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International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882

Volume 3, Issue 4, July 2014

Enhance the Energy Efficiency by Reducing Packet Collision

in Wireless Sensor Networks
Gagandeep Kaur1, Poonam Arora2

(Electronic and Communication Engineering, BFCET, Deon (Bathinda)

(Electronic and Communication Engineering, BFCET, Deon (Bathinda)

Energy efficiency in Wireless sensor Networks (WSNs)
is the very important role for the researchers. The sensor
nodes in Wireless Sensor Network are battery powered
devices which consumes energy during data
transmission, processing, etc. To maximize network
lifetime in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) the paths
for data transfer are selected in such a way that the total
energy consumed along the path is minimized. In large
wireless sensor networks, low energy consumption is a
major challenge. Hence, energy conservation takes on
additional importance. Many techniques are proposed
for energy saving, Clustering is one of them. In this
work, we have to prevent packet losses and also reduce
sensor energy conservation and enhance network
lifetime. We introduced new technique which is based
upon adaptive technique to prevent packet loss problem.
This proposed technique is better than existing
Keywords - Energy conservation, Network lifetime.
Packet losses, Wireless sensor Networks (WSNs).



Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are currently an area

of great interest in research, industry and academia. A
wireless sensor network (WSN) is a wireless network
consisting of spatially distributed autonomous devices
using sensors to cooperatively monitor physical or
environmental conditions such as temperature, sound,
vibration, pressure, motion pollutants at different
locations[1].Network lifetime can be defined as the time
elapsed until the first node (or the last node) in the
network depletes its energy (dies). For example, in a
military field where sensors are monitoring chemical
activity, the lifetime of a sensor is critical for maximum
field coverage. Energy consumption in a sensor node can

be attributed to either useful or wasteful sources.

Useful energy consumption can be due to 1)
transmitting/receiving data, 2) processing query
requests, and 3) forwarding queries/data to neigh- boring
nodes. Wasteful energy consumption can be due to 1)
idle listening to the media, 2) retransmitting due to
generating/handling control packets [2]. Hence, energy
conservation takes on additional importance. Many
techniques are proposed for energy saving, Clustering
is one of them. In this technique, the clusters are
formed by clustering of the grouping nodes. The cluster
heads are elected periodically such that members of a
cluster can communicate with their cluster heads. These
cluster heads send data received from its members to a
base station. The multi clustering can also be used. The
cluster head should have to be rotated for the balancing
of energy and then there will be equal load on every
node. The energy consumption can be reduced.
The remainder of the paper in organized as follows.
In section II briefly discusses related work. In section III
introduce the problem statement. In section IV explain
the proposed modal. In section IV explain the simulation



F.J. Atero, J.J. et al. [3] proposed a Low Energy and

Adaptive Architecture for Efficient Routing and Robust
Mobility Management in Wireless Sensor Networks.
they propose a new architecture called HARP,
a Hierarchical Adaptive and Reliable Routing
Protocol, a clustering algorithm which builds
intercluster and intra-cluster hierarchical trees, which
are optimized to save power. This architecture is
scalable and can be used in both homogeneous and


International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882
Volume 3, Issue 4, July 2014

heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks. By means

of the addition
of a recovery slot
scheduling scheme, HARP provides efficient link
fault tolerance and also supports node mobility
The same process can additionally
function as a joining mechanism for newly deployed
nodes. This architecture is highly adaptive to specific
application requirements and provides bounded-time
data transmissions. Furthermore, a new cluster heads
election formulation and its associated data gathering
protocol (s- HARP) is proposed. This protocol optimizes
and balances energy consumption in the network.
Dahlila P.Dahnil, et al.[4] proposed EnergyEfficient cluster formation in Heterogeneous Wireless
Sensor Networks. The HEED, LEACH and Energybased LEACH protocols are simulated and their
performance are compared in terms of the
number of cluster head generated, cluster size,
cluster head distribution, scalability and coverage. The
results of these protocols are presented to show how the
cluster formation helps to prolong the network
lifetime. We investigated scalability aspects in the
presence of advanced nodes in the network and its
effect on the network lifetime. We proposed to
investigate A HEED and AE-LEACH protocols, a
new approach for cluster heads election that improved
network lifetime in the presence of advanced
nodes. The simulation shows that having fraction of
advanced nodes in the network gives significant
improvement in network lifetime as compared
more homogeneous nodes in the
network. .
Peyman Neamatollahi, et al [5] proposed Hybrid
clustering approach for Prolonging Lifetime in
Wireless Sensor Network. Clustering is an effective
approach for organizing the network into a
connected hierarchy, load balancing, and prolonging
network lifetime. Clustering protocols in Wireless
sensor networks are classified into static and dynamic.
In static clustering, clusters are formed once, forever
and role of the cluster head is scheduled among the
nodes in a cluster. However, in dynamic clustering the
time is divided into rounds and clustering is
performed in the beginning of each round. This paper

presents a Hybrid Clustering A p p r o a c h ( HCA).

Whenever a cluster head consumes a pr e specified part
of its energy, it indirectly informs all other nodes so,
clustering will be done in the beginning of the
upcoming round. Therefore, clustering is performed on
demand. To evaluate the efficiency of proposal, the
well known distributed clustering protocol, HEED, is
used as baseline example. By means of simulation
results, we demonstrate that significant energy saving
can be achieved using HCA.
Ossama Younis and Sonia Fahmy [2] proposed
Hybrid, Energy-Efficient, Distributed Clustering
Approach for Ad-hoc Sensor Networks. They discussed
that topology control in a sensor network balances load
on sensor nodes, and increases network scalability and
lifetime. In
sensor network clustering of sensor
nodes is an effective topology. In this paper, they
proposed a distributed clustering approach for long-lived
ad-hoc sensor networks. Proposed approach does not
make any assumptions about the presence of
infrastructure or about node capabilities, other than the
availability of multiple power levels in sensor nodes.
They presented a protocol, HEED (Hybrid EnergyEfficient Distributed clustering), that periodically selects
cluster heads according to a hybrid of the node residual
energy and a secondary parameter, such as node
proximity to its neighbors or node degree. HEED
terminates in O(1) iterations, incurs low message
overhead, and achieves fairly uniform cluster head
distribution across the network.
Vinay Kumar, et al. [6] proposed Energy Efficient
Clustering Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks.
They discussed in wireless sensor networks to maximize
the lifetime of the sensor network, for the data transfer
the path is selected in such a way in which the
energy consumption is minimized in that path. To
support high scalability and better data aggregation,
sensor nodes are often grouped into clusters. Clusters
create hierarchical wireless sensor network, the sensor
nodes utilization their limited resources in efficient way
and thus extends network lifetime. They presented
taxonomy of energy efficient clustering algorithms in
WSNs, and also presented timeline and description of
LEACH and Its descendant in WSNs.


International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882
Volume 3, Issue 4, July 2014



A WSN composed of 20 sensor nodes. All nodes are

randomly deployed into the fixed area. The first step
involved in this phase is the plotting of sensor nodes in a
800*800 m square region.20 nodes including the base
station are deployed in a 2D plot. Initially, energy of
about 100 joules each is assigned to the nodes. All the
nodes in sensor network can be partitioned into small
groups is called clusters. In each cluster has a cluster
head and rest nodes are member of that cluster. The
clustering involves grouping nodes into clusters and
electing cluster heads periodically such that members
of a cluster can communicate with their cluster heads
and these cluster heads send aggregated data received
from its members to a base station. Because the
cluster head often transmit data over longer distances,
they lose more energy compared to member nodes
[7].We made cluster heads by using HEED (Hybrid
energy efficient distributed clustering) scheme. HEED
does not select nodes as CHs randomly. The manner of
cluster construction is performed based on the hybrid
combination of two parameters. One parameter depends
on the nodes residual energy, and the other parameter is
the intra-cluster communication cost. The CH nodes are
chosen based on two basic parameters, residual energy
and intracluster communication cost. In HEED, CHs are
periodically elected based on two important parameters:
residual energy and intra-cluster communication cost of
the candidate nodes. Initially, in HEED, a percentage of
CHs among all nodes, Cprob, is set to assume that an
optimal percentage cannot be computed a priori. The
probability that a node becomes a CH is:
CHprob= Cprob Eresidual/Emax,


where Eresidual is the current energy in the sensor, and

Emax is the maximum energy, which corresponds to a
fully charged battery. CHprob is not allowed to fall
below a certain threshold pmin, which is selected to be
inversely proportional to Emax. The main body of the
algorithm consists of a (constant) number of iterations.
Every sensor goes through these iterations until it nds
the CH that it can transmit to with the least transmission
power (cost) [8].
In this work AODV routing protocol use. AODV

stands for Ad-hoc on demand Distance Vector. AODV

is a reactive routing protocol instead of proactive. It
minimizes the number of broadcasts by creating routes
based on demand, which is not the case for DSDV.
When any source node wants to send a packet to a
destination, it broadcasts a route request (RREQ)
packet. The neighboring nodes in turn broadcast the
packet to their neighbors and the process continues until
the packet reaches the destination. During the process of
forwarding the route request, intermediate nodes record
the address of the neighbor from which the first copy of
the broadcast packet is received. This record is stored in
their route tables, which helps for establishing a reverse
path. If additional copies of the same RREQ are later
received, these packets are discarded. The reply is sent
using the reverse path. For route maintenance, when a
source node moves, it can reinitiate a route discovery
process. If any intermediate node moves within a
particular route, the neighbor of the drifted node can
detect the link failure and sends a link failure
notification to its upstream neighbor. This process
continues until the failure notification reaches the
source node. Based on the received information, the
source might decide to re-initiate the route discovery
phase [9].

Existing technique
The existing technique we use four cluster
head. First time one cluster head sent a adaptive request
to the sink. If sink available than its respond back with
adaptive packet message to cluster head. At that time
sink send adaptive packet to other cluster that time sink
communicate this cluster head. The problem occur
when there collision occur between adaptive request
and adaptive reply packet. The cluster head not receive
the respond message that times both cluster head wait
this reply message. So time and energy consumption is
Proposed technique:
The proposed technique use to overcome this
problem by using acknowledgement method. After
some interval not give acknowledgment then sink sent
back to adaptive response packet to cluster head. Then
communication again begins.


International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882
Volume 3, Issue 4, July 2014

Interface queue

Queue/Drop tail/

Link layer type


Max. packet in ifq



Simulation time

7.5 second


Initial energy of

100 joule


Energy used for

sending data

0.1 joules per packet


Energy used for

receiving data

0.2 joules per packet

Fig.1 Proposed modal



Network Simulator (version 2), is known as NS2,

it is an event driven simulation tool that has proved
useful in studying the dynamic nature of
communication networks. Simulation of wired and
wireless network functions and protocols like TCP,
UDP and routing algorithms, can be done using
ns2[10] The simulation is the technique which shows
us the behavior of modal when actually embedded
into the network.

The Results of the simulation are shown in the figure 2,

figure 3 which shows the Energy consumption and
Network lifetime in the sensor network.

Table 1.Simulation Parameters


Item No. Item Description

Simulation Area


No. of nodes


Channel Type


Antennae model


Energy model


Fig. 2 Energy Consumption

Figure 2 Energy Consumption the network also
decreases with new proposed technique. Red line show
new packet loss and green line shows old packet loss.


International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882
Volume 3, Issue 4, July 2014

[3] F.J. Atero, J.J. et al. A Low Energy and

Adaptive Architecture for Efficient Routing and Robust
Mobility Management in Wireless Sensor Networks
international conference on high performance computing
and simulation (HPCS),2011 IEEE.
[4] Dahlila P. Dahnil, et al. Energy-Efficient Cluster
Formation in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks:
A Comparative Study 13th international conference on
advanced communication technology (ICACT), feb. 2011
[5] Peyman Neamatollahi, et al.A Hybrid Clustering
Approach for Prolonging Lifetime in Wireless Sensor
Networks International Symposium on Computer
Networks and Distributed Systems (CNDS), 2011 IEEE.
[6]. Vinay Kumar, et al. Energy Efficient Clustering
Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey
IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science, Issues,
Vol, Issue 5, No 2, September 2011 2011

Fig. 3 Network Lifetime

Figure 3 show Network Lifetime of that network
increase with proposed method as compare to existing



The main objective of this research paper is to

discuss various challenges and technique of WSN. We
also focused on adaptive technique and its procedure.
We believe that proposed algorithms discussed in this
paper will give benefit for various research scholars. Its
experimental results show that proposed technique gives
better result which has better Network lifetime and less
Energy consumption compare to existing techniques.



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