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Original Title: STUDY OF HEAT TRANSFER RATE IN TWO PASS SQUARE CHANNEL

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CHANNEL

1

R. T.SARATH BABU,2D.KRISHNAIAH

1

2

Department of Mechanical Engineering, SIETK College, Puttur, Chittoor Dist, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, SIETK College, Puttur, Chittoor Dist, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA.

ABSTRACT

This project aim is to study of heat transfer rate in two pass square channel experiments. The experiments were carried

out on a horizontally oriented two pass smooth square channel with turn in sharp 1800. The smooth square channel size

was 2 cm. Calculations were performed by using CFD software gambit2.3.16&fluent6.3.26. The predictions results

of heat transfer rate of the turbulent flow of air inside the two pass in square channel with using four different Reynolds

numbers (10000, 20000, 40000 & 60000) and three different turbulence models were used namely the k-, k- and

RSM models were compared against with experiment results obtained.

Keywords-CFD,Gambit, Fluent, turbulent models, Heat transfer rate.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Gas turbines play an important role in power industry, and are now widely used in aircraft propulsion, land based power

generation, and other industrial applications. It is well recognized that one way to increase power output and

thermodynamic efficiency of gas turbine engine is to increase turbine inlet temperature. However with the increase of

the turbine inlet temperature, the heat load transfer to the blade is increased. The blade can only survive if effective

cooling methods are used to remove the heat load from turbine blades. Figure.1 depicts the typical cooling technology

for internal and external zone.

The problems arising with predicting accurate heat transfer rates to two pass channel are due to a number of factors.

They are before turn; turn in 1800 and after turn in square channel. If using the turbulent flow in the two pass channel of

energy losses in the heat transfer rate, that affecting the thermal efficiency of gas turbine. That should be calculated by

using the CFD software.

The numerical analysis was performed using the commercially available CFD suite, FLUENT, of which the geometry

was created in its pre-processor, GAMBIT. FLUENT was used to resolve the flow field and heat transfer to the square

channel. The data from the experimental simulations were used as boundary conditions for the numerical model. The

results generated from this model were then put under investigation by comparing it to the experimental data.

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II.

INTRODUCTION TO CFD

2.1 Definition

Computational Fluid Dynamics or CFD is the analysis of systems involving fluid flow, heat transfer and associated

phenomena such as chemical reactions by means of computer-based simulation. The technique is very powerful and spans

a wide range of industrial and non-industrial application areas. Some examples are:

Aerodynamics of aircraft and vehicles: lift and drag

Hydrodynamics of ships

Power plant: combustion in IC engines and gas turbines

Turbo machinery: flows inside rotating passages, diffusers etc.

Electrical and electronic engineering: cooling of equipment including microcircuits.

Chemical process engineering: mixing and separation, polymer molding

External and internal environment of buildings: wind loading and heating/ ventilation.

Marine engineering: distribution of pollutants and effluents.

Hydrology and oceanography: flows in rivers, estuaries, oceans

Meteorology: weather prediction

Biomedical engineering: blood flows through arteries and veins.

2.2 History of CFD

Computers have been used to solve fluid flow problems for many years. Numerous programs have been written to

solve either specific problems, or specific classes of problems. From the mid-1970's, the complex mathematics required to

generalize the algorithms began to be understood, and general purpose CFD solvers were developed. These began to

appear in the early 1980's and required what were then very powerful computers, as well as an in-depth knowledge of

fluid dynamics, and large amounts of time to set up simulations. Consequently, CFD was a tool used almost exclusively in

research.

2.3 CFD codes

CFD codes contain three main elements:

i.

A pre-processor

ii.

A solver and

iii.

A post-processor

Turbulence consists of fluctuations in the flow field in time and space. It is a complex process, mainly because it

is three dimensional, unsteady and consists of many scales. It can have a significant effect on the characteristics of the

flow. Turbulence occurs when the inertia forces in the fluid become significant compared to viscous forces, and is

characterized by a high Reynolds Number.

In principle, the Navier-Stokes equations describe both laminar and turbulent flows without the need for

additional information. However, turbulent flows at realistic Reynolds numbers span a large range of turbulent length and

time scales, and would generally involve length scales much smaller than the smallest finite volume mesh, which can be

practically used in a numerical analysis. The Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of these flows would require computing

power which is many orders of magnitude higher than available in the foreseeable future.

To enable the effects of turbulence to be predicted, a large amount of CFD research has concentrated on methods

which make use of turbulence models. Turbulence models have been specifically developed to account for the effects of

turbulence without recourse to a prohibitively fine mesh and direct numerical simulation. Most turbulence models are

statistical turbulence model, as described below.

3.1 Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations

For transient flows, the equations are ensemble-averaged. This allows the averaged equations to be solved for transient

simulations as well. The resulting equations are sometimes called URANS (Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes

equations).

Substituting the averaged quantities into the original transport equations results in the Reynolds averaged equations given

below. In the following equations, the bar is dropped for averaged quantities, except for products of fluctuating quantities.

U j 0

(Eq. 1)

t

x j

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U j

t

U iU j ij ui u j S M

x j

xi x j

(Eq. 2)

Where, is the molecular stress tensor (including both normal and shear components of the stress).

The continuity equation has not been altered but the momentum and scalar transport equations contain turbulent flux

terms additional to the molecular diffusive fluxes. These are the Reynolds stresses, ui u j . These terms arise from the

non-linear convective term in the un-averaged equations. They reflect the fact that convective transport due to turbulent

velocity fluctuations will act to enhance mixing over and above that caused by thermal fluctuations at the molecular level.

At high Reynolds numbers, turbulent velocity fluctuations occur over a length scale much larger than the mean free path

of thermal fluctuations, so that the turbulent fluxes are much larger than the molecular fluxes.

The Reynolds averaged energy equation is:

htot p

U j htot

t

t x j

x j

u j h

U ui u j S E

x

x i ij

j

j

(Eq. 3)

The zero equation uses an algebraic equation to calculate the viscous contribution from turbulent eddies. A constant

turbulent eddy viscosity is calculated for the entire flow domain.

The turbulence viscosity is modeled as the product of a turbulent velocity scale, U t , and a turbulence length scale, l t , as

proposed by Prandtl and Kolmogorov,

t f U t lt

(Eq. 4)

Where, f is a proportionality constant. The velocity scale is taken to be the maximum velocity in the fluid domain. The

length scale is derived using the formula:

1

lt VD3 / 7

(Eq. 5)

Where, V D is the fluid domain volume. This model has little physical foundation and is not recommended.

3.3 Two Equation Turbulence Models

Two-equation models are much more sophisticated than the zero equation models. Both the velocity and length scale are

solved using separate transport equations (hence the term two-equation'). The k- and k- two-equation models use the

gradient diffusion hypothesis to relate the Reynolds stresses to the mean velocity gradients and the turbulent viscosity.

3.3.1 k- model

k is the turbulence kinetic energy and is defined as the variance of the fluctuations in velocity. It has dimensions of (L 2

T-2); for example, m2/s2. is the turbulence eddy dissipation (the rate at which the velocity fluctuations dissipate), and has

dimensions of k per unit time (L2 T-3); for example, m2/s3.

The k- model introduces two new variables into the system of equations. The continuity equation is then:

U j 0

t x j

(Eq. 6)

U i

U iU j '

t

x j

xi x j

U i U j

eff

SM

xi

xj

(Eq. 7)

Where, S M is the sum of body forces, eff is the effective viscosity accounting for turbulence, and is the modified

pressure.

The k- model, like the zero equation model, is based on the eddy viscosity concept, so that:

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eff t

(Eq. 8)

Where, t is the turbulence viscosity. The k- model assumes that the turbulence viscosity is linked to the turbulence

kinetic energy and dissipation via the relation:

t C

k2

(Eq. 9)

Where, C is a constant.

The values of k and come directly from the differential transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy and

turbulence dissipation rate:

k

U j k t

t

x j

x j

k

U j t

t

x j

x j

x j

C 1 Pk C 2 C 1 Pb (Eq. 11)

x j k

Pkb and Pb represent the influence of the buoyancy forces, which are described below. Pk is the turbulence production due

to viscous forces, which is modeled using:

U i U j

Pk t

x

xi

j

U i 2 U k

x

3 x k

j

U k

3 t

k

x k

(Eq. 12)

The 3 t term in Equation 17 is based on the frozen stress assumption. This prevents the values of k and

becoming too large through shocks, a situation that becomes progressively worse as the mesh is refined at shocks. In

order to avoid the build-up of turbulent kinetic energy in stagnation regions, two production limiters are available.

k- model

One of the advantages of the k- formulation is the near wall treatment for low-Reynolds number computations.

The model does not involve the complex non-linear damping functions required for the k- model and is therefore more

accurate and more robust. A low-Reynolds k- model would typically require a near wall resolution of y 0.2 , while a

3.3.2

low-Reynolds number k- model would require at least y 2 . In industrial flows, even y 2 cannot be guaranteed in

most applications and for this reason, a new near wall treatment was developed for the k models. It allows for smooth

shift from a low-Reynolds number form to a wall function formulation.

The k- model assumes that the turbulence viscosity is linked to the turbulence kinetic energy and turbulent frequency

via the relation:

(Eq. 13)

Preprocessing is the first step in building and analyzing a flow model. It includes building the model (or importing

from a CAD package), applying the mesh, and entering the data. We used Gambit as the preprocessing tool in our project.

There are four general purpose products: FLUENT, Flow Izard, FIDAF, and

POLY FLOW. FLUENT is used in most industries All Fluent software includes full post processing capabilities.

There are three main steps of programme,

1. Pre-processing.

2. Solver

3. Post-process

4.1. Program Structure

FLUENT package includes the following products:

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2. GAMBIT, the preprocessor for geometry modeling and mesh generation.

3. TGrid, an additional preprocessor that can generate volume meshes from existing boundary meshes.

V.

The completecapacity of turbulent flow carried out at a180 degree turn in a two pass square smooth channel,

which was made from aluminum plate. The test section was a multipass channel with a 2cm square cross section. The

bottom, top and the outside walls of the channel were constructing of 0.5 cm thick aluminum plates. The inner (divider)

wall is constructed of two 0.5cm thick aluminum plates, bonded together back to back with double sided tape.

5.2. Experimental Apparatus and Instrumentation

5.3.

The main components of the test apparatus are the test section, a settling chamber, a calibrated orifice flow meter,

a control valve, and a centrifugal blower. The entire apparatus, together with the measuring instruments, was located in an

air-conditioned laboratory, which was maintained at a constant temperature of 23C throughout the tests.

CFD analysis stimulation for the three turbulence models for using four Reynolds numbers ranges from 10000 to 60000.

The experimental value reference the data results to comparing to the CFD analysis value results.

Is as represent as 1800 turn. The inlet and exit flow passage with aspect ratio of 1:1. In which the shorter wall of airfoil

pressure and suction side. Each channel is 2X2 cm in size, with the hydraulic diameter of 2cm. Channel length to the

channel width, X/D is 13.

A bell mouth inlet was used for the test model is used to decrease any inlet alteration. The inlet channel length is about

thirteen hydraulic diameters. Both inlet and exit channel are smooth. Fig shows the assembly view of test model. First

blower Supplies continuous amount of air at specific flow rate. This flow is controlled by use of control valve. After that

the flow is measured by use of pressure differential instrument as orifice flow meter. The U-tube manometer is placed

across the orifice for measurement of pressure difference. After that air flowing through the test section across the honey

comb like straighter. Figure displaced to monitoring pressure [p] and temperature [Tc] is used in the model. The tip

surface heat transfer coefficients are all based on the average temperature .which differ by only a few degrees due to the

large flow rate and limited surface area. In the test model aluminum plate is placed over Nicrome thin foil plate type

heater. For the measurement of average temperature of the channel. Thermocouple is placed in aluminum test section.

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5.3.1. Experimentation

Experiment is conducted to find out net heat transfer rate for square channel, dimensions of pattern 2mmX2mm (before

turn and after turn). Experiment conducted for various Reynolds number ranges from 10000-60000. For the verification of

experimental set up experiment conducted for square smooth channel. To start the experiment we provide constant

different Reynolds numbers. Measuring the pressure drop across the test section and orifice, we calculate the mass flow

rate and total heat transfer rate for channel.

5.2.2.System Variables

Inlet temperature of Air: 23oC

Reynolds number: 10000-60000

Prandtl number: 0.7

Hydraulic diameter: 2cm

Aspect ratio: 1

Operating pressure: 101325 N/m2

5.2.3.Data Reduction

The aim of this experiment is to investigate the flow analysis for two pass smooth square channels used in turn of 180degree bend. The procedure of normalizing the parameters is discussed in following section. The Reynolds number based

on the channel hydraulic diameter is given by

Re = v Dh /

Re= vDh/

Where,

density

vcharacteristic velocity (such as inflow)

L characteristic length (such as the length of an object in your flow)

viscosity

The average heat transfer coefficients are evaluated from the measured temperatures and heat inputs. With heat added

uniformly to fluid (Qair) and the temperature difference of wall and fluid (TwTb), average heat transfer coefficient will

be evaluated from the experimental data via the following equations:

Qconv = h A (Tw-Tb)

Thus

h=Qconv / A (Tw-Tb)

Average Nusselt number is written as:

Nu=hDh / K

In order to measure Nusselt number, the pressure difference between inlet and outlet must be obtained for smooth channel

is given by Nu number as normalized by the corresponding values for fully developed turbulent flow heat transfer based

on the inlet channel conditions. The fully developed channel Nu number was determined using the Dittus-Boelter

correlation.

Nu= 0.023 X Re 0.8 X Pr0.4

5.3.Geometry Setup and Boundary Conditions

The two pass smooth square channel experiments, as shown in Fig. were constructed with GAMBIT Design Modeler, a

pre-processor of the FLUENT code. For this project FLUENT6.3.26 code has been selected and the main parameters of

the materials are given in Table.1

Property

Aluminum(solid)

Air(fluid)

Density(kg/m3)

2719

1.225

Cp (Specific Heat)(j/kg-k)

871

1006.43

Thermal Conductivity(w/m-k)

202.399

0.0242

Viscosity(kg/m-s)

1.7894001e-05

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5.4. Results

Figure shows representative cross-sectional plots of Pressuredistribution for the simulation by using k-, k-

and Reynolds stress turbulence models and heat transfer rate for the measurement. Predicted results obtained by using the

two pass smooth square channel of different Reynolds numbers (10000,20000,40000&60000) of air are generally in good

agreement with the experimental data by using different Reynolds number. The following table shows the models and

settings are used in these simulations.

These flow is based on pressure and finite volume method is implicit , iterations taken 400 times, here below

diagram are shows of the following temperature distribution for Reynolds number s and for each compared with three

turbulence models.

For these reasons below figures are show inlet (before turn)of channel is greater flow rate than outlet(after turn) of

channel . Here below results for Reynolds numbers (10000-60000) is each one camper to three turbulence models (K-,k, RSM model)

Table 1. CFD conditions of setting

Model

Settings

Space

2D

Time

Wall Treatment

Stressturbulence model

Non-Equilibrium Wall Functions

Heat Transfer

Enabled

Viscous

K- model

K- model

RSM model

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E.Numerical values of Results

(Total Heat Transfer Rate in W)

For the below Table 2,3,4&5 are numerical values is used to make comparisons of the values . Based on these

values make the graphs, for observing this value before turn (input) and after turn(output) heat transfer rate in watts are to

be shown in tables. And these projects are to study the total /net heat transfer rate is also shown in the table.

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As below the graphs shows the comparisons turbulence models like k-, k- and RSM models values are

compared with the experimental values.

Table 2.K- model values

Reynolds

Number

Velocity

Heat transfer

rate in input

Heat transfer

rate in output

rate

10000

7.3

33299.93

33308.91

8.972656

20000

14.6

66599.91

66680.19

80.27344

40000

29.2

133200

132958.8

241.1875

60000

43.8

199800

199489.8

310.1406

Heat transfer

Heat transfer

rate in input

rate in output

Reynolds

Number

Velocity

10000

7.3

33300.81

33323.8

22.98438

20000

14.6

66600.73

66601.23

0.5

40000

29.2

133200.1

132886.2

313.9063

60000

43.8

199801.6

199513.7

287.9063

Heat transfer

Heat transfer

rate in input

rate in output

rate

Reynolds

Number

Velocity

rate

10000

7.3

33299.98

33290.23

9.742188

20000

14.6

66599.95

66559.12

40.83594

40000

29.2

133200

132953.6

246.4531

60000

43.8

199800

199474.6

325.4063

Reynolds

Number

k-

k-w

Rsm

experimental

10000

255.09

158.29

67.079

31.18

20000

552.82

3.44

275.48

243.01

40000

1659.77

2155.64

1697.55

1477.35

60000

2135.95

1982.79

2241.06

2174.39

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Fig. 10: Total heat transfer rate v/s Reynolds number graph for smooth channel

Fig.11: Total heat transfer rate v/s velocity graph for smooth channel

VI. CONCLUSIONS

In this study different Reynolds (10000, 20000, 40000& 60000) turbulence models values are compared with

experimental values successfully. In these observations K-,K- model values are not satisfied, but RSM model is very

convenient values very convenient compared to other two models.

When increasing the Reynolds number better heat transfer rates are obtained. So the velocity is increasing heat

transfer rate is increased, this is conclusions of this paper . CFD is very useful to analyzing the heat transfer rate better

than experimental analysis and more economical. And also very less time to study the problem

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In this investigation shows the flow separation inner wall of square channel at 1800 sharp turns. For these reasons above

figures are shows inlet (before turn) of channel is greater flow rate than outlet (after turn) of channel. Here below results

for Reynolds numbers (10000-60000) is each one camper to three turbulence models (K-,K-& RSM model)

REFERENCES

[1]An experimental and numerical convective heat transfer analysis over a transonic gas turbine rotor blade by Keith

Bacharach cassia

[2]Comparison of continuous and truncated ribs on internal blade tip cooling byProceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2012

[3] P. R. Chandra, C. R. Alexander and J. C. Han, Heat transfer and friction Behaviors in Rectangular Channels with

Varying Number of Ribbed Walls, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, Vol. 46, pp. 481-495. 2003.

[4] J. C. Han and J. S. Park Developing Heat Transfer in Rectangular Channels with Rib Tabulators, Int. J. Heat Mass

Transfer, Vol. 31, pp. 183-195, 1988.

[5] A. Kashmiri, M. A. Cotton and Y. Addad Numerical Simulations of Flow and heat transfer over Rib-Roughened

Surfaces, 17th Annual Conference of CFD Society of Canada, Ottawa, May 3-5, 2009.

[6] G.V.phadtare et al. / international journal of engineering science and technology (IJEST) experimental investigations

of heat transfer enhancement in tip of 180-degree bend of square duct with vortex generator

[7] International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 31 (2010) 1931Heat transfer and pressure drop in two-pass ribroughened square channels with bleed from sharp bend journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ i jhf f

[8] FLUENT_tutorial_2008aug14fin

[9] Taslim, M.E. and Liu, H., 2005, A Combined Numerical and Experimental Study of Heat Transfer in a Roughened

Square Channel with 45 Ribs, Int. J. Rotating Machinery, 1, 60-66.

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