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Signals & Networks

Assignment 2 ( Convolution & Fourier Series) Dated: 10.08.15)

(Solve only * marked problems in the tutorial class. Homework: Rest of the
Q1.(a) *Three CTLTI systems with impulse response h1(t), h2(t) and h3(t) are connected as
shown in Fig.(a)



(i) Determine the impulse response heq(t) of the equivalent system as shown in fig.(b) in terms of
h1(t), h2(t) and h3(t).
(ii) Let h1(t) = e-t u(t), h2(t) = (t-2) and h3(t) = e-2t u(t). Determine and sketch heq(t) for the
equivalent system.
(iii) With h1(t), h2(t) and h3(t) as specified in part (ii). Let the input signal be a unit step, i.e.
x(t)=u(t). Determine and sketch the signals w(t), y1(t), y2(t), and y(t).
(b) An interconnected LTI system is shown below. The impulse response is h1(n)=(1/2)n u(n+2),
h2(n) = (n) and h3(n) = u(n-1). Let the overall impulse responses of the system relating y(n) to
x(n) be denoted as h(n)
h (n)


h (n)


h (n)


*Express h(n) in terms of h1(n), h2(n) and h3(n).


*Evaluate h(n) using the results of part(i).

(c) Consider the system shown below:



(i) Determine the impulse response heq(n) in terms of h1(n), h2(n) and h3(n).
(ii) Let h1(n) = e-0.1n u(n), h2(n) = (n-2) and h3(n) = e-0.2n u(n). Determine and sketch heq(n) for
the equivalent system.
(iii) With h1(n), h2(n) and h3(n) as specified in (ii), let the input signal x(n) = u(n). Determine and
sketch the signals w(n), y1(n), y2(n) and y(n).
Q.2(a) *Find the convolution y(t)= x(t)* h(t) for the following pair of signals x(t) and h(t), where
h(t) is the impulse response of the system. First graphically, and then analytically using
convolution integral.
*(i) x(t) =

h(t) =

(ii) x(t)= (t-1)[u(t-1) u(t-3)] ; h(t)= u(t+1) 2u (t- 2)

(b) Let y(n) be the convolution of two discrete-time signals x(n) and h(n), that is y(n)= x(n)* h(n).
Show that time shifting either x(n) or h(n) by m samples causes the y(n) to be time shifted by
m samples also. Mathematically, prove that
x(n-m)* h(n)= y(n-m)
& x(n)* h(n-m)= y(n-m)
(c) Evaluate the following discrete -time convolution sums:
(i) y(n)= x(n)* h(n), where x(n)= u(n) - u(n-7) and h(n)=(0.9)n u(n)
(ii)* y(n)= u(n-2)* h(n), where h(n)={

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(d) Determine the impulse response of each system described below. Afterwards determine
whether the system is stable or not.
(i) *y(n)= sys{x(n)}=
(ii) y(n)= sys{x(n)}=
(iii) Given h(n)= cos( n).u(n+3)
(e) *Determine if systems with the following impulse responses:
(i) h(t)= (1-e-4t) u(t)

(ii) h(t)= 2 e-4t u(t)

(iii) h(t)= e -2|t|

(iv) h(t)=2n u(-n)

are stable.

(f) *Obtain the impulse response of the system (with





e-(R/L)t u(t)

(g) The impulse response of a series R-L circuit is given by h(t)= (t) (i) Find the step response

(ii) Find the ramp response.

(h) (i) Show that (0.8)n u(n) * u(n) = 5 (1- (0.8)n+1) u(n)
(ii) The impulse response of the RC circuit is given by h(t) =

e-(1/RC)t u(t). Find the step

response of the circuit.

Q.3(a) *Consider the pulse train in the figure below:

(i) Determine the fundamental period T0 and fundamental frequency f0 or 0 for the signal x(t).
(ii) Approximate the given signal x(t) in the form (t) = a0 + a1 cos(0t) + b1 sin(0t)
by minimizing the cost function J=
where e(t)=

. Obtain the optimum co-efficients a0, a1 and b1.

(b) Determine Trigonometric Fourier Series (TFS) coefficients for the periodic signal shown

(c) *Determine Trigonometric Fourier Series (TFS) coefficients for the periodic signal shown
below. Obtain one period of the signal x(t)= e-2t for 0 < t < 1sec.

(d) *Consider the periodic saw tooth signal x(t) shown below.


(i) Determine Exponential Fourier Series (EFS) co-efficients of this signal.

(ii) Sketch the line spectrum in terms of magnitude and phase.
(iii) Determine TFS co-efficients of x(t) from EFS co-efficients ck using conversion formulas.

(e) *A simple scheme for converting dc input signal to ac output signal is shown below.

Fig: Switching power supply for DC to AC conversion.

The output signal y(t) for two different cases are shown below, amplitude of the signal is

Fig(a): On-off switch

Fig(b): Switch reverses polarity (inverting switch)

Compute the conversion efficiency for each case. [Conversion efficiency as the ratio of power
signal at 60Hz component of y(t) to the available dc power signal at the input].
(f) A certain periodic current is given by
i(t)= 4+3.1 cos 2t 1.1cos4t -0.3cos6t 2.7sin2t 1.4sin4t + 0.4sin6t
Express i(t) as cosine Fourier series. Let i(t) is applied as an input to a parallel RC circuit with
R=1/2 and C= 0.02F. Calculate the steady state voltage across the parallel RC circuit in terms
of cosine Fourier series.
(g) *The signal x(t) shown in Q3(d) and the signal g(t) shown below

add up to a constant x(t) + g(t) = a

Explain how this property can be used for finding EFS co-efficients of x(t) from the EFS coefficients of g(t). (Hint: a> 0, obtain EFS co-efficient of g(t)).

Q.4(a) Determine the DTFS representation of the signal x(n) = 1+ cos(0.24n) + 3 sin(0.56n).
Sktech the DTFS spectrum.
(b)* Determine the DTFS co-efficients for each of the periodic signals given in next page.


Fig: b1

*Fig: b2 (take
(c)*Verify that the DTFS co-efficients found for the signals in 4(b) satisfy the conjugate
symmetry properties. Since the signals are real, DTFS spectra should be conjugate symmetric.