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You are on page 1of 143

2 2 Elementary Functions:

- Graphs &Transformations

The student will become familiar with a beginning library of

elementary functions.

functions

The student will be able to transform functions using vertical

and horizontal shifts.

shifts

The student

Th

t d t will

ill bbe able

bl to transform ffunctions

nctions using

sing

stretches and shrinks.

shrinks

The student will be able to graph piecewise

piecewisedefined

functions.

functions

Calculus for Business & Economics

Problem

Complete the table and graph the function f(x) = x2:

x

-3

-22

-1

0

1

2

3

y = x2

Solution

Complete the table and graph the function f(x) = x2:

x

-3

-22

-1

0

1

2

3

y = x2

9

4

1

0

1

4

9

Problem

Sketch the graph of f(x) = (x 2)2 and explain, in words, how

i iis related

it

l d to the

h graphh off f(

f(x)) = x2:

x

y = (x-2)2

-3

25

-22

16

-1

9

0

4

1

1

2

0

3

1

Calculus for Business & Economics

Comparison

p

off f(

f(x)) = x 2 and f(

f(x)) = (x

( 2))2

Solution ((continued

(continued))

The graph has the same shape as the original function

function. The

difference is that the original graph has been translated two

units to the right on the xxaxis

axis.

Conclusion: The graph of the function (x 2) 2 is the graph of

shifted horizontally two units to the right on the xxaxis

axis.

Notice that replacing x by x 2 shifts the graph horizontally

to the right and not the left.

Correspondingly, replacing x by x + 2 would shift the graph

horizontally to the left.

left

Calculus for Business & Economics

Problem

Sketch the graphs of f(x) = x3 and f(x)=x

f(x) x3 + 5.

Solution

When we shift the graph of f(x) = x3 by 5 units upward, we

get the graph of f(x)=x3 + 5.

Problem

Sketch the graphs of f ( x ) = x and f ( x ) = x

and find the domains.

Solution

The domain is all non

nonnegative

negative real numbers. By reflecting one

of the graphs about the x-axis, we get the graph of the other

one.

10

Problem

Sketch the graphs of f ( x ) = 3 x and f ( x ) = 3 x + 1

11

Solution

When we shift the graph of f ( x ) = 3 x by 1 unit horizontally

to the left, we get the graph of f ( x ) = 3 x + 1

12

Various graphs involved with the absolute function.

13

(

(continued)

d)

Various graphs involved with the absolute function.

14

p Transformations

f

1.Vertical

1.VerticalTranslation

Ve t ca Translation:y=f(x)+k

a s at o y ( )

(1)k>0:Shiftgraphofy=f(x)upkunits.

(2)k<0:Shiftgraphofy=f(x)down|k|units.

2.HorizontalTranslation

2.Horizontal

Translation:y=f(x+h)

(1)h>0:Shiftgraphofy=f(x)lefthunits.

(2) h < 0: Shift graph of y = f (x) right |h| units

(2)h<0:Shiftgraphofy=f(x)right|h|units.

3.Reflection:y=f(x).

3.Reflection

Reflectthegraphofy=f(x)inthexaxis.

g p

y

( )

4.VerticalStretchandShrink

4.Vertical

StretchandShrink:y=Af(x)

(1)A>1:Shrinkgraphofy=f(x)verticallybymultiplying

eachcoordinatevaluebyA.

(2)0<A<1:Stretchgraphofy=f(x)verticallyby

multiplying each coordinate value by A

multiplyingeachcoordinatevaluebyA.

Calculus for Business & Economics

15

Piecewise--Defined

Piecewise

f

Functions

Earlier we noted that the absolute value of a real number x can

be defined as

x , if x > 0

| x |=

x , if x < 0

Notice that this function is defined by different rules for

different parts of its domain. Functions whose definitions

involve more than one rule are called piecewise

piecewise--defined

functions.

Graphing one of these functions involves graphing each rule

over the appropriate portion of the domain.

Calculus for Business & Economics

16

Example

p

2 2 x , if x < 2

x 2 , if x 2

17

Solution

2 2 x , if x < 2

x 2 , if x 2

18

End of Slides

Please, solve the exercise problems , especially the

Please

applications given in the textbook.

If you dont solve a problem by your hands, you will have

a difficult time on the exam.

exam Studying this course consists

of understanding the concepts/techniques and

problems especially the applications.

solving the problems,

19

Learning Objectives

for Section 2.3 Solving Quadratic Functions

The student will be able to identify and define quadratic

ffunctions,, equations,

q

, and inequalities.

inequalities

q

The student will be able to identify and use properties of

qquadratic functions

f

and their graphs.

graphs

g p

The student will be able to solve applications of quadratic

f

functions.

The student will be able to graph and identify properties of

ppolynomial

y

and rational functions.

functions

f

Quadratic Functions

If a, b, c are real numbers with a 0 , then the function

f ( x ) = ax 2 + bx + c

parabola.

It is convenient to convert the general form of a quadratic

function

f ( x ) = ax 2 + bx + c

to what is known as the vertex form:

form

f ( x ) = a( x h) + k

2

(h k)

This vertex form gives the vertex of f(x): (h,

To find the Vertex of a Quadratic Function

The example below illustrates the procedure:

Consider f ( x ) = 3x 2 + 6 x 1

Complete the square to find the vertex.

Solution

Step 1.

1 Factor the coefficient of x2 out of the first two terms:

f ( x ) = 3x 2 + 6 x 1 = 3[ x 2 2 x] 1

By the formula, we have

2

2

2

f ( x ) = 3[ x 2 x + ( 1) ( 1) ] 1

2

= 3[ x 2 2 x + ( 1) 2 ] + 3( 1) 2 1

= 3(( x 1)) + 2

Step 3. From the vertex form, we deduce the vertex (1, 2 )

2

Intercept

The graph of any function has two types of special points:

( something , 0 ) and ( 0 , something )

root)

and the second one ( 0 , something ) is called the yintercept

of the function.

3

Example) f ( x ) = 2 x 3 has the xintercept ( ,0 ) and the

2

yyintercept

intercept ( 0 , 3)

Example

Find the x and yy

intercepts of the quadratic function

f ( x ) = 3x 2 + 6 x 1

Solution

1. xintercept : We solve f(x)=0,

f(x) 0, i.e., find x satisfying

0 = 3x 2 + 6 x 1

Formula we have

4

b b 2 4ac

6 6 2 4( 3)( 1)

x=

=

2a

2( 3)

6 24

=

0.18 , 1.82

6

Therefore, we have two xintercepts

intercepts: ( 0.18 ,0 ) and (1.82 ,0 )

Calculus for Business & Economics

Solution (continued)

2. yintercept : Given function f ( x ) = 3x 2 + 6 x 1

implies

f ( 0 ) = 3( 0 ) + 6( 0 ) 1 = 1

Therefore, we have only one yintercept

intercept: ( 0 , 1)

Generalization

2

f

(

x

)

=

a(

x

h)

+k,

For

1. If a 0, then the graph of f(x) is a parabola

parabola.

(1) If a > 0, then the graph is concave upward.

upward

(2) If a < 0, then the graph is concave downward.

downward

In any case, we have the vertex at ( h,, k )

2. Axis of symmetry: x = h

3. (1) If a > 0, then f(x) has the minimum f ( h)) = k

(2) If a < 0, then f(x) has the maximum f ( h) = k

4. Domain of f(x) is the set of all real numbers.

5. Range: (1) If a > 0 , then f(x) has the range { y | y k}}

(2) If a < 0 , then f(x) has the range { y | y k }

10

Solve the quadratic inequality 3 x 2 + 6 x 1 0

11

Solve the quadratic inequality 3 x 2 + 6 x 1 0

Solution

This inequality holds for those values of x for which the graph

of f(x)

( ) is at or above the xaxis. This happens for x between

the two x intercepts, including the intercepts. (If you look at

h graphh off the

h ffunction, you can understand

d

d this

h very

the

easily.) Thus, the solution set for the quadratic inequality is

0.18 x 1.82

Calculus for Business & Economics

12

Pl

Please,

take

t k a look

l k att th

the Mathematica

M th ti file

fil Section

S ti 2.3

23

13

Application

pp

off Quadratic Functions

A Macon,

Macon Georgia,

Georgia peach orchard farmer now has 20 trees per

acre. Each tree produces, on the average, 300 peaches

acre

peaches. For

each additional tree that the farmer plants, the number of

peaches per tree is reduced by 10.

10

How many more trees should the farmer plant to achieve the

maximum yield of peaches?

What is the maximum yield?

14

Solution

Yield = (number of peaches per tree)(number of trees)

Yield = (300)(20) = 6000 (currently)

Plant

Pl t one more ttree:

Yield = (300 1(10))(20 + 1)

= (290)(21) = 6090 peaches.

h

Plant two more trees:

Yield = (300 2(10))(20 + 2) = (280)(22) = 6160

Plant x more trees:

Yield = (300 x(10))(20 + x)

= -10x2 + 100x + 6000

Calculus for Business & Economics

15

Solution (continued)

From the result above, we define

Y( x ) = 10 x 2 + 100 x + 6000

To find the maximum yield, note that the function Y(x) is a

quadratic function of which graph is concave downward.

Hence, the vertex of the function will be the maximum

value of the yield. Graph is below, with the y value in

thousands.

To find the vertex, we

complete the square.

16

Solution (continued)

We complete the square as follows:

2

Y( x ) = 10( x 10 x ) + 6000

= 10(( x 2 10 x + ( 5 ) 2 ( 5 ) 2 ) + 6000

= 10(( x 5 ) + 10(( 25 ) + 6000

2

= 10( x 5 ) 2 + 6250

It implies that the graph has the vertex ( 5 ,6250

6250 )

So, the farmer should plant 5 additional trees and obtain a

2

yield of 6250 peaches

peaches. The term 10 x in the quadratic

function implies that the graph is concave downward, so the

vertex must be the maximum

maximum.

17

BreakEven Analysis

Break

The financial department of a company that produces digital

cameras has the revenue and cost functions for x million

cameras are as follows:

R( x ) = x( 94.8 5 x )

C( x ) = 156 + 19.7

19 7 x

Breakeven points are the production levels at which

R( x ) = C( x )

Find the break-even points algebraically to the nearest

thousand cameras.

Calculus for Business & Economics

18

Solution (continued)

From R( x ) = C( x ) , we deduce

x( 94.8 5 x ) = 156 + 19.7 x

94 8 x 5 x = 156 + 19.7

94.8

19 7 x

2

5 x 2 75.1x + 156 = 0

By the Quadratic Formula, we get

b b 2 4ac

x=

2a

75.1 ( 75.1) 2 4( 5 )(156 )

=

2.49 , 12.53

2( 5 )

Calculus for Business & Economics

19

Solution (continued)

Thus, the break

breakeven

even points are x 2.49 and x 12.53

If we graph the cost and revenue functions on a graphing

utility,

l we obtain

b

the

h ffollowing

ll

graphs,

h showing

h

the

h two

intersection points:

20

Quadratic Regression

A visual inspection of the plot of a data set might indicate that

a parabola would be a better model of the data than a straight

line. In that case, rather than using linear regression to fit a

linear model to the data, we would use quadratic regression

on a graphing calculator to find the function of the form

y( x ) = ax + bx + c

that

h best

b ffits the

h data

d .

2

example.

21

Polynomial Functions

A polynomial function of degree n is a function that can be

written in the form

Pn ( x ) = an x n + an1 x n1 + " + a2 x 2 + a1 x + a0

The domain of a polynomial function is the set of all real

numbers.

A polynomial of degree 0 is a constant.

constant

A polynomial of degree 1 is a linear function.

A polynomial of degree 2 is a quadratic function.

function

A polynomial of degree 3 is a cubic function.

Calculus for Business & Economics

22

Shape of Polynomials

A polynomial is called odd

if it only contains odd powers of x.

A polynomial is called even

if it only contains even powers of x.

Look for some of the following properties:

z Symmetry

z Number of xintercepts

x intercepts

z Number of local maxima/minima

z What happens as x goes to + or -?

Calculus for Business & Economics

23

Examples

Please, confer the Mathematica file Section 2.3

24

For an odd polynomial,

p y

,

z the graph is symmetric about the origin

z the graphs starts negative, ends positive, or vice versa, depending

on whether

h h the

h leading

l d coefficient

ff

is positive or negative

z either way, a polynomial of degree n crosses the xaxis at least

once at most n times.

once,

times

For an even polynomial,

z the g

graph

p is symmetric

y

about the yyaxis

z the graphs starts negative, ends negative, or starts and ends

positive, depending on whether the leading coefficient is positive or

negative

z either way, a polynomial of degree n crosses the xaxis at most n

times It may or may not cross at all.

times.

all

Calculus for Business & Economics

25

Characteristics of Polynomials

Graphs of polynomials are continuous

continuous. One can sketch the graph

without lifting up the pencil.

p off polynomials

p y

have no sharpp corners.

corners

Graphs

Graphs of polynomials usually have turning points,

points which is a

point that separates an increasing portion of the graph from a

decreasing portion.

A polynomial of degree n can have at most n linear factors.

Th f

Therefore,

the

h graphh off a polynomial

l

i l ffunction

i off positive

i i ddegree n

can intersect the x axis at most n times.

A polynomial of degree n may intersect the x axis fewer than n

times.

Calculus for Business & Economics

26

Rational Functions

A rational function is a quotient of two polynomials, P(x)

and Q(x), for all x such that Q(x) is not equal to zero.

Example: Let P(x) = x + 5 and Q(x) = x 2, then

x+5

R( x ) =

x2

the exception of 2 (Why?)

27

x values at which the function is undefined represent

vertical asymptotes to the graph of the function.

A vertical asymptote is a line of the form x = k which the

graph of the function approaches but does not cross. In the

figure below, which is the graph of

x+5

R(( x ) =

x2

the line x = 2 is a vertical asymptote.

28

A horizontal asymptote of a function is a line of the form y = k

which the graph of the function approaches as x approaches

For example, in the graph of

x+5

R( x ) =

x2

the line y = 1 is a horizontal asymptote.

asymptote

29

of Rational Functions

The number of vertical asymptotes of a rational function

f (x) = n(x)/d(x

( ) is at most equal

qu to the degree

g off d(x)).

A rational ffunction has at most one horizontal asymptote.

y p

The ggraph

p off a rational function

f

approaches

pp

the

horizontal asymptote (when one exists) both as x

increases and decreases without bound.

30

End of Slides

Please, solve the exercise problems , especially the

Please

applications given in the textbook.

If you dont solve a problem by your hands, you will have

a difficult time on the exam.

exam Studying this course consists

of understanding the concepts/techniques and

problems especially the applications.

solving the problems,

31

Objectives

f Section

for

S i 2.4

2 4 Exponential

E

i l Functions

F

i

z The student will be able to graph and identify the properties

of exponential functions.

functions

z The student will be able to apply base e exponential

functions, including growth and decay applications.

applications

z The student will be able to solve compound interest problems.

problems

Exponential

p

Functions

z The equation

f( x) = b

z The domain is the set of all real numbers, while the range is

the set of all positive real numbers.

numbers

Riddle

Here is a problem related to exponential functions:

Suppose you received a penny on the first day of December

December,

two pennies on the second day of December

December, four pennies on

the third day,

day eight pennies on the fourth day and so on.

on How

many pennies would you receive on December 31 if this

pattern continues?

Would you rather take this amount of money or receive a lump

sum payment of $10,000,000?

Calculus for Business & Economics

Solution

Day

Dec. 1

Dec 2

Dec.

Dec. 3

Dec. 4

Dec. n

Dec. 31

No of Pennies

1=20

2=21

4=22

8=23

2n-1

230

Currently Total

20

20+21

20+21+22

20+21+22+23

20+21+22+23++2n-1

20+21+22+23++2n-1++230

4

Solution ((continued))

According to the table,

table if this pattern continued,

continued you would

have 230 pennies on Dec. 31. The exponent on two is one less

than the day of the month.

month

gg than $10,000,000,

Since 230=10,737,418.24, which is bigger

thus on Dec. 31, you should get $10,737,418.24.

This example

Thi

l shows

h

h an exponential

how

ti l ffunction

ti grows

extremely rapidly.

rapidly In this case, the exponential function

x

f( x) = 2

is used to model this pproblem.

Graph

p off f( x ) = 2

have the following graph:

Characteristics

x

f(

x

)

=

b

of the Graph of

when b > 1

1. All graphs will approach the xaxis as x becomes

unbounded and negative.

2. All graphs will pass through ( 0 ,1) (yyintercept

intercept).

3. There are no xxintercepts

intercepts.

4. Domain is all real numbers.

5. Range is all positive real numbers.

numbers

6. The graph is always increasing on its domain.

7. All graphs are continuous curves.

Characteristics

x

f(

x

)

=

b

of the Graph of

when 0 < b < 1

1. All graphs will approach the xaxis as x gets large.

2. All graphs will pass through ( 0 ,1) (yyintercept

intercept).

3. There are no xxintercepts

intercepts.

4. Domain is all real numbers.

5. Range is all positive real numbers.

numbers

6. The graph is always decreasing on its domain.

7. All graphs are continuous curves.

Graphs

p off Exponential

p

Functions

with Various Basis

Please, take a look at the Mathematica file Section 2.4

Exponential

p

Function with Base e

e is an irrational number called the Euler constant

constant.

It represents

e 2.718281828459045235360287471352662497757247

1937

1937

e can be approximated as closely as we like by evaluating the

x

expression

1 + 1

10

st.a

o.pn/ecsihH

da

1lT

.yr/

hotsiku

Leonhard Euler first demonstrated that as x gets positively large,

large

1 + 1

So much of our mathematical notation is due to Euler that it will come as

no surprise to find that the notation e for this number is due to him. The

claim which has sometimes been made, however, that Euler used the letter

e because it was the first letter of his name is ridiculous. It is probably not

even the case that the e comes from exponential but it may have just be

the next vowel after a and Euler was already using the notation a in

his work. Whatever the reason is, the notation e made its first appearance

in a letter Euler wrote to Goldbach in 1731.

1731 (http://www-gap.dcs.st(h //

d

and.ac.uk/~history/HistTopics/e.html#s19)

Calculus for Business & Economics

11

He made various discoveries regarding

g

ge

in the following years, but it was not until

1748 when Euler published Introductio in

analysin

l

infinitorum

f

that

h he

h gave a full

f ll

treatment of the ideas surrounding e. He

showed that

e = 1 + 1/1! + 1/2! + 1/3! + ...

and that e is the limit of

(1 + 1/n)n

as n tends to infinity.

infinity Euler gave an

approximation for e to 18 decimal places,

e = 2.718281828459045235

Calculus for Business & Economics

12

Graph

p off f( x ) = e x

Since

ince

nce

cee 2 < e < 3,, wee have

ave

vee

2x < ex < 3x for positive x, 2x > e3x > 3x for negative x.

13

z Functions of the form y(t) = c ekt, where c and k are constants

and the independent variable t represents time, are often used to

model population growth and radioactive decay.

decay

z Note that if t = 0, then y = c. So, the constant c represents the

initial ppopulation

p

(or

( initial amount.))

z The constant k is called the relative growth rate.

rate If the relative

ggrowth rate is k = 0.02, then at anyy time t, the population

p p

is

growing at a rate of 0.02y persons (2% of the population) per

year.

z We say that population is growing continuously at relative

growth rate k to mean that the population y is given by the

model y(t)

( ) = c ekt.

Calculus for Business & Economics

14

pp

- Atmospheric Pressure

The atmospheric pressure P decreases with increasing height.

The pressure is related to the number of kilometers h above the

sea level by the formula: P(h)=760e-0.145h

Question 1. Find the pressure at sea level (h=0).

Question 2. Find the pressure at height of 7 kilometers.

15

Solution

Answer 1. Pressure at sea level: P(0)=760e

P(0) 760e0=760

760

Answer 2. Pressure at a height of 7 kilometers:

P(7)=760e-0.145(7)=275.43

16

Depreciation

p

off a Machine

A machine is initially worth V0 dollars but loses 10% of its

value each year. Its value after t years is given by the formula

V(t)= V0(0.9

V(t)

(0 9t)

Find the value after 8 years of a machine whose initial value is

$30,000.

Solution) V(8)=30000(0.98)=$12,914

17

Compound

p

Interest

The compound interest formula is

r

A = P 1 +

n

nt

amount (principal), r is the annual interest rate as a decimal, n

represents the number of compounding periods per year, and t

is the number of years.

18

Example

p

Find the amount to which $1500 will grow if deposited in a

bank at 5.75% interest compounded quarterly for 5 years.

19

Solution

Find the amount to which $1500 will grow if deposited in a

bank at 5.75% interest compounded quarterly for 5 years.

Solution) Use the compound interest formula:

r

A = P 1 +

n

nt

4( 5 )

0

0.0575

0575

A = 1500 1 +

= $1995.55

20

End of Slides

Please, solve the exercise problems , especially the

Please

applications given in the textbook.

If you dont solve a problem by your hands, you will have

a difficult time on the exam.

exam Studying this course consists

of understanding the concepts/techniques and

problems especially the applications.

solving the problems,

21

Learning Objectives

f Section

for

S

2.5 Logarithmic

h

Functions

z The student will be able to use and apply inverse functions

functions.

z The student will be able to use and apply

pp y logarithmic

g

functions and properties of logarithmic functions.

functions

z The student will be able to evaluate logarithms

logarithms.

g

Logarithmic

g

Functions

There is a close connection between a logarithmic function and

an exponential function inverse relation.

relation

We will study the concept of inverse functions as a

prerequisite for our study of logarithmic function.

Oneto

One

to

One Functions

We wish to define an inverse of a function.

function Before we do so

so, it

is necessary to discuss the topic of onetoone functions. First

of all, only certain functions are one

onetoone

to one.

Definition: A function is said to be one

one

to

to

one if distinct

inputs of a function correspond to distinct outputs.

outputs

In notation

notation,

For x1 x 2 , f ( x1 ) f ( x 2 )

Graph

p off One

Oneto

to

One Functions

If we choose two different x values, the corresponding y values

of the one-to-one function should be different.

Lots of graphs will be given in class.

Recall that for an equation to be a function

function, its graph must

pass the vertical line test.

test That is, a vertical line that sweeps

across the graph of a function from left to right will intersect

the graph only once at each x value.

There is a similar geometric test to determine if a function is

one-to-one.

one

to one. It is called the horizontal line test.

test Any

horizontal line drawn through the graph of a one-to-one

function will cross the graph only once.

once If a horizontal line

crosses a graph more than once, then the function that is

graphed is not one

one-to-one.

to one.

Calculus for Business & Economics

Definition

f

off Inverse Function

Given a one

one--to

to--one function

function, the inverse function is found by

interchanging the x and y values of the original function.

function That

is to say, if an ordered pair (a, b) belongs to the original

function, then the ordered pair (b, a) belongs to the inverse

function.

Note: If a function is not oneone-to

to--one (fails the horizontal line

test), then the inverse of such a function does not exist.

exist

Logarithmic

g

Functions

The logarithmic function with base 2 is defined to be the

inverse of the exponential function with base 2,

2 y=2x.

Notice that the exponential function y=2x is one-to-one and

therefore has an inverse.

Generally, the logarithmic function with base n > 0 is defined

to be the inverse of the exponential function with base n > 0.

p

Function

Start with y=2

y 2x

Now, interchange x and y coordinates : x=2y

There are no algebraic techniques that can be used to solve for

y, so we simply call this function y the logarithmic function

with base 2.

2

The definition of this new function is:

l 2 x = y if andd only

log

l if x = 2

off Logarithmic

h

Functions

The domain of the logarithmic function y = log2x is the same

as the range

g off the exponential

p

function

f

y = 2x. Why?

y

The range

g off the logarithmic

g

ffunction is the same as the

domain of the exponential function (Again, why?)

Another fact: If one graphs any one-to-one function and its

inverse on the same ggrid,, the two graphs

g p will always

y be

symmetric with respect to the line y = x.

Calculus for Business & Economics

Logarithmic

Logarithmic

g

Exponential

p

Conversions

Study the examples below. You should be able to convert a

logarithmic into an exponential expression and vice versa.

log4 16 = x 4 = 16 x = 2

1

1

log3

= log3 3 = log3 3 3 = 3

27

3

x

1

2

1

81 = 9 81 = 9 log81 9 =

2

3

125 = 5 log5 125 = 3

Calculus for Business & Economics

10

Solvingg Equations

q

Using the definition of a logarithm

logarithm, you can solve equations

involving logarithms.

Examples: log 1000 = 3 b 3 = 10 3 b = 10

b

log6 x = 5 6 = x 7776 = x

5

exponential form and solved the resulting equation.

11

Properties

p

off Logarithms

g

(Must

(

Memorize))

These are the properties of logarithms. M and N are positive

real numbers, b not equal to 1, and p and x are real numbers.

(For

For

orr 4,, wee need

eed

edd x > 0).

)..

1. logb 1 = 0

2. logb b = 1

3. logb b x = x

4. b logb x = x

M

6 logb = logb M logb N

6.

N

7 logb M p = p logb M

7.

8. logb M = logb N if and only if M = N

Calculus for Business & Economics

12

Example

p

Solve for x: log4 ( x + 6 ) + log4 ( x 6 ) = 3

13

Solution

Solve for x: log4 ( x + 6 ) + log4 ( x 6 ) = 3

log4 ( x + 6 )( x 6 ) = 3

log4 ( x 2 36 ) = 3

4 3 = x 2 36

64 = x 2 36

100 = x 2

10 = x

x = 10

Question: why is the answer the positive 10 only?

Calculus for Business & Economics

14

Example

p

Solve for x:

15

Solution

Solve for x:

logg10

=x

110000

0000

1

logg1100

=x

10000

log10 10 4 = x

x = 4

16

Common Logs

g & Natural Logs

g

Common log:

log log x = log10 x

If no base is indicated, the logarithm is assumed to be base 10.

Natural log:

log ln x = loge x

Here e represents the Euler constant, e 2.7181828.

17

Example

p

Solve for x:

ln( x + 1) ln x = 1

18

Solution

Solve for x:

ln( x + 1) ln x = 1

x +1

ln

=1

x

x +1

e=

x

ex = x + 1

( e 1)x = 1

1

x=

e 1

19

Application

pp

How long will it take money to double if compounded monthly

at 4 % interest?

20

Solution

By the compound interest formula,

formula

nt

r

A = P 1 +

n

12 t

0.04

2P = P 1 +

12

12 t

2 = (1.00333

1 00333 )

ln 2 = ln (1.00333 ) = 12t ln (1.00333 )

ln 2

= t t = 17.36

12 ln (1.00333 )

12 t

21

Logarithmic

g

Regression

g

Among increasing functions

functions, the logarithmic functions with

bases b > 1 increase much more slowly for large values of x

than either exponential or polynomial functions

functions. When a visual

inspection of the plot of a data set indicates a slowly increasing

function a logarithmic function provides a good model

function,

model.

We use logarithmic regression on a graphing calculator to find

the function of the form y = a + b ln x that best fits the data.

Again, since the regression subject depends on the calculator,

we skip this subject.

Calculus for Business & Economics

22

Please, solve the exercise problems , especially the

Please

applications given in the textbook.

If you dont solve a problem by your hands, you will have

a difficult time on the exam.

exam Studying this course consists

of understanding the concepts/techniques and

problems especially the applications.

solving the problems,

23

Chapter 2 Review

- Important

I

Terms,

T

Symbols,

S b l Concepts

C

2.1. Functions

Point--by

Point

by--point plotting may be used to sketch the graph of an

equation in two variables: plot enough points from its solution

set in a rectangular coordinate system so that the total graph is

apparent and then connect these points with a smooth curve.

A function is a correspondence between two sets of elements

such that to each element in the first set there corresponds one

and only one element in the second set. The first set is called

the domain and the second set is called the range

range.

Calculus for Business & Economics

If x represents the elements in the domain of a function, then x

is the independent variable or input. If y represents the

elements in the range, then y is the dependent variable or

output.

If in an equation in two variables we get exactly one output for

each input, then the equation specifies a function. The graph of

such a function is just the graph of the equation. If we get more

than one output for a given input, then the equation does not

specify a function.

Calculus for Business & Economics

The vertical line test can be used to determine whether or not

an equation in two variables specifies a function.

The functions specified by equations of the form y = mx + b,

b

where m is not equal to 0, are called linear functions.

functions

Functions specified by equations of the form y = b are called

constant functions.

functions

If a function is specified by an equation and the domain is not

indicated, we agree to assume that the domain is the set of all

inputs that produce outputs that are real numbers.

The symbol f(x) represents the element in the range of f that

corresponds to the element x of the domain.

Break-even and profit

Breakprofit--loss analysis uses a cost function C and

a revenue function R to determine when a company will have a

loss (R < C), break even (R = C) or a profit (R > C).

Calculus for Business & Economics

Graphs

G h &T

Transformations

f

The six basic elementary functions are the identity function,

the square

q

and cube ffunctions,, the square

q

root and cube root

functions and the absolute value function.

function

Performing an operation on a function produces a

transformation of the graph of the function.

The bbasic

Th

i graphh ttransformations

f

ti are: vertical

ti l andd hhorizontal

i t l

translations (shifts), reflection in the xx-axis, and vertical

stretches

t t h andd shrinks.

shrinks

hi k

A piecewise-defined function is a function whose definition

involves more than one formula.

Calculus for Business & Economics

Section 2.3 Q

Quadratic Functions

If a, b, and c are real numbers with a not equal to 0, then the

function f(x) = ax2 + bx + c is a quadratic function in

standard form, and its graph is a parabola

parabola.

The Quadratic Formula,

Formula

b b 2 4ac

x=

, when b 2 4ac 0

2a

x intercepts.

Section 2.3 Q

Quadratic Functions ((continued))

Completing the square in the standard form of a quadratic

function produces the vertex form,

From the vertex form of a quadratic function, we can read off

the vertex

vertex, axis of symmetry

symmetry, intercepts,

intercepts maximum or

minimum, and range, and sketch the graph.

graph

If a revenue function R(x) and a cost function C(x) intersect at

a point (x0, y0),

) then both this point and its coordinate x0 are

referred to as break

break--even points.

points

Calculus for Business & Economics

Section 2.3 Q

Quadratic Functions ((continued))

Quadratic regression on a graphing calculator produces the

function of the form y = ax2 + bx + c that best fits a data set.

A quadratic function is a special case of a polynomial function,

that is, a function that can be written in the form

f(x) = anxn + an-1xn-1 + + a1x + a0

Unlike polynomial functions, a rational function can have

vertical asymptotes (but not more than the degree of the

denominator) and at most one horizontal asymptote.

asymptote

Calculus for Business & Economics

p

Functions

An exponential function is a function of the form

f (x) = bx, where b is not equal to 1, but is a positive constant

called the base

base. The domain of f(x) is the set of all real

numbers and the range is the set of positive real numbers.

The graph of an exponential function is continuous, passes

through (0,1), and has the xx-axis

axis as a horizontal asymptote.

Exponential functions obey the familiar laws of exponents

and satisfy additional properties.

Calculus for Business & Economics

p

Functions ((continued))

The base that is used most frequently in mathematics is the

irrational number e 2.7183

2.7183.

Exponential

Expo

e tial ffunctions

tio s can

a be used

sed to model population

growth and radioactive decay.

decay

Exponential regression on a graphing calculator produces the

function of the form y = a(bx) that best fits a data set.

Exponential functions are used in computations of compound

nt

interest:

interest

r

A = P 1 +

n

Calculus for Business & Economics

10

g

Functions

A function is said to be one

one--to

to--one if each range value

corresponds to exactly one domain value.

to--one function f is the function

formed by interchanging the independent and dependent

variables of f. That is, (a, b) is a point on the graph of f if and

only if (b,

(b a) is a point on the graph of the inverse of ff.

A function that is not oneone-to

to--one does not have an inverse

inverse.

11

g

Functions ((continued))

The inverse of the exponential function with base b is called

the logarithmic function with base b, denoted y = logb x.

The domain of logb x is the set of all positive real numbers and

the range is the set of all real numbers. Because y = logb x is

the inverse of the function y = bx, y = logb x is equivalent to

x = b y.

Properties of logarithmic functions can be obtained from

corresponding properties of exponential functions.

Calculus for Business & Economics

12

g

Functions ((continued))

Logarithms with base 10 are called common logarithms,

logarithms

denoted by log x.

x Logarithms with base e are called natural

logarithms, denoted by ln x.

logarithms

Logarithms can be used to find an investments

investment s doubling time the length of time it takes for the value of an investment to

double.

Logarithmic regression on a graphing calculator produces the

function of the form y = a + b ln x that best fits a data set.

Calculus for Business & Economics

13

Please, solve the exercise problems , especially the

Please

applications given in the textbook.

If you dont solve a problem by your hands, you will have

a difficult time on the exam.

exam Studying this course consists

of understanding the concepts/techniques and

problems especially the applications.

solving the problems,

14

LearningObjectives

forSection3.1IntroductiontoLimits

The student will learn about:

Functions

F

ti

and

d graphs

h

Limits from a graphic approach

Limits from an algebraic approach

q

Limits of difference quotients.

Functions&Graphs

BriefOverview

The graph of a function is the graph of the set of all

ordered

d d pairs

i th

thatt satisfy

ti f th

the ffunction.

ti

Example: f ( x ) = 2 x 1

AnalyzingaLimit(GraphicalApproach)

y g

( p

pp

)

Based on the graph,

graph we observe

as x goes to 3, f(x) = 2x 1 goes to 5

In fact, without using the graph, we observe

as x goes to 1000, f(x) = 2x 1 goes to 1999

We introduce a notation and express as follows:

as

as x 1000,

1000 f(x) = 2x 1 1999

1999

Limit

DEFINITION Using the limit notation,

notation

as x c, f(x) L is compacted into the form:

limx c f ( x ) = L

It reads as

as x goes to c, the limit of f(x) is L.

L.

The meaning of the equation is whenever x is close

(either side) to c,

c but not equal to cc, f(x) is close to th

e single real number L.

OneSidedLimit

One

We write limx c f ( x ) = K

and call K the limit from the left (or left

left

hand limit)

limit

if f (x) is close to K whenever x is close to c, but to th

e left of c on the real number line.

We write limx c + f ( x ) = L

and call L the limit from the right (or right

right

hand li

mit) if f (x) is close to L whenever x is close to c, but t

mit

o the right of c on the real number line.

In order for a limit to exist,

exist the limit from the left and

the limit from the right must exist and be equal.

Calculus for Business & Economics

Example

p (confertheMathematica

onfertheMathematica fileSec3.1

fileSec3.1))

limx 2 f ( x ) = 2

b lilimx 2 + f ( x ) = 3

but

So limx 2 f ( x ): not exists

So,

exists.

limx 4 f ( x ) = 5

andd lim

li x 4 + f ( x ) = 5

So limx 4 f ( x ) = 5

So,

Calculus for Business & Economics

LimitProperties(AlgebraicApproach)

p

( g

pp

)

Let f and g be two functions,

functions and assume that the

following two limits exist and are finite:

limx c f ( x ) = L and limx c g( x ) = K

qual to the sum of the limits and the limit of the

q

difference of the functions is equal to the differenc

e of the limits:

limx c [ f ( x ) g( x )]

limx c [ f ( x ) + g( x )]

= limx c f ( x ) + limx c g( x ) = limx c f ( x ) limx c g( x )

=L+K

Calculus for Business & Economics

= LK

LimitProperties(AlgebraicApproach)

p

( g

pp

)

(2) The limit of a constant times a function is equ

al to the constant times the limit of the function:

limx c [ af ( x )] = a[limx c f ( x )] = aL, a: constant

(3) The limit of the product of the functions is the

product of the limits of the functions:

p

LimitProperties(AlgebraicApproach)

p

( g

pp

)

(4) The limit of the quotient of the function is the

quotient of the limit of the function, provided tha

t K is

i nott equall to

t 0:

0

f ( x ) limx c f ( x ) L

li x c

lim

=

= , if lim

li x c g(( x ) 0

g( x ) limx c g( x ) K

(5) The limit of the nn-th root of a function is the n

-th root of the limit of that function:

1

n

1

n

1

n

limx c [ f ( x )] = [limx c f ( x )] = L

Calculus for Business & Economics

Example

p

lim( x 3x ) = lim x 3 lim x = 4 3( 2 ) = 2

2

x 2

x 2

x 2

lim(

m(

2

x

)

2

x

8

x 4

lim

=

=

x 4 3x + 1

lim( 3x + 1 ) 13

x 4

(1) for any polynomial f(x),

f(x)

lim f ( x ) = f ( c )

x c

nominator at x = c,

lim R( x ) = R( c )

x c

10

IndeterminateForms

If

x c

th

then,

x c

f( x)

g( x )

or lim

lim

x c g( x )

x c f ( x )

is said to be indeterminate

indeterminate. The term indetermina

te is used because the limit may or may not exist.

How to make the indeterminate form to be dete

rminate? Simplify the quotient!

Calculus for Business & Economics

11

Examples

p

x2 4

( x + 2 )( x 2 )

lim

= lim

= lim( x + 2 ) = 4

x 2 x 2

x 2

x 2

x2

( x 1) 2

( x 1) 2

x 1

lim 2

= lim

= lim

=0

x 1 x 1

x 1 ( x + 1)( x 1)

x 1 x + 1

12

DifferenceQuotients

For f(x) = 3x 1,

1 find lim f ( a + h) f ( a)

h 0

h

13

Solution

For f(x) = 3x 1,

1 find lim f ( a + h) f ( a)

h 0

h

Solution:

f ( a + h) = 3( a + h) 1 = 3a + 3h 1

f ( a) = 3a 1

f ( a + h) f ( a) = 3h

f ( a + h) f ( a)

3h

lim

= lim = 3

h 0

h 0 h

h

14

Summaryy

We started by using a table to investigate the i

dea of a limit.

limit This was an intuitive way to approa

ch

h limits.

li i

We saw that if the left and right limits at a poi

nt were the same, we had a limit at that point.

point

We saw that we could add, subtract, multiply,

and divide limits.

limits

We now have some very powerful tools for deali

ng with

ith limits

li it and

d can go on to

t our study

t d off calcul

l l

us.

Calculus for Business & Economics

15

Let x be the number of units of a product.

(1) For the total cost function C (x), the marginal cost function is dened by its derivative C 0 (x).

(2) For the total revenue function R(x), the marginal revenue function is dened by its derivative

R0 (x).

(3) For the total prot function P (x), the marginal profit function is dened by its derivative P 0 (x).

Definition.

Total cost of producing (x + 1) items is C (x + 1). Total cost of producing x items is C (x).

Thus, we deduce that the total cost of producing (x + 1)th item is C (x + 1) C (x). Similar statements

can be made for the revenue and prot.

Remark.

(1) Find the marginal cost function.

(2) Find the marginal cost when x = 500 and interpret the result.

(3) Find the exact cost of producing 501th item.

Example.

(2) C 0 (500) = 40. At production level of 500 units, the total cost increases at the rate of 40.

(3) C (501) C (500) = 39:95.

Theorem.

i.e.,

The marginal cost function approximates the exact cost of producing the (x + 1)th item,

C 0 (x) C (x + 1)

C (x):

Similar statements can be made for total revenue function and total prot function.

Example.

item.

For C (x) = 10000 + 90x 0:05x2 , use the marginal cost to approximate the cost of the 335th

Answer. C 0 (x) = 90 0:1x implies C 0 (334) = 56:6. Thus the approximated cost is 56:6. For your informa-

tion, the exact cost is C (335) C (334) = 56:55. We observe the approximated cost is very close to the exact

cost. So it is good to use the approximated cost instead of the exact cost.

Theorem

A = P ert

where P is the principal, r is the annual nominal interest rate compounded continuously, t is the time

in years and A is the amount at time t and e is the Euler constant e 2:71.

Let 1000 DHS be invested at 5% compounded continuously.

(1) What amount will be in the account after 3 years? How much interest will be earned?

(2) How long will it take for the account to be worth 2000 DHS?

Example.

A = P ert = 1000e(0:05)(3) 1161:83 DHS:

2000 = 1000e0:05t ;

i:e:;

2 = e0:05t ;

i:e:;

ln 2 = 0:05t;

i:e:;

t=

ln 2

0:05

13:8629:

A bank note will pay 30000 DHS at maturityy 5 years from now. How much should you be

willing to pay for the note now if money is worth 7% compounded continuously?

Example.

30000 = P e0:07(5) ;

i:e:;

30000 = P e0:35 ;

i:e:;

P=

30000

e0:35

21140:6

a promissory note issued by a bank payable to bearer on demand but without interest and circulating as money

y the time when a note or bill of exchange becomes due

Theorem

d x

e = ex ;

dx

Example.

(ex )0 = ex :

Answer. f 0 (x) = 5(ex )0 3(x4 )0 7(xe )0 + (e2 )0 = 5ex 12x3 7exe 1 + 0 = 5ex 12x3 7exe 1 :

Theorem

d

1

ln x = ;

dx

x

1

(ln x)0 = :

x

Be careful! \ln x" means \the natural logarithmic function", i.e., ln x = loge x, where e is the Euler

constant.

Example.

y = 3ex + 5 ln x + x4

y 0 = 3(ex )0

Theorem

ln x + x4 ;

1

+ 4 x3 :

x

d x

e = ex ;

dx

Example.

6 ln x = 3ex

d

1

ln x = ;

dx

x

d x x

b = b ln b;

dx

d

1 1

logb x =

:

dx

ln b x

Find f 0 (x) for f (x) = 2x 3x + x10 + 10x + log2 x 6 log5 x + log4 x5 + log3 (10x2 ).

f (x) = 2x 3x + x10 + 10x + log2 x 6 log5 x + log4 x5 + log3 (10x2 )

= 2x 3x + x10 + 10x + log2 x 6 log5 x + 5 log4 x + log3 10 + log3 x2

= 2x 3x + x10 + 10x + log2 x 6 log5 x + 5 log4 x + log3 10 + 2 log3 x

f 0 (x) = (2x )0 (3x )0 + (x10 )0 + (10x )0 + (log2 x)0 6(log5 x)0 + 5(log4 x)0 + (log3 10)0 + 2(log3 x)0

6 1

5 1

2 1

1 1

+

+0+

= 2x ln 2 3x ln 3 + 10x9 + 10x ln 10 +

ln 2 x ln 5 x ln 4 x ln 3 x

6

5

2 1

1

= 2x ln 2 3x ln 3 + 10x9 + 10x ln 10 +

+

+

:

ln 2 ln 5 ln 4 ln 3 x

Theorem

f 0 (x) = F 0 (x)S (x) + F (x)S 0 (x):

Also,

Example.

dy

dF

dS

=

S+F

:

dx

dx

dx

y0 = F 0S + F S 0;

Answer. Let F (x) = 3x + 2 and S (x) = 4x2 5x. Then f (x) = F (x)S (x) and by the formula above,

f 0 (x) = F 0 (x)S (x) + F (x)S 0 (x)

= (3x + 2)0 (4x2 5x) + (3x + 2)(4x2 5x)0

= 3(4x2 5x) + (3x + 2)(8x 5) = 2(18x2 7x

Theorem

F (x)

, then

S (x )

f 0 (x) =

Also,

y0 =

Example.

F 0S

S2

5):

F S0

:

S 2 (x)

dy

=

dx

dF

dx

S2

dS

dx

x3

.

2x 1

F (x)

and by the formula above,

S (x)

S 2 (x )

(x3 )0 (2x 1) (x3 )(2x 1)0

=

(2x 1)2

3x2 (2x 1) 2x3 4x3 3x2 (4x 3)x2

=

=

=

:

(2x 1)2

(2x 1)2

(2x 1)2

f 0 (x ) =

Definition.

m(x) = f [g (x)]:

Example.

Let f (u) = eu and g(x) = 3x. Find f [g(x)] and g[f (u)].

Answer.

f [g (x)] = f [ 3x] = e

3x :

(1) Let f (u) = eu and g(x) = ex . Find f [g(x)] and g[f (u)].

(2) Let f (u) = eu and g(x) = ln x. Find f [g(x)] and g[f (u)].

Exercise.

Theorem

y = m(x) = f [g (x)]

then

y = f 0 [g (x)]g 0 (x);

or

dy dy du

=

:

dx du dx

(1) y =

and u = 3x2 + 1.

(2) y = eu and u = 2x3 + 5.

Example.

u3=2

Answer.

(1)

(2)

Exercise.

dy

du

du

dx

dy

dx

dy

du

du

dx

dy

dx

=

=

=

=

=

=

d 3=2

3

u = (u3=2 )0 = u1=2 :

du

2

d

(3x2 + 1) = (3x2 + 1)0 = 6x:

dx

dy dy 3 1=2

= u (6x) = 9x(3x2 + 1)1=2 :

du dx 2

d u

e = (eu )0 = eu :

du

d

(2x3 + 5) = (2x3 + 5)0 = 6x2 :

dx

dy dy

3

= eu (6x2 ) = 6x2 e2x +5 :

du dx

Find dy=dx for y = e3x + 3ex + eex + eln(x+2) + log1:8 3x + log4 (x2 + 3) + log5 (ex ) + ln(ln x).

1

Problem 1: Let us consider the problem: nd dy=dx from 3x2 + y 2 = 0.

The given equation implies y = 2 3x2 . Dierentiating it with respect to x, we get

dy

d

=

2

dx dx

dy

= 6x:

dx

i:e:;

We say that the equation y = 2 3x2 gives explicitly y as a function of x, while the equation 3x2 + y 2 = 0

gives implicitly y . The technique discussed here in this section is about nding dy=dx without changing

the implicit form of an equation into the explicit one.

Problem 2: Let us consider the problem: nd dy=dx from y 2

x = 0.

Solution 1 (Using Explicit Form). The equation is given in the implicit form. We change it into the

explicit form:

y 2 = x;

y = x = x1=2 :

i:e:;

0

dy

d 1=2

1

=

x

= x1=2 = x

dx dx

2

1=2

=

1

p

:

2 x

(F)

Solution 2 (Implicit Dierentiation). We just dierentiate the whole equation with respect to x:

d 2

y

dx

x =

d

(0) ;

dx

dy 2

dx

i:e:;

dx

= 0;

dx

dy 2

dx

i:e:;

1 = 0:

Here we have the problem: how do we dierentiate y 2 with respect to x? That is, what is

dy 2

?

dx

This is the place where we must use the CHAIN RULE and this is the reason why

we learned the chain rule just before this section.

Using the chain rule, we have

dy 2 dy 2 dy 2 0 dy

dy

=

= y

= 2y ;

dx

dy dx

dx

dx

Thus, we have

dy 2

dx

p

Since y = x, we have

1 = 0;

i:e:;

2y

dy

dx

1 = 0;

dy

1

1

= = p ;

dx 2y

2 x

dy 2

dy

= 2y :

dx

dx

i:e:;

dy

1

= :

dx 2y

at (x; y) = (2; 3).

Example.

d 2 3 d

dx2 dy 3

dy 3 dy

x + y = 31;

+

= 0;

2x +

= 0;

dx

dx

dx dx

dy dx

dy

dy

dy

2x

2x + 3 y 2 = 0 ;

3y 2 = 2x;

=

:

dx

dx

dx

3y 2

y0j

dy

2(2)

4

=

=

=

:

(2;3)

2

dx (2;3)

3(3 )

27

Exercise.

Find y0 from 2x + 6y 4 = 0.

Exercise.

at (1; 4).

(1) x3 y = ln y at (1; 1).

(2) ln y = 2y2 x at (2; 1).

(3) ey = x3 + y4 at (1; 0).

Exercise.

In this section, we discuss four topics: Increasing and Decreasing Functions, Local

Increasing and Decreasing Functions

Let us think about the escalator. We have two kinds of escalator: one always going

upward and the other one always going downward. When we take the escalator going

upward, obviously we can reach upstairs. If we take the other escalator, we can reach

downstairs.

Now we consider the graph of y = x2 . On the interval [0; 1), as x goes to the right{

hand side, the graph is going upward. So the graph of y = x2 on the interval [0; 1)

looks like the escalator always going upward. On the other hand, the graph of y = x2

on the interval ( 1; 0] looks like the escalator always going downward, because as x

goes to the right{hand side, the graph is going downward.

If a graph of a function looks like the escalator always going upward on an interval

[a; b], we say that the graph/function is increasing on [a; b].

If a graph of a function looks like the escalator always going downward on an interval

[a; b], we say that the graph/function is decreasing on [a; b].

We observe the followings:

(1) On the interval where the graph/function f is increasing, the slope of the tangent

line is positive, which implies f 0 (x) > 0 on the interval.

(2) On the interval where the graph/function f is decreasing, the slope of the tangent

line is negative, which implies f 0 (x) < 0 on the interval.

Then what is the slope of the tangent line at the point where the graph/function

is neither increasing nor decreasing? The slope should be between positiveness and

negativeness, that is, the slope should be zero, which implies f 0 (x) = 0 on the interval.

We can summarize this argument in the Theorem.

Theorem 1

f 0 (x)

f (x )

Graph of f

Examples

Increases

Rises

Given in Class

Decreases

Falls

Given in Class

For the graphs of f (x) = x2 and g (x) = jxj, discuss the relationship

between the graph of each function at x = 0 and the derivative of the function at

x = 0. (Please confer the gures below.)

Discussion 2.

fHxL=x 2

gHxL=x

20

10

x

-4

-2

Example 3.

-4

-2

6x + 10,

(2) For which values of x is f (x) increasing? Decreasing?

(3) Sketch a graph of f . Add any horizontal tangent lines.

x = a at which f 0 (x) = 0:

f 0 (x ) = 2 x

6 = 2(x 3) = 0

at x = 3:

(2) f (x) is increasing on (a; b) if and only if f 0 (x) > 0 on (a; b). Since f 0 (x) = 2(x 3) >

0 for x > 3, i.e., on (3; 1), thus f (x) is increasing on (3; 1).

f (x) is decreasing on (c; d) if and only if f 0 (x) < 0 on (c; d). Since f 0 (x) = 2(x 3) < 0

for x < 3, i.e., on ( 1; 3), thus f (x) is increasing on ( 1; 3).

When we use the sign chart, we can easily get the sign of f 0 (x):

Less than 3 3 Bigger than 3

f 0 (x) = 2(x 3)

0

+

f (x )

Decreases 1

Increases

x

fHxL=x 2 -6x+10

17

10

5

1

-1 0

x

1

The point at which f has the horizontal (f 0 (x) = 0) or vertical tangent line (f 0 (x)

does not exist) is very important.

(Critical Values). The values of x in the domain of f where f 0 (x) = 0

or where f 0 (x) does not exist are called the critical values of f .

Definition 4

Find (1) the critical values of f , (2) the intervals on which f is increasing,

and (3) those on which f is decreasing, for f (x) = 1 x3 .

Example 5.

(1) Since f 0 (x) = 3x2 = 0 at x = 0 which is in the domain of f , so f has the only

critical value 0.

(2) We use the sign chart:

x

f 0 (x) = 3x2

f (x )

0

Decreases 1

Decreases

(3) By the sign chart in (2), f is decreasing on ( 1; 0) and (0; 1). Since f is continuous at x = 0, it follows that f is decreasing for all x. Please confer the gure

below.

fHxL=-x 3

x

1

-1

Find (1) the critical values of f , (2) the intervals on which f is increasing,

and (3) those on which f is decreasing, for f (x) = (1 + x)1=3 .

Example 6.

1

.

3(1 + x)2=3

(1) Since f 0 (x) does not exist at x = 1 which is in the domain of f , so f has the only

critical value 1.

Less than 1

1

Bigger than 1

f 0 (x )

+

Does Not Exist

+

f (x)

Increases

0

Increases

x

f is increasing for all x.

(3) By the sign chart in (2), there is no interval where f is decreasing. Please confer

the gure below.

fHxL=H1+xL13

x

-5

-3

-1

-1

Find (1) the critical values of f , (2) the intervals on which f is increasing,

1

and (3) those on which f is decreasing, for f (x) = .

x

Example 7.

1

.

x2

(1) Since f 0 (x) does not exist at x = 0 which is not in the domain of f , so f does not

have any critical value. However, we use the value x = 0 in the sign chart.

x

Less than 0

f 0 (x )

f (x )

Decreases

0

Bigger than 0

Does Not Exist

Does Not Exist

Decreases

(3) By the sign chart in (2), f is decreasing on (

gure below.

1

fHxL=

x

x

-5

-3

-1

-1

Find (1) the critical values of f , (2) the intervals on which f is increasing,

and (3) those on which f is decreasing, for f (x) = 5 ln x x.

Example 8.

Solution. We observe that f (x) has the domain (0; 1) and start with the derivative:

5

x

5 x 5 x

=

.

x x

x

5 x

(1) Since f 0 (x) =

= 0 at x = 5 which is in the domain of f and f 0 (x) does not

x

exist at x = 0 which is not in the domain of f , so f has two critical values 0 and 5.

f 0 (x) =

1=

0

Between 0 and 5

5

Bigger than 5

f 0 (x) Does Not Exist

+

0

f (x) Does Not Exist

Increases

5 ln 5 5

Decreases

x

(3) By the sign chart in (2), f is decreasing on (

gure below.

fHxL=5Log@xD-x

3

x

1

10

A student examined the sign chart in the Example above with f (x) =

1=x and conclude that f (x) is decreasing for all x except x = 0. However, f ( 1) =

1 < f (1) = 1, which seems to indicate that f is increasing. Discuss the dierence

between the correct answer in the Example and the student's answer. Explain why

the student's description of where f is decreasing is unacceptable.

Discussion 9.

Exercise 10.

(2) Identify the intervals on which f (x) is decreasing.

(3) Identify the intervals on which f 0 (x) < 0.

(4) Identify the intervals on which f 0 (x) > 0.

7

(6) Identify the x coordinate of the points where f 0 (x) does not exist.

Local Extrema

containing c such that f (x) f (c) for all x in (m; n).

Definition 11.

(2) f (c) is called a local minimum if there exist an interval (m; n) containing c such

that f (x) f (c) for all x in (m; n).

(3) f (c) is called a local extremum if it is either a local maximum or a local minimum.

(4) A point on a graph where a local extremum occurs is also called a turning point .

How to nd the local extremum? If the graph changes from rising/increasing to

falling/decreasing, the high point is the local maximum point. If the graph changes

from falling/decreasing to rising/increasing, the low point is the local minimum point.

Example 12.

For the given gure, nd the local extrema and critical values.

Solution. (1) Local maximum occurs at x = d, because the graph changes from rising

to falling at x = d.

(2) Local minima occur at x = b and x = g , because the graph changes from falling

to rising at x = b and x = g .

(3) f has critical values (at which f has the horizontal tangent line, i.e., f 0 = 0) x = c,

x = d and x = g ; and critical values (at which f has the vertical tangent line, i.e., f 0

does not exist) x = b and x = h.

From the example above, we observe that the local extrema occur only at the critical

values. So we have the following theorem.

(Existence of Local Extrema). If f is continuous on the interval (a; b),

c is a number in (a; b) and f (c) is a local extremum, then f has the critical value at

x = c. That is, either f 0 (c) = 0 (i.e., f has the horizontal tangent line at x = c) or

f 0 (c) does not exist (i.e., f has the vertical tangent line at x = c).

Theorem 13

FirstDerivative Test

Our strategy for nding local extrema is clear: We nd all critical values of f and test

each one to see if it produces a local maximum, a local minimum, or neither.

We recall that the graph changes from rising/increasing to falling/decreasing, the

high point is a local maximum. The graph changes from falling/decreasing to rising/increasing, the low point is a local minimum. Based on this observation, we

deduce the following important theorem.

(First{Derivative Test for Local Extrema). Let c be a critical value of f .

(That is, f (c) is dened and either f 0 (c) = 0 or f 0 (c) is not dened.) If f 0 (x) changes

the sign around x = c, then f has the local extrema at c.

Theorem 14

side of x = c and negative (meaning f is falling/decreasing ) on the right{hand

side of x = c, then f has the local maximum at x = c.

(2) if f 0 (x) is negative (meaning f is falling/decreasing ) on the left{hand side of

x = c and positive (meaning f is rising/increasing ) on the right{hand side of

x = c, then f has the local minimum at x = c.

Example 15.

Given f (x) = x3

9

(3) Sketch a graph of f .

Step 1 Critical Values: We start with the derivative.

f 0 (x) = 3x2

18x + 24 = 3(x2

two critical values x = 2 and x = 4.

1; 1) of f , so f has

Less than 2 2 Between 2 and 4 4 Bigger than 4

f 0 (x)

+

0

0

+

f (x) Increases 10

Decreases

6

Increases

x

From the sign chart, we observe f 0 is positive on the left{hand side of 2 and negative on

the right{hand side of 2. So by the FirstDerivative Test , f has the local maximum

value f (2) = 10 at x = 2.

Also f 0 is negative on the left{hand side of 4 and positive on the right{hand side of 4.

So by the FirstDerivative Test , f has the local minimum value f (4) = 6 at x = 4.

f@xD=x 3 -9x 2 +24x-10

10

10

Applications to Economics

s'@tD

1

t

6

16

20

-4

The graph approximates the rate of change of the U.S. Share of the

total world production of motor vehicles over a 20{year period, where S (t) is the U.S.

Share (as a percentage) and t is time (in years).

Example 16.

(1) Write a brief verbal description of the graph of y = S (t), including a discussion of

any local extrema.

(2) Sketch a possible graph of y = S (t).

t

Between 0 and 6

S 0 (t )

S (t)

Decreases

6

Between 6 and 16

16

Bigger than 16

0

+

0

Don't Know

Increases

Don't Know

Decreases

(i) S (t) is decreasing on (0; 6) [ (16; 20), while S (t) is increasing on (6; 16).

(ii) Since S 0 (t) changes its sign (from to +) around 6, by the FirstDerivative

Test , we get S (t) has the local minimum at t = 6. Since S 0 (t) changes its sign (from +

to ) around 16, by the FirstDerivative Test , we get S (t) has the local maximum

at t = 16.

11

S@tD

t

6

16

20

The graph of the total prot P (x) (in dollars) from the sale of x cordless

electric screwdrivers is shown in the gure.

Example 17.

P@xD

125

x

100

150

200

250

-1000

(1) Write a brief verbal description of the graph of the marginal prot function y =

P 0 (x), including a discussion of any x intercepts.

(2) Sketch a possible graph of y = P 0 (x).

Less than 150 150 Bigger than 150

P 0 (x )

+

0

P (x)

Increases

125

Decreases

x

From the sign chart, we observe that the marginal prot function P 0 (x) is positive on

(0; 150) and negative on (150; 250). And P 0 (x) = 0 at x = 150.

12

P'@xD

x

100

150

13

200

250

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