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Name___________________________________ Date___________________Period______

The Cold War Review

Fill in the blanks of the following passage with the appropriate terms, figures and places form Unit 10.

The Cold War was a period of hostility and tension between _______________ and
_______________. After World War II, these two countries were the strongest military and
economic powers in the world and came to be known as the
________________________________. The two countries had been allies during World War II
as they had a common enemy to fight. After defeating ____________________________,
these countries began to disagree on the how post-World War II Europe should be handled.
Both countries __________________________ the defeated Germany, as well as its capital city
of _____________________. After a few years, the United States wanted to return the country
to German control but the USSR did not. In 1961, the Soviet Union built the
_____________________ which separated the capitol of Germany into two halves, one
democratic and one communist. The communists cut Berlin off from food and supplies, so the
US and England flew tons of supplies into East Berlin daily for nearly a year. This was known
as the _______________________.
The democratic countries of Europe feared the spread of Communism. The Soviet Union
had occupied several Eastern European countries after WWII and Soviet leader
______________________________ had promised to allow free elections in these countries as
they rebuilt their governments. Instead, he forced communism onto these countries, creating a
series of __________________ countries that formed a barrier between Western Europe and the
Soviet Union. This group of countries also became known as the ___________ bloc. British
Prime Minister Winston Churchill famously called this divide the
______________________________, as it divided Europe politically and economically, and
did not allow for citizens to cross between the two halves. In response to this, Western
democracies and the US formed ____________________ where the members promised to
defend each other in case of an attack. The Soviet satellites and USSR formed the
_________________________ for similar purposes.
During the Cold War, the US and USSR never fought directly. Instead they would
support other countries that had disputes between communist and democratic factions in
conflicts known as proxy wars. The first of these was the _____________ in which the US
supported the democratic South against the communist North. The was seemed to be going
well for the US and South Korea, but China, another communist country under their leader
__________________, attacked the US, Un and South Korean forces. The war became a
stalemate and an armistice formed a permanent barrier between North and South Korea at the

______ th parallel, also known as the ___________. North and South Korea are still bitter
enemies and on tense relations to this day.
Other proxy wars include the _______________ where the US fought against Ho Chi
Minh and his Vietcong. Vietnam had been a colony of France known as
________________________ before WWII, but became independent in the 1950s. The war
was extremely unpopular in the US and the country eventually retreated in 1973, allowing
Vietnam to become entirely ___________________. The conflict also caused destruction and
turmoil in neighboring _________________ where Pol Pot and the _____________________
created a totalitarian communist state. Pol Pots regime was responsible for cleansing its people
and murdering some 2 million of them in places known as the _________________. The US
stayed out of this conflict and attempted a policy of _________________ with the USSR, where
they would both ease tension and scale down their hostility.
Dtente ended when the Soviet Union invaded _______________________ in 1979. The
US supported the ____________, or holy warriors, citizens of ____________________ who
felt communism was against the teachings of the Koran. The USSR lost the War in Afghanistan
partially because of US support, but also because of the _____________ warfare of the
mujahedeen. Guerilla warfare had also been critical in the Vietnam War.
In 1985 ________________________ became the leader of the USSR and implemented
the policies of ________________ and _______________. These policies allowed for some
free-market reforms in the USSR and openness. These reforms lead to the USSR losing its
satellite nations of Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Romania in 1989, a period called the
______________ of ___________________. Polands _________________, led by Lech
Walesa, as well as the ________________________________ in China, inspired East Germans
to demand political reform and __________________ with West Germany. In 1989, the
_________________________ fell, signaling a symbolic end to the Cold War. In 1991, the
USSR, its economy in shambles, collapsed and the country became a democracy. The Cold War
was officially over. Many parts of the Soviet Union broke off to create entirely new countries in
Europe and Asia known as ____________________________. In 1991, Russia elected its first
president, ___________________, who helped transform the countrys command economy into
a _________________________.

True or False
Write T for each True statement. Write F for each False statement. If the statement is false write the
reason why.
_____After WWII the Superpowers were the USA and England.
_____The countries of Eastern Europe controlled by the USSR were known as the Eastern Bloc.
_____Joseph Stalin was the leader of the USSR when the Cold War started.
_____Leonid Brezhnev started Perestroika and Glasnost.
_____The Cold War included all of the following proxy wars: Korea, Vietnam, World War II.
_____Dtente was the easing of tensions between the USA and USSR.
Answer the following essential questions in COMPLETE SENTENCES
Why was the Cold War cold?
How did the Cuban Missile Crisis almost cause a war between the USSR and the USA?

What was the Marshall Plan?

What was the arms race?

What was Mutually Assured Destruction?

What was containment?

How did Perestroika and Glasnost lead to the collapse of the Soviet Union?

The Marshall Plan was designed to stop the

spread of communism by providing
(1) government housing to refugees
(2) military assistance to Vietnam
(3) funds for economic recovery in war-torn
European nations
(4) nuclear weapons to North Atlantic Treaty
Organization (NATO) members
What was one social change Mao Zedong
instituted in China after 1949?
(1) granting legal equality for men and women
(2) requiring arranged marriages
(3) adopting the practice of foot binding
(4) mandating Confucianism as the state
Which leaders policies included glasnost and
(1) Fidel Castro (3) Mikhail Gorbachev
(2) Nikita Khrushchev (4) Deng Xiaoping
What was a major reason for the formation of the
NATO in 1949?
(1) to control European trade
(2) to resist Soviet aggression
(3) to support the blockade of Berlin
(4) to strengthen communist governments
Korea Divided at 38th Parallel
Hungarian Revolution Crushed
Missile Sites Spotted in Cuba
The events in these headlines contributed to the
(1) development of peacetime alliances
(2) collapse of the Soviet Union
(3) rejection of imperialism by Western nations
(4) tensions between the superpowers
A similarity between the Polish group Solidarity in
1980 and the Chinese protesters in Tiananmen
Square in 1989 is that both groups
(1) supported movements for democracy
(2) succeeded in ending communism
(3) encouraged military occupation by the Soviet
(4) favored increases in military spending

. . . The Communist party of the Soviet Union has

been and remains a natural and inalienable part of
social forces. Their cooperation will make it possible
to attain the ultimate goal of Perestroika: to renew
our society within the framework of the socialist
choice, along the lines of advance to a humane
democratic socialism. . . .
Which leader would most likely have made this
(1) Kwame Nkrumah
(2) Mohandas Gandhi
(3) Benito Mussolini
(4) Mikhail Gorbachev
One way in which the Great Leap Forward and the
Four Modernizations are similar is that each was an
attempt to
(1) increase farm and factory output
(2) develop a democratic government
(3) strengthen economic ties with communist
(4) reduce the gap between rich and poor
One way in which the Korean War and the
Vietnam War are similar is that both
(1) resulted in unification of two formerly
independent nations
(2) reflected the success of the Western policy of
(3) attempted to remove French imperialists
from power
(4) developed from Cold War tensions