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International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882 1072

Volume 3, Issue 7, October 2014

STUDY OF HEAT TRANSFER RATE IN TWO PASS SQUARE


CHANNEL
1

R. T.SARATH BABU,2D.KRISHNAIAH

1
2

Department of Mechanical Engineering, SIETK College, Puttur, Chittoor Dist, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SIETK College, Puttur, Chittoor Dist, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA.

ABSTRACT
This project aim is to study of heat transfer rate in two pass square channel experiments. The experiments were carried
out on a horizontally oriented two pass smooth square channel with turn in sharp 1800. The smooth square channel size
was 2 cm. Calculations were performed by using CFD software gambit2.3.16&fluent6.3.26. The predictions results
of heat transfer rate of the turbulent flow of air inside the two pass in square channel with using four different Reynolds
numbers (10000, 20000, 40000 & 60000) and three different turbulence models were used namely the k-, k- and
RSM models were compared against with experiment results obtained.
Keywords-CFD,Gambit, Fluent, turbulent models, Heat transfer rate.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Gas turbines play an important role in power industry, and are now widely used in aircraft propulsion, land based power
generation, and other industrial applications. It is well recognized that one way to increase power output and
thermodynamic efficiency of gas turbine engine is to increase turbine inlet temperature. However with the increase of
the turbine inlet temperature, the heat load transfer to the blade is increased. The blade can only survive if effective
cooling methods are used to remove the heat load from turbine blades. Figure.1 depicts the typical cooling technology
for internal and external zone.
The problems arising with predicting accurate heat transfer rates to two pass channel are due to a number of factors.
They are before turn; turn in 1800 and after turn in square channel. If using the turbulent flow in the two pass channel of
energy losses in the heat transfer rate, that affecting the thermal efficiency of gas turbine. That should be calculated by
using the CFD software.
The numerical analysis was performed using the commercially available CFD suite, FLUENT, of which the geometry
was created in its pre-processor, GAMBIT. FLUENT was used to resolve the flow field and heat transfer to the square
channel. The data from the experimental simulations were used as boundary conditions for the numerical model. The
results generated from this model were then put under investigation by comparing it to the experimental data.

Fig.1.cooling techniques for gas turbine blade

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II.

INTRODUCTION TO CFD

2.1 Definition
Computational Fluid Dynamics or CFD is the analysis of systems involving fluid flow, heat transfer and associated
phenomena such as chemical reactions by means of computer-based simulation. The technique is very powerful and spans
a wide range of industrial and non-industrial application areas. Some examples are:
Aerodynamics of aircraft and vehicles: lift and drag
Hydrodynamics of ships
Power plant: combustion in IC engines and gas turbines
Turbo machinery: flows inside rotating passages, diffusers etc.
Electrical and electronic engineering: cooling of equipment including microcircuits.
Chemical process engineering: mixing and separation, polymer molding
External and internal environment of buildings: wind loading and heating/ ventilation.
Marine engineering: distribution of pollutants and effluents.
Hydrology and oceanography: flows in rivers, estuaries, oceans
Meteorology: weather prediction
Biomedical engineering: blood flows through arteries and veins.
2.2 History of CFD
Computers have been used to solve fluid flow problems for many years. Numerous programs have been written to
solve either specific problems, or specific classes of problems. From the mid-1970's, the complex mathematics required to
generalize the algorithms began to be understood, and general purpose CFD solvers were developed. These began to
appear in the early 1980's and required what were then very powerful computers, as well as an in-depth knowledge of
fluid dynamics, and large amounts of time to set up simulations. Consequently, CFD was a tool used almost exclusively in
research.
2.3 CFD codes
CFD codes contain three main elements:
i.
A pre-processor
ii.
A solver and
iii.
A post-processor

III. TURBULENCE MODELS


Turbulence consists of fluctuations in the flow field in time and space. It is a complex process, mainly because it
is three dimensional, unsteady and consists of many scales. It can have a significant effect on the characteristics of the
flow. Turbulence occurs when the inertia forces in the fluid become significant compared to viscous forces, and is
characterized by a high Reynolds Number.
In principle, the Navier-Stokes equations describe both laminar and turbulent flows without the need for
additional information. However, turbulent flows at realistic Reynolds numbers span a large range of turbulent length and
time scales, and would generally involve length scales much smaller than the smallest finite volume mesh, which can be
practically used in a numerical analysis. The Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of these flows would require computing
power which is many orders of magnitude higher than available in the foreseeable future.
To enable the effects of turbulence to be predicted, a large amount of CFD research has concentrated on methods
which make use of turbulence models. Turbulence models have been specifically developed to account for the effects of
turbulence without recourse to a prohibitively fine mesh and direct numerical simulation. Most turbulence models are
statistical turbulence model, as described below.
3.1 Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations
For transient flows, the equations are ensemble-averaged. This allows the averaged equations to be solved for transient
simulations as well. The resulting equations are sometimes called URANS (Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes
equations).
Substituting the averaged quantities into the original transport equations results in the Reynolds averaged equations given
below. In the following equations, the bar is dropped for averaged quantities, except for products of fluctuating quantities.

U j 0

(Eq. 1)
t
x j

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U j
t

U iU j ij ui u j S M
x j
xi x j

(Eq. 2)

Where, is the molecular stress tensor (including both normal and shear components of the stress).
The continuity equation has not been altered but the momentum and scalar transport equations contain turbulent flux
terms additional to the molecular diffusive fluxes. These are the Reynolds stresses, ui u j . These terms arise from the
non-linear convective term in the un-averaged equations. They reflect the fact that convective transport due to turbulent
velocity fluctuations will act to enhance mixing over and above that caused by thermal fluctuations at the molecular level.
At high Reynolds numbers, turbulent velocity fluctuations occur over a length scale much larger than the mean free path
of thermal fluctuations, so that the turbulent fluxes are much larger than the molecular fluxes.
The Reynolds averaged energy equation is:

htot p
U j htot

t
t x j
x j

u j h
U ui u j S E
x
x i ij
j
j

(Eq. 3)

3.2 THE ZERO EQUATION MODEL

The zero equation uses an algebraic equation to calculate the viscous contribution from turbulent eddies. A constant
turbulent eddy viscosity is calculated for the entire flow domain.
The turbulence viscosity is modeled as the product of a turbulent velocity scale, U t , and a turbulence length scale, l t , as
proposed by Prandtl and Kolmogorov,

t f U t lt

(Eq. 4)

Where, f is a proportionality constant. The velocity scale is taken to be the maximum velocity in the fluid domain. The
length scale is derived using the formula:

1
lt VD3 / 7
(Eq. 5)

Where, V D is the fluid domain volume. This model has little physical foundation and is not recommended.
3.3 Two Equation Turbulence Models
Two-equation models are much more sophisticated than the zero equation models. Both the velocity and length scale are
solved using separate transport equations (hence the term two-equation'). The k- and k- two-equation models use the
gradient diffusion hypothesis to relate the Reynolds stresses to the mean velocity gradients and the turbulent viscosity.
3.3.1 k- model
k is the turbulence kinetic energy and is defined as the variance of the fluctuations in velocity. It has dimensions of (L 2
T-2); for example, m2/s2. is the turbulence eddy dissipation (the rate at which the velocity fluctuations dissipate), and has
dimensions of k per unit time (L2 T-3); for example, m2/s3.
The k- model introduces two new variables into the system of equations. The continuity equation is then:

U j 0

t x j

(Eq. 6)

And the momentum equation becomes:

U i

U iU j '

t
x j
xi x j

U i U j

eff
SM
xi

xj

(Eq. 7)

Where, S M is the sum of body forces, eff is the effective viscosity accounting for turbulence, and is the modified
pressure.
The k- model, like the zero equation model, is based on the eddy viscosity concept, so that:

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eff t

(Eq. 8)

Where, t is the turbulence viscosity. The k- model assumes that the turbulence viscosity is linked to the turbulence
kinetic energy and dissipation via the relation:

t C

k2

(Eq. 9)

Where, C is a constant.
The values of k and come directly from the differential transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy and
turbulence dissipation rate:

k
U j k t

t
x j
x j
k


U j t

t
x j
x j

Pk Pkb (Eq. 10)


x j

C 1 Pk C 2 C 1 Pb (Eq. 11)
x j k

Where, C 1 , C 2 , k and are constants.

Pkb and Pb represent the influence of the buoyancy forces, which are described below. Pk is the turbulence production due
to viscous forces, which is modeled using:

U i U j
Pk t

x
xi
j

U i 2 U k

x
3 x k
j

U k
3 t
k
x k

(Eq. 12)

The 3 t term in Equation 17 is based on the frozen stress assumption. This prevents the values of k and
becoming too large through shocks, a situation that becomes progressively worse as the mesh is refined at shocks. In
order to avoid the build-up of turbulent kinetic energy in stagnation regions, two production limiters are available.
k- model
One of the advantages of the k- formulation is the near wall treatment for low-Reynolds number computations.
The model does not involve the complex non-linear damping functions required for the k- model and is therefore more

accurate and more robust. A low-Reynolds k- model would typically require a near wall resolution of y 0.2 , while a
3.3.2

low-Reynolds number k- model would require at least y 2 . In industrial flows, even y 2 cannot be guaranteed in
most applications and for this reason, a new near wall treatment was developed for the k models. It allows for smooth
shift from a low-Reynolds number form to a wall function formulation.
The k- model assumes that the turbulence viscosity is linked to the turbulence kinetic energy and turbulent frequency
via the relation:

(Eq. 13)

IV. INTRODUCTION TO GAMBIT-FLUENT


Preprocessing is the first step in building and analyzing a flow model. It includes building the model (or importing
from a CAD package), applying the mesh, and entering the data. We used Gambit as the preprocessing tool in our project.
There are four general purpose products: FLUENT, Flow Izard, FIDAF, and
POLY FLOW. FLUENT is used in most industries All Fluent software includes full post processing capabilities.
There are three main steps of programme,
1. Pre-processing.
2. Solver
3. Post-process
4.1. Program Structure
FLUENT package includes the following products:
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1. FLUENT, the solver.


2. GAMBIT, the preprocessor for geometry modeling and mesh generation.
3. TGrid, an additional preprocessor that can generate volume meshes from existing boundary meshes.

V.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

5.1 Test section


The completecapacity of turbulent flow carried out at a180 degree turn in a two pass square smooth channel,
which was made from aluminum plate. The test section was a multipass channel with a 2cm square cross section. The
bottom, top and the outside walls of the channel were constructing of 0.5 cm thick aluminum plates. The inner (divider)
wall is constructed of two 0.5cm thick aluminum plates, bonded together back to back with double sided tape.

Fig.2 3D design of Test section


5.2. Experimental Apparatus and Instrumentation
5.3.
The main components of the test apparatus are the test section, a settling chamber, a calibrated orifice flow meter,
a control valve, and a centrifugal blower. The entire apparatus, together with the measuring instruments, was located in an
air-conditioned laboratory, which was maintained at a constant temperature of 23C throughout the tests.
CFD analysis stimulation for the three turbulence models for using four Reynolds numbers ranges from 10000 to 60000.
The experimental value reference the data results to comparing to the CFD analysis value results.
Is as represent as 1800 turn. The inlet and exit flow passage with aspect ratio of 1:1. In which the shorter wall of airfoil
pressure and suction side. Each channel is 2X2 cm in size, with the hydraulic diameter of 2cm. Channel length to the
channel width, X/D is 13.
A bell mouth inlet was used for the test model is used to decrease any inlet alteration. The inlet channel length is about
thirteen hydraulic diameters. Both inlet and exit channel are smooth. Fig shows the assembly view of test model. First
blower Supplies continuous amount of air at specific flow rate. This flow is controlled by use of control valve. After that
the flow is measured by use of pressure differential instrument as orifice flow meter. The U-tube manometer is placed
across the orifice for measurement of pressure difference. After that air flowing through the test section across the honey
comb like straighter. Figure displaced to monitoring pressure [p] and temperature [Tc] is used in the model. The tip
surface heat transfer coefficients are all based on the average temperature .which differ by only a few degrees due to the
large flow rate and limited surface area. In the test model aluminum plate is placed over Nicrome thin foil plate type
heater. For the measurement of average temperature of the channel. Thermocouple is placed in aluminum test section.

Fig.3 Details of experiment setup


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5.3.1. Experimentation
Experiment is conducted to find out net heat transfer rate for square channel, dimensions of pattern 2mmX2mm (before
turn and after turn). Experiment conducted for various Reynolds number ranges from 10000-60000. For the verification of
experimental set up experiment conducted for square smooth channel. To start the experiment we provide constant
different Reynolds numbers. Measuring the pressure drop across the test section and orifice, we calculate the mass flow
rate and total heat transfer rate for channel.
5.2.2.System Variables
Inlet temperature of Air: 23oC
Reynolds number: 10000-60000
Prandtl number: 0.7
Hydraulic diameter: 2cm
Aspect ratio: 1
Operating pressure: 101325 N/m2
5.2.3.Data Reduction
The aim of this experiment is to investigate the flow analysis for two pass smooth square channels used in turn of 180degree bend. The procedure of normalizing the parameters is discussed in following section. The Reynolds number based
on the channel hydraulic diameter is given by
Re = v Dh /
Re= vDh/
Where,
density
vcharacteristic velocity (such as inflow)
L characteristic length (such as the length of an object in your flow)
viscosity
The average heat transfer coefficients are evaluated from the measured temperatures and heat inputs. With heat added
uniformly to fluid (Qair) and the temperature difference of wall and fluid (TwTb), average heat transfer coefficient will
be evaluated from the experimental data via the following equations:
Qconv = h A (Tw-Tb)
Thus
h=Qconv / A (Tw-Tb)
Average Nusselt number is written as:
Nu=hDh / K
In order to measure Nusselt number, the pressure difference between inlet and outlet must be obtained for smooth channel
is given by Nu number as normalized by the corresponding values for fully developed turbulent flow heat transfer based
on the inlet channel conditions. The fully developed channel Nu number was determined using the Dittus-Boelter
correlation.
Nu= 0.023 X Re 0.8 X Pr0.4
5.3.Geometry Setup and Boundary Conditions
The two pass smooth square channel experiments, as shown in Fig. were constructed with GAMBIT Design Modeler, a
pre-processor of the FLUENT code. For this project FLUENT6.3.26 code has been selected and the main parameters of
the materials are given in Table.1
Property
Aluminum(solid)
Air(fluid)
Density(kg/m3)
2719
1.225
Cp (Specific Heat)(j/kg-k)
871
1006.43
Thermal Conductivity(w/m-k)
202.399
0.0242
Viscosity(kg/m-s)
1.7894001e-05

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Fig 4.2D Design model in GAMBIT in Design module

Fig.5. Meshing in GAMBIT

5.4. Results
Figure shows representative cross-sectional plots of Pressuredistribution for the simulation by using k-, k-
and Reynolds stress turbulence models and heat transfer rate for the measurement. Predicted results obtained by using the
two pass smooth square channel of different Reynolds numbers (10000,20000,40000&60000) of air are generally in good
agreement with the experimental data by using different Reynolds number. The following table shows the models and
settings are used in these simulations.
These flow is based on pressure and finite volume method is implicit , iterations taken 400 times, here below
diagram are shows of the following temperature distribution for Reynolds number s and for each compared with three
turbulence models.
For these reasons below figures are show inlet (before turn)of channel is greater flow rate than outlet(after turn) of
channel . Here below results for Reynolds numbers (10000-60000) is each one camper to three turbulence models (K-,k, RSM model)
Table 1. CFD conditions of setting
Model

Settings

Space

2D

Time

Unsteady, 1st-Order Implicit

Wall Treatment

k-, k- and Reynolds


Stressturbulence model
Non-Equilibrium Wall Functions

Heat Transfer

Enabled

Viscous

5.5.Comparison of three models pressure distribution


K- model

K- model

RSM model

Fig-6: Pressure distribution of Reynoldsnumber (10000)

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Fig.7: Pressure distribution of Reynolds number (20000)

Fig.8: Pressure distribution of Reynolds number (40000)

Fig.9: Pressure distribution of Reynolds number (60000)


E.Numerical values of Results
(Total Heat Transfer Rate in W)
For the below Table 2,3,4&5 are numerical values is used to make comparisons of the values . Based on these
values make the graphs, for observing this value before turn (input) and after turn(output) heat transfer rate in watts are to
be shown in tables. And these projects are to study the total /net heat transfer rate is also shown in the table.

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As below the graphs shows the comparisons turbulence models like k-, k- and RSM models values are
compared with the experimental values.
Table 2.K- model values
Reynolds
Number

Velocity

Heat transfer
rate in input

Heat transfer
rate in output

Net Heat transfer


rate

10000

7.3

33299.93

33308.91

8.972656

20000

14.6

66599.91

66680.19

80.27344

40000

29.2

133200

132958.8

241.1875

60000

43.8

199800

199489.8

310.1406

Table 3.K-model Values


Heat transfer
Heat transfer
rate in input
rate in output

Reynolds
Number

Velocity

10000

7.3

33300.81

33323.8

22.98438

20000

14.6

66600.73

66601.23

0.5

40000

29.2

133200.1

132886.2

313.9063

60000

43.8

199801.6

199513.7

287.9063

Table 4.RSM model Values


Heat transfer
Heat transfer
rate in input
rate in output

Net Heat transfer


rate

Reynolds
Number

Velocity

Net Heat transfer


rate

10000

7.3

33299.98

33290.23

9.742188

20000

14.6

66599.95

66559.12

40.83594

40000

29.2

133200

132953.6

246.4531

60000

43.8

199800

199474.6

325.4063

Table 5.Nusselt Number with respect to Reynolds number


Reynolds
Number

k-

k-w

Rsm

experimental

10000

255.09

158.29

67.079

31.18

20000

552.82

3.44

275.48

243.01

40000

1659.77

2155.64

1697.55

1477.35

60000

2135.95

1982.79

2241.06

2174.39

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Fig. 10: Total heat transfer rate v/s Reynolds number graph for smooth channel

Fig.11: Total heat transfer rate v/s velocity graph for smooth channel

VI. CONCLUSIONS
In this study different Reynolds (10000, 20000, 40000& 60000) turbulence models values are compared with
experimental values successfully. In these observations K-,K- model values are not satisfied, but RSM model is very
convenient values very convenient compared to other two models.
When increasing the Reynolds number better heat transfer rates are obtained. So the velocity is increasing heat
transfer rate is increased, this is conclusions of this paper . CFD is very useful to analyzing the heat transfer rate better
than experimental analysis and more economical. And also very less time to study the problem
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In this investigation shows the flow separation inner wall of square channel at 1800 sharp turns. For these reasons above
figures are shows inlet (before turn) of channel is greater flow rate than outlet (after turn) of channel. Here below results
for Reynolds numbers (10000-60000) is each one camper to three turbulence models (K-,K-& RSM model)

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