Some engines are equipped with both cold and hot stream reversers, these have the
some benefits of both types as well as some of the disadvantages.

Hot and Cold Stream Reverser.


Figure 7.22.

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7.5.4 SAFETY FEATURES


Reverse thrust systems will have some of the following safety features incorporated:
a. Reverse thrust cannot be selected until the engine throttle is brought back
to idle.
b. A mechanical lock prevents doors moving from the forward thrust position
until reverse thrust is selected.
c. Acceleration in forward thrust can only be obtained when the reverse
thrust lever is de-selected and the doors are in the open position.
d. Acceleration in reverse thrust can only be obtained when the reverse
thrust lever is selected and the doors are in the closed position.
e. The aircraft has to be on the ground or very close to it before reverse
thrust selection is allowed (this does not apply to aircraft that use reverse
thrust as an airbrake in flight).
On the cold stream reverser/hot stream spoiler system, a mechanical interlock
prevents reverse thrust being selected except when the throttle lever is at the idle
position. After selection, acceleration of the engine to give reverse thrust is
prevented until the translating cowl has moved rearwards. When the cowl has
moved into position, a mechanical feedback from the cowl screw-jack unlocks the
throttle control.
7.5.5 CFM 56 THRUST REVERSER FOR BOEING 737-300
The 737-300 is equipped with electrically controlled, hydraulically powered, fan only
thrust reversers. The thrust reversers are interchangeable between the two engines
except for the cascade basket assemblies and the strikers which deflect the Krueger
flaps when the fan cowl translates aft.

Boeing 737-300 Thrust Reverser in Stowed and Deployed Positions.


Figure 7.23

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Operation of the Blocker Doors.


Figure 7. 24.

Reverser Control Valve Module.


Figure 7.25.
Reverser actuation is controlled by a control valve module, located on the forward
bulkhead of each air-conditioning bay. This module contains two control valves
(isolation and direction) and a manually operated (pinnable) maintenance shut-off
valve. The control valves are operated by solenoids which are actuated by the thrust
lever switches.

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The thrust reverser hydraulic system is only pressurised when thrust reverser
actuation is required, or when required to resist motion from the stow commanded
position.

Location of T/R Actuators and Synchronisation System.


Figure 7.26.

Application of hydraulic power to the reversers by operation of the reverse thrust


levers is prevented unless the aeroplane is within 10 feet of the ground (radio
altimeter 1 or 2), or is on the ground (right-hand main gear oleo compressed). Pulling
an engine fire handle prevents the isolation valve from opening, or closes it if it is
already open. A high idle is maintained for 4 seconds after activation of the weight
on wheels switch in order to improve engine spool-up time in reverse.
Each thrust reverser is powered by a separate hydraulic system, with a standby
system available as an alternate source with a reduced deployment rate.
An automatic restow system activates an actuator stow force anytime the reverser is
sensed to be out of the stowed position during forward thrust operation.

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Thrust Reverser Schematic.


Figure 7.27.

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A throttle interlock system restricts application of engine thrust when the reverser is
not in its commanded position and automatically reduces engine thrust if
uncommanded reverser translation occurs.
Amber lights on the centre panel identify when the reversers are in the unlocked
position.
A "fault light" for each reverser is located in the Engine Module on the aft overhead
panel. When this fault light is illuminated, the Master Caution is triggered after 12
seconds to indicate that a subsequent failure in the reverser system may cause
uncommanded reverser motion.

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Thrust Reverser Controls.


Figure 7.28.

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8 BEARINGS, SEALS AND GEARBOXES


8.1 BEARINGS
8.1.1 INTRODUCTION
A bearing is any surface that supports or is supported by another surface. Bearings
are designed to produce a minimum of friction and a maximum of wear resistance.
Bearings must reduce the friction of moving parts and also take thrust loads or a
combination of thrust and radial loads. Those which are designed primarily for
thrust loads are called thrust bearings. The ball bearings are used to provide the
thrust bearing as they can take both thrust and radial loads, and roller bearings are
used to support the shaft whilst allowing axial movement. They are sometimes
called expansion bearings.
8.1.2 BALL BEARINGS
A ball bearing consists of an inner race, an outer race and one or more sets of balls,
and a ball retainer or cage. The purpose of the retainer or cage is to prevent the
balls touching one another. Ball bearings are used for radial and thrust loads; a ball
bearing specially designed for thrust loads would have very deep grooves in the
races or be of the angular bearing type, these must always be fitted the correct way
round!
8.1.3 ROLLER BEARINGS
These bearings are manufactured in various shapes and sizes and will withstand
greater radial loads than ball bearings because of greater contact area. They allow
axial movement of the shaft, this is very useful in a gas turbine due to expansion of
the engine due to the heat it produces.
8.1.4 OTHER TYPES OF BEARINGS
It is rare to find taper roller or needle bearings used in gas turbine engines, however
some APU’s use plain bearings to support the turbine end of the main shaft.

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Plain Roller Bearing


Figure 8.1.

Examples of Bearing Types.


Figure 8.2.

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8.2 BEARING CHAMBER OR SUMP


One or more bearings are contained within a bearing chamber or sump. The
chamber is sealed to prevent oil escaping into the engine and to prevent excessive
air getting into the oil.
8.2.1 LUBRICATION
The bearing chamber will have an oil feed which is sprayed on to the bearing to
lubricate and cool it.
On some engines, to minimise the effect of the dynamic loads transmitted from the
rotating assemblies to the bearing housings, a ‘squeeze film' type of bearing is
used. They have a small clearance between the outer race of the bearing and
housing with the clearance being filled with pressurised oil. The oil film dampens
the radial motion of the rotating assembly and the dynamic loads transmitted to the
bearing housing thus reducing the vibration level of the engine and the possibility of
damage by fatigue.
The oil will return to the oil system from the bottom of the bearing chamber, either
by gravity or by suction from a scavenge pump.
8.2.2 SEALING
Bearing chambers are usually sealed using air. The internal cooling air within the
engine provides the air. Typical seals used are labyrinth, screw back and carbon
types. . All of these seals need a differential pressure between inside and outside
the bearing housing . Where pressure is available it is used, if the differential is too
low, it can be boosted by suction from a scavenge pump. Carbon seals require the
oil to be in contact with them to provide cooling for the seal.
To prevent excess pressure building up within the bearing chamber, it is usually
vented. This vent on some engines is taken to the oil tank to ensure that the whole
system is working against the same pressure, or it goes to the oil pressure regulator
to ensure that there is a constant pressure drop across the spray jets in the bearing
housings.
8.2.2.1 Labyrinth Seals
Labyrinth seals are constructed of metal non-rotating lands, which are secured to
various parts of the engine case and a series of cylindrical rotating knife-edge steps
that mate with the lands. With this type of seal, there are no contacting parts. A
precise clearance is designed into the seals to control the pressure, as the
compressor air passes over the cascade of knife-edges, the pressure is reduced.

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Labyrinth Seal
Figure 8.3.
The labyrinth seal may be used in conjunction with an abradable coating on the
stationary member as shown in the figure 8.3.
8.2.3 THREAD SEALS
Thread seals or screw back seals work in the same way as labyrinth seals, with a
screw thread instead of the rings of a labyrinth seal. This means that any oil leakage
towards the air will be driven back by the thread. This type of seal is used with
other types of seal to reduce migration of oil to those seals.

Thread Seal
Figure 8.4.

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8.2.4 CARBON SEAL


Another method of air sealing is achieved by using a carbon seal arrangement.
They are used on the rotating assembly of a gas turbine and protection of engine
drive components in accessory gearboxes.
Carbon seals are manufactured of a mixture of carbon and graphite powder,
bonded together with a viscous substance, such as coal tar. The carbon seal is
fixed and held against the rotating seal by springs. Both the rotating seal and the
carbon seals are machine ground and precision lapped to a micro finish.

Carbon Seal.
Figure 8.5.

8.2.5 SPRING RING SEAL


This type of seal would normally be used around a main bearing assembly within
the engine. It may be used in conjunction with a labyrinth or screw back type of
seal.

The ring seal is similar to a large stepped piston


ring; it is located on a rotating shaft. When the
shaft is stationary, the seal clamps tightly to the
shaft. As the shaft rotates, the spring ring can
expand slightly, under centrifugal force, when it
then forms an effective seal with the adjacent
stationary housing.
Ring Seal
Figure 8.6.

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8.2.6 HYDRAULIC SEAL


This type of seal may also be found protecting the bearings on the main rotating
assembly of an engine. It is fitted between the rotating shafts on a twin or triple
spool engine. A hydraulic seal would be used in conjunction with another type of
seal, as shown in figure 8.7.

Hydraulic Seal
Figure 8.7.
The seal consists of a circular baffle ring mounted on a rotating shaft; the rim of this
ring sits in the centre of a circular depression in an outer rotating shaft. Oil from the
bearing will fill this depression and be held there by centrifugal force. This oil
reservoir will form a liquid seal with the rim of the rotating baffle ring. Any tendency
for the oil to leak across this seal will be counteracted by air leakage across a back-
up seal.

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8.3 ACCESSORY DRIVE GEARBOXES


8.3.1 INTRODUCTION
Gearboxes provide the power for aircraft hydraulic, pneumatic and electrical
systems in addition to providing various pumps and control systems for efficient
engine operation. The high level of dependence upon these units requires an
extremely reliable drive system.
The drive for the gearbox is typically taken from a rotating engine shaft usually the
HP shaft, via an internal gearbox, to an external gearbox that provides a mount for
the accessories and distributes the appropriate geared drive to each accessory. A
starter may also be fitted to provide an input torque to the engine. An accessory
drive system on a high by-pass engine takes between 400 and 500 horsepower
from the engine.
8.3.2 INTERNAL GEARBOX
The location of the internal gearbox within the core of an engine is dictated by the
difficulties of bringing a driveshaft radially outwards and the space available within
the engine core.

Mechanical Arrangements of Accessory Drive Gearboxes.


Figure 8.8.

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Thermal fatigue and a reduction in engine performance, due to the radial driveshaft
disturbing the gasfiow, create greater problems within the turbine area than the
compressor area. For any given engine, which incorporates an axial-flow
compressor, the turbine area is smaller than that containing the compressor and
therefore makes it physically easier to mount the gearbox within the compressor
section. Centrifugal compressor engines can have limited available space, so the
internal gearbox may be located within a static nose cone or, in the case of a turbo-
propeller engine, behind the propeller reduction gear as shown in fig.8.8.
On multi-shaft engines, the choice of which
compressor shaft is used to drive the
internal gearbox is primarily dependent
upon the ease of engine starting. This is
achieved by rotating the compressor shaft,
usually via an input torque from the external
gearbox. In practice the high pressure
system is invariably rotated in order to
generate an airflow through the engine and
the high pressure compressor shaft is
therefore coupled to the internal gearbox.
To minimise unwanted movement between
the compressor shaft bevel gear and radial
driveshaft bevel gear, caused by axial
movement of the compressor shaft, the
drive is taken by one of three basic
methods (fig. 8.9.). The least number of
components is used when the compressor
shaft bevel gear is mounted as close to the
compressor shaft location bearing as
possible, but a small amount of movement
has to be accommodated within the
meshing of the bevel gears. Alternatively,
the compressor shaft bevel gear may be
mounted on a stub shaft that has its own
location bearing. The stub shaft is splined
onto the compressor shaft that allows axial
movement without affecting the bevel gear
mesh. A more complex system utilises an
idler gear that meshes with the compressor
shaft via straight spur gears,
accommodating the axial movement, and
drives the radial driveshaft via a bevel gear
arrangement. The latter method was widely
employed on early engines to overcome
Types of Internal Gearbox gear engagement difficulties at high speed.
Figure 8.9.

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To spread the load of driving accessory units, some engines take a second drive
from the slower rotating low pressure shaft to a second external gearbox (fig.8.8.).
This also has the advantage of locating the accessory units in two groups, thus
overcoming the possibility of limited external space on the engine. When this
method is used, an attempt is made to group the accessory units specific to the
engine onto the high pressure system, since that is the first shaft to rotate, and the
aircraft accessory units are driven by the low pressure system. A typical internal
gearbox showing how both drives are taken is shown in fig.8.10. This method may
also be used to drive speed sensors and governors for the low pressure shaft.

An Internal Gearbox With an LP and HP Output.


Figure 8.10.

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8.3.3 RADIAL DRIVESHAFT


The purpose of a radial driveshaft is to transmit the drive from the internal gearbox
to an accessory unit or the external gearbox. It also serves to transmit the high
torque from the starter to rotate the high pressure system for engine starting
purposes. The driveshaft may be direct drive or via an intermediate gearbox.
To minimise the effect of the driveshaft passing through the compressor duct and
disrupting the airflow, it is housed within the compressor support structure. On by-
pass engines, the driveshaft is either housed in the outlet guide vanes or in a hollow
streamlined radial fairing across the low pressure compressor duct.
To reduce airflow disruption it is desirable to have the smallest driveshaft diameter
as possible. The smaller the diameter, the faster the shaft must rotate to provide
the same power. However, this raises the internal stress and gives greater dynamic
problems, which result in vibration. A long radial driveshaft usually requires a roller
bearing situated halfway along its length to give smooth running. This allows a
rotational speed of approximately 25,000 r.p.m. to be achieved with a shaft diameter
of less than 1.5 inch without encountering serious vibration problems.
8.3.4 DIRECT DRIVE
In some early engines, a radial driveshaft was used to drive each, or in some
instances a pair, of accessory units. Although this allowed each accessory unit to
be located in any desirable location around the engine and decreased the power
transmitted through individual gears, it necessitated a large internal gearbox.
Additionally, numerous radial driveshafts had to be incorporated within the design.
This led to an excessive amount of time required for disassembly and assembly of
the engine for maintenance purposes.
In some instances the direct drive method may be used in conjunction with the
external gearbox system when it is impractical to take a drive from a particular area
of the engine to the external gearbox. For example, figure8.8. shows a turbo-
propeller engine which requires accessories specific to the propeller reduction drive,
but has the external gearbox located away from this area to receive the drive from
the compressor shaft.

8.3.5 GEAR TRAIN DRIVE


When space permits, the drive may be taken to the external gearbox via a gear train
(fig.8.8). This involves the use of spur gears, sometimes incorporating a centrifugal
breather. However, it is rare to find this type of drive system in current use.
8.3.6 INTERMEDIATE GEARBOX
Intermediate gearboxes are employed when it is not possible to directly align the
radial driveshaft with the external gearbox. To overcome this problem an
intermediate gearbox is mounted on the high pressure compressor case and re-
directs the drive, through bevel gears, to the external gearbox. An example of this
layout is shown in fig.8.8.

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8.3.7 EXTERNAL GEARBOX


The external gearbox contains the drives for the accessories, the drive from the
starter and provides a mounting face for each accessory unit. Provision is also
made for hand turning the engine, via the gearbox, for maintenance purposes.
Fig.8.11. shows the accessory units that are typically found on an external gearbox.

An External Gearbox.
Figure 8.11.

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The overall layout of an external gearbox is dictated by a number of factors. To


reduce drag it is important to present a low frontal area to the airflow. Therefore the
gearbox is 'wrapped' around the engine. For maintenance purposes the gearbox is
generally located on the underside of the engine to allow ground crew to gain
access. However, helicopter installation design usually requires the gearbox to be
located on the top of the engine for ease of access.
The starter/driven gearshaft (fig.8.11.) roughly divides the external gearbox into two
sections. One section provides the drive for the accessories which require low
power whilst the other drives the high power accessories. This allows the small and
large gears to be grouped together independently and is an efficient method of
distributing the drive for the minimum weight.
If any accessory unit fails, and is prevented from rotating, it could cause further
failure in the external gearbox by shearing the teeth of the gear train. To prevent
secondary failure occurring a weak section is machined into the driveshafts, known
as a ‘shear-neck', which is designed to fail and thus protect the other drives. This
feature is not included for primary engine accessory units, such as the oil pumps,
because these units are vital to the running of the engine and any failure would
necessitate immediate shutdown of the engine.
Since the starter provides the highest torque that the drive system encounters, it is
the basis of design. The starter is usually positioned to give the shortest drive line
to the engine core. This eliminates the necessity of strengthening the entire gear
train, which would increase the gearbox weight. However, when an auxiliary
gearbox is fitted the starter is moved along the gear train to allow the heavily loaded
auxiliary gearbox drive to pass through the external gearbox. This requires the spur
gears between the starter and starter/driven gearshaft to have a larger face width to
carry the load applied by the starter (fig.8.12.).
When drive is taken from two compressor shafts, two separate gearboxes are
required. These are mounted either side of the compressor case and are generally
known as the 'low speed' and 'high speed' external gearboxes.
8.3.8 AUXILIARY GEARBOX
An auxiliary gearbox is a convenient method of providing additional accessory
drives when the configuration of an engine and airframe does not allow enough
space to mount all of the accessory units on a single external gearbox.
A drive is taken from the external gearbox (fig.8.12.) to power the auxiliary gearbox,
which distributes the appropriate gear ratio drive to the accessories in the same
manner as the external gearbox.

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An External Gearbox with an Auxiliary Gearbox Drive.


Figure 8.12.

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8.3.9 CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS

Gears
The spur gears of the external or auxiliary gearbox gear train (figs.8.11. and 8.12.)
are mounted between bearings supported by the front and rear casings which are
bolted together. They transmit the drive to each accessory unit, which is normally
between 5000 and 6000 r.p.m. for the accessory units and approximately 20,000
r.p.m. for the centrifugal breather.
All gear meshes are designed with 'hunting tooth' ratios which ensure that each
tooth of a gear does not engage between the same set of opposing teeth on each
revolution. This spreads any wear evenly across all teeth.
Spiral (helical) bevel gears are used for the connection of shafts whose axes are at
an angle to one another but in the same plane. The majority of gears within a gear
train are of the straight spur gear type, those with the widest face carry the greatest
loads. For smoother running, helical gears are used but the resultant end thrust
caused by this gear tooth pattern must be catered for within the mounting of the
gear.
Gearbox sealing
Sealing of the accessory drive system is primarily concerned with preventing oil
loss. The internal gearbox has labyrinth seals where the static casing mates with
the rotating compressor shaft. For some of the accessories mounted on the
external gearbox, an air blown pressurised labyrinth seal is employed. This
prevents oil from the gearbox entering the accessory unit and also prevents
contamination of the gearbox, and hence engine, in the event of an accessory
failure. The use of an air blown seal results in a gearbox pressure of about 3 lbs.
per sq. in. above atmospheric pressure. To supplement a labyrinth seal, an 'oil
thrower ring' may be used. This involves the leakage oil running down the driving
shaft and being flung outwards by a flange on the rotating shaft. The oil is then
collected and returned to the gearbox.
Materials
To reduce weight, the lightest materials possible are used. The internal gearbox
casing is cast from aluminium but the low environmental temperatures that an
external gearbox is subjected to allows the use of magnesium castings which are
lighter still, The gears are manufactured from non-corrosion resistant steels for
strength and toughness. They are case hardened to give a very hard wear resistant
skin and feature accurately ground teeth for smooth gear meshing.

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9 LUBRICANTS AND FUEL


9.1 GAS TURBINE FUEL PROPERTIES AND SPECIFICATION
Introduction
In the earliest days of the gas turbine engine, kerosene was regarded as the most
suitable fuel. It commended itself on the grounds of availability, cost, calorific value,
burning characteristics and low fire hazard.
Other types of petroleum fuels are not suitable for use in gas turbines because of
the wide range of temperature and pressure over which combustion must occur and
the necessity of keeping the weight and volume to a minimum.
General Requirements
A gas turbine fuel should have the following qualities:
a) Ease of flow under all operating conditions.
b) Quick starting of the engine.
c) Complete combustion under all conditions.
d) A high calorific value.
e) Non-corrosive.
f) The by-products of combustion should have no harmful effect on the flame
tubes, turbine blades, etc.
g) Minimum fire hazards.
h) Provide lubrication of the moving parts of the fuel system.
i) The by-products of combustion should have minimal harmful effect on the
environment
9.2 FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION
This process is carried out in a fractionating column, which has a series of trays as
shown in the figure. The effect of the superheated steam on the heated crude
petroleum is to cause the lighter fractions to rise up the column. When rising, the
vapour cools and a certain amount condenses on each tray until the tray is full of
liquid to the overflow. Thus, each tray is a little cooler than the one below it, and
therefore, lighter and lighter fractions will be present on each tray, as the vapours
pass up the column. The temperature is controlled at the bottom of the column by
the temperature of the crude oil, and at the top of the column by taking a certain
amount of the product as it leaves, condensing it and pumping it back into the top of
the column. This is known as the reflux.
A certain amount of material will condense, which has a lower boiling point than the
bulk of the liquid on a particular tray. To enable separation of these fractions, the
liquid from a selected tray is drawn into a smaller auxiliary column, called a ‘side-
stripper’. Here it is treated with steam that causes the lightest fractions to vaporise
and pass along with the steam into the main column.

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Fractioning Tower.
Figure 9.1.

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The use of these side-strippers enables kerosene and gas oil to be obtained direct
from the plant. Lubricating oil distillate, if such is present, can usually be drawn
direct from a tray without the use of a side-stripper, while gasoline leaves the top of
the column as a vapour and must be cooled to condense it to liquid gasoline.
9.3 PROPERTIES
9.3.1 EASE OF FLOW
The ease of flow of a fuel is mainly a question of viscosity, but impurities such as
ice, dust, wax, etc., may cause blockages in filters and in the fuel system generally.
Most liquid petroleum fuels dissolve small quantities of water and if the temperature
of the fuel is reduced enough, water or ice crystals are deposited from the fuel.
Adequate filtration is therefore necessary in the fuel system. The filters may have to
be heated, or a fuel de-icing system fitted, to prevent ice crystals blocking the filters.
Solids may also be deposited from the fuel itself due to the solidification of waxes or
other high molecular weight hydrocarbons. Distillates heavier than kerosene, such
as gas oil, generally have a pour point temperature too high for use in aircraft
operating in low temperatures. If these fuels were to be used, some form of heating
in the aircraft’s tanks and fuel system would be necessary. Such heating would
obviously be an unreasonable complication.
9.3.2 EASE OF STARTING
The speed and ease of starting of gas turbines depends on the ease of ignition of
an atomised spray of fuel. This ease of ignition depends on the quality of the fuel in
two ways:
a) The volatility of the fuel at starting temperatures.
b) The degree of atomisation, which depends on the viscosity of the fuel as well
as the design of the atomiser.
The viscosity of fuel is important because of its effect on the pattern of the liquid
spray from the burner orifice and because it has an important effect on the starting
process. Since the engine should be capable of starting readily under all conditions
of service, the atomised spray of fuel must be readily ignitable at low temperatures.
Ease of starting also depends on volatility, but in practice the viscosity is found to be
the more critical requirement. In general, the lower the viscosity and the higher the
volatility, the easier it is to achieve efficient atomisation.
9.3.3 COMPLETE COMBUSTION
The exact proportion of air to fuel required for complete combustion is called the
theoretical mixture and is expressed by weight. There are only small differences in
ignition limits for hydrocarbons, the rich limit in fuels of the kerosene range being
5:1 air/fuel ratio by weight and the weak limit about 25:1 by weight.
Flammable air/fuel ratios each have a characteristic rate of travel for the flame
which depends on the temperature, pressure and the shape of the combustion
chamber. Flame speeds of hydrocarbon fuels are very low and range from 0.3 –
0.6 m/sec. These low values necessitate the provision of a region of low air velocity
within the flame tube, in which a stable flame and continuous burning are ensured.
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Flame temperature does not appear to be directly influenced by the type of fuel,
except in a secondary manner as a result of carbon formation, or of poor
atomisation resulting from a localised over-rich mixture. The maximum flame
temperature for hydrocarbon fuels is roughly 2,000C. This temperature occurs at a
mixture strength slightly richer than the theoretical, owing to dissociation of the
molecular products of combustion, which occurs at the theoretical mixture.
Dissociation occurs above about 1,400C and reduces the energy available for
temperature rise.
The problem of the flame becoming extinguished in flight is not perfectly
understood, but it appears that the type of fuel is of relatively minor importance.
However, wide cut gasoline’s are more resistant to extinction than kerosene and
engines are easier to relight using wide cut fuel. This is due to the higher vapour
pressure of these fuels.
9.3.4 CALORIFIC VALUE
The calorific value is a measure of the heat potential of a fuel. It is of great
importance in the choice of fuel, because the primary purpose of the combustion
system is to provide the maximum amount of heat with the minimum expenditure of
fuel. The calorific value of liquid fuels is usually expressed in megajoules (MJ) per
litre. When considering calorific value, it should be noted that there are two values
which can be quoted for every fuel, the gross value and the net value. The gross
value includes the latent heat of vaporisation and the net value excludes it. The net
value is the quantity generally used. The calorific value of petroleum fuels is related
to their specific gravity. With increasing specific gravity (heavier fuels) there is an
increase in calorific value per litre but a reduction in calorific value per kilogram.
Thus, for a given volume of fuel, kerosene gives an increased aircraft range when
compared with gasoline, but weighs more. If the limiting factor is the volume of the
fuel tank capacity, a high calorific value by volume is the more important.
9.3.5 CORROSIVE PROPERTIES
The tendency of a turbine fuel to corrode the aircraft’s fuel system depends on two
factors:-
a) Water.
b) Other corrosive substances, notably sulphur compounds.
The water which causes corrosion is dissolved water. It leads to corrosion of the
fuel system, which is particularly important with regard to the sticking of sliding
parts, especially those with small clearances and only small or occasional
movement.
Corrosion can also be caused by secondary effects, such as biological corrosion
caused by plant spores, which are not killed off by the cracking process. Kerosene
and diesel suffer from this form of contamination.

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9.3.6 EFFECTS OF BY-PRODUCTS OF COMBUSTION


Carbon deposition in the combustion system indicates imperfect combustion and
may lead to:-
a) A lowering of the surface temperature on which it is deposited, resulting in
buckled flame tubes because of the thermal stresses set up by the
temperature differences.
b) Damage to turbine blades caused by lumps of carbon breaking off and striking
them.
c) Disruption of airflow through the turbine, creating turbulence, back-pressure
and possible choking of the turbine, resulting in loss of efficiency.
It appears that carbon deposition depends on the design of the combustion
chamber and the aromatic content of the fuel. (Aromatics are a series of
hydrocarbons based on the benzene ring). The higher the aromatic content, the
greater the carbon deposits.
Sulphur will affect the turbine. Every effort is made to keep the sulphur content as
low as possible in aviation turbine fuels. Unfortunately, removal of the sulphur
involves increased refining costs and decreased supplies and so some sulphur is
therefore permitted.
9.3.7 FIRE HAZARDS
There are three main sources of fire hazard; these arise from:-
a) Fuel spillage with subsequent ignition of the vapour from a spark, etc.
b) Fuel spillage on to a hot surface causing self-ignition.
c) The existence of inflammable or explosive mixtures in the aircraft fuel tanks.
The first hazard depends on the volatility of the fuel. The lower the flash point, the
greater the chance of fire through this cause. It is more difficult to ignite kerosene
than to ignite gasoline or wide cut fuel in this way.
The second hazard depends on the spontaneous ignition temperature of the fuel. In
this respect, gasoline has a slightly higher spontaneous ignition temperature than
kerosene, but if a fire does occur, the rate of spread is much slower in kerosene
owing to its lower volatility.
The third hazard depends upon the temperature and pressure in the tank and the
volatility of the fuel. For any fuel there are definite temperature limits within which a
flammable fuel vapour/air mixture will exist. If the temperature falls below the lower
limit, the mixture will be too weak to burn, while if the temperature rises above the
upper limit, the mixture is too rich to burn. At ground level the comparative
temperature limits of flammability for gasoline and kerosene is as follows:
a) Gasoline. Upper limit -10C. Lower limit -42C.
b) Kerosene. Upper limit +90C. Lower limit +43C.

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At higher altitudes the temperatures are somewhat lower. This information


indicates that explosive conditions in the vapour space will occur with the low
volatility turbine fuel under extremely hot weather conditions and with gasoline
under extremely low temperature conditions.
9.3.8 VAPOUR PRESSURE
The vapour pressure of a liquid is a measure of its tendency to evaporate. The
saturated vapour pressure (SVP) of a liquid (ie. the pressure exerted by vapour in
contact with the surface of the liquid) increases with increasing temperature. When
the SVP equals the pressure acting on the surface of the liquid, the liquid boils.
Thus, the boiling point of a liquid depends on a combination of SVP, the pressure
acting on its surface and its temperature.
9.3.9 FUEL BOILING AND EVAPORATION LOSSES
At high rates of climb, fuel boiling and evaporation is a problem which is not easily
overcome. A low rate of climb permits the fuel in the tanks to cool and thus reduce
its vapour pressure as the atmospheric pressure falls off. However, the rate of
climb of many aircraft is so high that the fuel retains its ground temperatures, so that
on reaching a certain altitude the fuel begins to boil. In practice this boiling has
proved to be so violent that the loss is not confined to vapour alone. Layers of
bubbles form and are swept through the tank vents with the vapour stream. This
loss is analogous to a saucepan boiling over and is sometimes referred to as
slugging.
The amount of fuel lost from evaporation depends on several factors:
a) Vapour pressure of the fuel.
b) Fuel temperature on take-off.
c) Rate of climb.
d) Final altitude of the aircraft.
Fuel losses as high as 20% of the tank contents have been recorded through boiling
and evaporation.
9.3.10 METHODS OF REDUCING OR ELIMINATING FUEL LOSSES
Possible methods of reducing or eliminating losses by evaporation are:
a. Reduction of the rate of climb.
b. Ground cooling of the fuel.
c. Flight cooling of the fuel.
d. Recovery of liquid fuel and vapour in flight.
e. Re-design of the fuel tank vent system.
f. Pressurisation of the fuel tanks.

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Reduction of the Rate of Climb


Reducing the rate of climb imposes an unacceptable restriction on the aircraft and
does not solve the problem of evaporation loss. This method is, therefore, not
used.

Ground Cooling of the Fuel


This is not considered a practical solution, but in hot climates every effort should be
made to shade refuelling vehicles and the tanks of parked aircraft.

Flight Cooling of the Fuel


The use of a heat exchanger, through which the fuel is circulated to reduce the
temperature sufficiently to prevent boiling, is possible. High rates of climb, however,
would not allow enough time to cool the fuel without the aid of heavy or bulky
equipment. At a high true airspeed speeds TAS, the rise in airframe temperature
due to skin friction increases the difficulty of using this method. On small high-
speed aircraft the weight and bulk of the coolers becomes prohibitive.

Recovery of Liquid Fuel in Flight


This method would probably entail bulky equipment and therefore is unacceptable.
Another method would be to convey the vapour to the engines and burn it to
produce thrust, but the complications of so doing would entail severe problems.

Redesign of the Fuel Tank Vent System


The loss of liquid fuel could be largely eliminated by redesigning the vents, but the
evaporative losses would remain. However, improved venting systems may well
provide a more complete solution to the problem.

Pressurisation of the Fuel Tanks


There are two ways in which fuel tanks can be pressurised:
a. Complete Pressurisation. Keeping the absolute pressure in the tanks greater
than the vapour pressure at the maximum fuel temperature likely to be
encountered eliminates all losses. However, this means that with gasoline type
fuels, a pressure of about 8 psi absolute would have to be maintained at altitude
and the tank would be subjected to a pressure differential of 6.5 psi at 50,000
feet. The disadvantage is that this would involve stronger and heavier tanks
and a strengthened structure to hold the tanks.
b. Partial Pressurisation. This prevents all liquid loss and reduces the evaporative
loss. It involves strengthening the tanks and structure and the fitting of relief
valves.

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9.3.11 FUEL ADDITIVES

Additives are added to fuel to improve its characteristics.


Lubricity Additive. This is added to the fuel to reduce wear in fuel pumps, FCUs
etc. when the fuel does not have sufficient lubricating properties of its own.
Ice Inhibitor. Added to fuel to reduce/prevent ice crystals forming in the fuel and
subsequently blocking fuel filters. This additive may also have biocide properties.
Biocide. This is added to the fuel to prevent microbiological growth at the margins
of free water within the aircraft fuel tanks. It can also be used as a shock treatment
if contamination is suspected or as a preventative measure.

9.3.12 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

All fuel will burn!


Wide cut fuel is easier to ignite than kerosene.
Strict No Smoking areas should be established around aircraft when any fuel
system components are removed or fuel tanks are opened. This is important during
refuelling and tank venting as fuel vapour present in the vent gasses produce an
extremely explosive mixture.
Fuel produces a very high static charge when flowing through pipes and meticulous
care must be taken with bonding or grounding of pipes etc. The charge built up is
dependant on flow rate, which is exceptionally high during refuel. Care must be
taken when draining fuel from a component, as there is a chance of a static
discharge occurring. Fuel soaked clothing is a great fire risk as the vapours given
off are combustible.
Fuel can also cause serious damage to the body. It degreases the skin which can
cause dermatitis; the additives can increase the damage. Fuel also attacks sensitive
areas of skin causing fuel burns (chemical burn) which can be extremely
uncomfortable and may require hospitalisation. The chance of fuel burns to the skin
is also increased if clothing becomes soaked, because of the proximity and rubbing
action. Wash hands prior to going to the toilet. Eye protection may be required when
entering systems that may contain fuel or fuel vapours. Avoid touching around your
eyes if fuel is on your hands, you will only do it once!
Fuel can be harmful if ingested, therefore hands should be thoroughly washed prior
to eating.
Spilt fuel on the floor or aircraft skin is very slippery and can even melt the soles of
some types of shoe. Spills should be mopped up and disposed of in accordance
with company procedures. Fuel spills should not be washed into domestic drains or
sewers Spills to grass areas where as there is a chance of the fuel entering and
polluting the water table below ground must be reported.

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9.4 GAS TURBINE OIL PROPERTIES AND SPECIFICATIONS


Introduction
There are two basic types of lubrication, they are Hydrodynamic (or film) lubrication,
where the surfaces concerned are separated by a substantial quantity of oil, and
Boundary lubrication, where the oil film may be only a few molecules thick. Before
describing the types of lubrication in depth, it is necessary to explain viscosity.
9.4.1 VISCOSITY
The coefficient of viscosity, also known as dynamic viscosity, is a measure of the
internal resistance of a fluid to relative movement, ie. its thickness, or film strength.
Viscosity decreases with increase of temperature, the rate depending on the
particular fluid considered. It is important for a lubricating oil that this rate of change
of viscosity is predictable and is as small as possible. The viscosity index (VI) is an
empirical number devised to indicate this change of viscosity with temperature, so
than an oil with a high VI is preferable to one with a low VI.
9.4.2 HYDRO-DYNAMICS OR FLUID FILM LUBRICATION
Fluid film lubrication is the most common form of lubrication. It occurs when the
rubbing surfaces are copiously supplied with oil and there is a relatively thick layer
of oil between the surfaces (may be up to 100,000 oil molecules thick). The oil has
the effect of keeping the two surfaces apart. Under these conditions the coefficient
of friction is very small and may be as low as 0.001.
The lubrication of a simple bearing (such as supports a rotating shaft) is a good
example of fluid film lubrication (see figure 9.2.). The rotating shaft carries oil
around with it by adhesion and successive layers of oil are carried along by fluid
friction. As the shaft rotates it moves off-centre resulting in a narrow wedge of oil
within which the pressure increases as the wedge narrows. For efficient lubrication
this wedge, and the resulting increase of pressure, is essential as this keeps the
surfaces apart. If this steady pressure increase breaks down, efficient film
lubrication ceases and boundary lubrication occurs.

Lubrication of a Simple Bearing.


Figure 9.2.

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In film lubrication, viscosity is the important factor because it controls the ability of
the oil to keep the surfaces apart. A shaft revolving at high speed in a bearing must
be free to carry oil round with it, with as little drag as possible. The rapid movement
of one layer of oil slipping over another, with minimum drag, can only be achieved
with a low viscosity oil. As the rotational speed decreases, the rate of deformation
of the oil decreases, therefore the drag decreases and consequently an oil of higher
viscosity may be needed if it is to be successfully carried round the bearing.
The running temperature of the bearing is equally as important as the speed of
rotation, as it controls the viscosity of the oil to be used. Bearing temperatures may
vary, hence the need for oils with high VIs.
9.4.3 BOUNDARY LUBRICATION
If a shaft carries an appreciable load and rotates very slowly it will not carry round
sufficient oil to give a continuous film and boundary lubrication will occur in which
the friction is many times greater than in fluid film lubrication.
Boundary lubrication is said to exist when the oil film is exceedingly thin and may
only consist of a very few layers of molecules. It occurs due to high bearing loads,
inadequate viscosity (possibly due to excessive bearing temperatures), oil
starvation or loss of oil pressure. The friction is independent of the viscosity of the
oil, but depends on the load and the “oiliness” of the lubricant. When a lubricating
oil reduces the friction in a bearing to a lower value than that given by another
lubricant of the same viscosity at the same bearing temperature, it is said to have a
greater oiliness. It is thought that the reduction in friction is achieved by the fatty
acids in the oil combining chemically with the bearing metal to form a “soap” which
gives a boundary layer between the thin oil film and the bearing material to protect
the metals from welding together.
Boundary lubrication is not a desirable phase of lubrication as rupture of the thin film
means wear, a very high surface temperature and possible seizure; therefore
lubrication is designed to be hydro-dynamic if possible. However, boundary
lubrication often occurs during starting conditions and may occur in piston engines
at the end of reciprocating strokes. There is no precise division between boundary
and fluid film lubrication although each is quite distinct in the way in which
lubrication is achieved. In practice both forms occur at some time giving mixed film
lubrication.
9.5 LUBRICATING OILS
General
Viscosity and VI are the factors which decide the lubricant for a particular purpose.
The desirable viscosity for a given purpose is decided by bearing loads and
clearances, sliding speeds, oil pump capacity, operating temperatures, etc.
Therefore, in a lubricating oil specification, the desired viscosity is specified,
together with VI and other safeguards to prevent the use of oil, which would
deteriorate excessively or corrode the engine. Special engine tests are also carried
out in test engines for each main batch of lubricating oil.

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Extreme Pressure Lubricants


Extreme pressure lubricants are designed to work under boundary lubrication
conditions. Certain chemicals known as extreme pressure (EP) additives (eg.
sulphur, chlorine) give the lubricant the necessary quality. They appear to work in
the same way as fatty acids, in that they combine chemically with the surface of the
bearing metals.
Additives
Additives are substances added in small quantities to a lubricating oil to give it more
desirable properties.
Additives to lubricating oils are of the following main types:-
h. Extreme Pressure, as discussed. They are not in general use except in certain
helicopter applications.
i. Anti-corrosion, which is used to protect some part of the engine.
j. Detergents, which are used in piston engine oils to keep the engine clean.
k. Viscosity Index improvers, which make the VI as large as possible.
l. Pour Point Depressants, that permit oils to flow at lower temperatures than they
were previously able.
m. Anti-foaming additives, that minimise foaming by increasing the surface tension
of the oil.
n. Anti-oxidants, which may be used to reduce the breakdown of the oil due to
oxidation.
9.6 TURBINE OILS
Introduction
For lubrication of a high-speed turbine shaft running in contact bearings, an oil with
good boundary lubrication properties and low viscosity is required. Because of the
small amount of oil in circulation and the high bearing temperatures, good
resistance to oxidation is essential.
The earliest gas turbine engines were developed using straight mineral oils, but the
operational requirements for low temperatures either on the ground or at a high
altitude, led to the development of a range of straight mineral oils with viscosity’s far
lower than those of conventional aircraft engine oil of that time. Mineral turbine oils
are very rarely used now.

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9.6.1 FIRST GENERATION SYNTHETIC OILS


With the progressive development of the gas turbine engine to provide a higher
thrust and compression ratio, mineral oils were found to lack stability and to suffer
from excessive volatility and thermal degradation at the higher temperatures to
which they were subjected. At this stage, a revolutionary rather than evolutionary
oil development took place concurrently with engine development; lubricating oils
derived by synthesis from naturally occurring organic products found an application
in gas turbine engines. The first generation of synthetic oils were based on the
esters of sebacic acid, principally dioctyl sebacate. As a class these materials
exhibited outstanding properties which made them very suitable as the basis for gas
turbine lubricants.
Unlike straight mineral oils, the synthetic oils relied on additives (and in later
formulations on multi-component additive packages) to raise their performance.
This was particularly necessary to improve resistance to oxidation and thermal
degradation (important properties which govern long term engine cleanliness).
9.6.2 SECOND GENERATION SYNTHETIC OILS
The introduction of the by-pass or turbo-fan engine raised further problems; in this
engine the by-pass air acts as an insulating blanket and increases heat rejection to
the lubricant. Therefore the requirement arose for an oil with an even greater
resistance to thermal and oxidative stress. Several synthetic oils which meet this
requirement have been developed. Known as Type 2 lubricants, they are blended
from more complex esters and an additive package consisting of anti-oxidants,
load-carrying additives, corrosion inhibitors, metal deactivators and foam inhibitors.
9.6.3 THIRD GENERATION SYNTHETIC OILS
Sustained flight at speeds in excess of Mach 1 aggravates the lubricant problem still
further as the kinetic heating of the fuel reduces the effectiveness of fuel-cooled oil
coolers. At Mach 2, oil temperatures may reach 260 - 316C, at which level
standard ester-based oils degrade rapidly. In some military aircraft, Type 1 and
Type 2 ester oils are still used under these conditions, but at greatly increased oil
change frequencies. This procedure is expensive to operate as ideally the oil
should remain in the engine for full engine life, with only periodic replenishment.
More complex chemicals have been discovered which are more thermally stable
than esters. However, they have various deficiencies such as poor low temperature
properties or poor steel-on-steel lubricity. All are more expensive than esters.
High temperature lubricants blended from specially developed ester oils, with new
additives to limit oxidation degradation and corrosiveness and of increased load
carrying ability, appear to offer the most practical solution for lubricating the jet
engines in commercial supersonic transport (SST) aircraft. Many firms have been
active in developing lubricants of this type and, after many submissions, two
lubricants have been adopted for the Olympus 593 engines which power the BAC-
Aerospatiale Concorde.

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9.6.4 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

There is much less risk of fire with oil, however it will burn if the conditions are right.
The main risk with oil is to the body; prolonged contact with oil can cause dermatitis
and/or cancer. The use of barrier cream and gloves cannot be overstated. Washing
of hands before going to the toilet or eating is important, as is the reapplication of
protection afterwards.
Oil spills should be cleaned up as soon as possible and waste disposed of in
accordance with company procedures.

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Intentionally Blank

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10 LUBRICATION SYSTEMS
10.1 INTRODUCTION
There is always friction when two surfaces are in contact and moving, for even
apparently smooth surfaces have small undulations, minute projections and
depressions and actually touch at only a comparatively few points. Motion makes
the small projections catch on each other and, even at low speeds when the surface
as a whole is cool, intense local heat may develop leading to localised welding and
subsequent damage as the two surfaces are torn apart. At higher speeds and over
longer periods, intense heat may develop and cause expansion and subsequent
deformation of the entire surface; in extreme cases large areas may be melted by
the heat, causing the metal surfaces to weld together.
The gas turbine engine is designed to function over a wider environment and under
different operating conditions from its piston engine equivalent and therefore special
lubricants have been developed to cope with the following main problems:
a. High rpm compared with piston engines.
b. Cold starting in winter can mean initial bearing temperatures of -54C which
rapidly increases after starting to 232C. Therefore a good viscosity index and
adequate cooling are required.
On the other hand, the following advantages can be claimed for the gas turbine:
a. There are fewer bearings and gear trains.
b. Oil does not lubricate any parts directly heated by combustion and therefore oil
consumption is low.
c. There are no reciprocating loads.
d. Bearings are generally of the rolling contact type and therefore only low oil
pressures are needed (40 psi is normal).
Turbo-prop engine lubrication requirements are more severe than those of a turbo-
jet engine because of the heavily loaded reduction gears and the need for a high-
pressure oil supply to operate the propeller pitch control mechanisms. (For
example, a twin relief valve in the Dart provides 35 psi for engine lubrication and 70
psi, which is fed to the propeller controller and boosted by a further pump to a
pressure of 600 psi).
10.2 BEARINGS
The early gas turbines employed pressure lubricated plain bearings but it was soon
realised that friction losses were too high and that the provision of adequate
lubrication of these bearings over the wide range of temperatures and loads
encountered was more difficult than for piston engine bearings.
As a result, plain bearings were abandoned in favour of the rolling contact type as
the latter offered the following advantages:
a Lower friction at starting and low rpm.
b Less susceptibility to momentary cessation of oil flow.
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c The cooling problem is eased because less heat is generated at high rpm.
d The rotor can be easily aligned.
e The bearings can be made fairly small and compact.
f The bearings are relatively lightly loaded because of the absence of power
impulses.
g Oil of low viscosity may be used to maintain flow under a wide range of
conditions and no oil dilution or pre-heating is necessary.
The main bearings are those which support the turbine and compressor assemblies.
In the simplest case (a single spool engine), these usually consist of a roller bearing
at the front of the compressor and another in front of the turbine assembly, with a
ball bearing behind the compressor to take the axial thrust on the main shaft.
“Squeeze film” main bearings have been introduced to reduce transfer of rotor
vibration to the aircraft. In this type of bearing pressure oil is fed to a small annular
space between the bearing outer track and the housing. Figure 10.1. shows that the
bearing will therefore “float” in pressure oil, which will damp out much of the
vibration. Squeeze film bearings are fitted to the Spey and all subsequent aero
engines produced by Rolls-Royce (1971) Ltd. They have also been fitted
retrospectively to existing engines. In addition to the main bearings, lubrication will
also be required for the wheelcase, tacho-generator, CSDU, alternator, starter and
fuel pump drives.

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Squeeze Film Bearing.


Figure 10.1.

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Single Spool
Turbojet

Twin Spool Turboprop Engine.


Bearing Location Comparison.
Figure 10.2.

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10.3 ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEMS


There are basically two types of lubrication system at present in use in gas turbine
engines:-
a) Recirculatory. In this system, oil is distributed and returned to the oil tank by
pumps. There are two types of recirculatory system:-
(i) Pressure relief valve system.
(ii) Full flow system.
b) Expendable. The expendable or total loss system is used on some small
turbo-jet engines, eg. RB 162 in which the oil is spilled overboard after
lubricating the engine.
10.3.1 PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE RE-CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
In the pressure relief valve type of recirculatory lubrication system the flow of oil to
the various bearings is controlled by a relief valve which limits the maximum
pressure in the feed line. As the oil pump is directly driven by the engine (by the HP
spool in the case of a multi-spool engine), the pressure will rise with spool speed.
Above a pre-determined speed the feed oil pressure opens the system relief valve
allowing excess oil to spill back to the tank, thus ensuring a constant oil pressure at
the higher engine speeds.
A typical relief valve type of recirculatory lubrication is shown in the figure 10.3.
The oil system for a typical turbo-prop engine is similar but, as it supplies the
propeller control system, it is more complicated. The oil supply is usually contained
in a combined tank and sump formed as part of the external wheelcase. Oil passes
via the suction filter to the pressure pump, which pumps it through the air-cooled oil
cooler to the pressure filter. A pressure regulating valve upstream of the filter
controls the oil pressure. Both oil pressure and temperature indications are
transmitted to the cockpit. The oil flows through pipes and passages to lubricate the
main shaft bearings and wheelcases. The main shaft bearings are normally
lubricated by oil jets and some of the heavier loaded gears in the wheelcases are
also provided with oil jets, while the remaining gears and bearings receive splash
lubrication.
An additional relief valve is fitted across the pump in the lubrication system of some
engines to return oil to pump inlet if the system becomes blocked.

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A Pressure Relief Valve Lubrication System for a Two Shaft Turbojet.


Figure 10.3.

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A Turboprop Full Flow Oil System.


Figure 10.4.

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10.3.2 RECIRCULATORY OIL SYSTEM – FULL FLOW TYPE


The full flow lubrication system is an alternative to the pressure relief valve oil
system and full flow systems are in use as a means of lubricating many modern
high power gas turbine engines.
The full flow system is similar in many ways to the pressure relief system just
discussed – i.e. oil is drawn from a tank by a pump and delivered, via a pressure
filter, to various parts of the engine; the oil is then returned by scavenge pumps, via
the oil cooler to the tank; also, air is separated from the oil by a de-aerator and
centrifugal breather.
The major differences from the pressure relief type of recirculatory system are as
follows:-
 The flow of oil to the bearings is determined by the speed of the pressure pump,
the size of the oil jets and the pressure in each of the bearing housings.
 A metered spill of feed oils is fed back to the tank. This spill is calibrated to
match the pump output to ensure that the oil flow to the bearings, via the oil jets,
is the same at all engine speeds.
 The relief valve in this system is set to prevent excessive oil pressure in the feed
side of the system.
 A filter by-pass is not normally fitted. The pressure drop across the filter is
sensed by a differential pressure switch, any increase in the pressure difference
being indicated to give advance warning of a blocked filter.
10.3.3 ADVANTAGES OF FULL FLOW LUBRICATION
The advantages of full flow lubrication are those of suitable oil flow and oil pressure
at all engine speeds. A study of the graph will reveal a difference in oil pressure
between the pressure relief system and the full flow system and, it will also show
that the pressure difference continues throughout the speed range of the engines,
with a crossover point at cruising speed. The relief valve system provides too much
oil pressure at idle rev/min, but because of the relief valve, the oil pressure is below
optimum at maximum engine speed. In contrast the pressure provided by the oil
pump of a full flow system rises progressively with increased engine speed and is
nearer to the optimum value throughout the rev/min range of the engine.

Comparison of Full Flow and Relief Valve Systems. Figure 10.5.


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Full Flow Oil System ( RR Gem).


Figure 10.6.

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10.3.4 EXPENDABLE SYSTEM


An expendable system is generally used on small engines running for periods of
short duration. The advantage of this system is that it is simple, cheap and offers
an appreciable saving in weight as it requires no oil cooler, scavenge pumps or
filters. Oil can be fed to the bearing either by a pump or tank pressurisation. After
lubrication the oil can either be vented overboard through dump pipes or leaked
from the centre bearing to the rear bearing after which it is flung onto the turbine
and burnt.

An Expendable Oil System.


Figure 10.7.

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10.4 MAIN COMPONENTS


In any aircraft oil system, we have a number of components that may be thought of
as the main components and we have some that are incorporated to safeguard the
system (ie. to act as safety devices). The main components, on which the operation
of the system depends, include the oil tank, the oil pump and the oil cooler; these
are considered in the paragraphs immediately following. The safety devices, which
include the various valves and filters, are considered later.
10.4.1 OIL TANK
The oil tank is usually mounted on the engine; it may be a separate unit or part of
an external gearbox called the sump. It has provision to allow the system to be
filled and drained and a sightglass or dipstick to allow the oil contents to be
checked. Usually, the oil level sightglass on the side of the tank is graduated in
half-pint or in litre increments, between LOW and FULL marks. The tank is
replenished either by pressure or by gravity feed. The pressure filler connection
contains a non-return valve and a bayonet adapter to which the oil replenishment
trolley pipe is connected.

A de-aerator tray is mounted


in the top half of the tank and
receives the return oil from
the scavenge pumps. The
oil in its passage through the
system will become aerated
and steps must be taken to
remove the air. As the oil/air
mixture flows over the tray,
the oil separates and drains
down into the sump, whilst
the air is vented to
atmosphere.

Typical Oil Tank.


Figure 10.8.

Typical Oil Tank


Figure 10.8

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10.4.2 OIL PUMPS


The oil pumps fitted in a recirculatory system are normally gear-type or Gerotor type
pumps. The pumps are usually mounted in a pack containing one pressure pump
and several scavenge pumps. They are driven by a common shaft through the
engine gear train.
Gear type pumps (Fig.10.10. ) require suitable machining of the gear teeth, or the
provision of a milled slot in the casting (adjacent to the delivery side of each pump),
to prevent pressure locking of the gears.
Gerotor type pumps (Fig.10.11.) use an inner and outer rotor, where the inner rotor
is driven by the engine, and the outer rotor which has an extra gear tooth rotates
with it. The inner rotor is eccentric to the outer and it is the stepping of the teeth that
pumps the oil. The pump also requires kidney shaped slots as inlet and outlet ports.
The scavenge pumps have a greater capacity than the pressure pump to ensure
complete scavenging of the bearings in a dry sump system. Furthermore, air tends
to leak into the bearing housings from the air pressurised seals and this aeration of
the oil means that the scavenge pumps have to pump an increased oil/air volume.
As we saw in the previous paragraph the air is subsequently removed by the de-
aerator.

Typical Gear Type Oil Pump.


Figure 10.9.

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Gear Type Pump.


Figure 10.10.

Gerotor Type Pump.


Figure 10.11.

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10.4.3 OIL COOLING


All engines transfer heat to the oil by friction, churning and windage within a bearing
chamber or gearbox. It is therefore common practice to fit an oil cooler in
recirculatory oil systems. The cooling medium may be fuel or air and, in some
instances, both fuel-cooled and air-cooled coolers are used.
Some engines which utilise both types of cooler may incorporate an electronic
monitoring system which switches in the air-cooled oil cooler (ACOC) only when it is
necessary. This maintains the ideal oil temperature and improves the overall
thermal efficiency.
The fuel-cooled oil cooler (FCOC) has a matrix which is divided into sections by
baffle plates. A large number of tubes convey the fuel through the matrix, the oil
being directed by the baffle plates in a series of passes across the tubes. Heat is
transferred from the oil to the fuel, thus lowering the oil temperature.
The fuel-cooled oil cooler incorporates a bypass valve fitted across the oil inlet and
outlet. The valve operates at a pre-set pressure difference across the cooler and
thus prevents engine oil starvation in the event of a blockage. A pressure
maintaining valve is usually located in the feed line of the cooler which ensures that
the oil pressure is always higher than the fuel pressure. In the event of a cooler
internal fault developing, the oil will leak into the fuel system rather than the
potentially dangerous leakage of fuel into the oil system.

Typical Fuel Cooled Oil Cooler.


Figure 10.12.

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The air-cooled oil cooler is similar to the fuel-cooled type both in construction and in
operation – except, of course, that air replaces the fuel as the cooling agent. On
some engines, the airflow through the matrix is controlled by a flap valve, which is
automatically operated when the temperature of the return oil rises to a pre-
determined value. A turbo-propeller engine may be fitted with an oil cooler that
utilises the external airflow as a cooling medium. This type of cooler incurs a large
drag factor and, as kinetic heating of the air occurs at high forward speeds, it is
unsuitable for turbo-jet engines.
10.4.4 PRESSURE FILTER
The pressure oil filter housing contains a wire-wound or mesh, Paper or felt
elements and incorporates a by-pass valve. The filter housing can be drained
independently of the main oil system. This is done through a drain valve in the
housing base. When drained, the filter can be removed for examination, servicing,
or replacement, as necessary, without disturbing the rest of the system. Typical
pressure filters are illustrated in figure 10.13.

Wire Wound and Paper Type Oil Filters.


Figure 10.13.

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Filters are usually fitted with an impending by-pass indicator. This is usually a red
pop out indicator which will pop out and stay out it the differential pressure across
the filter element exceeds a predetermined value. This value will be less than the
by-pass valve value, to allow the filter to be replaced before the filter goes into by-
pass. The pop out usually has a thermal lock on it, which prevents the pop out
extending when the oil is cold and thick.

Filter Bowl with Pop Out Indicator.


Figure 10.14.

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10.4.5 LAST CHANCE FILTER


Some of the gears in the gearboxes and also the main bearing of the engine are
lubricated through oil jets. These jets are usually protected by thread-type oil filters.
These are often referred to as last chance filters. You may also find small mesh
filters doing this job.

Thread Type Last Chance Filter


Figure 10.15.
10.4.6 SCAVENGE OIL STRAINERS
When the oil has been distributed to all parts of the engine and has done its job, it is
returned to the oil tank by either gravity or pressure from the scavenge pumps.
Each pump returns the oil from a particular part of the engine and is protected by a
coarse filter (or strainer) in the return line. This arrangement protects the pump
gears. It also gives an indication of impending component failure if the strainers are
examined for metal particles during periodical inspection.

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10.4.7 MAGNETIC CHIP DETECTOR


Magnetic detectors may be fitted into the oil system at various points to collect and
hold ferrous debris. They are normally fitted in gearboxes and in the scavenge
pump return lines to the tank. The collection of ferrous particles on the chip
detector provides a warning of impending (or incipient) failure of a component.
Some detectors are designed so that they can be removed for periodical
examination without having to drain the oil system; others may be checked
externally by connecting a suitable test circuit to the plug; finally, some are
connected to a cockpit warning system to give an in-flight indication of failure. The
chip detector (see figure10.15.) fits into a self-sealing housing and has a bayonet-
type fitting for easy removal.

Magnetic Chip Detector.


Figure 10.16.

10.4.8 DE-AERATOR
We have already noted that air from the bearing sealing system mixes with the oil
and causes frothing. If the air is allowed to remain in the oil it may cause a
lubrication failure. To prevent this, a de-aerating device may be installed; this
removes air from the oil before the oil is re-circulated round the engine by the
pressure pump; the air can be vented to atmosphere via the centrifugal breather.
De-aerators are usually tray types fitted in the oil tank or centrifugal type as a
separate item.

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10.4.9 CENTRIFUGAL BREATHER


When the oil/air mixture returns to the tank the air is separated by the de-aerator
tray and passes through to the gearbox via a vent line. It carries some of the oil with
it in the form of a fine mist. The oil/air mist in the gearbox can then pass to the
centrifugal breather (see figure 10.17). As the vanes of the centrifugal breather
rotate, the oil in the mixture is caught in the vanes and thrown back into the
gearbox; the air being vented to atmosphere.

Centrifugal Breather.
Figure 10.17.

10.4.10 PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE

The pressure relief valve shown in the


figure 10.18. controls the oil pressure at
the pre-set value demanded by the system.
The valve is normally integral with the
pump assembly and protects the system
from excessive pressure. It is usually a
spring-loaded plate-type valve, and can on
some engines provide adjustment of
pressure setting.

Simple Pressure Relief Valve


Figure 10.18.

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It is more usual to find a pressure relief valve that varies the pressure with engine
speed or breather pressure. These valves are usually adjustable but usually only
effect the max speed oil pressure see Figure 10.19.

Pressure Relief Valve That Uses Breather Pressure to Vary Pressure.


Figure 10.19

This type of valve uses the oil system breather pressure and an adjustable spring to
balance the oil pressure in the main oil feed line to the engine bearings.
Consider Fig. 10.19. With the engine running, the breather pressure plus the spring
push the sliding valve to the left and restrict the pump spill back to return. This is
balanced by the pressure from the main feed line trying to move the slide valve to
the right. Should the pressure in the main feed line fall, the breather pressure and
spring will move the slide valve further to the left and restrict the oil spill still further.
This will allow more oil to flow to the system, and the oil pressure in the main feed
line will increase. The slide valve will then move to the right, and the oil spill to the
return will be controlled by the main feed line pressure balancing the spring and
breather pressure.
10.4.11 BY-PASS VALVE
This is similar in construction to the normal pressure relief valve just discussed. It is
connected in the system in such a way that, should the oil cooler or the pressure
filter become blocked (so that the oil flow is restricted), the appropriate by-pass
valve will operate to re-route the oil. Although the cooling or the filtering has now
been by-passed, oil starvation of the oil bearings is prevented. Pop–out indicators
are used to warn of an impending by-pass.

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The oil cooler will usually have a thermal by-pass valve which will by-pass the
cooler when the oil is cold, thus ensuring that the oil gets up to running temperature
quickly.
10.5 INDICATIONS AND WARNINGS

Indications and warnings vary from aircraft to aircraft, in both the warnings given
and the priority that they are given.

10.5.1 LOW PRESSURE WARNING LAMP


If the oil pressure drops below the safe operating value for the particular system, a
pressure-sensing switch will initiate a visual warning; the warning usually consists of
a red or amber lamp switching on in the cockpit accompanied by an audio warning.
The sensing switch may be a differential pressure switch which senses the pressure
difference between the feed oil pressure and the return oil pressure or a simple
pressure switch. When the pressure or difference falls below a pre-determined
level, the switch operates to activate the warning circuit. To reduce the cockpit noise
during taxiing, the audio warning may be inhibited, as engines are often shut down
before reaching the stand.
Although this system is simple, its warning factor may not be quick enough to
prevent serious damage to the engine. This is due to the fact that the warning
pressure must be below the normal oil pressure at idle RPM. This means that the
engine could be running for some time with a low oil pressure before the warning
occurs. To overcome this problem multiple pressure switches are used and
activated at differing engine RPM’s. For instance, above 85% RPM the low oil
pressure warning will come ‘ON’ at 50 psi, below 85% the warning will come on at
20psi.
This is a serious warning and the engine must be shut down as soon as possible.
10.5.2 OIL PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE AND QUANTITY INDICATION

See section 14 engine indications for details of these systems.

10.6 OIL SEALS


Oil seals have been covered in section 8.
10.7 SERVICING

The engine oil level is usually checked after flight or after an engine run. It is not
checked straight after shut-down, as entrained air will give a false reading. It cannot
be checked accurately if left too long as the oil may run out of the tank into the
gearbox. So it is normally checked between 20 minutes and 2 hours or as defined in
the aircraft maintenance manual.
The oil system magnetic chip detectors will be checked at the periodicity defined in
the maintenance schedule. Spectrometric Oil Analysis Program (SOAP) samples of
the oil may be taken when required.

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Filters are replaced when required by the maintenance schedule or if the pop out
indicator is out.

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11 ENGINE FUEL CONTROL SYSTEMS


11.1 INTRODUCTION
The thrust of a turbo jet is controlled by varying the amount of fuel that is burnt in
the combustion system and in order to operate the safe temperature limits, the
amount of fuel that is burnt must be governed by the amount of air that is available
at the time. The air supply is dependent upon the RPM of the compressor and the
density of the air at its inlet, so under a constant set of atmospheric conditions, the
RPM of the compressor is an indication of the engine thrust. The pilot has control of
the fuel flow to the combustion system and is able to select any compressor RPM,
between ground idling and the maximum permissible which is required for take off
conditions, by the operation of a cockpit lever.
In the normal operational environment of an aircraft engine, atmospheric conditions
can vary over a wide range of air temperatures and pressures resulting in changes
of air density at the compressor inlet. A reduction in air density will cause a
reduction in the amount of air delivered to the combustion system at a selected
RPM, with a consequent increase in the combustion chamber temperature. If the
fuel flow is not reduced, a rise in compressor RPM will occur accompanied with
overheating of the combustion and turbine assemblies. An increase in air density
will result in an increase in the amount of air delivered to the combustion system at
a selected RPM and unless the fuel flow is increased, a reduction in RPM will occur.
Changes in air density at the compressor inlet are caused by:-
a) Altitude. The density of the air gets progressively less as the altitude is
increased, therefore less fuel will be required in order to maintain the
selected RPM.
b) Forward Speed. The faster the aircraft flies then the faster the air is forced
into the aircraft intake. A well designed aircraft intake will slow down this
airflow, converting its kinetic energy into pressure energy, so that it arrives at
the compressor inlet at an optimum velocity (0.5Mach) with an increase in
pressure and hence density. This is known as Ram Effect and plays an
important part in the performance of a turbo-jet. Within certain limits the
greater the ram effect, the greater the air mass flow and more fuel can be
burnt at the selected RPM, producing more thrust.
11.2 PURPOSE OF THE ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM
The purpose of the engine fuel system is to deliver to the combustion system, in a
readily combustible form, the correct amount of fuel over the whole operating range
of the engine, under the control of the pilot.

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Block Diagram of a Fuel Control.(JT9D)


Figure 11.1.

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11.3 LAYOUT OF TYPICAL SYSTEM COMPONENTS


The figure 11.1. illustrates the layout of components of a representative fuel system.
11.3.1 AIRCRAFT MOUNTED COMPONENTS
a) Fuel Tanks. Stores sufficient fuel for the aircraft’s designed flight duration.
b) Booster Pump. Ensures a constant supply of fuel at low pressure to the inlet
of the engine driven HP Fuel Pump.
c) Low Pressure Cock. Isolates the engine fuel system from the aircraft fuel
system in the event of engine fire or for maintenance.
NOTE: These aircraft mounted components will be dealt with in greater detail during
the Aircraft Systems Phase.
11.3.2 THE ENGINE LP FUEL SYSTEM
LP Fuel Pump.
Form the LP Cock fuel passes to an engine driven LP Fuel Pump which serves two
purposes:
a. To boost pressure of the fuel to prevent cavitation of the HP pump.
b. To provide means of drawing fuel from the fuel tanks in the event of
failure of the fuel boost pump in the tank.
These are normally centrifugal type pumps which will boost pressure in the region of
5-10 psi.
Fuel/air heat exchanger.
To reduce the possibility of low temperatures forming ice, in the fuel heating is
applied . Fuel heating is achieved by passing the fuel through a form of radiator
which uses hot air (or hot oil) to control and maintain fuel temperature above
freezing.
LP Fuel Filter.
The filter element may be made of felt, paper or in some cases wire wound. Its
purpose is to prevent foreign particles from entering the engine fuel system. An
indication of the filter ‘clogged’ may be provided on the flightdeck. Not withstanding
this a by-pass will be incorporated to ensure that the fuel supply , albeit possibly
contaminated is still available.
11.3.3 THE ENGINE HP FUEL SYSTEM
HP Pump.
Fuel from the LP Fuel filter passes to the HP pump depending on RPM and FCU in
the region of 600-800 psi. This HP fuel is then fed to the fuel control unit (FCU).

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Fuel Control Unit.


The FCU will meter the engines fuel requirements based upon a given set of
conditions at any given time:
a. Throttle position.
b. Ambient pressure (Pamb)
c. Ambient temperature (T12)
d. HP compressor RPM (N2)
e. Compressor discharge pressure (CDP)
Fuel in excess of that required is returned to the inlet side of the HP pump. Metered
fuel is then fed to the flowmeter via a throttles and HP cock.
Throttle and HP cock.
The fuel control operating levers can be a combined throttle and HP cock lever or
separate levers. The position of the throttle lever determines the power required, the
HP shutoff cock controls the supply of fuel from the FCU to the burners, when
closed the engine will be shut down, when open fuel will be available to the burners.
Fuel Flowmeter.
The fuel flowmeter will measure the amount of fuel being fed to the burners and
relay this information to the flightdeck. A gauge calibrated in either pounds or
kilograms will indicate to the operator how much fuel is being consumed an hour. A
second window within this gauge may also indicate how much fuel the engine has
consumed by the engine during the flight.
Fuel/oil Heat Exchanger
Similar to the heat exchanger used to heat the fuel, this heat exchanger will use the
HP fuel supply to cool the engine oil.
Pressurising and Dump Valve.
From the fuel/oil heat exchanger HP metered fuel passes to the pressurising and
dump valve. It function is to:
b. Prevent fuel flowing to the burners during the starting phase until such
time as fuel pressure is sufficient to give good atomisation of the fuel thus
ensuring good light-up.
c. Allow sufficient pressure to build up within the Fuel Control Unit (FCU)
servo/hydraulic control systems ensuring correct metering of fuel supply
is achieved during starting.
d. Enable a rapid dump of fuel remaining in the pipelines to the burners on
shutdown.

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Burners.
The type of burners employed will vary with design. Two basic types are in common
use, atomisers and vaporisers, and their common purpose is to supply fuel in a
readily combustible form over the whole operating range of the engine.
11.4 FACTORS GOVERNING FUEL REQUIREMENTS
The factors that determine the quantity of fuel that constitutes ‘the correct amount’
to be delivered to the combustion system at any one time are:-
a) The RPM selected.
b) The density of the air at the compressor inlet.
c) The rate at which the engine can accept the fuel into the combustion system
under conditions of engine acceleration.
11.5 REQUIREMENTS OF THE ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM
a) The selection of the RPM must be under the control of the pilot and the system
must ensure that the maximum permissible RPM is not exceeded.
b) The fuel must be introduced into the combustion system in a readily
combustible form and the system must be able to automatically adjust the
fuel flow to match the air available in order to maintain the selected RPM
under all operating conditions.
11.6 ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS
In order to achieve its purpose, the engine fuel system will incorporate the following
components:-
a) High pressure fuel pump.
b) Fuel flow-controlling devices.
c) Burners.
11.7 FUEL PUMPS
The type of fuel pump used may vary from one engine type to another and their
common purpose is to supply the correct amount of fuel to the burners at a
sufficient rate of flow to ensure operation over the whole range of engine operation.
The pump is driven by the engine via a suitable gear train.
11.7.1 FUEL PUMP REQUIREMENTS
Because the fuel flow requirements of an engine running at a constant RPM will
vary with changing atmospheric conditions, the fuel pump must be capable of
delivering fuel at flow rates in excess of the maximum engine demand at any
particular RPM, eg. its output must be variable independently of its speed of
rotation.
The output of the engine driven fuel pump is dependent on engine RPM and
controlling signals from various fuel flow controlling devices.

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There are two basic types of fuel pump, the plunger-type pump and the constant
delivery gear-type pump; both of these are positive displacement pumps. Where
lower pressures are required at the burners (spray nozzles), the gear-type pump is
preferred because of its lightness.

11.7.2 PLUNGER-TYPE FUEL PUMP


The pump shown in the figure 11.2. is of the single-unit, variable-stroke, plunger
type; similar pumps may be used as double units depending upon the engine fuel
flow requirements.
The fuel pump is driven by the engine gear train and its output depends upon its
rotational speed and the stroke of the plungers. A single-unit fuel pump can deliver
fuel at the rate of 100 to 2,000 gallons per hour at a maximum pressure of about
2,000 lb/in2.
The fuel pump consists of a rotor assembly fitted with several plungers, the ends of
which project from their bores and bear on to a non-rotating camplate or
swashplate. Due to the inclination of the camplate, movement of the rotor imparts a
reciprocating motion to the plungers, thus producing a pumping action. The stroke
of the plungers is determined by the angle of inclination of the camplate. The
degree of inclination is varied by the movement of a servo piston that is
mechanically linked to the camplate and is biased by springs to give the full stroke
position of the plungers. The piston is subjected to servo pressure on the spring
side and on the other side to pump delivery pressure; thus, variations in the
pressure difference across the servo piston cause it to move with corresponding
variations of the camplate angle and, therefore, pump stroke.

Plunger Type Fuel Pump or Swash Plate Pump.


Figure 11.2.

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11.7.3 GEAR-TYPE FUEL PUMP


The gear-type fuel pump (see figure11.3.) is driven from the engine and its output is
directly proportional to its speed. The fuel flow to the spray nozzles is controlled by
re-circulating excess fuel delivery back to inlet. A spill valve, sensitive to the
pressure drop across the controlling units in the system, opens and closes as
necessary to increase or decrease the spill.

Gear Type Fuel Pump System.


Figure 11.3.

11.8 FUEL FLOW CONTROL


Control of the fuel flow to the burners is by two main methods:-
a) Manual control by the pilot.
b) Automatic adjustment of fuel flow to correct for basic engine requirements.
(i) Changes in intake pressure.
(ii) Excessive fuel to air ratio during engine acceleration.
(iii) Additional controlling devices as determined by specific engine
requirements.

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11.8.1 BASIC FLOW CONTROL SYSTEM


Principle of Fuel Metering
The flow of a fluid through an orifice (jet) depends on the area of the orifice and the
square root of the pressure drop across it, ie:-
Fuel Flow = Orifice Area x Pressure Drop

Principle of Fuel Metering Valve.


Figure 11.4.
Thus it is possible to vary fuel flow by changing orifice area or the pressure drop
across the orifice. In a fuel system the orifice is variable and is in fact the throttle
valve.
11.8.1.1 Application to Flow Control System
In the flow control system the fuel flow required to give a selected RPM is selected
by throttle area under the control of the pilot (manual control). Compensation for
air density variation is superimposed on this selection by the altitude sensing control
unit (pressure drop control unit) varying the pressure difference across the throttle
valve.
11.8.1.2 Control Principle
The controlling principle of a flow control system is that a constant throttle pressure
drop is maintained irrespective of throttle area (position) for a given height and
speed.

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Constant Pressure Drop.


Figure 11.5.

11.8.1.3 Principle of Flow Control System (See Figure11.6.)


If however, height and speed change, then the altitude sensing unit will vary the
pump output and fuel flow (thus throttle pressure drop) by changing the pump
output at constant throttle setting.

Principle of Barometric Flow Control.


Figure 11.6.

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11.9 HYDRO-MECHANICAL CONTROL UNITS


In hydro-mechanically operated flow control units (FCUs), the method of control is
to use servo fuel as a hydraulic fluid to vary fuel flow (eg. by varying pump swash-
plate angle). The pressure of the servo fuel is varied by controlling the rate of flow
out of an orifice at the end of the servo line; the higher the outflow, the lower will be
servo pressure and vice versa. There are two types of variable orifice: the half-ball
valve and the kinetic valve.

Half Ball Valve System.


Figure 11.7.

11.9.1.1 The Half-Ball Valve.


In this arrangement, a half-ball on the end of a pivot arm is suspended above the
fixed outlet orifice (see figure). Up and down movement of the valve varies servo
fuel outflow and thus servo pressure and pump output.
11.9.1.2 The Kinetic Valve. Figure 11.8.
A line containing pump output fuel is so placed as to discharge on to the face of the
servo outflow orifice and the kinetic energy so produced restricts servo fuel bleed.
A blade can be moved downwards to interrupt the high-pressure flow; this reduces
the impact onto the servo orifice, thus causing a greater outflow and a reduction in
servo pressure (see figure). The kinetic valve is less prone to dirt blockage than the
half-ball type, although it is more complex.

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Condition 1. With the kinetic


valve in the open position, the
blade separates the opposing
flows from pump delivery and
the servo cylinder. As there is
no opposition to the servo flow,
the volume of servo fluid
reduces and the piston moves
against the spring under the
influence of pump delivery
pressure. The movement of the
piston reduces the pump stroke
and therefore it’s output.

Condition 2. With the valve


fully closed, the kinetic energy
of the pump delivery fuel
prevents leakage from the
servo chamber. Servo fuel
pressure therefore increases
and, with the assistance of the
spring, overcomes the pump
delivery pressure, thus moving
the piston to increase the pump
stroke and output.

Condition 3. Under steady


running conditions, the valve
assumes an intermediate
position such that the servo fuel
and spring pressure exactly
balances the pump delivery
Kinetic Valve pressure.
Figure 11.8.
System
11.9.2 BAROMETRIC CONTROLS
The function of the barometric control is to alter fuel flow to the burners with
changes in intake total pressure (P1) and pilot’s throttle movement. Several
different types of hydro-mechanical barometric control are available. Three of the
most common types are described. For simplicity, the description and operation of
each type of flow control is related to the half-ball valve method of controlling servo
fuel pressure.

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Simple Flow Control.


The Simple Flow Control Unit (see figure 11.9.) comprises a half-ball valve acting
on servo fuel bleed, whose position is determined by the action of an evacuated
capsule (immersed in P1 air) and a piston subjected to the same pressure drop as
the throttle valve. Fuel from the pump passes at pressure P pump through the
throttle, where it experiences a pressure drop to burner pressure P burner. The
response to P1 and throttle variations can now be examined.

Simple Flow Control.


Figure 11.9.
Throttle Variations.
If the pilot opens the throttle, the throttle orifice area increases, throttle pressure
drop reduces and therefore PPUMP falls, PBURNER rises and the piston moves down,
allowing the spring to lower the half-ball valve against the capsule force, increasing
servo pressure and pump output. The increased fuel flow increases the throttle
pressure drop to its original value, returning the half-ball valve to its sensitive
position.
P1 Variations.
If the aircraft climbs, P1 will fall, causing the capsule to expand and raise the half-
ball valve against the spring force. Servo pressure will fall, swashplate angle will
reduce and fuel pump output will reduce. The reduced flow will cause a reduced
throttle pressure drop.
Thus Simple Flow Control keeps the throttle pressure drop constant, regardless of
throttle position. At very high altitude the system becomes insensitive and it is not
used on large turbo-jets. Nevertheless, it is fitted on the Adour and Dart and has
proved to be a reliable and fairly accurate control unit.

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11.9.3 PROPORTIONAL FLOW CONTROL.


The Proportional Flow Control Unit (see figure 11.10.) was designed for use on
large engines with a wide range of fuel flow. The problem of accurate control over
this wide range was overcome by operating the controlling elements on a proportion
of the main flow. The proportion varies over the flow range, so that at low flows a
high proportion is used for control and at high flows, a smaller proportion. Fuel
passes into the controlling (or secondary) line through a fixed secondary orifice and
flows out through another orifice to the LP side of the pump. Secondary flow is
controlled via the proportioning valve and sensing valve, which maintains an equal
pressure drop across the throttle valve and secondary orifice. Servo pressure is
controlled by a half-ball valve operated by P1 and by secondary pressure.

Proportional Flow Control.


Figure 11.10.

Throttle Variations.
If the throttle is opened, its pressure drop is reduced and the proportioning valve
closes until the pressures across the diaphragm are equalised. Thus secondary
flow and pressure are reduced, the piston drops, the half-ball valve closes and
pump stroke increases. The increased fuel flow increases secondary pressure until
the half-ball valve resumes its sensitive position, but the proportioning valve
remains more closed than previously, taking a small proportion of the increased
flow.

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P1 Variations.
Variations in P1 will cause the capsule to expand or contract, thus altering the
position of the half-ball valve and altering fuel flow. This tends to cause rapid
changes in secondary pressure with resultant instability; damping is provided by the
sensing valve, which adjusts to control the outflow to LP, thus damping secondary
pressure fluctuations. The valve is contoured to operate only over a small range of
pressure drops so that during throttle movements it acts as a fixed orifice.

11.9.4 ACCELERATION CONTROL UNITS


The function of the Acceleration Control Unit (ACU) is to provide surge-free
acceleration during rapid throttle openings. There are two main types of hydro-
mechanical ACU in service.

The Flow Type ACU.


With the flow type ACU (see figure 11.11.) all the fuel from the pump passes
through the unit, which compares fuel flow with compressor outlet pressure (P 3),
which is proportional to engine speed.
The fuel from the pump passes through an orifice containing a contoured plunger;
the pressure drop across the orifice is also sensed across a diaphragm.
When the throttle is opened, the pump moves towards maximum stroke and fuel
flow increases. The increased flow through the ACU orifice increases the pressure
drop across it and the diaphragm moves to the right, raising the half ball valve and
restricting pump stroke. The engine now speeds up in response to the limited over-
fuelling and P3 rises, compressing the capsule. The plunger servo pressure drops
and the plunger falls until arrested by the increased spring force. The orifice size
increases, pressure drop reduces and the diaphragm moves to the left, closing the
half-ball valve and increasing fuel flow. Fuel flow will increase in direct proportion to
the increase in P3.

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Acceleration Control Using Compressor Discharge Pressure.


Figure 11.11.

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The Air Switch.


In order to keep the acceleration line close to the surge line, it is necessary to
control on “Split P3 air” (a mix of P3/P1) initially and then on full P 3 at higher engine
speeds. This is achieved by the air switch (or P 1/P3 switch) shown in the figure
11.12. At low speeds, P3 passes through a plate valve to P1 and the control
capsule is operated by reduced, or split P3 until P3 becomes large enough to close
the plate valve and control is then on full P3.

Air Switch.
Air Switch
Figure 11.12.11.12.
Figure

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The dashpot Type ACU.


The dashpot ACU uses two co-axially mounted throttle valves, The inner one is
moved by the pilot, the outer (main) throttle valve will move but is controlled by a
dashpot which slows the valve movement down to limit the acceleration fuel flow.
When closing the throttle the pilot pushes both sleeves in together.

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11.10 ENGINE PROTECTION DEVICES


Described below are typical protection devices that will override any excessive
demands made on the engine by the pilot or by the control units.
11.10.1 TOP TEMPERATURE LIMITER.
Turbine gas temperature is measured by thermocouples in the jet pipe. When
maximum temperature is reached, these pass a signal to an amplifier, which limits
pump stroke by reducing pump servo pressure or moves the throttle valve in series
with the pilot.
11.10.2 POWER LIMITER.
A power limiter is fitted to some engines to prevent over-stressing due to excessive
compressor outlet pressure during high-speed, low altitude running. The limiter
(see figure 11.14) takes the form of a half-ball valve which is opened against a
spring force when compressor outlet press (P3) reaches its maximum value. The
half-ball valve bleeds off air pressure to the ACU control capsule, thus causing the
ACU to reduce pump stroke.

Power Limiter.
Figure 11.14.

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11.10.3 OVERSPEED GOVERNOR.


The engine is protected against over-speeding by a governor, which, in hydro-
mechanical systems, is usually fitted on the fuel pump and acts by bleeding off
pump servo fuel when the governed speed is reached. On two-spool engines, the
pump is driven from the HP shaft and the LP shaft is protected by either a
mechanical governor or an electro-mechanical device, again acting through the
hydro-mechanical control system. There are two types of pump-driven governors:
11.10.3.1 Centrifugal Governor.
The centrifugal type of governor uses the centrifugal pressure of fuel in radial
drillings in the fuel pump rotor to deflect a diaphragm at maximum speed. The
diaphragm operates on a half-ball valve to reduce pump servo pressure and thus
pump stroke. The disadvantage of this type is that it needs to be reset if fuel
specific gravity changes. It is seldom used on modern engines.

Centrifugal Governor
Figure 11.15.

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Centrifugal governors using bob weights are used as LP shaft governors on


some engines. They will return fuel to low pressure when the LP shaft
overspeeds see figure 11.16.

Centrifugal LP
Figure 11.16.
Governor

11.10.3.2 Hydro-mechanical Governor.


In the hydro-mechanical governor the pump drive shaft rotates a rotor
containing a half-ball valve on a lever arm (shown in the figure 11.17.). As
engine speed increases, centrifugal force closes the valve, increasing the
pressure of fuel in the governor housing (governor pressure) by restricting its
flow to LP. When the maximum speed is reached, governor pressure is high
enough to deflect a diaphragm, which opens the half-ball valve acting on
pump servo. A hydro-mechanical governor does not require adjustment for
changes in fuel specific gravity.

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HP Hydro-Mechanical Governor.
Figure 11.17.

11.11 BURNERS
11.11.1 ATOMISER BURNERS
This type of burner presents the fuel in a finely atomised spray by forcing the fuel to
pass through a small orifice. The size of the orifice is critical because it must
atomise the fuel effectively over a wide range of fuel flows, from idling to take off
RPM.
Some engines have such a wide range of fuel flow requirements that a single orifice
is unable to perform the task effectively unless extremely high fuel pressures are
used and to combat this a burner with two different sized orifices are used. During
low fuel flow requirements, only the small or primary orifice is supplied with fuel and
at higher flow rates both primary and secondary orifices are in operation.

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Simplex Burner Nozzle Detail.


Figure 11.18.

Both types of atomiser burners incorporate an air shroud, which directs some of the
primary air into the burner to assist atomisation and to cool the burner head to
prevent the formation of carbon.
The usual method of atomising the fuel is to pass it through a swirl chamber where
tangentially disposed holes or slots impart swirl to the fuel by converging its
pressure energy to kinetic energy. In this state, the fuel passes through the
discharge orifice where the swirl motion is removed as the fuel atomises to form a
cone-shaped spray. The shape of the spray is an important indication of the degree
of atomisation; thus, the rate of swirl and therefore the pressure of the fuel at the
burner are important factors in good atomisation.

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The simplex burner

A Simplex Burner.
Figure 11.19.
The Simplex burner shown in the figure 11.19. was first used on early jet engines. It
consists of a chamber, which induces a swirl into the fuel and a fixed area atomising
orifice. This burner gave good atomisation at the higher fuel flows, that is at the
higher burner pressures, but was very unsatisfactory at the low pressures required
at low engine speeds and especially at high altitudes. The reason for this is that the
Simplex burner was by the nature of its design a “square law” burner, that is the
flow through the burner is proportional to the square of the pressure drop across it.
This meant that if the minimum pressure for effective atomisation was 30 lbf/in 2, the
pressure needed to give maximum flow would be about 3,000 lb/in 2.

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The Duplex burner.


The Duplex burner or Duple burner
require a primary and a main fuel
manifold and have two independent
orifices, one much smaller than the
other. The smaller orifice handles
the lower flows and the larger orifice
deals with the higher flows as the
burner pressure increases. A
pressurising valve may be employed
with this type of burner to apportion
the fuel to the manifolds (see figure
11.20.). As the fuel flow and
pressure increase, the pressurising
valve moves to progressively admit
fuel to the main manifold and the
main orifices. This gives combined
flow down both manifolds. In this
way, the Duplex and the Duple
burner are able to give effective
atomisation over a wider flow range
than the Simplex burner for the same
maximum burner pressure. Also,
efficient atomisation is obtained at
the low flows that may be required at
high altitude. In the combined
acceleration and speed control
system the fuel flow to the burners is
A Duple or Duplex Burner.
Nozzle. apportioned in the FFR.
Figure
Figure 11.20.
11.20.

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11.11.1.1 The Spray nozzle.


The spray nozzle (see figure11.21.) carried a proportion of the primary combustion
air with the injected fuel. By aerating the spray, the local fuel-rich concentrations
produced by other types of burner are avoided, thus giving a reduction in both
carbon formation and exhaust smoke. An additional advantage of the spray nozzle
is that the low pressures required for atomisation of the fuel permits the use of the
comparatively lighter gear-type pump.

A Spray Nozzle.
Figure 11.21.

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11.11.2 VAPORISING BURNERS


This type of burner presents the fuel in the combustion system in the form of a rich
fuel vapour or gas. This is achieved by delivering the metered flow of fuel to “J”
shaped vaporising tubes, which protrude into the combustion chamber. The fuel
passes down the vaporising tubes in a coarse spray and mixes with the primary air
that enters concentrically to the fuel supply pipe. The fuel and air is mixed
thoroughly by pins that protrude into the primary airflow and the heat of the flame
surrounding the tube causes the mixture to vaporise before it emerges in the
combustion chamber.
The introduction of the primary air into the vaporising tubes aids the process of
vaporisation and also helps to cool the tubes to prevent the formation of carbon.
With this type of burner, the flame points towards the incoming airflow and this
helps to stabilise the flame in the vaporising tubes, preventing it being blown away
by the secondary air, thus allowing a relatively short combustion system.

A Vaporising Combustion Chamber.


Figure 11.22.

The advantages of this type are:-


a) Pre-vaporising gives complete combustion within a short length of flame tube.
b) A complete ring of flame around the annular chamber.
c) Even pressure and temperature around the chamber.

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Start Nozzle System for a Vaporiser Combustion System.


Figure 11.23.

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Starting Fuel Solenoid Valve


This solenoid valve is fitted on the starting fuel feed line. It is a two-position valve
spring loaded to the closed position. During starting, the solenoid is energised and
the valve opens. The flow is directed to the check valve. During the starting cycle
the solenoid is de-energised and the spring force closes the valve and the fuel flow
to check valve is stopped.

Check Valve
A check is fitted in the starter jet line downstream of the Priming Solenoid Valve to
prevent fuel dribbling into the combustion chamber on shut down.
It is a spring-loaded valve, which is closed at rest and opens when fuel pressure
reaches a pre-determined value.

Starter Jets
As vaporisers do not atomise the fuel sufficiently for combustion until they become
heated, for starting purposes initial heating during start is provided by four jets, two
of which are combined with High Energy Igniters. The starter jets ensure that, even
at the low flows encountered during start, the fuel is atomised as required for light
up.

Pressurising Valve
A pressurising valve is fitted in the main gallery feed line. It is spring-loaded which
functions to build up and stabilise the metering system servo pressures before any
flow to the main gallery. Thereby it ensures the correct delivery of fuel to the
vaporisers during start.

Main Gallery and Vaporisers


The main gallery connects with delivery tubes, each feeding one vaporiser head
through a distribution orifice. The delivery tubes are fitted in pairs on the
combustion chamber outer case.
Fuel is mixed with air in the vaporiser tubes. As the mixture passes through the
heated tube, the fuel becomes vaporised so that it is delivered in combustible form.
A single unit houses the check and pressurising valves. A purge flow tapped
upstream the pressurising valve is connected to the check valve via a purge
restrictor. This ensures a continued fuel flow through the starter jets to avoid
formation of carbon in this area.
11.11.3 COMBUSTION AND AIRFLOW
The addition of fuel to compressor air and the resulting continuous combustion
gives a release of heat and an increase in volume, which is converted to an
increase in velocity. In the combustion chamber the heat release (combustion
efficiency) may be as high as 99%.

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More power and efficiency result from “rich” mixtures, but these are limited by
maximum turbine temperatures. Therefore fuel supplies must be limited so that an
overall air/fuel ratio of about 60:1 at maximum rpm is achieved. At other rpm the
ratio will change due to changing efficiencies of turbine and compressor. The
“correct” mixture strength is 15:1 hence only about a quarter of the air passing
through the engine is used for combustion. (15% - 25% is the typical range).
In the flame area the ratio is about 13:1 and around the flame centre a weaker ratio
of 18:1 is used to ensure complete combustion with no carbon formation.
The flame rate at an atomising burner is 2-10 ft/sec and at a vaporiser, 60 ft/sec.
Both figures are low compared with the air velocity through the combustion zone,
hence the requirement for a low velocity zone at the burner to (a) aid ignition and (b)
maintain the flame at the burner.
Theoretically, combustion in a gas turbine is at “constant pressure”, ie. the pressure
along the combustion chamber does not change due to combustion but could alter
due to changes in rpm and air intake pressure.
In practice the combustion chamber shape affects the pressure and they are
designed to minimise this and a drop of 4% along its length is usual.
Flame temperature is high; a constant 2,000C at the centre. Flame size, however,
can change and the bigger the flame becomes the higher goes Turbine Entry
Temperature and Jet Pipe Temperature (TET and JPT).
“Over-fuelling” gives a larger flame and “Under-fuelling” a smaller; the significance
of these will be seen in a later note.

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11.12 ELECTRONIC ENGINE CONTROL SYSTEMS


Advances in gas turbine technology have demanded more precise control of engine
parameters than can be provided by hydromechanical fuel controls alone. These
demands are met by electronic engine controls, or EEC, of which there are two
types: supervisory and full-authority.
11.12.1 SUPERVISORY ELECTRONIC ENGINE CONTROL
The first type of EEC is a supervisory control that works with a proven
hydromechanical fuel control.
The major components in the supervisory control system include the electronic
control itself, the hydromechanical fuel control on the engine, and the bleed air and
variable stator vane control. The hydromechanical element controls the basic
operation of the engine including starting, acceleration, deceleration, and
shutdown. High-pressure rotor speed (N2), compressor stator vane angles, and
engine bleed system are also controlled hydromechanically. The EEC, acting in a
supervisory capacity, modulates the engine fuel flow to maintain the designated
thrust. The pilot simply moves the throttle lever to a desired thrust setting position
such as full takeoff thrust, or maximum climb. The EEC adjusts the fuel flow as
required to maintain the thrust compensating for changes in flight and
environmental conditions. The EEC control also limits engine operating speed and
temperature, ensuring safe operation throughout the flight envelope.
If a problem develops, control automatically reverts to the hydromechanical system,
with no discontinuity in thrust. A warning signal is displayed in the cockpit, but no
immediate action is required by the pilot. The pilot can also revert to the
hydromechanical control at any time.
Electronic Engine Control
A typical example of an EEC system is that used in many of the Pratt and Whitney
100 series engines currently in service. A brief explanation of how the system
works, both in automatic and manual modes follows.

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Pratt & Whitney 100 Series Fuel Control System Schematic.


Figure 20.24.

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Automatic Operation (EEC mode)


The EEC receives signals from various sources:
a. Power Management Switch, enabling take off thrust, maximum continuous
thrust, climb thrust or cruise thrust settings to be selected.
b. Engine inlet pressure and temperature.
c. Ambient pressure.
d. Air data computer inputs. (a computer that senses pitot pressure, static pressure
and total air temperature)
e. Engine RPMs – N1 and N2.
f. Power lever position. (via a potentiometer)
g. Failure signals.
Based on these input signals the EEC will output command signals to adjust and
control:
a. The Hydromechanical Fuel Control Unit via a stepper motor which adjusts the
throttle metering valve.
b. Ignition circuits.
c. Bleed valves
d. Torque gauge
11.12.2 FUEL CONTROL
11.12.3 GENERAL
The fuel control is provided by the hydro-mechanical unit (HMU) The HMU is
supplied by the HP fuel pump and provides the required fuel quantity to the
nozzles.
In normal operation the fuel control is managed by the Electronic Engine
Control (EEC). This enables accelerations and decelerations without engine surge
or flame out whatever the displacement sequence of the power lever. The HMU is
also mechanically connected to the power lever thus ensuring fuel control in case
of failure of the EEC.
Hydro-mechanical Unit (HMU)
The HMU comprises:
A stepper motor controlled by the EEC.
A lever which controls fuel shutoff.
A lever which controls the fuel flow.

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PW100 Series Fuel System Auto/Normal


Mode. Figure 20.25.
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Operation
The fuel flow supplied to the nozzles is mainly obtained through two valves:
a bypass valve
a metering valve.
The fuel enters the HMU from pump outlet with a constant flow. This flow is split by
the bypass valve into two flows, one for the nozzles (via the metering valve) and one
bypass return flow to the pump. The position of the bypass valve is a function of the
loss of fuel pressure caused by the metering valve. The metering valve is
pneumatically actuated. In the pneumatic servo block, the reference pressure is the
HP compressor outlet pressure, P3. A controlled reduction of the P3 pressure results
in a variable Py pressure which when opposed to a bellows device, moves the piston
of the metering valve.
The pneumatic servo block is managed:
in normal operation by the EEC
in manual operation, by the power input lever.
Normal Operation (EEC Mode)
According to the input data (pressures, temperatures, speeds) and to the
commanded power (power lever), the EEC controls a stepper motor located in the
HMU.
The stepper motor regulates Py pressure thus modulating the fuel flow as
requested. A governor acts on the Py pressure, thus setting an NH speed limit
function of the compression of a spring by a cam (EEC cam) connected to the
power lever.
Manual Operation (Manual Mode)
Py pressure is not regulated by the stepper motor but by the simultaneous
actions of the NH speed governor and the spring, compressed by a second cam
(manual cam) connected to the power lever.
Transfer from the EEC Mode to the Manual Mode.
In normal operation the EEC manages the fuel regulation. The manual
operation is automatically connected when the operation in the EEC mode is
switched off. A solenoid in the HMU selects the manual cam instead of the EEC
cam and cancels the regulation control through the stepper motor.
Operation of the HMU in the fail mode
In case of failure of the EEC, the position of the stepper motor is "frozen".
Whatever the increase of power through the power lever, the last N H speed
remains unchanged (the load applied by the spring on the N H speed governor
increases).For any power reduction through the power lever, the N H speed
decreases according to the curve of the EEC cam (decreasing spring load).

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PW 100 Series Fuel System in Manual Mode.


Figure 11.26.

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11.12.4 FULL-AUTHORITY DIGITAL ELECTRONIC CONTROL (FADEC)


The supervisory control was a step toward the full-authority, fully redundant EEC. It
controls all engine functions and eliminates the need for the backup
hydromechanical control used in the supervisory system. The modern full authority
EEC is a digital electronic device called a full-authority digital electronic control, or
FADEC.
One of the basic purposes of the FADEC is to reduce flight crew workload. This is
achieved by the FADEC's control logic, which simplifies power settings for all
engine operating conditions. The throttle position is used to achieve consistent
engine settings regardless of flight or environmental conditions.
The FADEC establishes engine power through direct closed-loop control of the
engine ratio thrust-rating parameter. The required thrust is calculated as a
function of throttle lever angle, altitude, Mach number, and total air temperature.
The air data computer supplies altitude, Mach number, and total air temperature
information, and sensors provide measurements of engine temperatures,
pressures, and speeds. This data is used to provide automatic thrust control,
engine limit protection, transient control, and engine starting.
FADEC uses a pre-programmed schedule to obtain the correct thrust for the
various throttle lever angles, and it provides the correct thrust for any chosen angle
during changing flight or environmental conditions.
To get the desired thrust, the pilot has only to set the throttle lever to a position
which aligns the thrust command from the control with the reference indicator from
the aircraft thrust management computer. The control system automatically
accelerates or decelerates the engine to the desired level without the pilot having
to continually monitor the thrust gauge. Once a power setting has been selected,
the FADEC maintains it until the throttle lever position is changed.
A constant throttle lever angle setting can be used for takeoff and climb. In
addition, since the pilot sets engine thrust , and the system controls the thrust by
using a given throttle lever angle, the same thrust rating will be obtained on each
engine at the same throttle position. This eliminates throttle stagger.
The FADEC has many advantages over both the hydromechanical and supervisory
EEC. Some of these are:
 It requires no engine trimming
 It ensures improved engine starts
 It provides a constant idle speed with changes in atmospheric conditions and
changing service bleed air requirements
 It saves fuel by providing improved engine bleed air management
 It fully modulates the active clearance control (ACC) system (if fitted)
 It ensures more repeatable engine transients due to the higher precision of its
digital computer

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 It provides engine limit protection by automatically limiting critical engine


pressures and speeds
A typical FADEC system is that used in some of the Pratt and Whitney 4000 series
engines currently in service. A brief explanation of how the system works follows.
Fuel Distribution and Control Components (Figure 11.27.)
Components controlling and distributing the fuel to the burners include:
 FADEC/EEC
 Fuel/oil cooler and by pass valve
 Fuel metering unit
 Fuel distribution valve
 Fuel injector supply manifolds
 Fuel injectors

Fuel Distribution System of a FADEC Engine


Figure 11.27.

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Fuel Distribution
During operation, fuel flows from the aircraft fuel tank to the fuel-pump boost-stage
inlet. The pressurised fuel from the boost stage of the engine-driven fuel pump then
leaves the pump and is delivered to the fuel/oil cooler, whose purpose is to keep the
fuel sufficiently warm to prevent ice from forming in the fuel, and at the same time,
keep the maximum temperature of the oil within the correct limits. This engine is
also equipped with an air/oil heat exchanger, which uses fan air and 2.5 bleed air to
prevent the fuel from getting too hot.
From the fuel/oil cooler, the fuel is returned to the fuel pump, where it is filtered and
sent to the main pump stage to be further pressurised before it is sent to the fuel-
metering unit, which actually does the metering on the basis of information it
receives from the FADEC. The fuel-metering unit sends fuel to the fuel-flow
transmitter, and then to the fuel distribution valve. (Servo fuel, used as an actuation
pressure to some interface components, also comes from the fuel-metering unit.)
Bypass fuel not sent to the fuel distribution valve or servo supply is returned to
pump interstage flow. From the fuel distribution valve, the metered fuel flows
through the fuel manifolds to the fuel injectors.
The FADEC is the primary interface between the engine and the aircraft. The
FADEC contains two channels that are called "A" channel and "B" channel. Each
time the engine starts, alternate channels will automatically be selected. The
channels are linked together by an internal mating connector for crosstalk data
transmission. Much more is accomplished by this control than simply sending a
signal to the fuel-metering unit to establish a fuel flow to the nozzles.

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FADEC Interface with the Aircraft.


Figure 11.28.

Interface with Aircraft


The FADEC receives several refereed (a validated reference used to confirm
correct input) inputs and delivers several outputs. Inputs to the FADEC come from
the following:
1. The power levers. Two analogue signals come from each power-lever resolver.
(The resolver is an electromechanical device to measure angular movement.)
2. The air-data computers (ADC) in the form of
a. Total pressure
b. Pressure altitude
c. Total air temperature
3. The flight-control computer (FCC) for adjusting the engine pressure ratio (EPR)
for all engines as a part of the engine thrust trim system (ETTS). The ETTS
logic starts when the engine pressure ratio (EPR) on any two engines is above
1.2.
4. Seven discrete (electrical signals) inputs:
a. Pt2/Tt2 probe heat
b. Fire
c. Alternate mode select
c. External reset (fuel-control switch)

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d. Bump rate selector


e. Maintenance (data retrieval)
f. Engine location identification
5. Two sources of 28 VDC power (DC bus and ground test power)
Out puts from the FADEC are as follows:
 Engine pressure ratio (EPR)
 Low-speed spool (NI). There is a backup N1 speed output from channel "B."
 Exhaust gas temperature (EGT)
 High-speed spool (N2)
Flap/slat position and weight-on-wheels status is also sent to the FADEC. The
flight-control computer (FCC) acts as a backup for the air-data computer (ADC).
FADEC Interface with Engine
All data input to the FADEC is validated through a series
of comparisons and checks .For example, compressor rotor speeds are compared
to each other and checked to ensure the proper range (0 -120 percent).
Inputs to the FADEC from the engine are as follows:
 N2 rpm, Power comes from the FADEC alternator and is used for limiting,
scheduling systems, and setting engine speeds.
 N1 rpm, which comes from the FADEC speed transducer (a transducer is a
device used to transform a pneumatic signal to an electrical one) and is used for
limiting and scheduling systems. It is also used as an alternate mode.
 Compressor-exit temperature (Tt 3 ), which comes from the diffuser case, is used
to calculate starting fuel flow. • Exhaust-gas temperature (Tt 4.95 ), which comes
from the exhaust case, is used for indication.
 Fuel temperature (Tfuel), which comes from the fuel pump, is used to schedule
the fuel heat-management system.
 Oil temperature (Toil), which comes from the main gearbox, is used to schedule
the fuel heat-management system and to schedule the integrated drive generator
(IDG) oil-cooling system.
 Inlet total temperature (Tt 2), which comes from the inlet cowl on the wing
engines and the bellmouth on the tail engine. It is used to calculate fuel flow and
rotor speed.
 Inlet total pressure (Pt 2), which comes from the same sources as Tt 2, is used to
calculate EPR.
 Exhaust gas pressure (Pt4.95), which comes from the exhaust case, is also used
to calculate EPR.

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 The engine electronic control (EEC) programming plug is used to determine the
engine thrust rating and EPR correction.
 Burner pressure (Pb), which comes from the diffuser case, is used for limiting and
surge detection. • Ambient pressure (Pamb), which comes from the inlet cowl, is
used to validate altitude and Pt2.

FADEC Interface With Engine.


Figure 11.29.

Based on information received from its various sources the FADEC will:
1. Monitor, control and protect:
 Anti surge bleed valves/variable stator vanes
 Cooling airflows
 Engine oil cooling and IDG oil cooling
 Nacelle cooling
 Fuel heating
 Starting
 Idle speed
 Acceleration/Deceleration

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 Stabilised engine operation


 Thrust control including overboost
 Critical speeds and pressures

2. Improve reliability of the engine by:


 A two channel system of control
 An automatic fault detection and logic system
 An automatic fault and compensation system
3. Make maintenance easier by:
 Engine monitoring
 Self test
 Fault isolation
Control Modes
The FADEC has two modes for setting the power of the engine. The EPR mode is
the rated or normal mode, while the N1 mode is the alternate or fault mode.
Normal Mode. When a thrust-level request is made through the thrust lever, the
throttle-resolver angle (TRA), input causes an EPR command. The FADEC will then
adjust fuel flow so that EPR actual equals EPR command.
The normal or rated power levels are
 Maximum power available (takeoff or maximum continuous)
 Maximum climb
At approximately 78 degrees TRA maximum power available is calculated by the
FADEC. If the altitude is less than approximately 14,100 ft, the FADEC calculates a
takeoff power rating. But if the altitude is greater than 14,100 ft, the FADEC
calculates a rating for maximum continuous power. At approximately 68 degrees
TRA, the FADEC calculates the maximum climb-power rating. To get all other power
levels, except idle, it is necessary to set the thrust lever.
Alternate or N1 Mode.
If the FADEC cannot control in the EPR, or normal mode, it will go to the N1 mode
and a fault is enunciated . In the N1 mode, the FADEC schedules fuel flow as a
function of the thrust-lever position, and the TRA input will cause the FADEC to
calculate an N1 command biased by Mach number, altitude, and Tt 2. In reverse
thrust, the FADEC goes to the N1 mode, and N1 is biased by Tt2.
Control in the N1 mode is similar to that of a hydromechanical fuel-control system.
Moving the thrust lever fully forward will cause an overboost of the engine.
N1 mode may be manually selected, but the logic that keeps the thrust at the same
level as it would be in the EPR mode is removed.
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Parameters Sensed and Controls Actuated by an Electronic Engine Control.


Figure 11.30.
Faults
The FADEC has dual electronic channels, each with its own processor, power
supply, program memory, selected input sensors, and output actuators. Power to
each electronic control channel is provided by a dedicated, engine gearbox-driven
alternator. This redundancy provides high operational reliability. No single electronic
malfunction will cause an engine operational problem. Each control channel
incorporates fault identification, isolation, and accommodation logic.

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While electronic controls are highly reliable, malfunctions can occur. A hierarchy of
fault-tolerance logic will take care of any single or multiple faults. The logic also
identifies the controlling channel, and if computational capability is lost in the primary
channel, the FADEC automatically switches to the secondary channel. If a sensor is
lost in the primary channel, the secondary channel will supply the information. If data
from the secondary channel is lost, the FADEC will produce usable synthesised
information from the parameters that are available. If there is not enough data
available for synthesising, the control modes switch. For example, if EPR is lost, the
engine will be run on its N1 ratings.
In the unlikely event both channels of electronic control are lost, the torque motors
are spring-loaded to their fail-safe positions. The fuel flow will go to minimum flow,
the stator vanes will move to fully open, the air-oil cooler will open wide, and the
ACC will shut off.
The FADEC includes extensive self-test routines which are continuously actuated.
BITE, or built-in test equipment, can detect and isolate faults within the EEC and its
input and output devices. The fault words of the control are decoded into English
messages by a maintenance monitor, and they identify the faulty line-replaceable
unit (LRU). In-flight fault data is recorded so it can be recalled during shop repair.
The FADEC is able to isolate problems and indicate whether the fault is within itself
or in a sensor or actuator. In the shop, computer-aided troubleshooting can identify
a fault at the circuit-board level.
EEC Programming Plug
The EEC programming plug located on the FADEC "A" channel housing, selects the
applicable schedules within the FADEC for the following:
 Engine thrust rating
 EPR modification data
 Engine performance package
 Variable-stator-vane schedule
 2.9 bleed-valve thermocouple selection
The EEC programming plug data is input to the FADEC "A" channel, while the "B"
channel EEC programming-plug input is crosswired and crosstalked from the "A"
channel. During test-cell operation, the EPR/thrust relationship is compared, and the
engine gets a correct EEC programming plug. If the FADEC must be replaced, the
EEC programming plug must remain with the engine.
If the engine is started without the EEC programming plug installed, the FADEC
goes to the N1 mode. But nothing will happen with the FADEC operation if the EEC
programming plug disconnects in flight.

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EEC Programming Plug.


Figure 11.31.

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Pneumatic and Electrical Connectors


As shown in Figs:11.32. there are several pneumatic and electrical connectors to
the FADEC. The four pneumatic inputs are as follows:
1. Pt 4.95 This input comes from two combination Pt4.95/Tt4.95 probes, located on
the turbine exhaust case, and goes to FADEC port "P 5." For all pressure inputs a
transducer in the FADEC changes the pressure signal into an electric signal and
sends this signal to both channels.
2. Pt 2 This input comes from the Pt2/Tt2 probe located in the inlet duct.
3. Pb This input comes from a static pressure port in the diffuser case to measure
burner pressure.
4. Pam-This input comes from two screened static pressure ports located on the inlet
cowl outer surface.

FADEC Electrical and Pneumatic Connections.

Figure 11.32.

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Alternator.
The alternator provides the FADEC with power and an N2 speed signal. It also
sends N2 information to the flight deck.

FADEC Alternator
Figure 11.33.

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Speed Transducer. The speed transducer supplies the FADEC "A" and "B" channels
with the N1 signal by sensing the frequency at which the 60 teeth on the low-
pressure compressor/low-pressure turbine (LPC/LPT) coupling pass by them.

FADEC Speed Transducer


Figure 11.34.

Temperature Probes.
A dual-element, alumel-chromel thermocouple, located on the top right side of the
fuel pump, provides the FADEC with information relating to fuel heating and engine
oil cooling. Oil Temperature Probes. Two other similar devices inform the FADEC
about scavenge oil temperature and No. 3 bearing-oil temperature, and provide
input for engine oil cooling-system control, oil-temperature warning indication, and
IDG oil-cooling override.
Tt3 Temperature Probe.
This dual-element probe is located on the diffuser case and provides the FADEC
with information for heat-soaked engine start logic.

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FADEC Fuel and Oil Temperature Thermocouples.


Figure 20.35.
Tt14.95 Temperature Probes.
Four thermocouples measure EGT and send their signal to the thermocouple
junction box and then to the FADEC. The temperature sense is used only for input
to the indication system. There is no EGT limiting function in the FADEC.

Exhaust Gas Pressure Probes.


The two probes measure Pt14.95 pressure, are manifolded together, and send their
averaged pressure to the FADEC.

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FADEC T6 Probe and Exhaust Gas Temperature Junction Box


Figure 11.36.

FADEC Exhaust Gas Temperature and Pressure Probes.


Figure 11.37.

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Pt2/Tt2 Probe. The inlet pressure/temperature probe supplies the FADEC with
engine-inlet pressure and temperature information. The pressure sensor is a total
pressure probe that sends its signal to both FADEC channels. The temperature
sensor is a dual-element resistance type. One element sends its signal to the "A"
channel, while the other sends its signal to the "B" channel. The probe is
continuously electrically heated.

Pt2/Tt2 Probe.
Figure 11.38.

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Automatic Turbine Rotor Clearance Control System


The automatic turbine rotor clearance control system also known as the turbine case
cooling system, controls and distributes fan air to cool and shrink the HPT and LPT
cases. This process increases efficiency by reducing turbine tip clearance for
takeoff, climb, and cruise operation. The FADEC commands the system operation to
a schedule determined by altitude and N2.

Turbine Case Cooling System.


Figure 11.39.

Turbine Vane and Blade Cooling System


The turbine vane and blade cooling system (TVBCS) optimises engine performance
during cruise by controlling 12th-stage cooling airflow to the HPT and LPT areas.
This system is also controlled by the FADEC as a function of altitude and N 2.
Additionally, the FADEC receives a feedback signal from the TVBCS right valve.

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FADEC Controlled Active Tip Clearance System


Figure 11.40.

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Turbine Vane and Blade Cooling System.


Figure 11.41.

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A Pressure Control System for a Turbo –Prop Engine (Dart)


Figure 11.42

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A Pressure Control System for a Turbo-Jet Engine (Adour).


Figure 11.43.

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A Proportional Flow Control System (Avon).


Figure 11.44.

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Combined Acceleration and


Speed Control.(Spey & Tay).
Figure 11.45.

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Combined Speed and Acceleration Control with Air Bleed Control. (ALF502.)
Figure 11.46.

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Figure 11.47.

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12 AIR SYSTEMS
12.1 INTRODUCTION
In the working cycle and airflow section we discussed the main airflow and working
cycle of a gas turbine engine and found that a major function of the airflow through
the engine was to act as a cooling medium and that only a small proportion of the
air was used to support combustion. In fact, because of the intense heat
developed, gas turbine engines only became practical power units when it was
discovered that the airflow could be used to ‘insulate’ the structural materials and
thus provide acceptable working temperatures for the materials. Many parts of the
engine, made from light alloy or ferrous metals, have to be protected from the very
high temperatures. To achieve this, an efficient and effective cooling system is
needed and this is provided by ducting cooling air from the main gas stream.

Internal Cooling Air Flow.


Figure 12.1.
In addition to its function of cooling, the airflow is also used to pressurise oil seals
and bearings to prevent oil leakage. We thus have the two functions of cooling and
sealing to consider. In general, independent airflow’s are taken from the engine
compressors to provide:-

 Low pressure for sealing.


 Intermediate pressure air for some cooling functions.
 High-pressure air for the remainder of the cooling functions.
These are considered in the paragraphs that follow.

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12.2 INTERNAL COOLING AIRFLOW


Because of the different design features of different gas turbine engines, the cooling
airflow varies considerably from one engine type to another. However, the basic
principles remain the same and can be explained by using an example. Figure 12.1.
shows the cooling and sealing airflow of a two-spool, low ratio by-pass engine. To
show the cooling airflow more clearly, the by-pass and main air-stream air paths
have been omitted.
A study of the figure will show that air is supplied from the low-pressure compressor
and also from the high-pressure compressor. This gives the range of pressures
required, as mentioned in the previous paragraph. After doing its job, the air is
either vented directly to atmosphere or fed into the exhaust gas flow.
12.2.1 LOW PRESSURE AIR
Air is taken from the low-pressure compressor outlet and ducted through the engine
to become both a sealing and cooling airflow. This airflow:-
 Pressurises the main bearing oil seals to prevent oil leakage.
 Provides cooling for the low-pressure compressor shaft, the front half of the
high-pressure compressor shaft and the turbine shaft.
12.2.2 INTERMEDIATE PRESSURE AIR
This airflow is taken from an intermediate stage of the high pressure compressor
and passes through transfer ports to cool the rear half of the high pressure
compressor shaft and also the rear face of the last disc of the compressor; it then
flows outwards through tubes to mix with the by-pass airstream.
12.2.3 HIGH PRESSURE AIR
This airflow is taken from the high-pressure compressor outlet and is ducted to all
faces of the turbine discs to maintain the temperature within the required limits. The
pressure of the cooling air is greater than that of the hot gases and since the air is
directed outwards across the faces of the turbine discs, it prevents the hot exhaust
gases flowing inwards across the discs. Overheating of the turbine discs is thus
prevented.

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12.2.4 DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE SEALS


We know that we require high pressure cooling air at the turbine discs (to reduce
the flow of hot exhaust gases across the discs) and low-pressure air at bearing
seals (to prevent leakage of oil without undue aeration of the oil). The air at these
different pressures must be prevented from mixing and thus, becoming equalised in
pressure. This is done by inserting differential pressure seals at appropriate points
in the system; these seals are of a multi-groove rotating type.

12.3 SEALING
Air at low pressure is used to seal the main shaft bearings and prevent oil from
leaking into the engine casing. For effective sealing, the air pressure must always
by greater than that of the oil. However, it must not be too much greater, otherwise
an excessive amount of air will enter the oil system. De-aeration by means of the
de-aerator and the centrifugal breather (see lubrication) may then become difficult.
Figure 12.2. shows that the mechanical seals used in air pressure oil sealings are
designed to reduce clearance to a minimum; air is fed into the seal at the end
remote from the oil feed.

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Air and Oil Seals.


Figure 12.2.
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12.4 COOLING.
Figure 12.3. illustrates the turbine cooling airflow of a typical gas turbine engine.
The outward flow of cooling air is controlled by air seals of multi-groove construction
and the arrangement is such that the turbine discs obtain the maximum possible
cooling from the airflow. Interstage seals are incorporated and they are made in
such a way that the front sections provide less restriction to the passage of air than
the rear sections do. The result is that the rate at which the cooling air flows across
the seals is sufficient to prevent any inward flow of hot gases. The front face of
each disc receives a greater airflow than the rear.

Turbine Cooling Airflow.


Figure 12.3.

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High pressure cooling air is also directed to the engine’s nozzle guide vanes and
turbine blades. These components, which are externally heated by the high
temperature gas stream, are cooled by ducting air through air passages formed
inside the items themselves. After completing its task, the air is exhausted into the
engine exhaust gas flow and thence to atmosphere.

Nozzle Guide Vane Cooling Air.


Figure 12.4.

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HP Turbine Nozzle Guide Vane Cooling

LP Nozzle Guide Vane Cooling


Nozzle Guide Vane Cooling.
Figure 12.5.

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Development of Turbine Blade Cooling.


Figure 12.6.

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12.5 TURBINE CASE COOLING – DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION


12.5.1 PASSIVE CLEARANCE CONTROL SYSTEM. FIGURE 12.7.
Compressor discharge air and HP compressor air provide cooling airflow to protect
the turbine casing against rapid temperature changes.
The stationary parts in the high-pressure turbine section expand and contract more
rapidly than the rotor due to pressure and temperature changes. The rotor also has
a radial expansion due to rotational speed.
The turbine casing incorporates temperature controlled casing flanges with cooling
air passages for the passive case clearance control system. The cooling air
controls the expansion and contraction of the case to match the rotor and thus
maintain desired clearances throughout all temperature ranges and operating
conditions.

Cooling Air tubes (Bird Cage)


Figure 12.7.

Figure 12.7. shows (highlighted) air tubes (Bird Cage) that cools the HP and LP
turbines. The air is taken from just aft of the fan and ducted through the cowls (not
shown).

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12.5.2 ACTIVE CLEARANCE CONTROL SYSTEM. FIGURE 12.8.


The system provides fan discharge air for cooling the core compartment and the
low-pressure turbine case. At low altitudes the core engine requires more cooling
and the LPT case requires less cooling to prevent rub. At high altitude the core
requires less and in the LPT core requires more to close clearances.

By means of a Y manifold and two shut-off valves, cooling air can be selectively
directed to the core compartment or to the LPT case. The valves are not positively
shut, but permit a required minimum flow at all altitudes and when activated added
flow is directed. The valves are controlled by an altitude sensor which activates the
core compartment valve below 19,000 feet +5000 feet and the LPT case valve
above 19,000 feet +5000 feet.
Increased cooling airflow causes the cases to cool and shrink. This shrinkage
closes blade tip to case clearances producing improved efficiency.

LPTACC (Low Pressure Turbine Active Clearance


Control).
HPTACC (High Pressure Turbine Active Clearance
Control).
Active Tip Clearance Control.
Figure 12.8.

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12.5.3 LOW PRESSURE TURBINE CLEARANCE CONTROL VALVE

Operation
At take-off and low altitude the valve is in its normal closed position allowing cooling
airflow to the core compartment. When an altitude of 19,000 feet +5000 feet is
reached, the altitude sensor switches to supply compressor discharge pressure to
the signal port of the valve, causing the valve piston to move to the open position,
thus allowing cooling airflow to the low pressure turbine cooling manifold.
During descent, at approximately 15,000 feet +1500 feet, the altitude sensor
switches back and cuts off the compressor discharge signal pressure to the valve
and the positioning spring in the valve returns the piston to its normal closed
position. Operation can be monitored by the electrical position indicator switch and
a disagree flightdeck light.

Active Tip Clearance Details.


Figure 12.9.

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Active tip Clearance control.


Figure 12.10.

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12.6 EXTERNAL COOLING


12.6.1 EXTERNAL SKIN OF AERO-ENGINE.
Cooling of the external skin of an aero-engine is achieved by suitable design of the
aircraft airframe; the layout will depend upon where the engine is fitted and what
kind of engine compartment is used. Normally, the cooling and ventilating of an
engine bay or pod is achieved by ducting atmospheric air round the engine and
spilling it back to atmosphere through suitably placed outlets (see figure 12.11.).
The air is usually taken from a ram inlet but provision is also made to provide a
cooling and ventilating airflow during ground running periods. Another function of
the cooling airflow is to remove flammable vapours from the engine compartment to
reduce the fire risk.

External Cooling.
Figure 12.11.

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12.6.2 COOLING OF ACCESSORIES


A number of aircraft accessories produce sufficient heat in normal use to require a
cooling system to prevent overheating. A good example is the aircraft electrical
generator, which produces considerable heat under normal operating conditions.
Such accessories can be cooled by ram airflow when the aircraft is flying, but will
require an alternative cooling airflow when the aircraft is on the ground. For ground
running and taxiing, the generator for example, is cooled by an airflow that is taken
from the engine compressor. This air is blown through nozzles to produce a venturi
effect area of low pressure. The low pressure then induces a continuous cooling
flow of atmospheric air through the normal ram air passages. This is adequate for
cooling most accessories during ground running. Figure 12.12. illustrates a
generator cooling system. These are sometimes referred to as ejectors or eductors

HP Air Powering a Jet Eductor to Draw Air Through a Generator at Low Speed.
Figure 12.12.

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12.7 HP AIR FOR AIRCRAFT SERVICES.


Air is drawn from the compressor at various places to provide air for Airframe needs
such as cabin pressurisation and wing and tail anti/de ice. It can also be used within
the fuel control system to meter fuel, and in the compressor bleed valve system to
control the bleed valves. It can provide heating air for fuel heaters and muscle air to
drive air motors in pumps (both for the engine and the airframe) and it can power
thrust reversers.

External Air System Schematic.(JT9-D)


Figure 12.13.
12.7.1 EXTERNAL AIR TAPPINGS
Engines vary as to the number of external air tappings and their usage. The
following notes are taken from the Pratt and Whitney JT9D but have been simplified
to provide a more generic coverage.
12.7.1.1 Fan Air
Utilised for the pre-cooling of air conditioning air, cooling the ignition system and on
some engines, the Passive and Active tip clearance control.
12.7.1.2 HP Compressor – IP Air (8th and 9th Stage)
Utilised for pneumatic cabin bleeds at concise RPM’s on the JT9D, this can also
supply air for nose cowl anti-icing on other engines. The nose cowl anti-icing may
have a separate manifold from another compressor stage.

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12.7.1.3 Pressure Relief


Should the high pressure stage bleed valve fail in the open position, a pressure
relief valve is provided to protect the pre-cooler from over-pressure damage. The
valve normally would include a pressure switch connected to a PRESS RELIEF
warning on the pneumatics display on the flight deck. The operating pressure
would be in the region of 100 psi. If the valve opens the vented air escapes through
a spring-loaded door on the cowl (blow out panel).
12.7.1.4 Temperature Control
The system normally consists of a pre-cooler temperature sensor and controller,
pre-cooler and control valves. This system stabilises the air going to the airframe
system, by keeping it constant at a value that the engine can achieve at all power
settings. The valves are normally part of the pre-cooler and flow of the fan air is
regulated by the opening or closing of the valves.
When temperature at the bleed air outlet of the pre-cooler exceeds its limit (160-
180C) the pneumatic pressure is vented from the actuators to move the cooling air
valves toward the open position.

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Bleed Air Temperature Control Valves.


Figure 12.14.
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12.8 ANTI-ICING SYSTEMS

Generally on gas turbines the engine anti-icing system prevents the formation of ice
in the engine intake and on the aircraft structure by the circulation of hot air from the
engine. It is normally taken at a midway point along the HP compressor at an
approximate temperature of 300C and controlled by a switch on the flight deck. Air
is taken via the control valve mounted near the manifold on the HP compressor and
directed to an annular manifold around the air intake casing, then through hollow
intake guide vanes, tangential struts and nose cone exhausting into the airstream
or, as in the case of large fan engines, directly overboard.
Control of the nacelle anti-ice system is by means of flight deck switches. These
valves may fail safe, i.e. to the open position, if electrical power is lost. On some
systems a tapping of hot air also feeds the intake pressure probe.

Typical Intake Anti Ice System.


Figure 12.15.

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Intake Anti Ice Control


Panel. Figure 12.16.

Spinner Anti Icing


Thermal anti-icing of the spinner is often provided by using hot oil. Ice formation can
also be minimised by the shape of the spinner and a flexible rubber coating which
tends to shed any ice that forms.

On a large number of turbo fan engines there are no support struts to the spinner,
which rotates with the fan. Thermal anti-icing of the spinner is often provided by
using hot oil. Ice formation can also be minimised by the shape of the spinner and
a flexible rubber coating which tends to shed any ice which forms.

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Intentionally Blank

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13 STARTING AND IGNITION SYSTEMS


13.1 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF GAS TURBINE ENGINE STARTING SYSTEMS
13.1.1 PURPOSE
The purpose of a gas turbine engine starting system is to:
a. carry out a normal ground start.
b. relight the engine should flame out occur during flight.
c. enable certain components of the system to be isolated for ground servicing
purposes (eg. wet runs and dry runs).
13.1.2 ESSENTIAL STARTING REQUIREMENTS
In order to effect a start, the engine must be supplied with:-
a. Air
b. Fuel
c. Ignition
13.1.2.1 Air Supply.
The air supply is provided from the engine compressor which must be accelerated
from rest to self sustaining rpm by means of a starter motor. In flight the engine may
be “Windmilled” by the forward speed of the aircraft, this has to be within an
envelope of speed, where the engine rotation is fast enough for the engine to start
and not so fast that the flame will be blown out by the airflow.
13.1.2.2 Fuel Supply.
The fuel required for starting is supplied from the normal engine fuel system. It is
usually initiated by the pilot opening the HP cock at around 10% HP Compressor
speed.
If vaporiser type burners are used, the fuel is supplied in the initial stages of starting
via a starting solenoid valve and starting atomisers. Once the fuel has been ignited
and the vaporisers are heated, the solenoid valve closes to divert the fuel to the
vaporiser tubes, normal combustion takes place and fuel supply to the starting
atomisers ceases.
13.1.2.3 Ignition.
Ignition of the air fuel mixture is provided by high energy plugs fitted in the
combustion chambers. They are positioned close to the fuel spray and operate for
a timed period during the starting cycle. HE Ignition units supply the high energy
electrical supply to the ignitor plugs.
The same ignitor plugs are used to provide relight (restarting) in the air and also as
continuous ignition for operation when rain, snow or standing water is present and
may cause the engine to flame out.
The figure 13.1. illustrates a typical starting sequence applicable to most gas
turbines.
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Typical Engine Start Sequence.


Figure 13.1.

13.2 STARTER MOTORS


There are a number of basic types of starter motors:-
a. Electric starters. Electrical starter generator.
b. Turbo starters (Air Starters).
You may also hear of other starter systems such as cartridge and AVPIN starters,
these are explosive starters which were once common on older military aircraft.
They were never used on commercial aircraft and therefore will not be covered in
this book.
Gas turbine starters, where a small gas turbine engine like an APU directly drive the
engine to start the main engine have been used, but again it is unlikely that you will
come across them.
Hydraulic starters where hydraulic pressure is applied to one of the hydraulic pumps
to drive it as a motor can be used, again usually in military applications.

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13.2.1 ELECTRICAL STARTER MOTOR

Typical Starting Control System.


Figure 13.2.
This usually consists of a heavy duty, compound wound, DC motor, which draws its
electrical supply from an external source. The motor works in conjunction with a
starter control panel, the sequence of events during a start being precisely
controlled. To allow the starter motor to overcome the initial inertia of the rotating
assembly, the supply to the motor is via a series of resistors, this allows the motor
to build up to full speed gradually, reducing the chance of failure within the drive
system. The drive from the starter motor to the engine is through suitable reduction
gearing and some form of clutch is fitted to disengage the drive when the engine is
running.
The start master switch does not just switch the starting system ‘ON’. On some
aircraft will prepare the aircraft electrical system for the start operation i.e. starter
motors require a very high current for starting which is usually too much for a single
Transformer rectifier (TRU), so it will parallel the DC systems. To ensure that a start
is not carried out on a single TRU, it will place all the AC power systems onto one
generator, so if it fails the start is aborted. It will also ensure that the engine gauging
systems are all powered for the start in all conditions.
13.2.2 ELECTRIC STARTER/GENERATOR
On some smaller aircraft (eg. Jetstream), an electric starter/generator is employed.
The starter /generator initially functions as a starter. When the engine is running it
automatically becomes a generator. The drive is through a suitable reduction
gearing hence there is no requirement for any form of clutch. Main advantage is the
reduction in weight.

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13.2.3 SAFETY INTERLOCKS


On some helicopter electric starting systems, a series of safety interlocks are
incorporated in the control circuit. The purpose of the interlocks is to prevent the
starter relay from closing should an unsafe condition exist.

A Typical Electric Starting System.


Figure 13.3.

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13.2.4 AIR TURBO STARTERS


Sources of Air Supply. The air starter can be supplied with air from one or more of
the following sources:-
a. Ground air starting trolley.
b. Airborne auxiliary power unit (APU).
c. Air from another engine (multi-engined aircraft).
d. Air cylinders.
13.2.4.1 Operation.
Air is supplied to the starter via an electrically operated air valve. This is controlled
by the starter control unit and is activated by pressing the starter button in the
flightdeck. The air is fed to a manifold around the turbine and then directed onto the
turbine blades by nozzles or guide vanes. The turbine revolves at very high speed
and through reduction gearing and a one way clutch (sprag) mechanism, drives the
engine compressor rotor. After a timed period of operation, the control unit closes
the air valve. The starter is often mounted on the external gearbox.

An Air Start System.


Figure 13.4.

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An Air Starter
Figure 13.5.

13.2.4.2 Sprag Clutch

Sprag clutches are used to provide the disconnect mechanism between the starter
motor and the engine. The clutch will transmit drive from the starter motor, but will
disconnect the drive when the engine speed exceeds the starter. The clutch
consists of two smooth concentric drive faces and between them a cage containing
many elongated figure of eight shaped cams called “sprags”. All the surfaces are
hardened to reduce wear, and are lubricated by oil. The sprag are spring loaded in
contact with the starter drive so that when the shaft starts to rotate the sprags stand
up and contact the engine drive due to the cam action of their shape. See Figure
13.6. As engine RPM accelerates its drive will be faster than the starter motor and
the clutch will automatically dis-engage as sprags get pushed back to their minimum
height position.
Sprag clutches are used on most types of starter motor or in drives where one way
drive is required such as helicopter gearboxes.

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Sprag Clutch.
Figure 13.6.
13.2.4.3 Speed Switch
The speed switch can give warning of an over-speed of the starter (engine driving
starter) and/or an auto shut-down.
As the starter speeds up towards an over-speed, the ball weights centrifuge out
forcing up the bell housing breaking the micro-switch to give an over-speed signal.

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13.3 A300 STARTING SYSTEM


The following example of an engine start is taken from the training manuals for an
A300-134 fitted with GE 6-50 engines.
13.3.1 GE 6-50 STARTING PROCEDURE
The engines are equipped with air starters.
The air to start the engine is provided by:-
 The APU, the ground connectors, or the other engine, if it is already running.
The starting system has provision for:-
 Engine start.
 Engine crank.
 Continuous ignition.

The A300 Starting System –Simplified


Figure 13.8.

13.3.1.1 The control panel


The control panel is located on the overhead panel.
Figure 13.9. shows the start panel with, at the top, the ignition selector which
controls the two ignition systems of each engine. The selector has three positions:
CRANK in the vertical position, then ground START ignition A or B when turned to
the left and continuous RELIGHT when turned to the right.
At the bottom of the panel is the master switch with ARM and START/ABORT
positions.
Finally on each side, one yellow push-to-start button for each engine with its
corresponding start valve position light, which is blue and is marked OPEN.
The ignition system is supplied by two different electrical circuits.

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Engine Start Panel


Figure 13.9.

115 VAC is used to energise the exciter and is controlled through the HP fuel shut
off valve lever, the ignition selector and the ignition relay.
The ignition relay is energised by 28 Vdc when the master switch is in the ARM
position and the start button is pushed.
Starting is achieved in the following manner:-
Set the ignition selector to A or B.
Set the master switch to “ARM”.
This arms the ignition circuit and closes the air conditioning system if it is open. The
amber lights in the push-to-start buttons will illuminate during this transit.
When the air conditioning valves are closed, the lights in the push-to-start buttons
extinguish and the operator can push the start button which will latch. This
increases the APU rpm to 100% to provide sufficient air for starting.
It also arms the ignition circuit and finally, provided that pneumatic power is
available, it opens the start valve and the blue OPEN light illuminates.

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When the Start Button is Pressed the APU goes to 100%


Figure 13.10.

When engine N2 reaches 10% the HP Fuel Shut Off Valve must be opened.

At 10% N2 the HP Fuel Valve is opened.


Figure 13.11.

This supplies fuel to the engine and energises the ignition exciters. The engine
should light up and EGT should increase.
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When N2 reaches 45% the engine will be self-sustaining so the ignition is switched
off, the push-to-start button pops out and the APU demand goes back to normal.
Engine rpm should now increase to Ground Idle, which is approximately 65% N 2
and 24% N1.

At 45% The Starter Sequence is cancelled.


Figure 13.12.

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13.4 IGNITION SYSTEMS


13.4.1 HIGH ENERGY IGNITION UNIT
13.4.1.1 Basic Operation
The outline of a high energy ignition system is illustrated in the figure. Each high
energy ignition unit has a low voltage supply which is controlled by the control unit
in the starting system. Depending upon the engine and installation, the supply
voltage may be either direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC). If the supply is
DC, either a trembler mechanism or a transistor generator is used to convert the dc
input to low voltage ac. Thereafter, the operation is the same as that of the system
supplied with AC:-
 The low value of AC is stepped up to a high value by a transformer.
 The high value alternating voltage is then ‘rectified’ to provide a high value of DC
voltage which is used to charge a capacitor.

DC Ignition Unit Block Diagram.


Figure 13.13.
 When the capacitor voltage is high enough, it breaks down a discharge gap and
the discharge is applied to the igniter plug where the energy (high voltage, high
current) is converted to a spark across the face of the igniter plug.
13.4.1.2 Construction
A modern transistorised version of a high-energy ignition unit is illustrated in figure
13.14. Although the construction varies according to the type of ignition unit, the
basic operation is as described. A choke is fitted to extend the duration of the
discharge and safety resistors are fitted to ensure dissipation of energy in the
capacitors.
13.4.1.3 Lethal Warning
The electrical energy stored in the HE ignition unit is potentially lethal and,
even though the capacitor is discharged when the electrical supply is
disconnected, safety precautions are necessary. Before handling the
components, the associated circuit breaker should be tripped, or the fuse
removed. Never rush in; at least one minute must be allowed between
disconnecting the power supply and touching the ignition unit, HT lead or
igniter plug.

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Transistor generator

A Transistorised Ignition Unit.


Figure 13.14.

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13.4.2 IGNITER PLUG


There are two basic types of igniter plug; the constricted or constrained air gap type
and the shunted surface discharge type. (fig. 13-15)

The air gap type is similar in operation to the conventional reciprocating engine
spark plug, but has a larger air gap between the electrode and body for the spark to
cross. A potential difference of approximately 25,000 volts is required to ionise the
gap before a spark will occur. This high voltage requires very good insulation
throughout the circuit.
The surface discharge igniter plug has the end of the insulator formed by a semi-
conducting pellet which permits an electrical leakage from the central high tension
electrode to the body. This ionises the surface of the pellet to provide a low
resistance path for the energy stored in the capacitor. The discharge takes the form
of a high intensity flashover from the electrode to the body and only requires a
potential difference of approximately 2000 volts for operation.
The normal spark rate of a typical ignition system is between 60 and 100 sparks per
minute. Periodic replacement of the igniter plug is necessary due to the progressive
erosion of the igniter electrodes caused by each discharge.
The igniter plug tip protrudes approximately 0.1 inch into the flame tube. During
operation the spark penetrates a further 0.75 inch. The fuel mixture is ignited in the
relatively stable boundary layer which then propagates throughout the combustion
system.

Ignitor Plugs
Figure 13.15.

13.4.3 SERVICING THE IGNITION SYSTEM


Before any servicing is carried out on an ignition system, you must read the relevant
Safety Notes together with the Maintenance Manual relating to this work. You must,
in particular, understand the lethal warning notice regarding handling high energy
ignition equipment and the safety precautions you are to observe.

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14 ENGINE INDICATION SYSTEMS


14.1 INTRODUCTION.

Engine indications are very important to the crew of a powered aircraft, as they
indicate one of the primary parameters needed for flight. There are three types of
indications:
1. Performance indications such as thrust (Engine Pressure Ratio EPR) and
Revolutions Per Minute (RPM).
2. Operation indications such as Turbine Temperature indications, fuel flow,
oil pressure and temperature.
3. Discrete indications which put ‘ON’ a warning annunciator such as low oil
pressure, fuel low pressure engine overspeed etc.
The engine instruments on most modern commercial aircraft will invariably be
located on the main instrument panel in the centre, so that they are visible to both
pilots. The instruments are laid out in a logical pattern so that the main thrust
indicator is at or near the top of the indications. The indicators will be in vertical
columns for each engine and like indicators in rows.
When a flight engineer is carried he will have a panel with some of the primary
indications and all of the secondary and discrete indicators. He may also have a
duplicate set of thrust levers so that he can trim engines when required.
Until fairly recently the majority of aircraft used analogue gauges (sometimes
referred to as clockwork gauges) These had moving pointers or strips which
indicated the parameter being monitored.
The modern trend is to replace the analogue instruments with electronic instruments
that use LED, liquid crystal or cathode ray screens to display the engine
parameters, often not displaying continuously all the information, but to highlight
when a fault has occurred or when asked for by the crew. These types of instrument
do not usually retain the last indication after an accident, however the electronic box
powering them will inform the flight data recorder and/or retain the information in its
own memory.

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An Analogue Engine Indication Panel


Figure 14.1.

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14.2 ENGINE SPEED INDICATORS.

All engines have their rotational speed (R.P.M.) indicated. On a twin or triple-spool
engine, the high pressure assembly speed is always indicated; in most instances,
additional indicators show the speed of the low pressure and intermediate pressure
assemblies. Where Engine Pressure Ratio (EPR) is not indicated then Low
Pressure RPM is indicated as this can be corrected to give Thrust.

Engine speed indication can


be electrically transmitted
from a small tacho-generator,
driven by the engine, to an
indicator that shows the
actual revolutions per minute
(r.p.m.), or a percentage of
the maximum engine speed
(fig. 14.2.). The engine
speed is often used to assess
engine thrust, but it does not
give an absolute indication of
the thrust being produced
because inlet temperature
and pressure conditions
affect the thrust at a given
engine speed.

The tacho-generator supplies


a three phase alternating
current, the frequency of
which is dependent upon
engine speed. The generator
output frequency controls the
speed of a synchronous
motor in the indicator, and
rotation of a magnet
assembly housed in a drum
or drag cup induces
movement of the drum and
consequent movement of the
indicator pointer.

A Tachometer Generator and Indicator (RPM).


Figure 14.2.

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Simplified Tachometer System.


Figure 14.3.

ROTOR
(SYNCHRONOUS
ROTOR WITH
(MAGNET) SQUIRREL
CAGE START)

N N

S
S

INDICATO
GENERATO
R
R

Schematic Circuit Diagram of Tachometer System.


Figure 14.4.

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Tachometer generator systems have largely been replace by speed probes. A


variable-reluctance speed probe, in conjunction with a phonic wheel, is used to
induce an electric current that is amplified and then transmitted to an indicator (fig.
14.5.). This method can be used to provide an indication of r.p.m. without the need
for a separately driven generator, with its associated drives, thus reducing the
number of components and moving parts in the engine.

A speed Probe and Phonic Wheel.


Figure 14.5

The speed probe can be positioned on the compressor casing in line with the
phonic wheel, which can be a machined part of the compressor shaft. A gear wheel
in an external gearbox can also be used. The teeth on the periphery of the wheel
pass the probe once each revolution and induce an electric current by varying the
magnetic flux across a coil in the probe. The magnitude of the current is governed
by the rate of change of the magnetic flux and is thus directly related to engine
speed.

On some engines one of the teeth is bigger than the others, and will give a bigger
response. This can be used for Fan blade balancing or synchronising and/or
synchrophasing.
MAXWELL TACHO
SQUARER GAUGE
BRIDGE CIRCUIT

DC  N

Block Diagram of Pulse Probe Circuit.


Figure 14.6.

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In addition to providing an indication of rotor speed, the current induced at the


speed probe can be used to illuminate a warning lamp on the instrument panel to
indicate to the pilot that a rotor assembly is turning. This is particularly important at
engine start, because it informs the pilot when to open the fuel cock to allow fuel to
the engine. The lamp is connected into the starting circuit and is only illuminated
during the starting cycle.

Eddy Current Fan Speed Sensor


Figure 14.7.
A variation of this system uses an eddy current sensor on the fan casing that
senses the fan blades rotating (see figure 14.7.). Sensors similar to these can be
used for active tip clearance control, where it senses the gap between the casing
and the blade.
Modern speed gauges usually have an analogue type display, i.e. a pointer, and
also a digital readout below the pointer axis. A target speed indicator is usually fitted
which on a clockwork gauge is a pointer outside the numbers, and on an electronic
gauge as a coloured marker, this usually has a digital readout of its set position
within the gauge normally above the pointer axis.

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14.3 THRUST INDICATION


14.3.1 ENGINE PRESSURE RATIO.EPR.
Although rpm gauges give an indication of the rotational speed of the compressor,
they do have one drawback. They do not normally indicate the thrust output or
power output of the engine. Any distress within a compressor may cause the engine
to have a reduction in thrust output. Some means must be provided, therefore, to
indicate the engine's power output. This is done by using an engine pressure ratio
system, which is commonly known as EPR.
The system consists of pitot type pressure heads located in the engine inlet, which
are averaged together and a series of pitot type pressure heads located at the
turbine exhaust which are averaged together. Both feed into a pressure ratio
transmitter. On a high bypass engine the sensed pressure at the rear of the engine
can be the by pass or cold flow or a combined input from both the hot and cold
flows.
The transmitter receives the pressure inputs from the inlet, and from the exhaust
gas pressure probes. The probes are connected in to a common manifold, thus
providing an average gas pressure. Both pressure tubes to the transmitter are
provided with water drain traps that must be drained during maintenance checks.
The formula used by the transmitter in determining the EPR
signal is:- EPR = exhaust pressure
inlet pressure
Sometimes it can be expressed by using engine station configuration numbers, i.e.
inlet PT2 or Exhaust PT7 (PT= pressure total), therefore EPR can be expressed as:-
PT7
PT2
As EPR is used as a thrust parameter, the flight crew must determine the maximum
EPR for the barometric/temperature conditions. Take off EPR or maximum EPR
can be determined by checking trim charts for engineers, or take off charts for flight
crew. The EPR gauge in Fig. 14.8. that there is an EPR set knob. Once the EPR
target figure has been calculated, then by turning the knob 'a reference target bug
can be set at the take off EPR setting. This indicates to the crew the maximum
amount of EPR required. Exceeding this figure could possibly overboost the
engine. Modern aircraft use aircraft sensors to make this correction and will set the
bug for the pilot if required.

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EPR Used in a Low Bypass Engine


Figure14.8

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14.3.2 TORQUE INDICATION

Turboprop and turboshaft engines do not provide significant thrust through their jet
pipes, so EPR would not be of any use in determining the thrust being produced by
the engine. Engine torque is used to indicate the power that is developed by these
engines, and the indicator is known as a torquemeter. The engine torque or turning
moment is proportional to the horsepower and is transmitted through the propeller
or rotor reduction gear.
A torquemeter system is shown in fig. 14.9. In this system, the axial thrust
produced by the helical gears is opposed by oil pressure acting on a number of
pistons; the pressure required to resist the axial thrust is transmitted to the indicator.

Oil Pressure Type Torquemetering System.


Figure 14.9.
In addition to providing an indication of engine power, the torquemeter system may
also be used to automatically operate the propeller feathering system if the
torquemeter oil pressure falls due to a power failure. It is also used, on some
installations, to assist in the automatic operation of the water injection system to
restore or boost the take-off power at high ambient temperatures or at high altitude
airports.

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Operation
The helical gear form used in the reduction gearbox develops an axial thrust in its
three layshaft assemblies. This thrust is proportional to the power which is being
transmitted through the reduction gearbox. The axial thrust is balanced by an
opposing oil pressure, which is therefore proportional to engine power. This oil
pressure is referred to as torquemeter pressure and is indicated on a flight deck
instrument. Each of the layshafts operates against a piston that is supplied with oil
pressure from a torquemeter pump. The torquemeter supply comes from the
pressure side of the engine lubricating system. To balance any changes in axial
thrust, or engine power changes, the oil pressure is regulated by a control valve that
is incorporated in the lower piston assembly.

The piston on the lower layshaft assembly is drilled centrally and operates over a
stationary control valve. Flats on the control valve align with radial drillings in the
piston. This is oil spill to the engine oil scavenge system as shown in Fig. 14.10.

With the engine running at a stabilised power setting the lower piston will be in a
sensitive position, allowing a constant spill of oil to engine scavenge. In this
situation oil pressure is balancing the axial thrust. With an increase in engine power
the layshaft pushes the piston further over the control valve. The oil spill is reduced,
the oil pressure then increases giving an increased thrust indication on the flight
deck instrument. With a decrease in engine power the oil pressure pushes the
piston and the layshaft rearwards. The control valve now increases the oil spill, and
the oil pressure decreases until it balances the axial thrust on the layshafts. If an
engine fails the torquemeter pressure rapidly decreases below its normal operating
range, this condition is referred to as a negative torque signal. The negative torque
signal activates a low torque switch, which will in turn could activate the automatic
feathering sequence.

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Oil Pressure Torquemetering Schematic.


Figure 14.10.

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14.3.3 PHASE COMPARISON TORQUEMETER


This method of torquemetering is often used in helicopters and modern turboprop
engines. The shaft transmitting the load to the propeller or rotor has a second co-
axial shaft splined to it, this shaft is not loaded. At the other end of this shaft there
are two sets of pulse probes and phonic wheels. Normally the pulses will be in
phase with one another, but as the drive shaft is loaded it will twist very slightly and
the pulses will move out of phase with one another, the time difference being
proportional to the torque.

A Phase Comparison Torquemeter System


Figure 14.11.

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14.4 EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE


Monitoring of the temperatures within the engine core is performed by the exhaust
gas temperature system. The operating limits of the engine, and monitoring of the
mechanical integrity of the turbines during operation, is vital for the continuing
serviceability of the engine.
Exhaust gas temperature, abbreviated to EGT, is only one of the terms relating to
gas temperature. It can also be known as:-
 turbine gas temperature (TGT)
 jet pipe temperature (JPT)
 turbine inlet temperature (TIT)
 turbine blade temperature (TBT)
 Intermediate turbine temperature (ITT)
The EGT system consists of a series of thermocouples arranged radially in the
exhaust- section of the engine. The exact location is decided by the engine
manufacturer; other components within the system are:-
 a thermocouple junction box
 a balance resistor box (junction box)
 indicators on the flight deck.
A typical system lay-out is illustrated in Fig. 14.12 .
14.4.1 THERMOCOUPLES
The thermocouple itself consists of two dissimilar metals joined together within the
probe body. Gas inlet holes are provided in the outer casing to allow hot gases to
circulate around the sensing elements. The most common types of dissimilar
sensing wires used are chromel and alumel.
The probes may contain more than one thermocouple to sense the temperature at
different lengths into the exhaust duct, or adjacent probes may be of different
lengths. Some engines may have more than one EGT system. One for FADEC or
for temperature limiting.
The junction of the two wires (within the probe) is known as the hot or measuring
junction; the indicator end is known as the cold or reference junction.
The operation is fairly simple, as the thermocouple is a self-generating electrical
system. Assuming that the reference end is kept at a constant temperature
(flightdeck) and the hot end is subjected to high gas temperatures, then an
electromotive force (emf), created by the dissimilar metals. The Seebeck effect
causes the indicator to move in proportion to the difference in temperature between
the two junctions.

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A Thermocouple system with temperature compensation in the gauge and overall


resistance compensation.
Figure14.12.

The thermocouples are connected electrically in parallel to provide an average gas


temperature. The two wires (chromel and alumel) from each thermocouple
terminate at the junction box. The chromel wires are connected together to form a
parallel circuit, the alumel wire is common to all thermocouples. The junction box
can also be used to check the thermocouple continuity during maintenance checks.
From the junction box, the chromel and alumel wires are routed to the indicator on
the flight deck.
In some installations the cold junction is not in the gauge, but is a separate
thermocouple located in the intake. The benefit of this system is that when a top
temperature system is used to trim the fuel control unit, the majority of the
components in the temperature system are located on the engine. It will also
indicate the temperature difference across the engine.

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EGT System With Intake Thermocouples.


Figure 14.13

Thermocouples are designed in two basic forms:-


 surface contact - used mainly on piston engines
 immersion - Used in Gas Turbines
The immersion type thermocouple can be further divided into two categories:-
 stagnation type
 rapid response type.
The main difference between the two examples shown in Fig. 14.14.is the position
of the outlet holes in relation to the gas flow Inlet holes. The main reasons for these
arrangements relate to the velocity of the exhaust gases.

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The stagnation type is fitted to pure jet engines where the exhaust velocity is high,
allowing the larger inlet hole to let the gas circulate around the couple, with the
offset outlet hole reducing the outward velocity of the air. In this way the probe
receives a good sampling of the gas temperature.

Types of Thermocouple
Figure 14.14.

The rapid response type will be fitted mainly to turboprop engines where the gas
flow is not as high as the jet turbine flow. In this arrangement the inlet and outlet
holes are the same, creating no restriction, so a rapid response of EGT indication is
achieved.
Finally if we consider the EGT gauge (Fig. 14.15.) you will see that there are
similarities to the rpm indicator.

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The indicator shown in Fig. 14.15. is a fairly modern type, although you may
experience older instruments with a pointer only. Normally EGT is expressed in
degrees centigrade. A red line limit indicates the maximum permissible temperature
the engine is allowed to run at. And on some a red dot shows the maximum
overswing allowed for a very short time. Finally, in addition to the maximum red line
limits, most engines have an engine start EGT limit that is much less than the max.
limit. this lower limit protects a cold engine from thermal shock (overtemping)
during initial engine start.

TGT Gauge.
Figure 14.15.
14.5 FUEL FLOW METERING
Fuel flowmeters are fitted in aircraft to give an accurate indication of the rate at
which fuel is being used and the total amount of fuel that has been used at any
point during the flight. From the rate of fuel consumption the pilot is able to
determine the performance of his engines, and from the indication of the total fuel
consumed, can calculate the total flying hours that the aircraft can remain in the air.
There are a number of different types of fuel flowmeters in use on various aircraft
and it is beyond the scope of this publication to describe them all. Some of these
flowmeters indicate only the total fuel consumed, but the majority give indications of
both rate of flow and total fuel consumed.

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The volumetric flowmeter


shown in figure 14.16. has a
turbine rotor with a magnet
inset into one of the vanes.
When the rotor rotates it
induces a pulse in the
induction coil. The bore of
the unit is calibrated to
cause the rotor to rotate 32
times for every pound of fuel
passing through it. The
pulses are passed through a
system of circuits similar to
the speed probes mentioned
A Simple Volumetric Flowmeter earlier. This type of
Figure 14.16. flowmeter can indicate flow
16 in gallons or litres. Although
it is calibrated in pounds per hour, this figure is only accurate at one S.G. or
temperature. A similar system using a moving vane in a toroidal chamber is
available, again only accurate at one S.G.

To indicate mass flow accurately a flowmeter that compensates for changes of S.G.
is required.

A Mass Flow Type Flowmeter system


Figure 14.17.

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The mass flow type of flowmeter gives a reading of the mass flow rate in pounds or
kilograms per hour rather than a volumetric reading in gallons per hour. The mass
flow rate is a more useful indication for most types of aircraft. Refer to figure 14.17.
for a mass flowmeter. The mass flowmeter consists of a motor-driven impeller, a
turbine and a synchro system to transmit the data to a flightdeck gauge. In order to
give accurate readings, the impeller must be driven at a constant speed. This is
accomplished with an AC synchronous motor or a similar device. As the fuel flows
through the impeller, it is given a spin or rotation by the spinning impeller. When the
fuel leaves the impeller, it strikes the turbine, which is rotated against a restraining
spring by the spin energy of the fuel. Because a denser fuel would impart more
spin energy to the turbine the degree of rotation of the turbine is a measure of mass
flow rate. The turbine is connected to the transmitter rotor of a synchro system
which will cause the pointer on the flightdeck gauge to rotate to the proper position
to indicate the correct mass flow rate. The sensor for this and other types of
flowmeters is installed in the fuel system downstream of the fuel control device so
that the flow rate represents the fuel consumption rate for that engine.
There are other type of mass flow transmitters, that use swirl vanes to cause the
rotation and have a different type of detection system, or vane type with
complicated S.G. correction.
The flowmeter gauge will have a flow indicator and usually a fuel used indication.
The fuel used indicator is usually a digital read-out that is derived by integrating the
fuel used with time.
The gauge can be calibrated in pounds per hour of kilograms per hour.

Fuel Flowmeter Gauge


Figure 14.18.

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14.6 OIL
14.6.1 THE OIL PRESSURE INDICATOR
The oil pressure indicator has a dial normally calibrated in pounds per square inch
(psi). The indicator may have max. limit markers, but will always show the minimum
pressure that the engine is allowed to run at. The reason that some engines have
an upper limit is dependant upon the type of oil supply system. Some systems may
be regulated, therefore needing an upper limit, or be based upon flow where an
upper limit is not required.
An example of an oil pressure indicating system
is given in Fig.14.19.; the pressure indicator has
no upper oil pressure limit, however, the low
pressure limit is shown as 15 psi. There is also a
precautionary band, normally yellow in colour,
that is set just above the lower limit in the case in
Fig. 14.19., an indication of between 15 and 25
psi in this yellow band during engine operation
Oil Pressure Gauge. may require corrective action.
Figure 14.19.
Any change in oil pressure introduced into the
synchro transmitter causes an electrical signal to be transmitted through the
interconnecting wiring to the synchro receiver. This signal causes the receiver rotor
and the indicator pointer to move a distance proportional to the amount of pressure
exerted by the oil.
Most oil pressure transmitters are composed of two main parts, a bellowsor
diaphragm mechanism for measuring pressure and a synchro assembly (Fig.
14.20.) The pressure of the oil causes linear displacement of the synchro rotor.
The amount of displacement is proportional to the pressure, and varying voltages
are set up in the synchro stator. These-voltages are transmitted to the synchro
indicator.

The vent tube to


atmosphere prevents
a build up of pressure
within the transmitter
that may interfere with
the operation of the
diaphragm at high
altitudes.

Oil Pressure Gauging System


Figure 14.20.

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14.6.2 OIL PRESSURE WARNING LIGHT


Oil pressure is also monitored by an oil pressure switch (figure 14.21) that puts a
light on when the oil pressure reaches a low level. The light is usually red and will
be incorporated into the aircraft warning systems to alert the pilot. On later aircraft
the pressure switch may have two pressure switched within it. A speed comparator
will decide which switch to monitor. The idea being that a low oil pressure of say 20
psi is fine at low engine speed, however at higher engine speeds the engine could
be sustaining damage due to insufficient oil pressure even though it is above 20 psi.
The second pressure element would be activated when the engine speed was
greater than say 80% and the oil pressure less than 50 psi.

Low Oil Pressure Warning.


Figure 14.21.

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14.6.3 OIL TEMPERATURE.


Oil temperature can be detected by a
temperature probe. The sensing
element of the probe is a resistance
wire. When heated the resistance of
the wire will change. This can be
measure by a wheatstone bridge
system. However the wheatstone
bridge power supply will also vary the
gauge reading so making this method
Wheatstone Bridge Temperature System inaccurate.
Figure 14.22.

It is more usual to use a ratiometer system to measure the resistance. In this


instrument the measured resistance and the calibration resistance are in parallel,
varying the current flow through two coils which are arranged to provide opposite
torque to the pointer. This type of instrument can measure temperature up to 150°C,
so is capable of monitoring an engine oil system.

Ratiometer Type System


Figure 14.23.

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14.6.4 OIL QUANTITY


Oil quantity indicators are usually found in most aircraft
these days. They usually consist of a float and probe.
The float has a bush which supports it on the probe, a
magnet within the bush sequentially operates reed
switches within the probe. These switches change the
resistance’s at A & B as the oil level changes, which will
be read on a desyn type gauge in the flight deck.
14.7

Oil Quantity Probe (ALF 502)


Figure 14.24.

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14.7 VIBRATION

A turbo-jet engine has an extremely low vibration level and a change of vibration,
due to an impending or partial failure, may pass without being noticed. Many
engines are therefore fitted with vibration indicators that continually monitor the
vibration level of the engine. The indicator is usually a milliammeter that receives
signals through an amplifier from engine mounted transmitters fig.14.25.

A vibration transmitter accelerometer is mounted on the engine casing and


electrically connected to an amplifier and indicator. The vibration sensing element
is usually an electromagnetic transducer that converts the rate of vibration into
electrical signals and these cause the indicator pointer to move proportional to the
vibration level. A warning lamp on the instrument panel is incorporated in the
system to warn the pilot if an unacceptable level of vibration is approached,
enabling the engine to be shut down and so reduce the risk of damage.

The vibration level recorded on the gauge is the sum total of vibration felt at the
pick-up. A more accurate method differentiates between the frequency ranges of
each rotating assembly and so enables the source of vibration to be isolated. This
is particularly important on multi-spool engines.(Figure 14.26. refers)

A crystal-type vibration transmitter, giving a more reliable indication of vibration, has


been developed for use on multi-spool engines. A system of filters in the electrical
circuit to the gauge makes it possible to compare the vibration obtained against a
known frequency range and so locate the vibration source. A multiple-selector
switch enables the pilot to select a specific area to obtain a reading of the level of
vibration.

14.8 WARNING LIGHTS


Warning lights are used to indicate to the pilot if a failure has occurred. These will
be red for something that requires immediate action or amber for less urgent items.
Lights are also used to indicate when a function has operated. These light are
usually white, blue or green.
Warning lights may also be provided for L.P. fuel filter blocked, low fuel supply
pressure, vibration low oil pressure and any other system the designer or the
engineering authority require.

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Vibration Indicating System


Figure 14.25.

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Vibration Signal Conditioner.


Figure 14.26.

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15 THRUST AUGMENTATION
15.1 INTRODUCTION
There are occasions when the maximum thrust from a basic gas turbine engine is
inadequate and some method of increasing the available thrust is required without
resorting to a larger engine with its concurrent penalties of increased frontal area,
weight and fuel consumption.
There are two recognised methods of augmenting this maximum thrust:
a. De-mineralised Water or water/Methanol injection to restore, or even boost, the
thrust from a gas turbine operating from hot and high altitude airfields.
b. Reheat (or afterburning) to boost the thrust at various altitudes, especially at
high speeds. This is normally for short periods only.
15.2 WATER INJECTION
15.2.1 EFFECTS ON ENGINE POWER
The power output from a gas turbine engine depends upon the weight (air density)
of the airflow and the amount that it is accelerated as it flows through the engine.
Therefore, it follows that any condition that reduces the air density will reduce also
the engine power output. The two main natural causes of reduced air pressure are:
 Increased Altitude
 Increased Temperature
When these two causes of reduced air density are combined at a high altitude/
tropical airfield, there is a possibility that engines may not produce sufficient power
for a safe take-off and climb out. However, in these circumstances, the engine
power can be restored and in some instances increased, by cooling the airflow to
increase its density. To date, the addition of water or a water/methanol mixture has
proved to be the cheapest practical means of restoring or increasing the power of
an engine. Methanol has anti-freezing properties and it is also a fuel; therefore
water/methanol increases the density of the airflow and provides the extra fuel
necessary to match the increased weight of air. Adjustments to the engine fuel
system are, therefore, unnecessary. The addition of water has two effects upon the
performance of the engine: the cooling effect of water increases the density of the
airflow to increase the thrust and, when the water is converted into steam, it
provides a high volumetric expansion that increases the thrust even further.
15.2.2 METHODS OF APPLYING WATER/METHANOL
The following notes describe two methods of using water/methanol as a means of
restoring lost engine power, or as a means of increasing the total useful power
obtainable from a gas turbine engine. The water/methanol mixture can be
 Injecting as a spray into the compressor air intake.
 Injecting direct into the combustion chamber.

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Spraying the mixture into the air intake is more effective for engines with centrifugal
compressors than it is for axial compressors. With centrifugal compressors, an
even distribution of the mixture is obtained whereas, with an axial flow compressor,
even distribution is uncertain. (Turbo propeller engines use intake injection
regardless of the type of engine in use).
Water/methanol injection into the combustion chamber used to be carried out on
older engines where the combustion chambers were relatively long and the
methanol had time to separate and burn before entering the turbine. Later engines
use water only and increase the fuel flow to gain the extra thrust.
15.2.3 COMPRESSOR INTAKE INJECTION (TURBO PROP)
When water or water/methanol mixes with the air at the compressor intakes, the
temperature of the air is reduced and, as a result, the air density, mass airflow and
thrust are increased. If water alone were to be injected, it would reduce the turbine
inlet temperature and permit an increased fuel flow to be used. When methanol is
added, the turbine inlet temperature is partially restored by burning the methanol in
the combustion chamber; this restores the engine power without adjusting the fuel
flow.

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Water/Methanol Intake Injection System


Figure 15.1.

Operation
When the system is switched ON, water/methanol mixture is pumped from the
aircraft-mounted tank to a control unit which meters the flow of mixture fed to the air
intakes ( figure 15.1.). The flow of water/methanol is controlled by a single metering
valve and a servo piston that is powered by engine oil. The flow of the engine oil to
the servo piston is controlled both by a shut-off cock and the position of a servo
valve which, in turn, is moved by a control mechanism. This control mechanism
balances propeller torque system oil pressure against atmospheric air pressure
upon a capsule assembly within the control. The oil cock is interconnected with the
throttle lever in such a manner that until the throttle is moved to the take-off position,
the oil cock remains closed and the water/methanol system is inoperative. Moving
the throttle lever to the “take-off” position opens the oil cock to motivate the
water/methanol system.

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15.2.4 COMBUSTION CHAMBER INJECTION SYSTEM


Injecting a water or water/methanol mixture into the combustion chambers
increases the mass flow through the turbine and the high volumetric expansion as
the water becomes steam increases the thrust. The pressure and temperature drop
across the turbine is reduced and this further increases the thrust. The reduction in
turbine inlet temperature due to water injection enables the fuel system to provide
an increased fuel flow to restore the maximum speed of the engine, thus providing
further additional thrust without exceeding the safe turbine gas temperature
limits(See figure 15.2.). When methanol is used with the water the turbine inlet
temperature is partially restored without extra fuel from the fuel system.
15.2.4.1 Operation
Water flows from an aircraft-mounted tank to an air turbine driven water pump and
is delivered to a water flow sensing unit (see figure 15.3.). From the water sensing
unit the mixture is distributed to the burner feed arms where two jets at the base of
each arm spray the mixture on to the upstream side of the swirl vanes to cool the air
entering the combustion zone. The water pressure between the sensing unit and
the discharge jets, is sensed by the fuel system control, which automatically resets
the engine speed governor to give a higher maximum engine speed.
The water system is brought into operation when the throttle lever is moved into the
take-off position where it closes micro-switches to provide an air supply for the air
turbine-powered water pump. The water flow sensing valve opens when a correct
pressure difference exists between water pressure and compressor delivery air
pressure. The valve in the water flow sensing unit also acts as a non-return valve to
prevent air pressure feeding back from the water discharge jets and provides for the
operation of an indicator to show when water/methanol is flowing.

Fuel Control Unit Speed Governor Reset Device to Increase Fuel Flow
Figure 15.2.

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Water injection Into The Combustion Chamber


Figure 15.3.

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15.3 RE-HEAT (AFTER BURNING)


15.3.1 PURPOSE
Re-heat is a system fitted to a gas turbine engine as a means of increasing the total
thrust. As much as twice the thrust can be obtained using reheat. Unfortunately it is
extravagant with fuel so is suitable for brief periods of use only; nevertheless, re-
heat allows flexibility in handling. The only civil aircraft to have reheat is Concorde.
Principle
The principle of re-heat is similar to that of the gas turbine engine itself – i.e. thrust
is obtained as a reaction from accelerating a mass of air through the engine. Re-
heat obtains extra thrust from accelerating the exhaust gases in the jet pipe behind
the turbine.
The exhaust gases contain oxygen provided by the un-burnt cooling air. By adding
fuel and burning it, the exhaust gases can be ‘re-heated’ to cause an increase in
velocity with a substantial gain in thrust.
A ring of fuel burners is mounted in the jet pipe and fed with fuel from the aircraft
tanks, so that the exhaust acts like a ram jet.
15.3.2 REVISION OF THRUST
As the air flows through the engine it undergoes many changes in speed, direction
and pressure. However, as we learnt in Chapter 1 of this book, the useful thrust
depends upon the mass of air passing through the engine and upon the change in
velocity between the air at the intake and that at the exit of the propelling nozzle.
For a constant mass airflow, anything that increases the difference between the
final velocity and the initial velocity will give an increase in thrust. Re-heat does just
this; by burning fuel in the exhaust system behind the turbine we are creating a ram
jet which increases the final velocity of the airflow; this in turn, increases the
effective thrust from the engine.
15.3.3 RE-HEAT AND BY-PASS ENGINES
When re-heat is fitted to a by-pass engine, much greater thrust increase can be
obtained. This is because the gas temperature before re-heat is much lower and
hence the temperature ratio is much higher. Gains in the region of 70% increase in
static thrust are readily obtained, with greater gains in thrust at high forward speeds.
The limiting factor is the temperature that the jet pipe can withstand.
15.3.4 THE ADVANTAGE OF RE-HEAT
Re-heat provides the best means of substantially increasing the thrust of an engine
for short periods. The advantages are those of improved take-off, rate of climb and
air speed. Re-heat can be selected or cancelled at will by moving the throttle lever
into or out of the re-heat position.

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15.3.5 THE DISADVANTAGES OF RE-HEAT


Because of the additional fittings, the diameter of the re-heat jet pipe is greater than
that of a standard jet pipe for the same engine. Therefore, drag may be increased
because the overall frontal area of the engine is increased. There is also a small
weight penalty and the maximum continuous thrust is slightly reduced by the drag of
the re-heat fittings inside the pipe. Re-heat is grossly extravagant with fuel.
15.3.6 PROPELLING NOZZLES
The design of the jet pipe and nozzle area has a considerable influence upon the
overall useful thrust produced by a gas turbine engine. Generally the jet pipe and
the propelling nozzle match the gas flow characteristics of the engine so that the
final pressure and velocity of the gas produces the greatest amount of useful thrust.
Thus the area of the propelling nozzle is as important it must be designed to match
the airflow characteristics of the engine if it is to obtain the desired balance between
pressure, temperature and thrust.
A fixed area propelling nozzle, as fitted to non re-heat engines, is a compromise
designed to provide an acceptable amount of thrust without being ideal for all
engine speeds. The size of a fixed nozzle is chosen to provide its greatest
efficiency at high cruising and maximum power but, a variable area nozzle would be
more efficient.

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15.3.7 RE-HEAT NOZZLES


If re-heat was fitted to an engine with a standard sized fixed area propelling nozzle,
the expansion of gases caused by the use of re-heat would increase the pressure in
the jet pipe and reduce the pressure drop across the turbine (turbine expansion
ratio). A reduced turbine expansion ratio will slow down the turbine and
consequently lower the engine power. It would also increase the back pressure on
the rear stage of the compressor which would cause the compressor to surge. To
avoid a rise in pressure at the turbine outlet, the area of the propelling nozzle must
be enlarged when re-heat is in use. Thus the propelling nozzle of a re-heat engine
must be able to provide a nozzle area suitable for normal running without re-heat
and a larger nozzle area when re-heat is used. Re-heat can usually be selected
only after the throttle lever has passed through a normal 100% position. Therefore
the smallest nozzle area must be efficient at normal maximum power and the large
nozzle area must cater for the re-heat gas flow. If the amount of re-heat can be
varied, then the re-heat nozzle must change to match the amount of re-heat
selected.

Variable Area Nozzles


The variable propelling nozzle is suitable for use with controllable re-heat systems
because it can provide a variable nozzle area to match the amount of re-heat
selected. The circular continuity of the nozzle is maintained by a system of hinged
flaps. The nozzle area is reduced by positive mechanical means but it is enlarged
by the exhaust gas pressure acting upon the inside surface of the flaps.

Description
A ring of hinged master flaps is interleaved with a ring of hinged sealing flaps to
provide a variable area propelling nozzle. Each flap is hinged at its forward edge so
that the rear edge can move inwards to reduce the nozzle area, or outwards to
increase the nozzle area.
Actuation of the nozzle system can be hydraulic using oil or fuel as the fluid
medium, or an air motor driving screw jacks.
On selection of reheat the nozzle will move first to prevent back pressure on the
engine, when it has moved the fuel will be supplied. With any increase in reheat the
nozzle moves then the fuel follows. When reheat is reduced the opposite occurs
first the fuel reduces then the nozzle closes. This ensures the nozzle area is too
large rather than too small for any change in fuel flow.

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An Air Motor and Screwjack nozzle


Figure 15.4.
Actuation System

Reheat Jet Pipe with Hydraulic Actuation.


Figure 15.5

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15.3.8 THE RE-HEAT JET PIPE


15.3.8.1 Description

The afterburning jet pipe is made from a heat resistant nickel alloy and requires
more insulation than the normal jet pipe to prevent the heat of combustion being
transferred to the aircraft structure. The jet pipe may be of a double skin
construction with the outer skin carrying the flight loads and the inner skin the
thermal stresses; a flow of cooling air is often induced between the inner and outer
skins. Provision is also made to accommodate expansion and contraction, and to
prevent gas leaks at the jet pipe joints.
A circular heatshield of similar material to the jet pipe is often fitted to the inner wall
of the jet pipe to improve cooling at the rear of the burner section. The heatshield
comprises a number of bands, linked by cooling corrugations, to form a single skin.
The rear of the heatshield is a series of overlapping 'tiles' riveted to the surrounding
skin. The shield also prevents combustion instability from creating excessive noise
and vibration, which in turn would cause rapid physical deterioration of the
afterburner equipment.

Reheat Pipe Cutaway


Figure 15.6.

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15.3.8.2 Re-heat Flame


Before looking at the re-heat burners and fuel supply systems, we must consider
the problem of establishing and stabilising the re-heat flame. In the re-heat jet pipe
where the flame must burn, the gas flow has a speed of the order of 500 mph (750
ft/sec to 1200 ft/sec). In effect, we are trying to burn fuel in a ‘wind tunnel’ and the
problems are a magnification of those already described in chapter 11. Any attempt
to establish a flame in the re-heat jet pipe will not succeed unless the airflow can be
slowed locally and its pressure increased. Therefore the burner system must
include some type of diffuser equipment.
15.3.8.3 The Burner Assembly
The construction of the re-heat burner assembly varies from one manufacturer to
another. However, the burner assembly shown in figure 15.7. is typical of those
now in use. This assembly consists of three concentric fuel manifolds, two
concentric ‘V’ section flame stabilising gutters (vapour gutters) and a number of
support struts; it is built upon a tubular centre piece. There are three long struts
interspaced with three short struts and welded to the centre tube with 60 spacing.
These struts locate and secure the burner assembly into the re-heat pipe. A modern
trend is to use vaporisers set into the vapour gutters for the main fuel flow.

Reheat Burner
Figure 15.7.

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15.3.8.4 Fuel Flow


A re-heat fuel pump receives fuel from the engine fuel supply Its operation and flow
rate are controlled by a reheat control unit. The fuel is fed to the reheat burner by
fuel pipes which run inside the burner support struts. The fuel is divided into main
fuel flow and vapour gutter/ignition flow. The ignition fuel flow is used with ignition
plugs and catalytic ignition systems. Vapour gutter flow provides a flow into the
gutters which provides a stable, slower airflow to allow the flame to stabilise behind
the gutters. Interconnectors allow the flame to spread between the vapour gutters.
The main fuel flow goes to the spray nozzles that are upstream of the vapour
gutters, and this fuel is atomised and vaporised before being ignited by the vapour
gutter flame.
15.3.8.5 Re-heat Ignition
The atomised fuel spray is fed into the re-heat jet pipe and ignited by one of three
methods:-
 Spark Ignition
 Hot Streak Ignition
 Catalytic Ignition
a. Spark Ignition. Spark ignition for re-heat fuel is similar to normal engine ignition.
Light-up is obtained by using a pilot fuel burner and an igniter plug. The igniter
plug is fitted downstream of the pilot burner in a conical fitting that is a part of
the re-heat system. The core provides airflow conditions suitable for light-up
and when fuel is sprayed from the pilot burner, it is carried on to the igniter plug
and ignition takes place. This method has been superseded by the other
methods.

Spark ignition
Figure 15.8.

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Hot Streak Ignition With a Relay


Supply Figure 15.9.
b. Hot Streak Ignition. The hot streak ignition system is more often called ‘hot
shot’ ignition. It consists of one or two fuel injectors; one sprays fuel into the
engine combustion system and the other if fitted sprays fuel aft of the turbine as
a relay system to keep the flame alight for a longer distance. Spraying
additional fuel into the main combustion area causes an elongated flame and a
‘hot streak’ flame reaches and ignites the re-heat fuel. The turbine blades are
not damaged because the hot streak flame is of short duration. This method
provides a very quick light up, however if it fails to light then reheat has to be
reselected.
c. Catalytic Ignition. Catalytic ignition is achieved by use of a platinum/rhodium
element. Atomised fuel is sprayed over the element and a chemical reaction
causes spontaneous ignition.

Catalytic Ignition
Figure 15.10.

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INTENTIONALLY BLANK

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16 TURBO-PROP ENGINES
16.1 INTRODUCTION
The turbo-prop engine consists of a gas turbine engine driving a propeller. In the
turbo-jet engine the turbine extracts only sufficient energy from the gas flow to drive
the compressor and engine accessories, leaving the remaining energy to provide
the high velocity propulsive jet. By comparison, the turbine stages of the turbo-prop
engine absorb the majority of the gas energy because of the additional power
required to drive the propeller, leaving only a small residual jet thrust at the
propelling nozzle.
Turbo-shaft engines work on identical principles, except that all the useful gas
energy is absorbed by the turbine to produce rotary shaft power and the residual
thrust is negligible; such engines find particular applications in helicopters and
hovercraft. The lack of a significant propulsive jet means that these engines can be
mounted in any position in the airframe and this flexibility is increased by the very
compact design and layout of a modern turbo-shaft engine.
Because the propeller wastes less kinetic energy in its slipstream than a turbo-jet in
its exhaust, the turbo-prop is the most efficient method of using the gas turbine
cycle at low and medium altitudes and at speeds up to approximately 350 knots. At
higher speeds and altitudes, the efficiency of the propeller deteriorates rapidly
because of the development of shock waves on the blade tips.
16.2 TYPES OF TURBO-PROP ENGINES
Current turbo-prop engines can be categorised according to the method used to
achieve propeller drive; these categories are:
a. Coupled Power Turbine.
b. Free Power Turbine.
c. Compounded Engine.
16.2.1 COUPLED POWER TURBINE
The coupled power turbine engine is the simplest adaptation from the turbo-jet
engine. In this configuration, the gas flow is fully expanded across a turbine which
drives the compressor, the surplus power developed being transmitted to the
propeller by a common drive shaft via suitable reduction gearing. This arrangement
is shown diagrammatically in figure 16.1.

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Coupled Power Turbine


Figure 16.1.
16.2.2 FREE POWER TURBINE
In this arrangement, a gas turbine acts simply as a gas generator to supply high-
energy gases to an independent free power turbine. The gases are expanded
across the free turbine, which is connected to the propeller drive shaft via reduction
gearing. The layout of a free power turbine engine is shown in the figure 16.2. The
free turbine arrangement is very flexible; it is easy to start due to the absence of
propeller drag and the propeller and gas producer shafts can assume their optimum
speeds independently.

Free Power Turbine


Figure 16.2.

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16.2.3 COMPOUNDED ENGINE


The compounded engine arrangement features a two-spool engine, with the
propeller drive directly connected to the low-pressure spool.

A Compounded Turboprop Engine.


Figure 16.3.

16.3 REDUCTION GEARING


The power turbine shaft of a turbo-prop engine normally rotates at around 8,000 to
10,000 rpm, although rpm of over 40,000 are found in some engines of small
diameter. However, the rotational speed of the propeller is dictated by the limiting
tip velocity. A large reduction of shaft speed must be provided in order to match the
power turbine to the propeller. The reduction gearing must provide a propeller shaft
speed which can be utilised effectively by the propeller; gearing ratios of between 6
and 20:1 are typical. In the direct coupled power turbine and compounded engines,
the shaft bearing the compressor and turbine assemblies drives the propeller
directly through a reduction gearbox. In the free turbine arrangement reduction
gearing on the turbine shaft is still necessary; this is because the turbine operates at
high speed for maximum efficiency. The reduction gearing accounts for a large
proportion (up to 25%) of the total weight of a turbo-prop engine and also increases
its complexity; power losses of the order of 3 to 4% are incurred in the gearing (eg.
on a turbo-prop producing 6,000 eshp, some 200 shp is lost through the gearing).

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16.3.1 SIMPLE SPUR ‘EPICYCLIC’


A gear train consisting of a sun (driving) gear meshing with and driving three or
more equi-spaced gears known as ‘Planet Pinions’. These pinions are mounted on
a carrier and rotate independently on their own axles. Surrounding the gear train is
an internally toothed ‘Annulus Gear’ in mesh with the Planet Pinions.

An Epicyclic Gear
TrainFigure 16.4.

If the annulus is fixed, rotation of the sun wheel causes the planet pinions to rotate
about their axes within the annulus gear, this causes the planet carrier to rotate in
the same direction as sun wheel but at a lower speed. With the propeller shaft
secured to the planet pinion carrier, a speed reduction is obtained with the turbine
shaft (input shaft) and propeller shaft (output shaft) in the same axis and rotating in
the same direction. (Fig.16.5.)

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Epicyclic Gear train with Fixed Annulus Ring Rear.


Figure 16.5.
If the annulus is free, rotation of the sun wheel causes the planet pinions to rotate
about their axles within the annulus gear. With the planet pinion carrier fixed and
the propeller shaft attached to the annulus gear, rotation of the planet pinions
causes the annulus gear and propeller to rotate in the opposite direction to the sun
wheel and at a reduced speed. (Fig.16.6.)

Epicyclic Gear Train with Fixed Planet gear Carrier.


Figure 16.6.

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16.3.2 COMPOUND SPUR EPICYCLIC


Compound epicyclic reduction gears enable a greater reduction in speed to be
obtained without resorting to larger components. They may be of either the fixed or
free annulus type.

Compound Spur Gear


TrainsFigure 16.7.

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16.3.3 GEAR TRAIN/EPICYCLIC


Some turbo-props will use a gear train or a combination of gear train and epicyclic.

Garrett 331 Cut away Showing the Combined Epicyclic Gear Train.
Figure 16.7.

16.4 TURBO-PROP PERFORMANCE


The turbo-prop has a higher propulsive efficiency than the turbo-jet up to speeds of
approximately 575 mph and higher than a turbo-fan engine up to approximately 450
mph. Compared with a piston engine of equivalent power, the turbo-prop has a
higher power/weight ratio and a greater fatigue life because of the reduced vibration
level from the gas turbine rotating assemblies.
16.5 TURBO-PROP ENGINE CONTROL
The gas generator element of the turbo-prop engine operates at high rpm for
maximum efficiency; any reduction in rpm reduces the pressure ratio across the
compressor and therefore adversely affects the sfc. In practice, most turbo-prop
engines have gas generators which run at or near 100% rpm and three main
methods are used to control the rpm and power absorption of the propeller
throughout the normal flight ranges. These are:
 Integrated control of both rpm and fuel flow.
 Direct control of gas generator fuel flow.
 Direct control of propeller blade angle.

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16.5.1 INTEGRATED CONTROL OF RPM AND FUEL FLOW


The integrated control system is suitable for coupled power turbine and
compounded turbo-prop engines. In this system the propeller rpm is selected by a
power lever that simultaneously adjusts the fuel flow to ensure that the correct flow
is maintained for any selected rpm. Up to maximum rpm, the turbo-prop runs at the
selected rpm, increases in rpm demanded by the power lever being automatically
accompanied by corresponding increases in fuel flow, blade angle and hence
power. At maximum rpm, further increases in power are achieved by increasing the
fuel flow; the propeller constant speed unit (CSU) automatically increases the blade
angle to absorb the extra power and thus maintain constant speed.
16.5.2 DIRECT CONTROL OF FUEL FLOW
The direct control of fuel flow is suitable for use in a free power turbine engine. In
this system, the gas generator is controlled in the same manner as a turbo-jet and
the power available to the free turbine assembly is governed by the fuel flow.
Through reduction gearing, the free turbine turns the propeller that is maintained at
constant rpm by the CSU.
16.5.3 DIRECT CONTROL OF BLADE ANGLE (BETA CONTROL)
This control system can be used for any turbo-prop engine. In this system, the
cockpit power lever simply selects a blade angle (B) and various automatic systems
are used to maintain the propeller rpm by adjusting the fuel flow (e.g. by a governor
in the fuel control system). The Astazou engine in the Jetstream is typical of the
direct-coupled engine in which this control system is used. As the propeller blade
angle is changed, the propeller speed governor adjusts the fuel flow to maintain
constant propeller rpm (and thus constant engine rpm). The direct control of blade
angle in a free turbine system is found most commonly in helicopter turbo-shaft
engines. Here, the blade angle is selected by the collective lever and the output of
the gas generator is automatically adjusted to maintain the rotor rpm within fine
limits.

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16.6 ENGINE AND PROPELLER CONTROLS


Turbo-props are normally controlled by two levers per power unit, a power lever and
a condition lever. The diagrams show a typical installation for a twin turbo-prop.
The example shown is a DASH-8.

Power and Conditioning Levers.


Figure 16.8.

16.7 CONTROL OUTSIDE NORMAL FLIGHT RANGE


Outside the normal flight range and particularly in the reverse thrust range, the
engine/propeller combination is normally controlled by the beta system, i.e. by direct
control of propeller blade angle. The transition point between the control systems is
usually indicated by a stop or detent in the throttle lever quadrant.
16.8 PROPELLER CONTROL
The main propeller controls found on the majority of turbo-prop engines are as
follows:
a. Constant speed unit.
b. Manual and automatic feathering controls.
c. Fixed and removable stops.
d. Synchronisation and synchrophasing units.
e. Reverse thrust control.
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16.8.1 CONSTANT SPEED UNIT


In the normal flight range, the main control of the propeller is exercised by the
propeller control unit (PCU).
16.8.2 MANUAL AND AUTOMATIC FEATHERING CONTROLS
All turbo-prop aircraft are fitted with some form of manual feathering control. In
some cases this control is integral with the HP cock for the associated engine; in
others the feathering control is operated through the fire protection system which
also closes the HP cock. Automatic feathering control is fitted to many turbo-prop
engines to avoid excessive drag following an engine failure. The automatic system
receives signals from the engine torquemeters and reacts to unscheduled loss of
torque by feathering the appropriate propeller. On twin-engine turbo-prop aircraft,
the operation of the autofeather system on one engine automatically inhibits the
same operation on the other engine, while still allowing the latter to be feathered
manually.
16.8.2.1 Power Lever
The power lever operates in a quadrant slot labelled “POWER” with positions (from
rear to front) labelled “MAX REV”, “DISC”, “FLT IDLE” and “MAX”. The power lever
is connected by cables, pushrods and bellcranks to the control system and PCU of
the associated powerplant. The power lever quadrant slot has a lockout gate at the
FLT IDLE position, which is controlled by a finger latch below the power lever knob.
Raising the latch permits aft movement into the ground range.
The power lever controls power in the forward thrust range and blade angle in the
flight Beta and ground Beta ranges. The flight Beta range extends from a blade
angle of 26° to 19 (minimum in-flight blade angle). The power lever controls blade
angle from aft of FLT IDLE to MAX REV.
The spring-loaded, detented DISC position produces at 0 blade angle or flat
discing; further aft movement increases blade angle in a negative direction until at
MAX REV the blade angle is –11.5°. Both of these positions will assist in slowing
the aircraft during landing.
While operating in the Beta range, the HP fuel control regulates engine power,
providing Np underspeed governing between FLT IDLE and DISC and both engine
power and blade angle control in the reverse thrust range.
When the flight control gust lock lever, labelled “CONT LOCK” is at the on position,
the power lever cannot be moved to the MAX position. This lever will also lock the
aircraft flight controls.

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Engine and Propeller Controls (Dash 8)


Figure 16.9.

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16.8.2.2 Condition Lever (RPM Control)


The condition lever is connected to the PCU and HP fuel control by cables,
pushrods and bellcranks and operates in a quadrant slot labelled “PROP” on the
centre console. The condition lever positions are labelled (rear to front) “FUEL
OFF”, “START & FEATHER”, “MIN” and “MAX”. The range between START &
FEATHER and MIN is labelled “UN-FEATHER”. Inadvertent selections below MIN
and START & FEATHER are prevented by detents. The lever must be pulled out
for aft movement past these positions.
Moving the condition lever from MIN to START & FEATHER feathers the propeller
through the PCU and signals the HP fuel system to establish a fuel flow to sustain
ground idle rpm. Moving the lever forward of START & FEATHER unfeathers the
propeller when the engine is running. When the condition lever is moved from
START & FEATHER to FUEL OFF, it mechanically closes the fuel shut-off valve on
the HP fuel system and shuts down the engine. The condition lever range between
MIN and MAX sets propeller rpm for in-flight constant speed operation.

16.8.2.3 Constant Speed Range


The constant speed range is defined as propeller operation from a fully fine setting
(condition lever at MAX RPM) to an increased blade angle pre-selected by a
condition lever angle (CLA) setting of a speed-sensitive, flyweight governor in the
PCU. The governor operates to obtain and maintain constant speed settings
between 900 and 1,200 propeller rpm (Np). Ground range lights indicate at 16.5
and the discing is between 1.5 and 3.0.
16.8.2.4 Beta Range
The term “Beta Range” is used to define propeller operation from a maximum Beta
setting (propeller blade angle 26) to a full reverse setting (propeller blade angle –
11.5). The Beta range is divided operationally into two ranges by a gate on the
associated power lever which controls blade angle from 16 to 19 above the gate
and below the gate to full reverse.
Propeller blade angle at full feather is 86 + 5.

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Power Lever and Propeller Ranges.


Figure 16.10.

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Power lever Quadrant and Associated Typical Blade Angles.


Figure 16.11.

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16.8.3 FIXED AND REMOVABLE STOPS


A number of stops or latches can be incorporated in the propeller control system;
their purpose is to confine the angular movement of the blades within limits
appropriate to the phase of flight or ground handling. The most common stops are
described below and typical values are given for the corresponding blade angles
(see the figure).
a. Feather and Reverse Braking Stops. These two fixed stops define the full range
within which the propeller angle may be varied (+85 to -15).
b. Ground Fine Pitch Stop. This is a removable stop (-1) which is provided for
starting the engine and maintaining minimum constant rpm; the stop also
prevents the propeller from entering the reverse pitch range.
c. Flight Fine Pitch Stop. This is a removable stop (+14) which prevents the
blade angle from fining off below its preset value. Its purpose is to prevent
propeller overspeeding after a CSU failure. It also limits the amount of
windmilling drag on the final approach. The stop is usually engaged
automatically as the pitch is increased above its setting; removal of the stop is,
however, usually by switch selection.
d. Flight Cruise Pitch Stop. This is a removable stop (+27) which is fitted to
prevent excessive drag or overspeeding in the event of a PCU failure. The stop
engages automatically as the pitch is increased above its setting and is also
withdrawn automatically as the pitch is decreased towards flight idle provided
that two or more of the propellers fine off at the same time. Variations on this
type of stop include automatic drag limiters (ADL) and a Beta follow-up system.
In the first of these, the stop is in the form of a variable pitch datum which is
sensitive to torque pressure. If the propeller torque falls below the datum value,
the pitch of the propeller is automatically increased. The pitch value at which
the ADL is set is varied by the position of the power lever. Thus, as the power is
reduced, the ADL torque datum value is also reduced so that the necessary
approach and landing drag may be attained, while simultaneously limiting the
drag to a safe maximum value. The Beta follow-up stop uses the Beta control
(ie. direct selection of blade angle for ground handling) to select a blade angle
just below the value controlled by the PCU. In the event of a PCU failure, the
propeller can only fine off by a few degrees before it is prevented from further
movement in that direction by the Beta follow-up stop. In the flight range, the
position of this stop always remains below the minimum normal blade angle and
so does not interfere with the PCU governing.
e. Coarse Pitch Stop. This stop (+50) limits the maximum coarse pitch obtainable
in the normal flight range. A feathering selection normally over-rides this stop.

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16.9 OVERSPEED SAFETY DEVICES

A propeller that overspeeds, even by the small amount of, say 5 or 10%, increases
the centrifugal forces on the hub by a huge amount. This could cause the blades to
separate from the hub with catastrophic results to the aircraft.

A gas turbine engine has its own fuel control system, which maintains the engine
within its operating speed range. With a turboprop engine it is normally the
propeller which acts as a governor by increasing or decreasing its pitch angle to add
or remove the loading on the rotating parts of the engine.

If a turboprop overspeeds, it is usually due to the fact that the propeller controls
have allowed the pitch angle of the propeller to decrease, so that the reduction of
load on the engine has caused it to overspeed. This reduction of pitch is as a result
of aerodynamic and centrifugal forces acting on the rotating propeller.

If the reduction of the propeller pitch has been caused by failure of the propeller
control unit, there may be a back-up method, built in to the control system, to drive
the propeller back to a coarser angle, thereby slowing it down to a safe value.
These back-up systems usually involve the use of centrifugal governors that sense
the overspeed.

If the propeller control system is damaged or it cannot drive the propeller to a safe,
coarser, blade angle, the fuel control of the engine may reduce the flow of fuel to
the engine, effectively acting as if the pilot had retarded the throttle. This should
bring the hub loading within a safe value.

As an example, the system shown is that fitted to the Pratt & Whitney 124 engines
on the ATR72 aircraft, which has a combined hydraulic/pneumatic overspeed
protection. If the propeller overspeeds above 102.5% NP, (NP = propeller speed),
The flyweights move outwards, opening the pilot valve and allowing metered oil
pressure to drive the propeller towards coarse.

In the event that the above system fails to operate, (propeller continues to
accelerate), the air bleed orifice opens at a slightly higher NP. This bleed biases
the fuel control system, (H.M.U.) to decrease the fuel flow, reducing the engine
speed.

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Propeller Overspeed Governor (ATR)


Figure 16.12.

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Whilst the system previously described is rather complex, the engine of a modern,
'free power turbine' design has to have sophisticated protective measures fitted. By
comparison, the overspeed protection installed on the Rolls Royce Dart, a 'direct
coupled' drive engine designed in the 1940s, is a relatively simple system.

The pump case pressure is fed with fuel from radial tappings in the rotating pump
assembly. If the engine overspeeds, the fuel is 'centrifuged' into the pump case at a
higher pressure. This pressure is fed to a diaphragm in the overspeed governor,
which spills the servo pressure and reduces the fuel supply to the engine. This
limits the engine, which normally has a governed maximum of 15,000 R.P.M., to an
overspeed maximum of 16,400 R.P.M. The illustration below shows the basic
system showing how spilling the servo pressure reduces the pump output. Apart
from the protection mechanisms already mentioned, which have to react extremely
fast to prevent accidents, there are a number of flight deck indications which may be
in place of, or in addition to the automatic systems.

The simplest is the 'red line' on the tachometer, (revolution counter), or power,
(percentage), instrument, which must not be exceeded at any time. If the aircraft
has an electronic flight warning system, (F.W.S.) however, then warning lights,
captions and audio warnings may be used to get the attention of the flight crew.

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Older Style Governor Built into Fuel Pump.


Figure 16.13.

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17 TURBOSHAFT ENGINES
17.1 INTRODUCTION.
Gas turbine engines that deliver power through a shaft to operate something other
than a propeller are referred to as turboshaft engines. In most cases the output
shaft (power takeoff), is driven by its own power turbine (free turbine), which
extracts the majority of the total power output from the engines gas generator.
Turboshaft engines with a reduction gear are used to power boats, ships,
hovercraft, trains and cars. They are also used to pump natural gas across country
and to drive various kinds of industrial equipment such as air compressors or large
electric generators (fig 17.1.)

An Industrial Turboshaft Engine.


Figure 17.1.

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In aviation turboshaft engines are used to power many of the modern helicopters in
service. They are similar in design to turboprop engines and in some instances will
use the same gas generator section design. The turboshaft power takeoff may be
coupled to, and driven directly by the turbine that drives the compressor, but is more
likely to be driven by a turbine of its own. Engines using a separate turbine for
power takeoff are called free power turbine engines, and it is this type of engine that
is most commonly used in today’s modern fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft.
Atypical example of a turboprop/turboshaft engine is the Pratt and Whitney PT 6.
(figure 17.2.)

The Pratt and Whitney (Canada) PT6 turboprop engine is a popular free turbine
engine that can be adapted to both turboprop and turboshaft applications.
Figure 17.2.

A free power turbine engine consists of two main units; the gas generator and the
free power turbine. In the example shown in Figure 17.2. air enters the engine and
is compressed, then heated in the combustion chamber . The resulting expansion
forces the gas at high velocity through the gas generator turbine that drives the
compressor. The remaining gas energy is then used to drive the power turbine,
which in turn drives the power output shaft.

The free power turbine is mechanically independent of the of the gas generator and
operates at virtually a constant speed. The power developed by the turbine is varied
to meet changing loads imposed on the rotor system, by increasing or decreasing
the fuel supplied to the gas generator, thus altering the gas generator speed and
the supply of gas energy to the power turbine.

As mentioned previously, the turboshaft engine is used to power many of today’s


modern helicopters, and to this end we will concentrate on the application of the
turboshaft engine in the field of aviation.
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The turboshaft engine and the helicopter are ideal companions. The engine is
required to respond to frequent and sudden changes in power demands to keep the
helicopter rotor revolving at a virtually constant speed (250-300 RPM being typical).
The power required to drive the rotor is determined by the pitch angle of the main
rotor blades, this angle is being controlled by the pilot using the collective pitch
lever. The pilot changes the flight path of the aircraft by using the cyclic pitch control
lever, by tilting the rotor head. Control of the tail rotor to compensate for the torque
produced by the main rotor is via foot pedals similar to rudder pedals (fig 17.3.).
Whenever a control is activated, the resultant force is sensed by the rotor gearbox
and in turn sensed by the power output shaft of the engine which means that the
engine power must be adjusted to suit.

Flight Controls of a Typical Single Main Rotor Helicopter.


Figure 17.3.

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The power output of a free power turbine engine can be changed rapidly because
its output speed is independent of the power produced, the latter being dependant
on the gas generator speed. The low inertia of the gas generator rotor allows its
speed to be changed very quickly, by adjusting the flow of fuel available for
combustion. This is achieved in the fuel control system invariably by a computer
(electronic or mechanical) controlling the throttling valve. The pilot selects the rotor
speed and the fuel control system automatically maintains that speed, within the
limits set by the governing characteristics of the system and the operating
limitations of the engine. As the fuel control system is automatic, the pilot is relieved
of the necessity to constantly manipulate the throttle control.

The control parameters being monitored and used for a typical turboshaft engine
would include:
Parameter Destination
Gas generator speed (N2) Computer and cockpit gauge
Free power turbine speed (N1) Computer and cockpit gauge
Power turbine inlet temperature (PTIT) Computer and cockpit gauge
Main rotor speed (Nr) Cockpit gauge
Throttle valve position Computer
Torque Cockpit gauge and computer (torque
matching engines)

17.2 FUEL CONTROL SYSTEM

The computer controls the fuel flow to the engine to maintain a constant rotor RPM.
During normal operation the optimum engine/rotor speed is selected by a speed
selector lever, and the varying power demands are met thereafter by the automatic
fuel computer. The computer varies the rates of fuel flow to the engines to suit the
changing power demands occasioned by alterations of rotor blade pitch.

The position of the throttle valve is set by an electric actuator controlled by the
computer. The speed select lever in the cockpit is directly connected to the
computer, and by operating this lever the pilot can select a power turbine speed that
is maintained by the computer within built in control laws.

In addition to speed selector lever positions , the computer receives signals of


power turbine speed N1, gas generator speed N2, power turbine inlet temperature
(PTIT), collective pitch angular movement via an anticipator, and throttle position. In
the computer the signal representing actual power turbine speed is compared with
the sped selector lever position , and any difference causes a signal to be
transmitted from the computer to the throttle actuator, which adjusts the throttle
opening accordingly. I however this were to cause the PTIT to exceed a pre-
determined value or to increase at too rapid a rate, the computer signal is modified
so that the throttle is held or closed until the PTIT is reduced to a safe level.

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The function of the anticipator is to provide signals proportional to change of


collective pitch angle.

Computer Signalling.
Figure 17.4.

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17.3 ARRANGEMENTS
Because of the need for turboshaft engines to be installed in a variety of aircraft,
coupled with the requirement to fit two or more engines, giving more power and
adding safety. The turboshaft engine has to be able to output its drive from a variety
of different locations. Typical examples of this ability can be seen in Figure 17.5. to
17.9.
Figure 17.5. shows the different ways in which the Rolls Royce Gem engine can be
configured to suit different aircraft designs.

Different Ways Power can be Taken From the Rolls Royce Gem Engine.
Figure 17.5.

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Turboshaft engines can be located forward or behind the main transmission


gearbox. The Westland Lynx has two Rolls Royce Gem engines mounted aft of the
gearbox driving through couplings at the front of the engines fig 17.6. It can be seen
from the illustration how the engine/gearbox unit is quite compact.

The Rolls Royce Gem Installation in the Westland Lynx Helicopter.


Figure 17.6.
Another twin engined installation is that which can be found fitted to numerous
Sikorsky and Westland helicopters. these are fitted ahead of the main gearbox, so
that the output shaft and coupling projects from the rear of each engine. the location
of all the previously mentioned layouts permits very easy maintenance and engine
changes due to the unobstructed access to the engines. Figure 17.7 shows the S-
61N model which has two 1400 S.H.P. turboshaft engines.

The Rolls Royce Gnome Engine Installation in a Westland S61N.


Figure 17.7.

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Finally there are a few other installations on helicopters, using turboshaft engines,
that show the flexibility in the way these engines can be mounted to suit the
designers needs. The little Hughes 500 series (fig 17.8.) has a small 400+ S.H.P.
engine, installed at an angle, driving upwards at 45° to the main gearbox.

The Engine Installation in a Hughes 500.


Figure 17.8.

The large E.H. 101 helicopter (fig 17.9.), however has not only three engines, each
of 2,000 S.H.P., installed above the decking and all feeding into the main gearbox,
but there is an Auxiliary Power unit installed alongside the No.2 engine as well.

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The EH101 Engine Layout.


Figure 17.9.

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17.4 DRIVE SYSTEMS


Because gas turbine engines rotate at extremely high speeds, and the main rotor of
a helicopter needs to rotate at a fairly low, constant speed the output drive of a
turboshaft engine must incorporate some form of reduction gearing. Some engines
have their reduction gearing installed within the engine so that their output shaft is
at a usable speed, which can be further reduced to a rotor speed by the main rotor
gearbox. Figure 17.10. is of the reduction gearbox fitted to the front of a Rolls Royce
Gem turboshaft engine. The gearbox takes the 27,000 RPM output of the power
turbine shaft, and through the two stage epicyclic gear train, reduce it to
approximately 6000 RPM, a speed reduction of some 4.5:1. At this speed it can be
directly coupled to the main rotor gearbox, which will reduce it further to
approximately 250-300 RPM. This reduction mechanism allows the engine to be
used not only in helicopters but also in a number of different situations such as
powering marine craft, power generating stations and pumping stations etc. This
use of the turboshaft engine is very common and even engines as large as the Rolls
Royce RB 211 series are used for such purposes.
Other types of turboshaft engines will, because their power turbine rotational speed
is not so high provide a direct power output to a separate reduction gearbox, in the
case of a helicopter, the main rotor gearbox. A typical example of this is the power
output shaft of the Rolls Royce Gnome turboshaft engine fitted to the Westland S-
61N helicopter (fig 17.11.)

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Rolls Royce Gem Engine Reduction Gearbox.


Figure 17.10.

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Rolls Royce Gnome Power Turbine and Drive.


Figure 17.11.
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17.5 COUPLINGS
Because of the requirement to make maintenance tasks such as engine
removal/refit, gearbox removal/refit easier, it is necessary to have a means of
coupling the turboshafts output shaft to the helicopter main rotor gearbox input shaft
together. This coupling must possess qualities which will allow movement of both
the engine and the rotor gearbox independently of each other i.e. it must be flexible.
It must also be finely balanced to reduce vibration.
One of the most common couplings in use is the ‘Thomas Coupling’, sometimes
referred to as the engine ‘high speed drive shaft’ (fig 17.12.). The engine is joined to
the main rotor gearbox by this high speed drive shaft. The shaft is belled at either
end , one end being attached to the power take off shaft by means of Thomas
flexible steel coupling. Each coupling consists of a number of steel discs, indexed
by flats to ensure correct alignment when assembled. Two different numbered discs
are used, each disc having a grain running either parallel to the flat or perpendicular
to the flat. The discs are assembled alternately with the grains at 90° to each other.
The bolts, nuts and washers securing the shaft to the engine are part of the fine
balancing of the assembly and must always be replaced in the same position.

Thomas Coupling.
Figure 17.12.

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Yet another method of coupling the engines power output to the main gearbox is
shown in Figure 17.13.
The engine front mounting is bolted with the reduction gearbox to the hub of the
air-intake case; it supports the engine in the aircraft and serves as a torque reaction
point. The mounting, which is of the gimbal type, is bolted to a gimbal ring, which is
bolted to a similar mounting on the aircraft main gearbox, thus forming a gimbal
coupling.
The engine output drive is transmitted to the aircraft main gearbox by a flanged
coupling, which is secured via a flexible laminated disc coupling (Thomas Coupling)
to a drive assembly. The drive assembly consists of an engine coupling and an
aircraft main gearbox coupling bolted together, with a flexible laminated disc
coupling (Thomas Coupling) at each end.

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The Thomas Coupling and Gimbal Mount of a Gem Engine.


Figure 17.13.

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Finally as an example of the end product of a typical, turboshaft engines power


output Figure 17.14. shows the main rotor gearbox of a Westland S-61N helicopter.
The two engines are Rolls Royce Gnome 1400 series turboshaft engines, each
producing approximately 1400 S.H.P. Figure 17.15. shows the gearbox together
with its monitoring devices and transmission.
The free-wheel system enables disconnection of one or both the engines in the
event of failure.

S-61N Rotor Gearbox.


Figure 17.14.

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Seaking/S-61 Transmission System.


Figure 17.15.

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18 AUXILLIARY POWER UNITS


18.1 INTRODUCTION
The auxiliary power unit or APU as it is commonly known, is a small gas turbine
engine as shown in figure 18.1., fitted to aircraft and can provide:-
 Electric power from shaft driven generators.
 Pneumatic duct pressure for air conditioning and engine starting purposes.
 Hydraulic Pressure (Some aircraft).

An APU
Figure 18.1.

An Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is an automatic engine, which normally runs at a


governed speed of 100%. Some APUs have an idle facility that allows the engine to
run at 85% when no loads are applied. As it is an automatic engine the fuel system
must control the engine throughout the start and running phases of operation. The
engine will be shut down if a critical control function is lost or a serious malfunction
such as low oil pressure occurs.
APU’s are mainly used on the ground when their main engines are not running and
ground carts (electrical and pneumatic) are not available. On most modern aircraft
the APU will also be used in the air to provide air-conditioning during take off and
landing phases, or to back up the main engines in case of a generator or air system
failure.

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Operating Altitude for an APU.


Figure 18.2.

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Although the APU is usually rated to run at the max cruise altitude of the aircraft it is
fitted to, its ability to take load diminishes with altitude. As the major load on any
APU is the air load it can be seen from Figure 18.2. that the APU’s ability to provide
sufficient air for the aircraft is limited to 15-20,000 ft. Above this height the APU will
only provide electrical power, this may also be limited to less than the max cruise
height. Most APU’s give shaft priority which means that if air and electric generators
are on the generators are given priority. Most Aircraft use constant frequency
generators, and their APU’s which run at a constant 100% do not therefore require
a constant speed drive unit to maintain a constant output. If the air loads become to
high the APU will reach its max EGT and the control system will back off the fuel to
prevent damage, this would bring the APU generator off frequency and take the
generator ‘off line’. Instead the air load is reduced to maintain a constant APU
speed.
18.2 GENERAL ARRANGEMENTS AND CONFIGURATION
With the configuration shown in figure 18.3. we can see that air is taken from the
compressor via the load control valve (LCV) when pneumatic power is required.
Although such an APU layout is acceptable on smaller aircraft where pneumatic
power demand is small, it is unacceptable on larger aircraft as the air being drawn
from the compressor for pneumatic purposes, reduces the air going to the turbines
for cooling purposes. This reduction of cooling air leads to an increase in exhaust
gas temperature and a reduction in the life of the turbine.

A Basic Electronically Controlled APU


Figure 18.3.

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On larger models of APU this problem of reduced turbine life has been reduced by
the inclusion of a load compressor. See figure18.4.

Block Diagram of an APU with a Load Compressor.


Figure 18.4.
In this configuration, the inlet air is directed into the load compressor as well as into
the power section compressor. The load compressor now satisfies all pneumatic
loading requirements without extracting any air from the power section.
This can best be explained by looking at figure.18.5. This figure represents a typical
cross section of an APU with a load compressor. The power section with two
centrifugal compressor stages and a centrifugal load compressor both being driven
by the turbine. The load compressor produces pneumatic pressure when a demand
is made on the system.

Cross-section of an APU with a Load


Compressor. Figure 18.5.

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A combination of the previous two examples can also be found, see figure18.6.

A twin shaft APU with Variable output of Air.


Figure 18.6.

The location of the APU on the aircraft is generally dictated by the requirements of
the manufacturer. Because of the noise factor and the problem of hot exhaust
gases, it is located as far away from ground servicing areas as possible. The
normal place for it to be fitted is in the tail section of the aircraft, however, this may
be impracticable due to the location of a tail mounted engine or airstairs. On some
aircraft the APU may be fitted into landing gear bays, engine nacelles, forward
fuselage or wing structures. Examples of these are Hercules (U/C bay), Fokker F50
(rear of engine nacelle) and BAe ATP (wing fillet)

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An APU Installation (Airbus A300)


Figure 18.7.

Light Alloy APU Intake Duct Without an Intake Door. (BAe 146)
Figure 18.8.

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18.2.1 INLET DUCT ARRANGEMENT


Wherever the APU is located, ducting will be required to bring air to the APU inlet.
In figure 18.9. we can see that the inlet duct connecting the inlet door to the APU
plenum chamber is divided into three parts. The plenum chamber has the APU inlet
duct bolted to its structure, thus reducing a complicated duct joint arrangement.
These ducts can be manufactured from various materials, but the most common are
aluminium, titanium, steel or composite (fibre glass/carbon). Figure 18.8. shows a
light alloy side mounted intake duct without an intake door.
When the duct length is short, steel or titanium ducts may be used. When ducts
cover a large distance an unacceptable weight problem may result. Ducts of this
length are therefore manufactured from light alloy or composite materials.
One of the main problems of APU’s is the ingestion of foreign objects this can be
eliminated by fitting wire mesh grills either in the ducting, or around the APU air inlet
(figure 18.8.).
The length of the inlet ducts will depend upon the location of the APU and its
distance from the inlet. Some APU inlets are fitted with a door, these are usually
forward facing or top mounted inlets. The door will open before the APU starts and
close after a time delay on APU shut down The duct may be short or fairly long as
shown in the figure 18.9.

Long APU Inlet Duct with Intake Door.


Figure 18.9.

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Operation of the door opening and


closing is achieved by using an
electrical actuator, which receives
its signal from a command from the
flight deck APU switch.
In the event of an electrical failure
to an actuator, there is normally
incorporated into the actuator a
means of disengaging the clutch
drive mechanism. This enables the
actuator to be manually turned to
open or close the inlet door.
A proximity switch ensures that the
door is fully open before the APU
start sequence is initiated.
APU Door.
Figure 18.10.

APU inlet doors serve three functions:


 They seal off the inlet duct from harmful weather conditions and foreign objects
when the APU is not in use.
 They open to allow air into the APU when the start sequence is initiated.
 They can be used to adjust the intake area when on ground in flight.

A Variable Intake Door.


Figure 18.11.

The variable intake door figure 18.11. is used to reduce the ram air entering the
APU intake ducting. This could effect the APU fuel system if intake pressure is not
taken into the calculation of engine fuel scheduling which is the case with most
APU’s .

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18.2.2 EXHAUST DUCT ARRANGEMENT


Exhaust ducts are invariably positioned to ensure that on the ground as the hot
gases are directed away from the maintenance crews and aircraft structure. This is
usually achieved by angling the exhaust duct upwards. Figure 18.12. represents a
typical duct arrangement.
The exhaust ducts are subjected to high temperatures, so the following design
features must be considered:
 Leaf springs are fitted to allow for longitudinal expansion of the exhaust duct.
 The flexible bellows allow for slight variations during the assembly of the duct to
the engine flange.
 Flame traps may be fitted to joints to provide protection if the joint leaks.
The exhaust duct is normally insulated to prevent the heat from affecting the aircraft
structure or adjacent components. This can be a double duct with cool air being
passed between the ducts or by the use of insulation blankets.
An exhaust door may be fitted to reduce cold soak or to prevent rain or snow
entering the duct. The door must be open before the engine can start and will close
after a time delay on shut down.

An APU Exhaust Duct.


Figure 18.12.
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18.3 THE APU ENGINE


APU engines usually consist of a centrifugal compressor and a radial turbine
however, axial compressors and turbines may be added or used in their own right.
Centrifugal compressors are used because of their high compression and small size
and when combined with a radial type turbine make the APU very compact. These
components are also very robust and require less maintenance than axial flow
components. Use is also made of reverse flow combustion chambers that again
makes the overall size smaller.

A Honeywell GTCP 36-100 Series APU


Figure 18.13.

In most cases there is a design compromise made between the ideal APU for an
aircraft i.e. its ability to provide air and electricity throughout the operational
envelope of the aircraft, and it weight and size. It is usual therefore to find that air
and electricity are limited to various altitudes dependant upon the parameter
required.

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APU systems are very basic and the APU will shut down if a problem is sensed.
Most APU’s will shut down for the following faults:
Fault Comment
Low Oil Pressure
Engine Overspeed 110% Honeywell 108% Sundstrand
High EGT 849°C Honeywell
Loss of Speed Signal Electronically monitored APU’s need this signal to
control the APU.
Los of EGT Signal Electronically monitored APU’s need this signal to
control the APU.
Low Speed Some APU’s shutdown if they drop below 90%.
(Some will try and relight at 95%)
Electronic Unit Failure Loss of Control
The APU may also shut down on the ground (not in flight) for the following faults:
Fault Comment
Fire May cause a warning horn in the u/c bay to sound
Generator Drive Low Oil
Pressure or High Oil
Temperature

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18.4 FUEL CONTROL


There are three types of APU fuel control, mechanical, electronic and the
Electro/mechanical.
18.4.1 MECHANICAL FUEL CONTROL

An APU Fuel System Schematic.


Figure 18.14.
The basic fuel system is comprised of a fuel pump that receives low-pressure fuel
from the aircraft fuel tank via a low pressure fuel valve and pumps it at a higher
pressure to the fuel nozzles as shown in figure 18.14. Since the nozzle has
resistance to flow, the fuel pressure rises in the fuel line between the pump and
nozzle. The fuel is divided into primary and secondary flow by a fuel flow divider
before being sprayed into the combustor and, with the addition of a spark, then
combustion is initiated.
The fuel pump is designed to supply more fuel than required by the APU as shown
in the figure 18.15.

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Graph Showing the Excess Fuel Pump Capacity.


Figure 18.15.
The upper line represents fuel flow from the pump. As pump speed increases so
does the pump output capacity.
The lower line represents APU fuel requirements.
Some means must be available to remove the excess fuel capacity.

Fuel System with a By-pass Valve


Figure 18.16.

By adding a by-pass valve a method of controlling the fuel pressure and thus the
engine. If the by-pass valve is closed, all the fuel is directed to the nozzle. Opening
the by-pass valve will allow fuel back to the inlet of the pump, thus reducing the fuel
to the nozzle. By controlling the by-pass valve, the operator can vary the amount of
fuel to the nozzle.

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Such control in fact is done automatically by the APU fuel control unit.

Pneumatic Control of the By-pass Valve


Figure 18.17.

Figure 18.17 fuel pressure is applied to the lower part of the by-pass ball valve. An
air tapping which protrudes into the compressor airstream, applies pressure to the
upper part of the by-pass valve diaphragm, thus holding the valve on its seat.
Therefore fuel pressure is limited by the air pressure.
When initial ignition takes place within the APU, there is little air pressure, so fuel
pressure cannot rise very much without pushing the valve open and allowing the
excess fuel to go to the pump inlet. Because of the size of the diaphragm and
valve, the air pressure allows the fuel pressure to rise by a proportional amount,
thus fuel and air pressure stay in step with each other.
As engine speed increases:-
 Compressor pressure rises.
 Fuel pressure rises.
A minimum fuel pressure is required for good fuel atomisation at the fuel nozzle for
initial ignition. This is achieved by applying a spring pressure to the by-pass valve,
thus keeping it on its seat.

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Figure 18.18. shows a solenoid operated shut-off valve fitted between the FCU and
the fuel nozzle. Normally spring-loaded closed; it receives its open and close
signals from the APU control unit at certain speeds. On a mechanical APU it is
signalled open by the low oil pressure switch when oil pressure is sensed. In an
electronic system it is open at speeds above 10%. On receiving a closed signal, the
solenoid de-energises and the valve closes, the flow to the combustor is blocked.
The build-up in pressure in the fuel line is relieved by the by-pass valve, acting as a
pressure relief valve.

A Fuel Shut-off Valve is added


Figure 18.18.
As the engine accelerates, some means must be provided to enable more fuel to be
injected into the combustor. This is achieved by a flow divider, figure 18.19.

Fuel Flow Divider Added.


Figure 18.19.

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In the flow divider, one nozzle is placed within the other and separated by a small
pressure relief valve. The flow divider is set for a slightly higher pressure than the
by-pass valve spring pressure, thus on initial light-up, fuel will only spray from the
primary nozzle.
After light-up, rising compressor pressure increases the by-pass valve setting and
the fuel pressure increases to force the flow divider off its seat. This allows fuel flow
through to the secondary nozzle as well as the primary nozzle.
During start and acceleration, the APU must produce temperatures that are within
certain limits, while at the same time allow the engine to accelerate.
Despite the fact that fuel pressure is kept in step with rising compressor pressure
(through the by-pass valve), turbine over temperature is possible during certain
acceleration phases. As a protection against over temperature, a thermostat
(known as acceleration thermostat) is connected to the air pressure line, leading to
the by-pass valve, this thermostat is normally closed (see figure 18.20).

An Acceleration Thermostat Prevents Overheat During Acceleration and Overall


Temperature Limitation.
Figure 18.20

Provided the EGT remains below the thermostat setting, it will remain fully closed.
If the EGT exceeds its setting, the thermostat will gradually open and bleed off air
pressure that is acting on top of the diaphragm of the by-pass valve.

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This reduced air pressure against the by-pass valve diaphragm will allow the fuel
pressure to lift the by-pass valve and direct excessive fuel pressure back to the inlet
of the pump. As the fuel pressure drops across the nozzles, the turbine
temperature drops until the thermostat closes at a lower safe limit.
The acceleration thermostat provides a continuous monitor to prevent the APU
engine overtemping. A second pneumatic thermostat is fitted to control the air load
valve (see figure 18.29.) which is similar to the acceleration thermostat.
The thermostat can be adjusted in two ways, shimming or vernier adjuster.
Shimming requires careful calculations to set the correct pressure on the ball. The
vernier type adjuster has indications around the top of the thermostat, when it is
unlocked the top can be twisted to make the adjustment.

A Pneumatic Thermostat.
Figure 18.21

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18.4.2 SPEED CONTROL


Because the APU is designed to run at a constant rpm, some means must be
provided to control this speed. Such a control device is known as a speed or rpm
governor (see figure 18.22).

A Fuel System with a Governor Fitted.


Figure 18.22

The speed governor is linked mechanically to the APU drive. As speed increases
above 95%, the bob weights start to move outwards and begin to by-pass the fuel
back to the inlet of the pump and as speed increases up to 100% rpm, it causes
sufficient fuel to be by-passed by the governor, to maintain this rpm. Increase or
decrease in the speed setting is achieved by adjustment of the governor spring.
Note that at speeds below 95% rpm the by-pass valve controls the acceleration up
to a maximum speed of 95% rpm.

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A Typical Mechanical APU Fuel System.


Figure 18.23

18.4.3 MECHANICAL FUEL CONTROL UNIT OPERATION


The fuel flow control unit operation is as follows:
 Fuel is supplied to the pump from the aircraft fuel tank via an electrical shut off
valve which opens when start is selected and closes when the APU shuts down.
 At a predetermined speed (as dictated by the low oil pressure switch), the fuel
shut-off valve opens and fuel is supplied to the combustor (5-10%).
 The quantity of fuel supplied is scheduled by the by-pass valve, which senses
compressor discharge pressure.
 As rpm increases, compressor discharge pressure increases, reducing the by-
pass flow, hence more fuel to the combustor.
 If high gas temperature is sensed, the acceleration thermostat opens and vents
compressor pressure from the by-pass valve, thus reducing fuel flow to the
combustor.
 As the speed approaches 100% the governor backs off the fuel flow to slow the
acceleration and to maintain 100%
 During normal operation, the governor senses APU rpm and regulates the fuel
flow by bypassing some back to the pump, to maintain a constant speed.
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18.4.4 ELECTRONIC APU FUEL CONTROL

Electronic fuel control emulates the mechanical system, however it provides control
in a slightly different way. The electronic Control Unit (ECU) monitors the APU
speed and EGT continuously and also the low oil pressure switch.

An Electronic APU Fuel Control System


Figure 18.24

During start the ECU knows the engine speed so will signal the fuel shut off valve to
open at 8-10%. At the same time ignition is selected on and the light up will be
sensed by the EGT system. The ECU then enters a timed acceleration schedule
where EGT and speed are monitored by the ECU.
The ECU deselects the starter at 50% and the ignition at 95%. Once up to speed
the ECU keeps the engine at 100% and will monitor the EGT and speed to maintain
operation throughout the operating envelope of the APU.
The Fuel control unit mounted on the APU gearbox is much simpler than the
mechanical FCU. It contains a fuel pump, an electronic servo valve and a pressure
drop control valve (  [delta] P valve). The electrical shut of valve and the fuel flow
divider are retained and work as they did in the mechanical system.

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ECU Start Schedule.


Figure 18.25

The ECU has Built In Test Equipment (BITE) indicators which will indicate why the
APU shut down, however these do not retain the information if power is removed.

18.4.5 ELECTRO/MECHANICAL FUEL CONTROL (FIGURE 18.26)

The start fuel valve and ignition are energised as soon as rotation (3%) is sensed by
an Electronic Sequence Unit (ESU). At 14% and with rising EGT the main fuel
valve is opened. The acceleration rate is controlled by the acceleration schedule
adjuster, however this is modified by the differential pressure regulator which uses
compressor discharge pressure to vary the fuel flow to the engine. At 50% the
starter cuts out. When the engine reaches 85% the start fuel valve closes and the
ignition is de-energised. The engine governor then takes over and controls the
engine to 100%. As the engine passes 95% plus 3 seconds, the max fuel valve
energises open and bypasses the acceleration adjuster and full control of the
engine is given to the governor. If the engine is shut down both the Main and Max
fuel valves are closed.

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An electrically Sequenced APU Fuel Control.


Figure 18.26.

The ESU has indicators that indicate which step of the start sequence the APU is at
and the resets at 95% + 3sec to act as BITE indicators.

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18.5 APU OIL SYSTEM

A sump at the bottom of the gearbox collects the returning oil, in some APU's the
rear face of the sump is finned and let into the intake plenum to act as the oil cooler.
The oil is drawn up by the oil pump and pressurised, it then passes through the oil
filter before being distributed to the bearings. The oil returns to the sump by gravity.
The oil system is monitored by a low oil pressure switch and a high oil temperature
switch, either of which can shut the engine down.

Honeywell Oil System.


Figure 18.27.

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A Sundstrand Oil System


Figure 18.28.

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18.6 APU BLEED AIR SYSTEMS

There are two main methods of providing bleed air:


1. Direct from the engine compressor
2. A Separate Load Compressor.

18.6.1 DIRECT FROM ENGINE COMPRESSOR

A Load valve (Figure 18.29) is switched on from the flightdeck, power for the switch
is available once the APU has achieved 95% + 3 sec. This energises the switcher
valve solenoid, which vents the lower chamber (B) of the control piston and
pressurises the top chamber (A). The piston will move down and open the butterfly
valve. The bleed air will flow and the EGT will rise, at a predetermined value the
Load Thermostat will start to open which will reduce the pressure acting on the top
of the piston. This will cause the piston to move up by spring pressure and thus
back off the butterfly valve. If the EGT rise is excessive then it could close the valve.
The valve will modulate under the control of EGT. The Load thermostat is set at a
lower setting than the acceleration thermostat setting to prevent hunting of the
system.

A Mechanical Load Control Valve Schematic.


Figure 18.29.

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An electronically controlled APU uses the same principle, but the ECU controls a
servo valve in the load control valve instead of the load thermostat, see figure
18.30.

An Electronically Controlled Load Valve Schematic.


Figure 18.30.

Some APU's do not use load valves, instead they have an air bleed valve which is a
simple on/off valve. A flow limiting venturi is used to limit the flow of air from the
APU

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18.6.2 SEPARATE LOAD COMPRESSOR

If the APU is fitted with a load compressor either of the previous two methods are
used, but instead of controlling a butterfly valve the piston operates a set of variable
intake guide vanes for the load compressor, see figure 18.31.

Load Control for APU with Load Compressor


Figure 18.31.

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18.7 BAY COOLING


There are two methods of bay cooling, they are:
 Ram air cooling
 Fan air cooling

18.7.1 RAM AIR COOLING


For ram air cooling, the aircraft has to be moving forward at sufficient speed to
enable the cooling air to be picked up by the air scoops in the external skin. This
cold air is ducted into the APU bay and passed onto various hot zones to provide a
cooling medium. The air is then vented overboard through exhaust ducts.
18.7.2 FAN AIR COOLING
Cooling fans are fitted to the APU gearbox to provide a supply of cooling air to the
APU when it is running. The cooling air is pumped into the APU compartment and
then vented overboard. The air from the fan is also used to cool the generator drive
oil and the exhaust duct on some APU installations.

An APU Cooling Fan System.


Figure 18.32.

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The main components are the:-


 cooling air fan.
 cooling air shut-off valve.
Air is drawn from the normal intake plenum or an external intake and is directed
along the cooling air ducts to the cooling fan shut-off valve (when fitted). The shut-
off valve closes on APU shutdown to prevent air from entering the compartment to
support combustion in the event of an APU fire.
The cooling fan is linked to the APU gearbox and as long as the APU is running, the
fan is turning. Air is also used to cool the oil within the APU lubricating system (on
some APU’s), however, such air is usually ducted overboard and not into the APU
compartment. Upstream of the oil cooler the cooling air is ducted into the APU bay
an/or the exhaust insulating ducting to provide general cooling.

Cooling Fan Shut-Off Valve

The cooling valve figure 18.33. is a spring-loaded closed butterfly valve with a
pneumatic actuator. When the APU is started, the compressor discharge pressure
is ported to the top of the diaphragm. The piston moves down with increasing air
pressure and opens the valve against the spring pressure. The cooling air then
flows to the compartment. On APU shutdown the air pressure is reduced and
spring pressure closes the valve.

Cooling Air Shut Off Valve.


Figure 18.33.

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Cooling Fan Arrangement


The cooling fan is attached to the APU gearbox, (figure 18.34) and is designed to
run at extremely high speeds, the fan boosts the air from the intake plenum (or
ambient) into the APU compartment or the coolers etc.

APU Cooling Fan.


Figure 18.34.

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Overboard Venting
Figure 18.35 represents a typical APU bay overboard vent arrangement. The
cooling air is directed into the compartment and also to the oil cooler, this air is then
vented overboard along a separate duct. Compartment cooling air is vented
overboard, through a louvered door at the rear of the compartment.

Vent System
Figure 18.35.
.

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18.8 APU POWERPLANT INSTALLATION.


The APU engine mounts consist of a number of supports with vibration isolators
fitted to the end of each support. The tubular supports are bolted to the plenum
chamber and when correctly attached, hold the APU against the air inlet duct in the
plenum. The vibration isolators dampen out any vibration effects that the APU
would have on the aircraft structure whilst it is running. Attached to the vibration
isolator is a cone bolt that passes through a similar hole on the APU mounting
bracket. When in position, the bolt is secured by a nut and washer arrangement
and torque loaded to the set figure laid down in the Aircraft Maintenance Manual.
(Figure 18.36).

APU Mount.
Figure 18.36.

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A Shrouded APU.
Figure 18.37.

Most APU’s are located in a fire proof box made of titanium. Some aircraft have the
APU shrouded in a close fitting Titanium case.

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18.9 APU STARTING SEQUENCE

A Typical APU Start System.


Figure 18.38
In figure 18.38, the APU control unit receives its power from the aircraft battery.
By moving the APU switch to ‘ON’, power is provided to the intake door actuator
and an LP fuel valve which starts to open. When they are both fully open, switches
energise the starter system, igniters are energised and the APU accelerates with
assistance from the starter motor to idle speed. The starter motor cuts out between
50 & 60%.
The fuel system controls the fuel flow during start. Once the engine is at idle (100%,
lower if the APU is fitted with an idle power setting), the APU will be ready to load
either electrically or pneumatically. This is indicated by a ‘Ready to Load’ light or
‘APU Power Available ‘light coming ’ON’.

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19 POWERPLANT INSTALLATION
19.1 NACELLES OR PODS

Nacelles or pods are streamlined enclosures used on multi-engine aircraft primarily


to house the engines. They are located below, or at the leading edge of the wing or
on the tail of the aircraft.
An engine nacelle or pod consists of skin, cowling, structural members, a fire-wall,
and engine mounts. Skins and cowlings cover the outside of the nacelle. Both are
usually made of sheet aluminium alloy, stainless steel, or titanium. Regardless of
the material used, the skin is usually attached to the framework by rivets.
The framework can consist of structural members similar to /those of the fuselage.
The framework would include lengthwise members, such as longerons and
stringers, and widthwise/vertical members, such as bulkheads, rings, and formers.
A nacelle or pod also contains a firewall, which separates the engine compartment
from the rest of the aircraft. This bulkhead is usually made of stainless steel, or
titanium sheet metal.
19.1.1 COWLINGS

Openings in structures are necessary for entrance and egress, servicing,


inspection, repair and for electrical wiring, fuel and oil lines, air ducting, and many
other items.
Access to an engine mounted in the wing or fuselage is by hinged doors; on pod
and turbopropeller installations the main cowlings are hinged. Access for minor
servicing is by small detachable or hinged panels. All fasteners are of the quick-
release type.
A turbo-propeller engine, or a turbo-jet engine mounted in a pod, is usually far more
accessible than a buried engine because of the larger area of hinged cowling that
can be provided. The accessibility of a wing pylon mounted turbo-fan engine is
shown in figure 19.1. and that of wing mounted turbo-propeller engine is shown in
figure 19.2.

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Turbofan Nacelle and Cowlings.


Figure 19.1.

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Turboprop Engine Nacelle and Cowlings.


Figure 19.2.

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19.1.2 FIREWALLS

The firewall is a seal which separates the engine into two zones. Sometimes
referred as the “wet zone” and “dry zone”, but more commonly called zone one
(front) and zone two (rear). The firewall forms a barrier that prevents combustible
fumes that may form in the front section (zone 1), from passing into the rear section
(zone 2), and igniting on the hot exhaust section. Dependant upon aircraft/engine
design the fire walls design and location will differ, Figures 19.3. and 19.4. refer.

A Turbofan Firewall.
Figure 19.3.

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Turboprop Firewall.
Figure 19.4.
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19.1.3 COOLING

Turbine engines are designed to convert heat energy into mechanical energy. The
combustion process is continuous and, therefore, heat is produced. On turbine
engines, most of the cooling air must pass through the inside of the engine. If only
enough air were admitted into a turbine engine to support combustion, internal
engine temperatures would rise to more than 4,000 degrees Fahrenheit. In
practice, a typical turbine engine uses approximately 25 percent of the total inlet
airflow to support combustion. This airflow is often referred to as the engine's
primary airflow. The remaining 75 percent is used for cooling, and is referred to as
secondary airflow.
When the proper amount of air flows through a turbine engine, the outer case will
remain at a temperature between ambient and 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit depending
on the section of the engine. For example, at the compressor inlet, the outer case
temperature will remain at, or slightly above, the ambient air temperature. However,
at the front of the turbine section where internal temperatures are greatest, outer
case temperatures can easily reach 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit. (Figure 19.5.)
Cooling Requirements
To properly cool each section of an engine, all turbine engines must be constructed
with a fairly intricate internal air system. This system must take ram and/or bleed air
and route it to several internal components deep within the core of the engine. In
most engines, the compressor, combustion, and turbine sections all utilise cooling
air to some degree.
For the most part, an engine's nacelle is cooled by ram air as it enters the engine.
To do this, cooling air is typically directed between the engine case and nacelle. To
properly direct the cooling air, a typical engine compartment is divided into two
sections; forward and aft. The forward section is constructed around the engine
inlet duct while the aft section encircles the engine. A seal or firewall separates the
two sections.

Diagram Showing the Temperature That May be Present Around a Turbojet


Engine in Degrees Fahrenheit.
Figure 19.5.
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In flight, ram air provides ample cooling for the two compartments. However, on the
ground, airflow is provided by the reduced pressure at the rear of the nacelle. The
low pressure area is created by the exhaust gases as they exit the exhaust nozzle.
The lower the pressure at the rear of the nozzle, the more air is drawn in through
the forward section.

Typical Nacelle Cooling Using Ram Air From the Intake Duct.
Figure 19.6.

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19.1.4 ACOUSTIC LININGS


One method of suppressing the noise from the fan stage of a high by-pass ratio
engine is to incorporate a noise absorbent liner around the inside wall of the by-
pass duct. The lining comprises a porous face-sheet which acts as a resistor to the
motion of the sound waves and is placed in a position such that it senses the
maximum particle displacement in the progression of the wave. The depth of the
cavity between absorber and solid backing is the tuning device, which suppresses
the appropriate part of the noise spectrum. Figure 19.7. shows two types of noise
absorbent liner. Figure 19.8. shows the location of a liner to suppress fan noise from
a high by-pass ratio engine and also the use of a liner to suppress the noise from
the engine core. The disadvantage of using liners for reducing noise are the
addition of weight and the increase in specific fuel consumption caused by
increasing the friction of the duct walls.

Two Types of Acoustic


Panel Figure 19.7.

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Location of Acoustic Panels in a High By-


Pass Engine Figure 19.8.

Acoustic Panel Location in a Fan


Module. Figure 19.9.

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Section Through an Engine


Nacelle Figure 19.10.

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19.1.5 ABRADABLE LININGS

Abradable Linings are usually made of a composite material which will be abraded
away should the tip of a rotating blade touch the material. In flight the casings of an
engine are subject to large changes in ambient temperature, so they will expand or
contract. As we know the air temperature at 30,000ft is close to –50°C this would
cause the casings to contract onto the rotor and the blades will then rub. To
overcome this problem abrasive materials where used on early engines to wear
down the tip of the blades, but this may cause balance problems. So most engines
now use abradable linings that maintain minimum tip clearance but do not affect
balance. They are usually found on the fan as this is the cold area of the rotating
assemblies.

Abradable Lining Location in a


Fan ModuleFigure 19.11.

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19.2 ENGINE MOUNTS

Engine mounts are designed to meet particular conditions of installation, such as


the location and the method of attachment of the engine mount and the size, type,
and characteristics of the engine it is intended to support. An engine mount is
usually constructed quickly and easily from the remaining structure. Engine mounts
are commonly made of welded chrome/molybdenum steel tubing, and forgings of
chrome/nickel/molybdenum are used for the highly stressed fittings.

19.2.1 WING PYLON MOUNTED ENGINE (TURBOFAN)

Figure 19.12. shows a typical method of mounting an engine onto a wing pylon.
The engine is usually suspended on three attachment points. The two front points
are located at the lower end of a pylon mounted yoke and engage with the mounting
bracket assemblies on the left-hand and right-hand side of the fan casing. The
assemblies differ inboard and outboard. The inboard bracket assembly takes side,
vertical and thrust loads. The outboard bracket assembly takes vertical and thrust
loads.

The rear attachment point is an engine mounted lower link assembly bolted to a
pylon mounted upper link assembly. This attachment point carries vertical loads
only and allows for engine axial expansion.

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Wing Pylon Mounted Engine Mounts.


Figure 19.12.

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19.2.2 WING MOUNTED ENGINE (TURBOPROP)

The engine is connected to the structure by means of a flexible attachment system


consisting of:
1. 2 forward lateral shockmounts.

2. 1 forward upper shockmount.

3. 2 aft lateral shockmounts on the Left Hand and Right Hand sides.
A torque compensation system with a torque tube.

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Wing Mounted Turboprop Engine Mounts.


Figure 19.13.

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19.2.3 REAR FUSELAGE ENGINE TURBOFAN.(FIGURE 19.14/15.)

Two crane beams in the nacelle carry the weight of the engine. The crane beams
are connected to the frames of the fuselage. Vibration isolators are on the engine
mounting Points to absorb vibration. There are three mounting points:
 the rear mount.

 the front mount

 the trunnion

The trunnion transmits the engine thrust to the airframe. The Trunnion fits in the
trunnion housing on the forward crane bean attachment.
Between the trunnion housing and the aft beam attachment is a thrust strut, This
strut divides the engine thrust between the forward and aft beams attachment. The
shear shell between the crane beams makes the engine mounting more rigid.

Rear Fuselage Turbofan Engine Mounts.


Figure 19.14.

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Fuselage Mounted Engine Mounts in Detail.


Figure 19.15.

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19.3 ENGINE DRAINS.

There are two types of drains:


 Controlled drains – the result of normal operation.

 Uncontrolled drains – the result of abnormal operation.


19.3.1 CONTROLLED DRAINS

When an engine stops, fuel from the fuel manifold and combustion chamber drains
either overboard, or as is more usual into an ’ecology drain tank’. This tank is
automatically emptied, (the fuel being fed back into the engine) next time the engine
is run. (figure 19.16.)

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Controlled Drains System.


Figure 19.6.

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19.3.2 UNCONTROLLED DRAINS

Engine driven accessory drive shaft require lubrication. This will be provided by the
engine lubrication system. To ensure proper lubrication, the drive shaft bearings are
sealed to prevent loss of oil. These bearing seals are monitored for leaks, by the
engine drain system which consists of a number of shrouds, enclosing the drive
shaft bearing, and pipes leading either an overboard series of drain pipes (figure
19.17.) or a collector tank (figure 19.18.). These drains are often referred to as
‘witness drains or dry drains’ as if they exhibit signs of leakage they bear witness to
a potential drive shaft failure.

Uncontrolled Drains With a Drains Mast.


Figure 19.17.

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A Typical Drains System.


Figure 19.18.

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19.4 ENGINE CONTROLS


19.4.1 THROTTLE CONTROL MECHANICAL
Engine controls are very similar to flying controls, and the same types of equipment
are used, such as rods, bellcranks and cables. Most control systems use either one
or two systems to control the engine.
In a two path system the high pressure cock is controlled separately from the
throttle, in a single path system they are combined.
19.4.2 TURBOFAN ENGINE CONTROLS.
Figure 19.19. shows a typical mechanical control system for a turbofan powered
aircraft. It uses a single path system to transmit power requirements to the engine.
The thrust lever is connected to a rod that transmits the movement down below floor
level to a quadrant. The quadrant outputs to two cables which initially run under the
floor of the flightdeck and then along the roof of the passenger cabin. They then
pass through pressure seals and along the leading edge of the wing before
dropping down to a cable compensator in the top of the pylon. The output from the
compensator quadrant is a teleflex push/pull cable. This teleflex cable passes down
into the engine nacelle to a torque shaft mounted on the nose cowl assembly. The
output from the torque shaft moves a rod which provides the input to the fuel control
unit. The teleflex cable has a disconnect break mechanism in it to facilitate engine
changes.

To allow autothrottle functions the quadrants below the thrust levers can be moved
by an actuator which drive all four levers via clutches.

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A Typical Mechanical Engine Control System.


Figure 19.19

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19.4.3 TURBOPROP ENGINE CONTROLS

Figure 19.20. shows a typical mechanical control system for a turboprop engine. It
uses a double path system to transmit power requirements to the power unit,i.e. the
power lever controls engine power in the normal operating modes and both power
and propeller blade angle in the beta mode. A condition lever controls propeller
blade angles in the normal mode, and also controls the feathering of the propeller
and the HP shutoff cock.

Power and Condition Levers.


Figure 19.20.

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Turboprop Power Control System – Cable Routing.


Figure 19.21.

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Power Controls. (figure 19.22.)


The power lever controls, via the Hydromechanical Control Unit (HMU)the full flow
from “MAX” (maximum power) to “REV” (reverse) (Figure 19.23.). Power lever
movement is transmitted to the HMU via a series of push/pull rods and cables. A
control rod between the HMU and the Propeller Control Unit (PCU) enables control
of propeller blade angle in beta mode.
Propeller/HP Shutoff Cock Control. (figure 19.22.)
The “Condition Lever” controls via the PCU propeller speed from, “Min N P”
(minimum propeller speed) to “Max NP” (maximum propeller speed). Condition lever
movement is transmitted via a series of push/pull rods and cables, similar to the
power lever controls. A second control rod (figure 19.23.) between the PCU and
HMU enables control of the HP fuel shutoff cock within the HMU by the condition
lever. The condition lever also controls feathering of the propeller (figure 19.22)

Power lever Controls:


1. Power in forward mode (NH
or SHP as a function of
PLA)
2. NP in reverse.
3. Propeller blade angle in
beta.

Condition Lever:
1. Fuel “on” or “off”.
2. Feathering or unfeathering
the propeller.
3. NP from minimum to
maximum.

Power and Condition lever Controls.


Figure 19.22.

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HMU to PCU Connections.


Figure 19.23.

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Intentionally Blank

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19.5 ENGINE BUILD UNIT

When an engine is delivered from manufacturer or overhaul it will not have all the
equipment needed for its installation into the aircraft. This is because engines can
be fitted into different types of aircraft and the accessories will be type specific.
Hydraulic pumps, electrical generators, starters, drains and mounts will have to be
fitted during or prior to installation in the aircraft. Although the engines fitted to each
wing are the same, the accessories and their fittings may well be handed for the
different installations i.e. the BÆ 146 has a generator on the outboard engines and
a hydraulic pump on the inboard. These components are referred to as dress items,
an engine that is dressed is ready for fitment.
For some engines fitting the accessories prior to fit on the aircraft is impractical and
the accessories are fitted once the engine is installed.
Examples of engine build units are shown in Figures 19.24. to 19.27. together with a
list of items and components that must be fitted before the engine is considered
ready for release to service prior to installation into the aircraft.
19.5.1 TURBOFAN ENGINE

The manufacturer delivers the engine to fit the no-2 (right) position.
Conversion from the no.2 (right) to the no.1 (left) position requires re-position of:
 The front engine mount adaptor.
 The trunnion mount.
 The HP compressor 7th and 12th stage bleed air ducts.
 The electrical harness on the engine.
 The external igniter leads on top of the engine.
 The engine vibration transducer wiring.

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Power Plant Build Installation.(Tay)


Figure 19.24.

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Number Item
10 Front Mount Adapter
20 Anti-Icing System
30 Vibration Transducer
40 Hydraulic Lines
50 Inlet Cowling
60 Hydraulic Hoses
70 Hydraulic Pump No. 1
80 Hydraulic Pump No. 2
90 Integrated Drive Generator
100 Vent and Drain System
110 Starter System,
120 Air-Starter Duct,
120A Air-Starter Duct
130 After Cowling
140 Fuel Flow Transmitter
150 Fuel Line
160 Engine Control Rods
170 Power Lever Angle Transmitter
,

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Electrical Harness Installation.(Tay)


Figure 19.25.

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Number Item
10 Igniter Leads
20 Igniter Leads
30 Anti-Ice Electrical Harness
40 Anti-Ice Electrical Harness
50 Electrical Harness on the Hydraulic Pumps No. 1 and 2
60 Electrical Harness on IDG and IDG Oil Temperature Switch
70 Vibration Transducer Electrical Harness, LH-Engine
80 Vibration Transducer Electrical Harness, RH-Engine
90 Electrical Harness on Fuel Flow Transmitter
100 Electrical Harness on PLA-Transducer
110 Fire Detection Element

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Turboprop Build Left Hand Side.(PW125)


Figure 19.26.

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Number Item
10. Engine Mounts - Forward Isolators
20. Engine Mounts - Forward Frame Assy
30. IDG Assy
40. IDG Support Bracket
50. Pitch Control Unit and Control Rods
60. Lever Bracket and Interconnection Rods
70. Bleed Air - Low Pressure Check Valve
80. Electrical Harness
90 Bleed Air, High Pressure Bleed Valve
95. Heat Shield Installation
100 Back-up Firewall
110 Bleed Air - Low Pressure Off-Take
120. Female Flange - Exhaust
130. Main Fuel Supply Tube
140. Drain Hoses
150 Pipe Lines Installation for Oil Pressure Transducer & Oil Pressure
Switch
160 Oil-Pressure Transducer, Oil-Pressure Switch, Oil-Temperature
Detector and Fuel-Temperature Detector
170 Heat Exchanger
180 Airduct and LHS & A-Frame
190 Oil-Cooler Assy
200 Propeller
210 Spinner

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Turboprop Build Right Hand Side.(PW125)


Figure 19.27

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Number Item
220 Vertical Firewall
230 Bleed Air - High Pressure and Low Pressure
240 Fire Extinguisher Tube
250 Starter Motor
260 Hydraulic Hose Assemblies and Hydraulic Pump
270 Feathering Pump
275 Brush Block
280 Drain Tubes
290 Torque Tube Isolator
300 Air Intake
310 Engine Seal Assy
320 Hydraulic Pump Seal Drain
330 Fuel Flow Transmitter
340 Oil Drains
350 Fuel Lines on the Engine
360 Spray Pipe for Air Intake
370 Engine Mounts
370A Engine Mounts - Rear Isolators

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19.6 FIRE PREVENTION – BAYS OR ZONES


To prevent the spread of a fire within an aircraft/engine nacelle, it is divided up into
sections or zones, each being separated by a fireproof bulkhead. These are made
of titanium or stainless steel and prevent the fire from spreading into adjacent areas.
The engine nacelle is split into two sections (UK).
Zone 1. The cool section contains the:
 Fan
 Compressor
 Fuel Control
 Air system supply
 Hydraulic pump
 AC generator
 Bleed valves and Variable Inlet Guide Vane (VIGV) systems
Zone 2. The hot section contains the:
 Fuel burners
 Combustion chamber
 Turbines LP & HP
 Exhaust

Fire Zones.
Figure 19.28.

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All fire zones are sealed from adjacent areas. Fire resistant rubber seals are fitted to
the edges of all doors, panels and bulkhead fittings to prevent fire spreading. Each
of the zones will be ventilated to prevent the build up gases or pressure and to cool
the outer casing of the engine and accessories. Fire break in panels will be built in
to allow the use of external fire extinguishers, these may also operate as blow out
doors to prevent pressure build up in the zone.

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19.7 INSTALLING AND REMOVING ENGINES.


The removal and installation of an aircraft engine follows basically the same
principles. However there are differences between turboprop, turboshaft and other
engines.
Because of the size and complexity of engine replacement there is usually a pre-
printed job card to ensure the job is carried out correctly.

19.7.1 REMOVAL

To prepare an aircraft for engine removal, check that the aircraft weight and balance
will not be adversely effected when the engine is removed. Most engines weigh
between 0.5 and 1 ton. Trestles may be required to stabilise the fore and aft axis of
the aircraft.
The aircraft fuel system does not have to be drained, but the LP fuel valve must
closed and a label attached to the LP Cock handle, in the flightdeck, to prevent
inadvertent operation. In addition, the aircraft should be made electrically safe
which will entail isolation of the engine starting and ignition system.
Planning is an essential part of any engine removal activity. The Supervisor and
personnel involved, should ensure that all necessary resources, such as sufficient
manpower, special tools, lifting equipment and an engine transit / storage stand, are
available.
The engine access doors and fairings will either have to be removed or supported
clear of the engine.
Due to restricted access of some engine accessories and components, it is, in some
cases, much easier to remove these items with the engine installed in the aircraft.
Once the engine has been initially prepared for removal (accessories removed etc)
the procedure of disconnecting the engine systems, at the engine/ aircraft interface,
can begin. Most engines employ quick release plugs and sockets for ease of
disconnection of the electrical systems, however some electrical systems, with
heavier duty cables, such as the starter and generator cables, may be bolted
connections. Disconnect any cable cleats going across the engine / airframe
interface.
The hydraulic pipes are usually quick release/self-sealing connections at both the
hydraulic pump and the engine / airframe interface. Air supply connections will
generally interface with a ‘vee band’ type of clamp or a bolted connection.
The engine LP fuel inlet pipe must be drained, before disconnection, into a suitable
container and the waste fuel disposed off in an approved manner. With the
exception of the main engine bearers, all mechanical links must be released and
either removed or tied back to prevent fouling during the removal operation.

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Bae 146 Engine Lift Equipment. Note. The Nose Cowling is attached to the
Engine and is Removed Later.
Figure 19.29.

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If the engine is not being replaced or refitted immediately, all open pipes must be
blanked off to prevent foreign particle ingress and all electrical plugs tied back and
protected.
Once satisfied that the engine is ready for removal the lifting equipment can be
fitted in accordance with the AMM. Jet engines are installed and removed utilising
gantry cranes, mobile cranes or in many cases by use of 2,3 or 4 mini hoists.
Whatever method is used the lifting equipment must be inspected before use.
Particular attention should be paid to ensuring that the equipment has approval
documentation and is of the correct ‘safe working load’ for the task. Cables should
not show evidence of twisting or fraying and end fittings should be free of damage,
corrosion etc. When mini hoists are used, the brake and clutch mechanisms of
each hoist should be functionally checked and that the correct hoist is being used
as similar units are rated at different settings.
Supervisors should double check that all the lifting equipment is serviceable and
correctly fitted prior to commencing the removal process. The supervisor should
also carry out a final check of the engine / airframe disconnect points to satisfy
himself/herself that the engine and equipment is safe for removal.
Each winch / hoist is to be manned at all times during the removal process and at
least one person who can check the engine to ensure it remains in a safe condition
during removal. The supervisor must ensure that all team members are fully aware
of the process and briefed on what is required of each individual. All instructions
should be given in a clear and unambiguous manner and where hand signals are
required, all members can see the supervisor and are aware of their meaning. Only
the supervisor of the task should issue instructions during the process and
unnecessary talk and noise (i.e. riveting operations in vicinity) minimised or
stopped.
Immediately prior to removing the engine and finally releasing the engine mounts /
attachments, the weight of the engine must be ‘taken’ by the lifting equipment. This
will ensure that there is no unnecessary ‘jerking’ or ‘snatching’ of the cables. With
mini hoists this is achieved by winching the cable in until the clutch in the handle
breaks (Always re-engage the handle before progressing further). At this point the
effectiveness of the brake unit in the mini hoist should be checked following the
relevant manufacturers procedures. Once the supervisor is satisfied that all
procedures have been followed correctly and that all resources are in place the
engine mountings / bearers can be disconnected and the engine removed / lowered
from its housing. At all stages of the removal procedure checks should be carried
out to ensure that the engine does not become caught on the airframe structure or
components.
WARNING
NEVER WALK UNDER A SUSPENDED LOAD. EVERY EFFORT SHOULD BE
TAKEN TO MINIMISE THE TIME NECESSARY TO CARRY OUT ANY
MAINTENANCE BENEATH A SUSPENDED LOAD

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When lowering an engine using a mini hoist system, the weight of the engine should
always be taken by the winding handle and the brake should be released and held
off.
An engine stand should be positioned ready to accept the engine and any pins or
mounts, between the engine and its stand, connected prior to allowing the weight to
be removed from the winching system.
If the engine is to be replaced remove any further dress items that have not already
been removed. Complete and attach an equipment label to the engine detailing its
condition, life used, etc.
To avoid or minimise deformation on the aircraft structure due to removal of the
engine, it may be necessary to fit a component called a ‘jury strut’ This requirement
will be clearly stated in the relevant procedure of the AMM.
Once removed further inspections on the engine and the nacelle will be carried out.
If the engine is to be returned to the manufacturer these will entail blanking of
exposed pipes and protection of exposed cables and components. If the engine is
to be refitted to the same aircraft then these checks, often referred to as ‘bay
checks’ are more involved and are designed to ensure that the condition of the hard
to see areas of the engine and engine bay are thoroughly checked.

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Interface Disconnect Points.


Figure 19.30a.
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Interface Disconnect Points.


Figure 19.30b.
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Interface Disconnect Points.


Figure 19.30C.
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Interface Disconnect Points.


Figure 19.30D.
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19.7.2 FITTING
Prior to fit remove the label from the engine and attach it to the paperwork for
safekeeping. Check the engine over to ensure it is complete and check the label for
any tasks required before fit. Fit any dress items that need to be fitted prior to fit.
Check round the bay to ensure it is clear to fit the engine and remove the jury strut if
fitted. Check the lift gear is correctly installed and that it is serviceable.
Position the engine and correctly attach it to the lift gear (double check this).
Lifting the engine in follows the same basic rule as lowering. If using mini hoists
there is no need to operate the brake when hoisting as it ratchets. When the engine
nears the installed position the person in charge and his assistant will align the
mounts and fit the pins or bolts, this is a critical time and may require very small
movements on the lifting gear to allow the mounts to be connected. Great care and
concentration is required to prevent damage or injury. Do not use your finger to
check alignment as a very small movement of the engine could trap or sever it.
Once the mounts are made, and locked the lifting gear can be removed and the
engine systems and accessories can be reconnected which is the reverse of the
removal. Remember to fit new seals to the components.
After engine fit the electrical systems can be reset. The LP fuel valve opened and
the engine fuel system bled to remove any air. The engine oil system is then
checked and followed by an engine ground run. During the ground run leak and
performance checks are carried out to ensure that the engine is satisfactory. After
the run the chip detectors are checked and duplicate inspection is required on the
engine controls.
19.7.3 TURBO PROP ENGINE REMOVAL/FIT.
With a turboprop engine the prop would have to be removed prior to removal and
fitted after the engine is mounted. The prop would also have to be bled and
functioned prior to running to prevent damage.
19.7.4 FLIGHT TRANSIT

To allow an aircraft to return to a suitable base for an engine change, some multi
engine aircraft can be flown with one engine shut down. In the case of the BAE 146
it has sufficient power to take off and fly on 3 engines. To prevent damage to the
engine rotor locks are fitted to the LP and HP systems to prevent rotation. The
starting and ignition systems must be inhibited for that engine to prevent damage by
inadvertent selection.

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An ALF 502 Engine in its Stand


Figure 19.31.

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20 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


20.1 FIRE DETECTORS
A complete fire warning system consists of a detection system, an extinguisher
system and a method of detecting that the fire is out. There are specified areas that
only have detection systems, these are parts of engine bays and hot air ducts.
Detectors are mounted within the zones next to the components more prone to a fire
or overheat condition, the choice of detection system, fire or overheat, depends on
the contents of the zone.
Zone 1 (UK) contains the fuel control system, in this zone a fire could develop
therefore the detection system used is a FIRE WARNING SYSTEM.
Zone 2 (UK) includes the rear section of the engine and the jet pipe, this zone is
identified as an overheat area only and will have an OVERHEAT WARNING
SYSTEM.
A fire or heat detection system should:
 Give a rapid indication of condition with an audio warning for fire (bell), the audio
should have a cancellation facility and should be auto resetting.
 Provide location information concerning the fire or overheat condition.
 Have a warning system that will continue during fire.
 Continue to operate where the fire is located.
 Provide an indication that the fire is out or that the overheat condition no longer
exists.
 Include an “in flight” test facility.
 Not automatically shut down the main power unit or operate the engine fire
extinguishers, it may however shut down the APU usually only when on the
ground.
 Not produce false indication in event of failures or fault conditions.

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Engine Nacelle Fire Zones.


Figure 20.1.

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20.2 FIRE WIRE SYSTEMS


A fire wire system employs a continuous flexible sensing element that is wrapped
around the potential fire or overheat areas within a fire zone.
Three types of element are used; resistive, capacitive or gas pressure. The
response to a temperature rise depends on the value of temperature applied and the
length of sensing element to which it is applied. A high temperature over a short
length or a low temperature over a long length will both operate the warning system.
20.2.1 RESISTANCE TYPE
Resistance type firewire consists of a stainless steel tube with a centre wire
electrode, separating them is an insulating material of beads or powder. The
resistance of the insulating material decreases with an increase in temperature until,
at the warning temperature, sufficient current passes to operate the warning circuit.
The element is fed with a current from a control box that also produces the output for
the warning system.

Firewire sensing element.


Figure 20.2.

20.2.2 CAPACITANCE TYPE


The capacitance firewire is similar in construction to the resistance type, the
insulation has different characteristics. The element forms a capacitor, the
capacitance of which varies with changes in temperature. The central electrode is
fed with half wave alternating current which it stores and returns to a control unit
during the second half of the cycle. The stored charge increases with the
temperature and, when the warning temperature is reached, the back current is
sufficient to operate a relay in the warning circuit. The main advantage of the
capacitance system is that a short circuit grounding of the element or wiring does not
result in a false fire warning.

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20.2.3 GAS OPERATION FIRE WIRE


The operating principle is the gas law i.e. pressure increases with temperature.
As the helium in the sensor tube senses an overall temperature increase, its
pressure is proportionately raised. Then a pressure switch operates to couple an
electrical supply to the fire or overheat warning.
The sensing element is pre-pressurised with helium and this lower pressure is
monitored by another pressure switch that will if the base pressure is lost, indicate a
failure of the sensing system.
Should a localised temperature be experienced, which was of a value considerably
above that needed to activate an overall temperature warning, a central core of
titanium hydride will release hydrogen the tube. This action is sufficient to raise the
pressure and initiate the fire warnings. As the temperature reduces the central core
will re-absorb the hydrogen.
Note:
The detector is a hermetically sealed unit. Any attempt at disassemble it may cause
serious damage and is likely to render the unit inoperative.
By shutting the engine down, the fire or overheat warning should cancel as the
temperature drops.

A Gas Filled Firewire System.


Figure 20.3.

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20.2.4 SINGLE LOOP


One continuous loop clipped round the engine cowl in the most fire vulnerable areas.
20.2.5 DUAL LOOP
This is two independent systems usually running parallel round the engine cowl in
the most fire vulnerable areas.
Each fire zone has dual sensing loops. Each loop, A or B, is independent of the
other.
On some aircraft only one system is used at a time, the other being held as a spare.
Some aircraft can use both loops at the same time, only giving a warning when both
loops sense the overheat condition. (Figure 20.5)
When the loop selector switch is selected to ‘BOTH’, loop A and loop B must detect
a fire condition before the warning system will be activated.
If only one loop detects a fire condition while the selector is at ‘BOTH’ a fire warning
will not be given (some systems can give a lower grade indication of this happening).
If the selector is switched to a single loop position (A or B), full fire warnings will be
given if the selected loop senses fire conditions.

Loop Mounting.
Figure 20.4.

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A Dual Loop Continuous Firewire System.


Figure 20.5.

20.2.6 DUAL LOOP SYSTEMS


Dual loop fire warning systems are used to prevent spurious warnings, they consist
of two identical systems. Both loops are required to detect the fire condition in order
to initiate the fire warning, if only one loop detects the fire condition, only a “loop
light” will illuminate. The following example shows the indications you would see on
an electronic instrument system (Figure 20.6.)(E.I.C.A.S. engine indication crew
alerting system), or as shown E.C.A.M. (electronic centralised monitoring system).
In the example shown, the fire detection system provides the flight deck with nacelle
temperature, loop faults, over-temperature and fire indication and warnings.

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Fire and Loop Fault Indication.


Figure 20.6.

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20.3 FIRE AND LOOP FAULT INDICATION (E.C.A.M.)


The fire detection control electronics module is made up of two circuits which
process signals from fire detection loops.
The loop fault circuit indicates a fire detector loop fault to the flight crew. The
E.C.A.M. responds with a loop fault message on the warning display. E.C.A.M.
illuminates the master caution light and sounds a single chime. The fire detection
and protection panel illuminates the loop test lights.
The over-temperature and fire circuit indicates a fire warning to the flight crew. The
E.C.A.M. responds with an engine fire message and a corrective action procedure
on the warning display. The E.C.A.M. also illuminates the master warning light and
sounds a continuous chime. The fuel shut-off lever is illuminated on the pedestal
and the engine fire pull handle is illuminated on the fire detection and protection
panel.

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20.4 FIRE SUPPRESSION


Typical fixed systems in the types of aircraft for which fixed fire extinguisher systems
are specified, it is usual for the extinguishant to be stored in the containers under
pressure and to be discharged by electrically firing cartridge units within the
extinguisher discharge heads. The firing circuits are controlled by switches or fire
control handles in the flight crew compartment; some types may also be automatic
as in the case of an APU. The layout of a system and the number of components
required, depend largely on the type of aircraft and number of power plants and also
on whether fire protection is required for auxiliary power units, landing gear wheel
bays and baggage compartments.
A secondary function of the Engine fire handles is to isolate the engine from other
aircraft systems to prevent them from making the fire worse, and also to stop the fire
spreading. The systems usually affected are fuel, hydraulics, and air systems. See
figure 20.9.
There are two types of fixed systems used for power plant fire protection.

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Isolation Functions of Engine Fire Handles


Figure 20.7

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20.4.1 TYPES OF FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEM


ONE SHOT SYSTEM
In this system the extinguishant bottle has only one outlet from the neck and is
connected to one engine only. If the operation of that cylinder fails to suppress the
fire, nothing can be done unless another bottle is fitted as a back up.

A Single Shot Fire Extinguisher System.


Figure 20.8.

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20.4.2 TWO SHOT SYSTEM (SHARED EXTINGUISHERS)


The extinguishant cylinder in a two shot system has two outlets from the neck and
each outlet supplies extinguishant to a different engine.
Each outlet is operated independently by a suitably marked firing button situated in
the cockpit.
When the “first shot” button is pressed, the relative extinguisher will discharge its
contents via a Directional Flow valve to the required fire zone.

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A Two Shot Fire Extinguisher System.


Figure 20.9.

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20.4.3 TWO SHOT SYSTEM (SINGLE HEAD EXTINGUISHERS)


In this type of system, there are two separate extinguisher bottles for each engine,
each having a single outlet, to the same engine.
The system operates in the same way as the two shot system.

A Two Shot System Using Single Head Bottles.


Figure 20.10

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A Two Shot System With Single Head Bottles.


Figure 20.11.

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20.5 EXTINGUISHERS
Extinguishers vary in construction but are normally comprised of two main
components: the steel or copper container and the discharge or operating head.

CARTRIDGE

A Typical Two Head Fire Extinguisher Bottle.


Figure 20.11.
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20.5.1 OPERATING HEAD


A pressure gauge or operated indicator, discharge plug and safety discharge
connection are provided for each container. The discharge plug is sealed with a
breakable disk combined with an explosive charge that is electrically detonated to
discharge the contents of the bottle.

A Twin Head Extinguisher.


Figure 20.13.

20.5.2 SAFETY DISCHARGE


The safety discharge connection is capped at the inboard side of the structure with a
red indicating disk. If the temperature rises beyond a predetermined safe value, the
disk will rupture, dumping the agent overboard. A mechanical indicator is fitted to
the outlet of the overboard vent.(Fig 20.14.)
A pipe is connected between the indicator and the pressure relief outlet on the
extinguisher. When discharge occurs, the extinguishant flows along the pipe and
blows out the sealing plug and nylon disc revealing the bright red interior of the bowl.
The sealing plug prevents the ingress of moisture that could corrode the rupture disk
and cause premature leakage.

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Fire Bottle Discharge Indicator.


Figure 20.14.

20.5.3 DISCHARGE TUBE CONFIGURATION


Very dependent upon the type and size of engine installation, typical system shown
in figure 20.15.

Typical Discharge Tube Installation.


Figure 20.15.

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20.5.4 OPERATING TIME


In most systems the extinguishant will dissipate in a few seconds. More recently a
system has been developed which will discharge in 1 to 2 seconds. This system is
known as HRD (high rate of discharge).
20.5.5 EXTINGUISHANT

Older aircraft use Methyl Bromide as the extinguishing agent, this has been replaced
by BCF (Bromochlorodifluoromethane) Halon 1301. Both of these chemicals are
CFC’s and are banned under the Montreal Protocol. A recent amendment to this
document has allowed their continued use in aircraft until a suitable alternative is
found or existing stocks run out. CO2 is sometimes used however it does form snow
when released which can cause hot metal components to explode so its use is
limited.

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20.6 INDICATIONS OF FIRE DETECTION


When the fire detection system is exposed to an overheat condition or fire, the
detector warning lights in the cockpit illuminate and the fire warning bell sounds.
The warning light may be located in the fire-pull handle on the instrument panel, light
shield, overhead panel or fire control panel.
20.6.1 FIRE T HANDLE
These fire switches are sometimes referred to as fire-pull T-handles.
In some models of this fire-pull switch, pulling the T-handle exposes a previously
inaccessible extinguishing agent switch and also actuates micro-switches that
energise the emergency fuel shut-off valve and other pertinent shut-off valves.

Fire ‘T’ Handle.


Figure 20.16.

20.6.2 FIRE BELL


An alarm bell control permits any one of the engine fire detection circuits to energise
the common alarm bell. After the alarm bell sounds, it can be silenced by activating
the audio cut-out switch or pressing either of the red alert flashers. The bell can still
respond to a fire signal from any of the other circuits.

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Isolation Functions of Engine Fire Handles


Figure 20.17
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20.6.3 FIRE DETECTION TEST


Most fire protection systems for turbine engine aircraft also include a test switches
and circuitry that permit the entire detection system to be tested.

Fire Test.
Figure 20.18.

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20.7 DISCHARGE INDICATORS


In fire extinguisher systems of the fixed type, provision is made for positive indication
of extinguisher discharge as a result of either (a) intentional firing, or (b) inadvertent
loss of contents, ie. pressure relief overboard or leakage. The methods adopted are:
 Mechanical in operation.
 Electrical in operation.
These devices are known as ‘bottle gone indicators’.
20.7.1 MECHANICAL INDICATORS
Mechanical indicators are, in many instances, fitted in the operating heads of
extinguishers and take the form of a pin, which under normal conditions is flush with
the cap of the operating head. When an extinguisher has been fired and after the
charge plug has been forced down the operating head, the spigot of the plug strikes
the indicator pin causing it to protrude from the cap.

Mechanical Bottle Fired Indicator.


Figure 20.19.

20.7.2 ELECTRICAL INDICATORS


Electrical indicators are used in several types of aircraft and consist of indicating
fuse indicators, magnetic indicators and warning lights. These are connected in the
electrical circuits of each extinguisher so that when the circuits are energised, they
provide indication that the appropriate cartridge units have been fired. In some
aircraft, pressure switches are mounted on the extinguishers and are connected to
indicator lights, which come on when the extinguisher pressure reduces to a
predetermined value. Pressure switches may also be connected in the discharge
lines to indicate actual discharge as opposed to discharge initiation at the
extinguishers.
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A fuse indicator has a pellet of coloured wax around heating element, when electrical
power is applied to the element the wax vaporises and spreads itself all over the
clear plastic indicator dome.
20.8 CARTRIDGES OR SQUIBS
These devices are the electrical detonators that ‘fire’ the bottles. These detonators
are explosive devices and special precautions apply when handling and transporting
them. Prior to fit a ‘No Volts Test’ must be carried out to the fire system wiring to
ensure that it will not go off when connected. When handling the cartridges do not
touch the pins as a static discharge could fire it, ensure that you are earthed and are
not wearing clothing that is generating large amounts of static. They should be
transported and stored in steel boxes and in a secure manner.
On some aircraft a ‘squib’ test is provided, when pressed provides a circuit through
the cartridge with a current flow low enough to prevent firing the squib, but sufficient
to illuminate a green light if the squib is serviceable. Do not press the fire button to
do this test!
20.8.1 LIFE CONTROL OF SQUIBS
The service life of fire extinguisher discharge cartridges is calculated from the
manufacturer’s date stamp, which is usually placed on the face of the cartridge. The
cartridge service life recommended by the manufacturer is usually in terms of hours
below a predetermined temperature limit. Cartridges are available with a service life
of approximately 5,000 hours.

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Cartridge (Squib) Test.


Figure 20.20

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INTENTIONALLY BLANK

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21 ENGINE MONITORING AND GROUND OPERATIONS.


21.1 PROCEDURES FOR STARTING AND GROUND RUNNING.

Before starting and ground running any gas turbine powered aircraft, several
considerations must be taken into account. The first and most important is the
safety of personnel, aircraft and equipment involved in the run. Secondly the safety
of personnel, aircraft, equipment and buildings close to but not involved in the run,
and thirdly the safety of the engine itself.
The aircraft maintenance manual (AMM) will show the danger areas associated with
the aircraft (fig 21.1 & 21.2) and these must be observed at all times. To alert other
personnel of the need to take precautions safety signs should be positioned. Ideally
engine ground runs should be carried out in a designated area which will to a large
extent assist safety. There may however be occasions when these designated
areas are not available. Precautions to protect personnel, aircraft and equipment
must still be observed.

Diagram of Fokker 100 Aircraft showing the Engine running danger areas at idle
and full power.
Figure 21.1.

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The BAe 146 Danger Areas Showing Entry Corridors.


Figure 21.2.

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Particular attention should be paid to the positioning of the aircraft and its ground
support equipment (GSE). The aircraft should be facing into wind and securely
chocked (possibly with the front and rear chocks tied together). The visual and free
movement of both compressor and turbine should be checked, and the engine air
intake examined for loose articles. The areas to the front and rear of the aircraft
should be checked for loose articles and spilt fuel, which could cause a hazard to
the aircraft during the run.
The technical log must be checked to ensure that no outstanding entries will
jeopardise the operation or function of other aircraft systems. Other entries may
require functional checks to be carried during the ground run, which may also
require involvement in the run of other tradesmen. Ground support equipment
should be positioned to ensure their safe operation and movement, if required,
during the start and run.
21.2 STARTING

Commonly Used Hand Signals for Ground Running.


Figure 21.3.

Prior to starting the engines all personnel involved must be made aware of their
responsibilities and role during the run. If hand signals are to be used (fig. 21.3.)
they should be agreed and understood by all concerned. All personnel outside the
aircraft must wear ear-defenders, if possible one or more of the external team
should have an intercom headset for direct communication with those inside.

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The person(s) operating the controls during starting and running must be familiar
with the controls, instruments and limitations associated with the engines. In
particular they should be aware of the limitations imposed upon the engines turbine
temperature during start.
If the start is to be made from the aircraft batteries, ensure they are fully charged. If
a ground power unit is to be used, it must be appropriate for the aircraft and must
be correctly connected. If the starter requires air, then the APU will be required or a
suitable air-cart attached correctly to the aircraft.

Events in a Typical Gas Turbine Engine Start.


Figure 21.4.

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Starting procedures will vary depending on aircraft type and installation hence, the
AMM must always be referred to. The example that follows (Fig. 21.4. refers) is
however typical and will serve as a general guide:
1. Set all controls and switches etc. as per AMM.
2. Switch ‘on’ electrical power.
3. Carry out relevant flightdeck safety checks i.e. Brakes ‘on’, Engine fire warning
tests etc.
4. Low pressure fuel valve (LP) [sometimes called the LP cock] check ‘open’.
5. Contact Air Traffic Control on the radio, giving location, type of run and number
of people on board.
6. Switch ‘on the aircraft booster pumps.
7. Confirm ‘clear to start’ from safety man.
8. Select start master switch to ‘on’, the aircraft systems will be put into starting
mode.
9. Select ‘start’
At this point the starting sequence becomes semi automatic.
10. The starter begins to rotate the compressor (HP if multi shaft) to provide a flow
of air through the engine.
11. The engine ignitors are energised.
Observing the engine’s RPM, when this reaches a speed of approximately 10 –
20%, advance the high pressure fuel valve to open either by moving the throttle or
the HP cock lever (on aircraft with a separate lever) to the ‘fuel on’ or ground idle
(GI) position. The engine speed will increase as the starter motor continues its
acceleration; fuel will be supplied to the atomisers and will be burnt in the
combustion chambers. ‘Light up’ will occur which will be indicated by a rapid rise in
Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT).
12. The rise in gas temperature will cause the air within the combustion chamber to
expand which when passed through the turbine will assist the acceleration.
13. During this phase the oil pressure should start to rise.
14. As the engine accelerates it will reach a point called ‘the self-sustaining speed’;
this is the minimum speed at which the engine can run unassisted.
15. Once above self-sustaining speed the starter and ignition will cut out
automatically, and the engine will accelerate to ground idle under the control of
the fuel system.
It is during this phase of the acceleration when there is a great risk of exceeding the
maximum starting temperature of the engine, so vigilance is required to monitor the
EGT.

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16. The engine should settle quickly at ground idle. At this point the other flight deck
indications should be checked to ensure the start was successful, i.e. the starter
and ignition should have cut out, oil pressure should be in range (fig. 21.5),
check N1,or propeller, or rotor speed.

Oil Pressure Limits at Ground Idle.


Figure 21.5.

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17. If only one engine is to be started, the Start Master Switch should be switched
‘Off’ and electric fuel pumps switched ‘on’ to support the running engine.
21.3 UNSATISFACTORY STARTS

Unsatisfactory starts can be broadly categorised in the following three areas:


1. Hot starts.
These occur when the EGT exceeds the manufacturers specified limits. They
normally result from too rich a fuel/air ratio. The engine should be shut down
immediately. It is good practice to shut down before the limit is reached if possible
to prevent overswing . Improper ratio of fuel/air may be caused by a malfunction in
the fuel control unit (FCU), incorrect use of the throttle, or a restriction of the air flow
into the intake, i.e. ice, snow, cross wind etc. Manufacturers will list the degrees of
overtemperature limits in terms of time and temperature rather than stating a
specific overtemperature (fig.21.6.).

Overtemperature
Limits During Starting.
Figure 21.6.

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2. Hung Start.
After light up the engine RPM does not increase to ground idle, but remains at some
lower value. The EGT may stabilise or continue to rise (sometimes rapidly). Again
EGT must be monitored closely and the engine shut down if limits are exceeded.
Hung starts are often caused by insufficient power to the starter motor, or the starter
cutting out too soon. It could also be caused by rotational stiffness within the
rotating system, which may be caused by the engine or one of its accessories.
3. No Start.
The engine does not ‘light up’ as indicated by no increase in RPM or EGT. This
could be the result of a faulty starter motor, insufficient power to the starter motor,
faulty ignition system or even a problem with the FCU, engine fuel system or
possibly the aircraft fuel system.
For any of the above, the limitations laid down in the AMM and Company
Procedures must be adhered to.
21.4 ENGINE STOPPING.

Normal shut down of a gas turbine engine is accomplished simply by closing the
throttle (and/or HP cock) to the ‘fuel off’ position. This should be followed by
switching ‘off’ the aircraft fuel booster pumps. There are however other factors to
consider which will depend upon the operation of the engine prior to shut down.
If the engine has been operating at high power for any length of time a three to five
minute cooling period at ground idle is usually recommended prior to shut down.
The shroud casing and turbine rotors do not cool down at the same rate after shut
down. The turbine shroud casing, cooling at a faster rate may shrink onto the still
rotating rotor and cause damage.
Run down time should be monitored in terms of the time taken to stop, the
manufacturers will give a recommended time, also check for unusual noises;
compressor rub, turbine rub and accessory drives. Assuming all is well, all controls
and switches should be positioned in accordance with the AMM and electrical
power selected ‘off’.
Remember to inform Air Traffic that the run has been completed.

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21.5 ENGINE FIRES

There are two main types of engine fire that can occur when running gas turbine
engines and they are dealt with in different ways.
1. Fire in the engine nacelle.
This type of fire will usually cause the engine fire warning system to function,
although it may be spotted by the safety man outside. The engine should be shut
down immediately. The engine fire handle should be pulled to isolate the nacelle. A
fire extinguisher should be discharged into the nacelle, preferably the CO 2
extinguisher by the safety man, if not available then one of the aircraft
extinguishers. Inform the control tower, then shut down any other running engines,
switch off power and evacuate the aircraft.
2. Fire in the core engine or external to the engine nacelle.
Fire can occur within the core engine especially after a ‘wet start’ (a start which fails
after fuel has been selected on). If insufficient time is allowed for fuel to drain from
the engine or there is a fault in the drain system, fuel can pool inside the turbine
area. On the next start this fuel ignites and flame and black smoke are seen in the
exhaust. This may then be pushed out of the jet pipe by the airflow and spread onto
the ground as a burning pool. This type of fire is usually spotted by the safety man.
He should inform the engine operator, who should then cut off the fuel by shutting
the throttle and or hp cock. The starter motor should continue to run to cool the
engine and to push the fire out of the engine. The safety man should attempt to put
out the fire by discharging CO2 directly into the intake never up the exhaust (as CO 2
produces ice when discharged which can have an explosive reaction when directed
into very hot metal). If the fire has spread out of the jet pipe this fire should also be
tackled with the CO2 extinguisher. When the starter reaches its maximum running
time select the start master switch to ‘off’ to cancel the start signal, pull the fire
handle but do not fire any extinguishers. Make the aircraft safe i.e. shut down
running engines and electrical power and evacuate. Beware!! sometimes burning
fuel from this type of fire can run down inside the cowlings and cause damage to the
engine.

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21.6 INTERPRETATION OF ENGINE POWER OUTPUTS AND PARAMETERS.

Engine Ratings.
An understanding of gas turbine ratings is necessary in order to be able to interpret
graphs published by the manufacturer in the AMM.
Gas turbine engines are rated by the number of pounds thrust they are designed to
produce for:
 Take-off (T.O.)
 Maximum Continuous Thrust (M.C.T.)
 Maximum Climb (CLB.)
 Maximum Cruise (CRZ)
Parameters
Turbojet and turbofan engines can be measured via Engine Pressure Ratio (EPR)
or Fan Speed (N1). Turboprop and turboshaft engine power is measured via Torque
produced.
In the majority of cases the Take-off (T.O.) rating will be a ‘part throttle’ rating. This
means that T.O. thrust will be obtained at throttle settings below the full throttle
position. The reason for establishing a rating for a particular engine is quite simply
to accommodate the various atmospheric conditions under which the engine will be
operating.
Engine Pressure Ratio (EPR).
Figure 21.7. shows the manufacturers published tables which must be used to
establish the engine is producing its certified T.O. thrust under varying temperature
and altitude conditions.

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Fokker 100 EPR Setting Chart.


Figure 21.7.

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Effects of Temperature and Altitude.


Cold and/or Low
On cold days the air density will increase. If the engine has a ‘part throttle rating’
and the throttle is advanced to its maximum position, the thrust produced will be
significantly higher, resulting in the engine exceeding its mechanical and/or thermal
limits as set by the manufacturer.
Hot and/or High.
On hot days, when the air density is less, a significant reduction in thrust will result.
Advancing the throttle to its maximum condition could again cause the engine to
exceed its thermal and /or mechanical limitations.
Density of air will also be affected by altitude, although the temperature of air drop
(1.97°C per 1000ft Temperature lapse rate) which should cause an increase in
thrust, the density of the air drops at a higher rate due to the drop in pressure so
thrust decreases with altitude at a relatively slow rate. When the tropopause is
reached at 36,000ft the temperature remains constant and the thrust drops off at a
greater rate when climbing. The engine manufacturers graphs and tables will enable
the operator to control the engine within safe thermodynamic and mechanical limits.
By observing these limits the engine will be protected against unnecessary wear
and tear as well as maintaining the recommended time between overhaul
periodicity’s.

Effects of Air Temperature and Altitude on Thrust.


Figure 21.8.

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Flat Rating and Full Rating.


The engine manufacturer will establish the safe maximum T.O. Thrust to be used
under ISA conditions i.e. 15°C at sea level, and at other altitudes. This will
necessitate the adjustment of the throttle position to protect against exceeding the
laid down limits. The terminology, and a brief explanation of terms in common
usage is:
Flat Rating The term has the same meaning as ‘part throttle’. It is used in
conjunction with the graphs/tables published in the AMM. It will
determine the maximum thrust setting that must not be
exceeded if operating below ISA conditions. (early engines
used 15°C as the max flat rating point, newer engines are
rated to 22.5°C or higher). See Figure 21.9.
Full rating Again used in conjunction with the graphs/tables in the AMM,
this will determine the maximum thrust available if operating
above ISA. See Figure 21.9.

Charts of the ALF502


(top) and LF507
(lower) engines. The
charts show flat rating
and full rating, the
ALF502 to 15°C
(59°F) and the LF507
to 23.3°C (74°F).
The lower chart also
shows Take-off de-
rating.
Both charts show the
max continuous thrust
for each engine.
Figure 21.9.

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N1 settings for Engine Ground Running – Anti –ice OFF.


Figure 21.10.

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Engine Operating Limitations for the ALF502.


Figure 21.11.

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Reserve Take-off Power for PW125 Turboprop Engine.


Figure 21.12.

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Take-off (wet) This is the maximum thrust available certified for engine
with thrust augmentation systems (water or
water/methanol injection or reheat). The rating is time
limited usually to around 5 minutes. And is only used
during take-off phase of flight.
Take-off (dry) This is the maximum thrust certified without thrust
augmentation. The rating is time limited usually to
around 5 minutes. And is only used during take-off phase
of flight.
Maximum Continuous This rating is the maximum thrust certified for continuous
Thrust (MCT) use. This rating is used at the pilots discretion, to ensure
continued, safe operation of the aircraft. MCT is used as
the maximum normal thrust available throughout the
majority of the flight, and is used when a rapid climb rate
is needed (see Figure 21.9.).
Maximum Cruise (MCZ) This is the maximum power certified for cruising.

Ground Idle (GI)/ Flight These are not rating as such, but throttle positions that
Idle (FI) are suitable positions for minimum power operations on
the ground or in flight. Ground idle which is usually a
fixed stop, provides a core engine RPM which will ensure
the driven accessories, electrical, hydraulic and
pneumatic, as well as providing a comfortable taxi thrust.
This applies to flight idle, but must also include the
effects of ram air and altitude as well. On approach the
engine must be capable of acceleration from flight idle to
full power within a maximum time limit of 5 seconds
without surging. The flight idle RPM is set to a value
where this requirement can be met. This can seriously
affect the airframe design, as there may be too much
thrust on the approach, so high drag devices may be
needed to keep the approach speed as low as possible.
Flight idle is a moveable stop which is usually activated
by the aircraft weight sensing system, it may also have
more than one position if the air bleed loads affect the
acceleration time.

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ALF 502 Power Assurance Check.


Figure 21.13.

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De-rating Some aircraft are certified with two take-off power


ratings. The lower rating is normally selected for take-off,
if however an engine fails during take-off the remaining
engine(s) are set at the higher rating. By operating the
engine at the lower rating for the majority of its life,
maintenance costs are reduced. This method is often
used with turboshaft engines. A similar system of flexible
take-off thrust (T flex) is used with turbofan engines
where a de-rate is applied to take-off thrust which takes
into account aircraft performance and airfield conditions,
again reducing the wear and tear on the engine.

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Engine Trend Monitoring Sheet Filled Out on Each Flight by the Crew.
Figure 21.14.

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21.7 TREND MONITORING.


The internal operating condition of a gas turbine engine should be monitored both
during flight and on the ground.
Flight Monitoring can be done by observing the relevant engine instruments (See
Fig. 21.14.):

 EPR
 N1
 N2
 TGT
 Fuel Flow
 Oil Pressure/Temperature
 Vibration
These figures can then be transferred onto a graph that will serve to identify the
normal/abnormal trends the engine may be developing. By utilising this method of
monitoring the operator will be better able to predict the rate of deterioration in
engine performance and to instigate some form of maintenance to correct and re-
establish normal performance. The graphic trend charts can of course be produced
be produced by a computer, and most modern turbine engined aircraft’s engine
performance is automatically recorded during flight. The recorded data is then
downloaded and processed and then analysed either manually using charts or
automatically by computer. The common term used for this type of monitoring
system is ‘Engine Condition Monitoring (ECM). Some airlines use this system to
monitor pilot performance when handling engines, as fuel burn and engine life are
two major costs, inappropriate operation can lead to further training and/or loss of
job! Figure 21.15. shows a trend monitoring graph for an ALF 502 engine using
data collected from the forms (fig. 21.14.)

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------ = Reference Baseline (Based on first 10  of new engine)


 = NH, MGT,W f = Actual deltas
 = Average Deltas (Average of last 10 )
Trend Monitoring Graph.
Figure 21.15.

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21.7.1 ON GROUND MONITORING

Inspecting and monitoring the engine for deterioration or damage is a vital part of
aircraft maintenance. The inspections can be broken down into two main areas, ‘Air
washed’ and ‘Oil washed’. Many of the inspection techniques involved are ‘non
destructive’ of a component/system in order to determine its serviceability.
Techniques in common use include inspection and monitoring via:
 Visual inspection
 Boroscope inspection
 Magnetic chip detectors (MCD) debris analysis
 Oil filter debris analysis
 Spectrometric oil analysis programme (SOAP)
 Vibration analysis
 Noise analysis

21.7.2 AIR WASHED COMPONENTS

Visual inspection
There are three basic routine inspections to which gas turbine engines are
subjected:
 Pre flight inspection
 Cold section inspection
 Hot section inspection (HSI)
Pre Flight inspection
Typical routine inspection before flight will include:
 External inspection of engine cowlings
 Inspection of intake, IGV’s, Fan blades and First stage compressor for signs of
damage.
 Inspection of exhaust unit, rear turbine stage and thrust reversers (if fitted) for
signs of damage, cracks, and discoloration etc.
 Inspect inside and out of the cowlings for fuel, oil and air leakage from the
engine and its accessories.
Oil level checks are carried out with defined times after shut down and form part of
the daily inspection which also includes a more detailed inspection covering the pre
flight inspection areas.

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Cold Section Inspection.


The ‘cold section’ of a gas turbine will consist of the compressor and diffuser, IGVs
and fan if fitted. Any interference with the flow of air will seriously effect the
performance of the engine. Inspection (often using a boroscope) will include:
 Inspection for damage
 Inspection for cleanliness.
Hot Section Inspection (HSI)
The ‘Hot Section’ of a gas turbine engine is the ‘workhorse’ section of the engine. It
provides the power to drive the turbines, which in turn drive, the compressor, the
fan, or the propeller to, and in its own right produce thrust. Inspections are normally
carried out with the engine ‘in situ’ i.e. on the wing/fuselage and consist mainly of:
 A review of engine performance just before the inspection, noting any
indications/ history of hot starts, hung starts, overtemperatures, overspeeds, oil
pressure/temperature fluctuations, vibration figures etc.
 Inspection of fuel nozzles, combustion chambers, ignitors, exhaust unit etc for
signs of damage, cracks, leaks discoloration and burning etc.
 Inspection of turbine blades for signs of damage, excessive creep, discoloration
etc.
 Inspect for buckling, twisting and damage to the jet pipe and reversers, incuding
the correct functioning of moving parts.
Boroscope Inspection
Boroscope inspections involve looking at components within an engine using an
optical probe. The probes are inserted in to the engine through ports in the engine
casings, and can be rigid or flexible, the choice being dependant on the difficulty at
obtaining a satisfactory view of the required features. Some of these inspection
ports are the attachment points of other functional devices that intrude into the
engine (e.g. ignitor plugs or temperature probes) but on more modern engines there
are usually several purpose made ports for boroscope inspections.

A Rigid Boroscope.
Figure 21.16.

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In general the boroscope inspection technique saves many hours of work and can
reduce the down time of the aircraft in many cases, disassembly and reassemble of
the engine not being required. The boroscope is essentially an eyepiece connected
to a rigid or flexible tube. The tube contains fibre optic cables that carry light and
therefore visual images, even when the tube is made to bend through considerable
angles. A second fibre optic cable within the tube carries light from a bright light
source to illuminate the target. At the end of the tube there will be a viewing lens,
with a light source lens nearby. Most flexible probes have a steerable tip which
allows the operator to steer toward the target, and the lens is mounted in the tip to
view straight ahead. Rigid probes may have prisms behind the lens to allow the
probe to view at right angles or 45° to the probe.

A Rigid and a Flexible Boroscope With Their Accessories.


Figure 21.17.

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The operator inserts the probe into the appropriate port to view the internal
components. Some techniques require the use of guide tubes to ensure that a
steerable probe is going in the right direction. Ports are usually designed into the
compressor, turbine and combustion sections of the engine. On the viewing end of
the boroscope there will be the controls for the steerable tip (flexible probe) and to
allow the operator to focus the probe. It is more usual these days to find a video
camera attached to the eyepiece so that a recording of the inspection can be made.
The video is presented on a television screen that allows a much bigger picture and
also more than one person to view the screen. The recording is useful as
sometimes it is very difficult to find or reproduce a view that may fleetingly pass and
which gives you concern, also should a problem be observed it can be dispatched
to the manufacturer for analysis by their experts. When turning the engine careful
counting of the blades or number of turns of the hand turning point is required to
ensure that all of the blades have been viewed.

The Boroscope Ports on an


ALF 502 Engine.
Figure 21.18.

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Boroscope probes are very delicate and expensive pieces of equipment and great
care is needed when using them. It is very easy to damage a probe if it is inserted
between rotor and stator blades, even to the point of cutting the end off the probe! If
this is the technique you are using you may need to lock the rotor to prevent the risk
of damage. If the technique requires the engine to be rotated, i.e. to check the
turbine blades, then a port and probe which does not go through the blades is
required. Remember when outside very little wind can cause the rotor to move!
Interpretation of boroscope images is not always as easy as it might sound. The
viewer is very small which can make tiny cracks look like the Grand Canyon!
Equally relatively small distances can appear distant when viewed. These make it
difficult when assessing a component which is close to a limit, and may require you
to look at a similar object with the naked eye to make a proportional judgement.
Most companies require special approval for people to carry out boroscoping.

Fourth Nozzle Inspection.


Figure 21.19.

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Third Nozzle Inspection


Figure 21.20.

Fuel Injector Inspection.


Figure 21.21.

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Combustion Liner Inspection.


Figure21.22.

First Nozzle Inspection.


Figure 21.23.

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NH Compressor Inspection.
Figure 21.24.

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21.7.3 OIL WASHED COMPONENTS

Lubrication Systems
With oil washed components, any mechanical wear from contacting surfaces, gears,
bearings etc. will produce debris which will be carried within the oil circulating round
the engine. Analysis of this debris can provide a very useful method of assessing
any trends in wear from the internal engine components. Analysis can involve a
number of different methods.
Magnetic Detector Plug Debris Analysis
The magnetic chip detectors (MCDs), are small, permanent magnets installed in the
scavenge/return lines of the engine oil system. They will attract ferrous debris from
the oil. At specified intervals they are removed and visually inspected.
As a general rule, the presence of small, fuzzy particles or grey metallic paste is
considered satisfactory and the result of normal wear. Metallic chips or flakes
however are an indication of a more serious nature requiring more in depth
investigation.
Some organisations have specialised departments that, by examining debris under
a microscope can, by virtue of shape, size, colour and marks determine quite
accurately where the debris is from; ball bearing, roller bearing, gear teeth etc. They
may also utilise a ‘Debris Tester’ which will provide a means of measuring
(magnetically) the mass of the debris produced. The figure gleaned can then be
transferred to a graph which will indicate the normal /abnormal amounts of debris
the engine is generating. A sudden increase in the amount of debris observed either
visually or by graphs generated from debris tester figures may result in more
frequent inspections of MCDs, or , in extreme cases, engine removal for
subsequent strip examination.
An indicating type of chip detector may be used to give a warning in the flight deck if
and when excessive debris is present. Basically the detector has two probes which
if connected by the debris act as a switch to bring on a warning.
A much newer type of chip detector is the electric pulsed chip detector, which can
discriminate between wear debris particles considered non-failure related, and large
wear debris particles, which could be an indication of a more serious nature.
Operating in a similar way to the indicating type chip detector, if the warning light
illuminates, an electrical charge can be instigated either manually or automatically
across the gap. Small wear debris particles will be ‘burnt’ off and the light will
extinguish. Large wear debris particles will however not burn off and the warning
light will remain ‘on’.

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(A) In line type scavenge magnetic oil chip detector (non-indicating). (B) Chip
accumulation of ferrous particles. (C) Comparison between standard, pulsed and
detector showing
detector
auto indicating chip
s. Magnetic Chip Detectors.
Figure 21.25.

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Oil Filter Debris Analysis


Oil filters serve an important function within the lubrication system of a gas turbine
engine in that they remove foreign particles that collect in the oil system. Filters are
removed at regular intervals for cleaning, any particles present can then be
analysed visually. If visual inspection reveals evidence of excessive debris this can
be more accurately analysed via ‘spectrometric analysis’.
Spectrometric Oil Analysis Programme (SOAP)
Under certain conditions and within certain limitations, the internal condition of any
mechanical system can be evaluated by the spectrometric analysis of the lubricating
oil. The components of mechanical systems contain aluminium, iron, chromium,
silver, copper, tin magnesium, lead and nickel as the predominant alloying
elements. The moving contact between metallic components will, despite lubrication
create wear, the debris resulting from this wear being carried away by the
lubricating oil. If the rate of wear of each kind of metal can be measured and be
established as normal or abnormal, the rate of wear of the contacting surfaces will
also be established as normal or abnormal.
At specified intervals samples of oil are removed from the engine for analysis.
Spectrometric analysis is possible because metallic ions emit characteristic light
spectra when vaporised in an electric arc or spark. The spectrum produced by each
metal is unique to that particular metal and, the intensity of the light can be used to
measure the quantity of metal in the sample Again, information gained could be
transferred onto a graph to show evidence of normal/abnormal trends.
In this process the oil is burnt which will also show on the analysis, but is ignored as
a known substance. If we suspect that some or all of our fleet may have been
contaminated by an incorrect oil, it is possible to sample the fleet using
spectrometric analysis, to determine which components have the wrong oil in.

Oil Spectrometer.
Figure 21.26.

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21.7.4 INSPECTIONS
Maintenance covers both the work that is required to maintain the engine and its
systems in an airworthy condition while installed in the aircraft, and the work
required to return the engine to an airworthy condition after removal from the aircraft
for overhaul. Comprehensive instructions covering the actual work to be done are
contained in the relevant sections of the aircraft’s maintenance manual (AMM) for
installed engines, frequently referred to as ‘on wing maintenance and the
component maintenance manual (CMM) for uninstalled engines. Both sources of
maintenance information are based on the manufacturers recommendations, which
in turn are approved by the appropriate airworthiness authority.
The maximum time an engine can remain ‘on wing’ is limited to a fixed period
agreed between the engine manufacturer and the airworthiness authority. This
period is often referred to as the Time Between Overhaul period (TBO) and on
reaching this limit the engine must be removed for overhaul. Because the TBO is
actually determined by the life of a few major more critical assemblies within the
engine this means that other assemblies can continue in service for much longer
periods based on an ‘on condition’ monitoring process. Basically this means that a
‘life’ is not declared for a total engine, but only for the more critical assemblies.
Less critical assemblies on reaching their ‘life’ limit are replaced ‘on wing’ or are
inspected to ascertain that they are in a condition, which will allow them to continue
in service. It is the ‘on condition ‘ items which concern the aircraft maintenance
engineer (AME) being the checks, inspections, and examinations that are required
on wing. On wing maintenance falls into two categories, scheduled maintenance
and unscheduled maintenance.
Scheduled Maintenance Checks.
These embrace the periodic and recurring checks that have to be carried out in
accordance with the maintenance schedule and an example is shown in figure
21.27
Unscheduled Maintenance Checks.
These cover work not normally related to scheduled maintenance or time limits. Bird
strikes, lightning strikes, heavy landings will result in unscheduled checks being
carried out. Defects, trouble shooting and even manufacturers specific requirements
regarding repair, and adjustments etc. will also require unscheduled maintenance.

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Section of Maintenance Programme for BAe 146 for Oil System Components.
Figure 21.27.

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AME’s will invariably find that for most inspections the engine is divided into two
main sections, the cold section (compressor, diffuser, fan, IGVs etc.) and the hot
section (combustion chambers, burners, turbines, NGVs, exhaust unit, etc.).
Cold Section Inspections.
Damage to fan blades, IGVs and compressor blades can cause engine failure and
possible loss of the aircraft. Much of the damage to this section of the engine is
brought about by the ingestion of Foreign Objects into the intakes, hence the term
Foreign Object Damage (FOD). The quality of air close to ground level or sea level
leaves a lot to be desired. It is filled with tiny particles of dirt, soot, sand salt, oil and
other foreign matter.
The large volume of air being drawn inwards, then centrifuged outwards can result
in a coating forming on the compressor casing and stators as well as the fan and
rotors. This accumulation of dirt reduces the aerodynamic efficiency of the
compressor resulting in a deterioration of engine efficiency. Repeated ingestion can
also result in erosion of the compressor blades. It can even cause erosion and
damage to the hot section assemblies, NGVs, turbine blades, etc. If inspection
reveals an accumulation of dirt on the compressor it must be cleared. Some
maintenance schedules will schedule regular periodicity’s for cleaning. An example
of this is shown in Figure 21.28.
Operating Nature of Recommended Recommended Remarks
Environment Wash Frequency Method
Continuously Desalination Daily Motoring Strongly recommended after
salt laden last flight of day
Occassionally Desalination Weekly Motoring Strongly recommended.
salt laden Adjust washing frequency to
suit condition.
All Performance 100 to 200 Motoring or Strongly recommended.
Recovery hours Running Performance recovery
required less frequently.
Adjust washing frequency to
suit engine operating
conditions as indicated by
engine condition monitoring
system. Motoring wash for
light soil and multiple
motoring or running wash
for heavy soil is
recommended.

An Example of a Typical Wash Schedule.


Figure 21.28.

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Two Methods of combating the effect of dirty compressors are in use. The fluid
cleaning process and the abrasive grit cleaning process.
Fluid Cleaning.
This procedure involves spraying an emulsive type surface cleaning fluid into the
compressor whilst the engine is turning either on the starter motor or at low RPM.
This is followed by a rinsing solution being applied. This process would be used to
restore engine performance as is commonly referred to as a ‘performance recovery
wash’. To remove salt deposits a water wash only may be required. This process is
termed a ‘de-salination wash’. A schematic view of equipment that might be used is
shown in figure 21.29.

Fluid Cleaning.
Figure 21.29
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Abrasive Grit.
This method of compressor cleaning involves injecting an abrasive grit into the
engine at selected power settings ( Figure 21.30.)grit used may be ground walnut
shell or apricot pits. The type and amount of material and the operational
procedures will be described in the AMM. The main advantage of this procedure is
that allows the time between cleaning to be extended because it produces a better
result. However because the grit is mostly burned up in the combustion zone of the
engine, it will not give an effective cleaning of the turbine blades and vanes as the
fluid.

Abrasive Grit Compressor Cleaning.


Figure 21.30.

Compressor Damage.
Foreign objects often enter engine air intakes either accidentally or through
carelessness. Items such as pens, pencils cigarette lighters etc. can be drawn out
of pockets and ingested by the engine. The compressor could be damaged beyond
repair. Likewise, tools left in engine intakes could be drawn in causing damage.
Prior to starting an engine therefore, the AME should ensure that all tools used in
the vicinity of the intakes are free of any foreign objects and the area in front of
intakes should be cleared of any loose stones or rubbish . Examples of the typical
types of damage to be found on compressor blades is shown in Figure 21.31. and
possible causes of damage and the terminology used in Figure 21.32.

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Compressor Blade Damage.


Figure 21.31.

Blade Maintenance Terms.


Figure 21.32.

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Damage Limits and Repair.


Minor damage to compressor and fan blades may be repaired provided the damage
is within the allowable limits established by the manufacturer in the AMM. Typical
limits for fan blades are shown in Figure 21.33.. All repairs must be well blended so
that the finished surfaces are smooth.

Typical Fan Blade Damage Limits.


Figure 21.33.

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The majority of cold section inspections will require the use of a strong light source
and sometimes a small mirror. If however doubt exists as regard the extent of
damage, then a boroscope inspection would be instigated. Always observe the
safety precautions associated with working in the intake. Ensure that the flightdeck
is suitably placarded informing other personnel that you are in the intake. Tripping of
C/Bs may be required by the manufacturer in order to isolate the starting and
ignition circuits. A safety man may be required who’s job it will be to look after your
interest. Don’t get sucked in!!!
Hot Section Inspections (HSI’s)
The hot section includes all components in the combustion and turbine sections of
the engine. Scheduled inspections may involve visual inspection of hot section
components, and limited dimensional checks and fits and clearances as called up in
the maintenance schedule and described in the AMM. The term ‘hot section
inspection’ is usually interpreted to indicate a time related inspection of the hot
section components. It may also be required following an over-temperature
condition or hot start.
Some more in depth HSI’s will require the removal of major components of the hot
section. The modular construction of most modern gas turbine engine (Figure
21.34) will enable this removal element of the task to be carried out on the wing,
thus reducing the down time. To reduce this down time figure even more, some
operators maintain a stock of ‘hot section’ modules that are ready for immediate
replacement, the removed item being returned for inspection to the operators
overhaul facility.

ALF 502 Modules.


Figure 21.34.

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Disassembly of Hot Section.


The disassembly/reassembly process must ensure that component parts are
reassembled in the same position they came apart from. This will require marking of
components. A note of caution here. When marking any hot section component do
not use a marker that will leave a carbon deposit. Hot metal will absorb carbon
which can lead to intergranular stress and failure of the component.
Line Inspection of Combustor Turbine Section.
On wing inspection of the combustor turbine section can be done visually through
the jet pipe using a strong light source and a mirror and if required a magnifying
glass. Boroscope inspection is also used as is, on occasion, non destructive
methods of inspection such as dye-penetrant. As in other hot section inspections,
the AME is most likely to see small cracks caused by compression and tension
loads during heating and cooling. Other than on turbine blades and discs this type
of distress is normally acceptable because after initial cracks relieve the stress, no
elongation of crack normally occurs.
Erosion of blades and NGVs is also quite common, this brought about as a result of
the wearing away of metal due to either the gas flow or impurities within the gas
flow.
Combustion Section.
One of the most common faults found in the combustor section of a gas turbine
engine is cracks. The combustion liner is made of a high temperature resistant steel
that is subjected tom high concentrations of heat. The most common methods of
checking for faults is by boroscope (Figure 21.35). With this tool the AME can easily
view the internal combustion liner and fuel nozzles, and determine their
airworthiness. During the inspection the AME is looking for signs of cracking,
warping, burning, erosion and hot spots which may have developed possibly as a
result of burner misalignment. What is observed is then compared with the
manufacturers limitations.

Combustion Liner Inspection.


Figure21.35.
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CFM 56 Combustion Liner


Figure 21.36.

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Turbine Discs and Blades.


The inspection for cracks is of the utmost importance, most inspections are visual,
the dye penetrant method of inspection being too impractical. Cracks on discs
however small will necessitate removal of the module or engine for overhaul. Blade
cracking also will invariably require removal of the module or engine. Some
manufacturers limitation allowance will permit repairs to be effected to damaged
turbine blades. Figure 21.37. refers. Cracks however are not acceptable and will
require blade replacement. In extreme cases part or whole blades may be missing
due to severe overheating causing the blade to melt, on some engines this does not
always show up on the vibration indicating system.

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Typical Turbine Blade Damage Limits.


Figure 21.37.

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Turbine Blade Clearance.


Creep is term used to describe the continuous and permanent stretching of turbine
blades due to high temperatures and centrifugal forces acting on the blades. Each
time a turbine is heated, rotated then stopped (referred to as an engine cycle) each
blade will be slightly longer. At regular interval, specified intervals the AME will carry
out a turbine tip clearance check (Figure 21.38.). The AMM will stipulate what
limitations must be observed and if these are exceeded then the engine or module
will require replacing.

Turbine Tip Clearance Check.


Figure 21.38.

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Turbine Blade Replacement.


Some engine manufacturers will allow replacement of damaged turbine blades by
an operators overhaul department. Blade replacement is generally accomplished by
installing a new blade of equal moment weight. If the blade moment weight cannot
be matched then the damaged blade ,and the blade 180° out may be replaced with
blades of equal moment weight or the damaged blade and the blades 120° from it
may be replaced with blades of equal moment weight. Code letters representing
the moment weight are stamped onto the blade to enable correct balancing of the
turbine assembly undergoing blade replacement. Figure 21.39 refers.

Typical Turbine Blade Moment Weight Coding and Change Methods.


Figure 21.39.

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Nozzle Guide Vane Inspection.


Inspection of the NGVs is possible using a strong light source and mirror, it is more
probable however that a boroscope inspection will be required. The NGVs are
examined for signs of damage and or bowing on their trailing edges. Bowing may be
an indication of a faulty fuel nozzle. Again the engine manufacturer will detail the
damage/bowing tolerances which, if exceeded will result in module or engine
replacement (Figure 21.41.).
Inspection of the exhaust section of the engine can be done visually using an
appropriate light source. The exhaust cone and jet pipe are examined for signs of
cracking, weeping, buckling or hot spots. Hot spots identified on the exhaust cone
may be the result of a defective fuel nozzle or combustion chamber resulting in the
requirement for further investigation.

First Nozzle Inspection.


Figure 21.40.

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Nozzle Guide Vane Inspection.


Figure 21.41.

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Exhaust Section Inspection.


Inspection of the exhaust section of the engine can be done visually using an
appropriate light source. The exhaust cone and jet pipe are examined for signs of
cracking, warping, buckling or hot spots. Hot spots identified on the exhaust cone
may be the result of a defective fuel nozzle or combustion chamber resulting in the
requirement for further investigation.

An Exhaust System.
Figure 21.42.

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Vibration Analysis
Gas turbine engines have extremely low levels of vibration compared to piston
engines. Changes in vibration levels could occur therefore without being noticed. To
assist the operator in identifying increasing vibration level, most engines are fitted
with vibration indicators that continually monitor the vibration level of the engine.
The indication is normally a milliammeter that receives its signals from an engine
mounted transmitter via an amplifier. Analysis of engine vibration signals is an
important tool for the detection of early failure in mechanical components.
Engine Vibration Monitoring (EVM) System.

Vibration Transducer Schematic


Figure 21.43.

This may take the form of a solid state circuit device utilising the piezoelectric effect.
The device consists of quartz discs with a metallic pattern deposited on them and,
arranged such that they serve as a flexible diaphragm. When subjected to pressure
changes the resultant flexing sets up an electrical polarisation in the discs, so that
electrical charges are produced relative to the amount of flexing. The electrical
charges are routed, via an amplifier to the flightdeck indicator. This is calibrated in
inches per second (IPS). On some engines there will be more than one sensor,
enabling switching if one fails. Yet another useful variation is the wide and narrow
band which means the readings can be either taken from over the whole range of
vibrations from the engine or by one or two major rotational assemblies such as N 1
and N2 spools. An example of this type is fitted to the RR Tay engine.

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Engine Vibration Indication


The engine vibration monitoring (EVM) system shows the out of balance force for
the N1 and N2 shaft.
High engine vibration shows engine damage or other deviations in the engine.
Vibration also reduces the comfort level in the aft passenger compartment.

Engine Vibration Monitoring System

The EVM system shows vibration in inches/second (IPS) An amber limit shows the
maximum vibration level.
The EVM system has:

 a dual engine vibration transducer on each engine

 an engine vibration signal conditioner

 a pushswitch on the overhead panel.

The vibration transducer has two internal vibration pick-ups, a pick-up A and B.
each pick-up gives a voltage proportional to the acceleration or deceleration of the
vibration.
The vibration transducer is on the IP compressor casing. This casing is the
housing for bearings of the HP and LP shaft.

The engine vibration signal conditioner is a single unit for both engines. It
processes the output of the engine vibration transducers for indication. The
engine vibration signal conditioner gives two modes of vibration indication,
tracked and broadband.

Tracked Indication

The tracked mode shows vibration of the N 1 and N2 shaft. The engine vibration
signal conditioner tunes two filters with an input of the N 1 and N2 RPM indicator
generators. Both filters connect to one pick-up of the vibration transducer, the
other is standby. The VIB pushswitch on the ENGINE panel controls the active
pick-up of the vibration transducer.

Broadband Indication

The broadband mode is an alternative mode. Vibration of the total power plan t is
shown. In this mode the output of both pick-ups in the vibration transducer goes
through broadband filters. A semi-guarded switch selects the tracked or
broadband mode.

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Fokker 100 Vibration Indication System


Figure 21.44.

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22 ENGINE STORAGE AND PRESERVATION.


22.1 STORAGE AND TRANSIT
All turbine engines which are to be either stored or shipped for overhaul should be
packed in such a way as to prevent damage from corrosion or rough handling. The
procedure to be followed is outlined below and should be observed irrespective of the
condition of the engine.
22.1.1 FUEL SYSTEM INHIBITING.
The fuel used in turbine engines usually contains a small quantity of water which, if
left in the system, could cause corrosion. All the fuel should therefore be removed
and replaced with an approved inhibiting oil by one of the following methods:
Motoring Method.
This should be used on all installed engines where it is convenient to turn the
engine using the normal starting system. A header tank is used to supply inhibiting
oil through a suitable pipe to the engine. A filter and an on/off cock are incorporated
in the supply pipe, which should be connected to the low pressure inlet to the
engine fuel system and the aircraft LP cock closed. After draining the engine fuel
filter a motoring run should be carried out bleeding the high pressure pump and fuel
control unit, and operating the HP cock several times while the engine is turning.
Neat inhibiting oil will eventually be discharged through the fuel system and
combustion chamber drains. When the motoring run is complete the bleeds should
be locked, the oil supply pipe disconnected and all apertures sealed or blanked off.
Pressure Rig Method.
This may be used on an engine which is installed either in the aircraft or in an
engine stand. A special rig is used which circulates inhibiting oil through the engine
fuel system at high pressure. The fuel filter should be drained and, where
appropriate, the aircraft LP cock closed. The inlet and outlet pipes from the rig
should be connected to the high pressure fuel pump pressure tapping and the
system low pressure inlet respectively, and the rig pump turned on. While oil is
flowing through the system the components should be bled and the HP cock
operated several times. When neat inhibiting oil flows from the combustion chamber
drains the rig should be switched off and disconnected, the bleed valves locked and
all apertures sealed or blanked off.
Gravity Method.
This is used when the engine cannot be turned. A header tank similar to the one
used in the motoring method is required but in this case the feed pipe is provided
with the fittings necessary for connection at several positions in the engine fuel
system. The fuel filter should first be drained then the oil supply pipe connected to
each of the following positions in turn, inhibiting oil being allowed to flow through the
adjacent pipes and components until all fuel is expelled:

(a) High pressure fuel pump pressure tapping.

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(b) Fuel control unit pressure tapping.


(c) Burner Manifold.
(d) Low pressure inlet pipe.
Components should be bled at the appropriate time and the HP cock operated
several times when inhibiting the fuel control unit. All bleeds and apertures should
be secured when the system is full of inhibiting oil.
22.1.2 PACKING.
The engine should be securely attached to its transportation stand, all blanks fitted
and apertures taped over to prevent the ingress of moisture. A compartment is
usually provided on the stand for the documents relating to the engine, and any
other information considered relevant should also be included. If the engine has
been removed because of suspected internal failure, any metal found in the filters,
broken blades or other evidence should also be packed for examination during
overhaul.

Engines are wrapped in a hermetically sealed moisture-proof bag which should be


examined before covering the engine. Any large tears or holes should be repaired
using the repair kit contained within the bag but small cuts may be repaired with
adhesive PVC tape. Sponginess of the bag material is caused by contamination
with oil or fluid and may sometimes be eliminated by washing with water. If the area
remains tacky after washing the bag should be rejected.

Some engines or components are packed into rigid containers of wood or metal
these will have a mounting frame within them. Wooden containers will require the
engine to be sealed in a moisture proof bag within the container however, metal
containers are usually sealed and pressurised to approx. 5 PSI and do not require a
bag.

Bags containing silica gel desiccant should be placed in the air intake and exhaust
unit and attached at convenient positions around the engine. Approximately 14 to
18 kg (30 to 40 lb) of desiccant will be required depending on the size of the engine
and the manufacturer may specify the use of VPI paper in addition (see Leaflet
BL/1-7). A humidity indicator should then be placed in the bag where it can be easily
seen and the bag sealed up. Where possible the humidity indicator should be
inspected at frequent intervals to ensure that the condition of the air inside the bag
is still `safe' (i.e. the colour of the indicator is blue). If an `unsafe' condition is shown
(i.e. the colour of the indicator is lilac or pink) the bag should be inspected and
repaired as necessary, and the desiccant renewed.

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An Engine within a Moisture Proof Bag Mounted in a Transit


Stand Figure 22.1.

22.1.3 STORAGE.

Complete engines and individual components should be kept in a clean, well-


ventilated store with an even temperature of 10 to 20°C. Components should be
stored in open racks in their original packing and rubber items kept away from
strong sunlight, oil, grease or heat sources. Any desiccant packs attached to stored
components should be checked frequently for moisture contamination.

With certain components (rubber seals, etc) the manufacturer may recommend that
the number of components in a stack is limited to a specific number to prevent
distortion.
Components that have a shelf life should be used in sequence, any that become
time expired being removed for overhaul, test and repacking.

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