MS-DOS MS-DOS is a command line user interface.

First introduced in 1981 for IBM computers and was last update in 1994 when MS-DOS 6.22 was released. MS-DOS History: Year 1981 1982 1983 1984 1986 1987 1988 1988 1991 1993 1994 1994 Event MS-DOS 1.0 was released on Aug, 1981. MS-DOS 1.25 was released on Aug, 1982. MS-DOS 2.0 was released on mar, 1983. Micro soft introduces MS-DOS 3.0 for IBM pc and MS-DOS 3.1 for net works. MS-DOS 3.2 was released on Apr, 1986. MS-DOS 3.3 was released on Apr, 1987. MS-DOS 4.0 was released on July, 1988. MS-DOS 4.01 was released on Nov, 1988. MS-DOS 5.0 was released on Jun, 1991. MS-DOS 6.0 was released on Aug, 1993. MS-DOS 6.21 was released on Mar, 1994. MS-DOS 6.22 was released on Apr, 1994.

DOS: DISK OPERATING SYSTEM DOS is a character based user interface (CUI). It is case insensitive. We can operate the computer by using commands. Commands are of 2 types: 1) Internal Commands 2) External Commands

Internal Commands: 1) CLS: To clear the screen. 2) DATE : To modify the date 3) TIME: To modify the time. 4) COPY : It copies data from one file to another file Syntax: Copy <Source name> < destination name> 5) DEL : it delets all old files. Syntax: del <file name>. 6) MD: makes a directory Syntax: md <dir name>. 7) CD : change directory Syntax: cd <directory name>. 8) RD : remove directory. Syntax: rd <directory name>. 9) COPY CON : it is used to create a new file. Syntax: copy con <file name>.

10) to view contents of file Syntax: type <file name>. Dir  to display the root directory Dir/ad  display only directory not files. Dir/a-d  To display the all files without directory. Dir  to display the root directory Dir/ah  To display the all hidden files. Dir/a-h  To display the all non-hidden files. Dir/as  To display the all system files. Dir/a-s  To display the all non-system files. Dir/ar  To display the all read only files. Dir/a-r  To display the all non-read only files. Dir/od  To display the all files order by date(earlier). Dir/o-d  To display the all files order by date (latest). Dir/0E  To display the all files order by extension name [a-z]. Dir/0-E  To display the all files order by extension name [z-a]. Dir/p  To display the page by page. Using attributes we can change file properties . They are 4 attributes 1) hidden. 2) read only. 3) system. 4) archive files. 1) it is used to change the normal file to hidden file. Syntax: attrib +h <file name> Ex: attrib +h abc. It is used to change hidden file to normal. Syntax: attrib –h <file name> Ex: attrib –h abc 2) it changes normal file to read only file Syntax: attrib +R <file name> Ex: attrib +R abc. It is used to change read only file to normal file. Syntax: attrib –R <file name> Ex: attrib –R abc 3) it is used to change the normal file to system file. Syntax: attrib +s <file name> Ex: attrib +s abc. It is used to change system file to normal file. Syntax: attrib –s <file name> Ex: attrib –s abc 4) it is used to change the normal file to pack up file they are used rarely. Syntax: attrib +a <file name>

Ex: attrib +a abc. It is used to change hidden file to normal. Syntax: attrib –a <file name> Ex: attrib –a abc We can apply more than attribute to file. Ex: attrib +r +h +s <file name> EXTERNAL COMMANDS: They are system level commands 1) format: erase all the data and recreates sectors. 2) Fdisk : it is used to allocate the partitions on storage device. 3) Mem: display the physical memory. 4) Erase: to delete the file .it is similar to delete(del). 5) Edit : to modify the content of existing file. 6) Move: it moves from one location to another location of file name given. 7) Xcopy: copies all the files including sub directories. 8) Sys: create start up files.

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