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ACI 423.

5R-99

State-of-the-Art Report on
Partially Prestressed Concrete
Reported by Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 423
Ward N. Marianos, Jr.*
Chairman
Sarah L. Billington
Kenneth B. Bondy

Henry Cronin, Jr.


Secretary

Ned H. Burns*

William L. Gamble
Hans R. Ganz
J. Weston Hall
Mohammad Iqbal
Francis J. Jacques

Gregory P. Chacos*
Jack Christiansen
Todd Christopherson

Daniel P. Jenny
Paul Johal
Susan N. Lane

Robert N. Bruce, Jr.*


Dale Buckner

Steven R. Close

Les Martin

Thomas E. Cousins
*

Charles W. Dolan
Apostolos Fafitis

Mark W. Fantozzi
Martin J. Fradua
Catherine W. French*
Clifford Freyermuth

Alan H. Mattock*
Gerard J. McGuire
Mark

Moore*

Antoine E. Naaman*
Kenneth Napior
Thomas E. Nehil
Mrutyunjaya Pani

H. Kent Preston
Denis C. Pu
Julio A. Ramirez*
Ken B. Rear
Dave Rogowsky
Bruce W. Russell
David H. Sanders
Thomas Schaeffer*
Morris Schupack
Kenneth W. Shushkewich
Khaled S. Soubra
Richard W. Stone
Patrick Sullivan
Luc R. Taerwe
H. Carl Walker
Jim J. Zhao
Paul Zia*

*Subcommittee

preparing report (Michael Barker contributed to writing Chapters 4 and 5 of this report).

Partially prestressed concrete construction uses prestressed, or a combination of prestressed and nonprestressed, reinforcement. Partially prestressed
concrete falls between the limiting cases of conventionally reinforced concrete and fully prestressed concrete, which allows no flexural tension under
service loads. When flexural tensile stresses and cracking are allowed
under service loads, the prestressed members have historically been called

ACI Committee Reports, Guides, Standard Practices, and


Commentaries are intended for guidance in planning,
designing, executing, and inspecting construction. This
document is intended for the use of individuals who
are competent to evaluate the significance and
limitations of its content and recommendations and
who will accept responsibility for the application of the
material it contains. The American Concrete Institute
disclaims any and all responsibility for the stated
principles. The Institute shall not be liable for any loss or
damage arising therefrom.
Reference to this document shall not be made in
contract documents. If items found in this document are
desired by the Architect/Engineer to be a part of the
contract documents, they shall be restated in mandatory
language for incorporation by the Architect/Engineer.

partially prestressed. This report is presented as an overview of the current


state of the art for partial prestressing of concrete structures. Research
findings and design applications are presented. Specific topics discussed
include the history of partial prestressing, behavior of partially prestressed
concrete members under static loads, time-dependent effects, fatigue, and
the effects of cyclic loadings.
Keywords: bridges; buildings; concrete construction; corrosion; cracking;
crack widths; cyclic loading; deflections; earthquake-resistant structures;
fatigue; partially prestressed concrete; post-tensioning; prestressing; prestress losses; shear; stresses; structural analysis; structural design; timedependent effects; torsion.

CONTENTS
Chapter 1Introduction, p. 423.5R-2
1.1Historical perspective
1.2Definition
1.3Design philosophy of partial prestressing
ACI 423.5R-99 became effective December 3, 1999.
Copyright 2000, American Concrete Institute.
All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any
means, including the making of copies by any photo process, or by electronic or
mechanical device, printed, written, or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduction or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system or device, unless permission in
writing is obtained from the copyright proprietors.

423.5R-1

423.5R-2

ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

1.4Advantages and disadvantages of partial


prestressing
1.5Partial prestressing and reinforcement indexes
1.6Report objective
Chapter 2Partially prestressed members under
static loading, p. 423.5R-5
2.1Behavior
2.2Methods of analysis
2.3Cracking
2.4Deflections
2.5Shear and torsion
Chapter 3Time-dependent behavior, p. 423.5R-12
3.1Prestress losses
3.2Cracking
3.3Deflections
3.4Corrosion
Chapter 4Effects of repeated loading (fatigue),
p. 423.5R-15
4.1Background
4.2Material fatigue strength
4.3Fatigue in partially prestressed beams
4.4Prediction of fatigue strength
4.5Serviceability aspects
4.6Summary of serviceability
Chapter 5Effects of load reversals, p. 423.5R-20
5.1Introduction
5.2Design philosophy for seismic loadings
5.3Ductility
5.4Energy dissipation
5.5Dynamic analyses
5.6Connections
5.7Summary
Chapter 6Applications, p. 423.5R-28
6.1Early applications
6.2Pretensioned concrete components
6.3Post-tensioned building construction
6.4Bridges
6.5Other applications
Chapter 7References, p. 423.5R-30
7.1Referenced standards and reports
7.2Cited references
AppendixNotations, p. 423.5R-36
CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION
1.1Historical perspective
Application of prestressing to concrete members imparts a
compressive force of an appropriate magnitude at a suitable
location to counteract the service-load effects and modifies
the structural behavior of the members. Although the concept of prestressed concrete was introduced almost concurrently in the U.S. and in Germany before the turn of the 20th
century (Lin and Burns 1981), its principle was not fully
established until Freyssinet published his classical study

(Freyssinet 1933). Freyssinet recognized that as the load on


a prestressed member is increased, flexural cracks would
appear in the tensile zones at a certain load level, which he
referred to as the transformation load. Even though the
cracks would close as the load was reduced and the structure
would recover its original appearance, Freyssinet advocated
avoiding cracks under service load so that the concrete
would behave as a homogeneous material.
A different design approach, however, was proposed by
von Emperger (1939) and Abeles (1940). They suggested
using a small amount of tensioned high-strength steel to
control deflection and crack width while permitting higher
working stresses in the main reinforcement of reinforced
concrete. Most of the early work in support of this design
concept was done by Abeles (1945) in England. Based on his
studies, Abeles determined that eliminating the tensile stress
and possible cracking in the concrete is unnecessary in many
designs. Abeles also realized that prestress can be applied to
counteract only part of the service load so that tensile stress,
or even hairline cracks, occur in the concrete under full
service load. Abeles did specify that under dead load only,
no flexural tension stress should be allowed at any member
face where large flexural tensile stresses occurred under
maximum load, so as to ensure closure of any cracks that
may have occurred at maximum load. Additional bonded
and well-distributed nonprestressed reinforcement could be
used to help control cracking and provide the required
strength. Abeles termed this design approach as partially
prestressed concrete. Therefore, the design approach advocated by Freyssinet was then termed as fully prestressed
concrete. In actual practice, nearly all prestressed concrete
components designed today would be partially prestressed
as viewed by Freyssinet and Abeles.
Interest in partial prestressing continued in Great Britain in
the 1950s and early 1960s. Many structures were designed
by Abeles based on the principle of partial prestressing, and
examinations of most of these structures around 1970
revealed no evidence of distress or structural deterioration,
as discussed in the technical report on Partial Prestressing
published by the Concrete Society (1983). Partially
prestressed concrete design was recognized in the First
Report on Prestressed Concrete published by the Institution
of Structural Engineers (1951). Provisions for partial
prestressing were also included in the British Standard Code
of Practice for Prestressed Concrete (CP 115) in 1959. In that
code, a permissible tensile stress in concrete as high as 750
psi (5.2 MPa) was accepted when the maximum working
load was exceptionally high in comparison with the load
normally carried by the structure. Presently, the British Code
(BS 8110) as well as the Model Code for Concrete Structures
(1978), published by CEB-FIP, defines three classes of
prestressed concrete structures:
Class 1Structures in which no tensile stress is permitted
in the concrete under full service load;
Class 2Structures in which a limited tensile stress is permitted in the concrete under full service load, but there is no
visible cracking; and

PARTIALLY PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Class 3Structures in which cracks of limited width


(0.2 mm [0.008 in.]) are permitted under full service load.
Calculations for Class 3 structures would be based on the
hypothetical tensile stress in the concrete assuming an
uncracked section. The allowable values of the hypothetical
tensile stress vary with the amount, type, and distribution of
the prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement.
Elsewhere in Europe, interest in partial prestressing also
developed in the 1950s and 1960s. In the mid-1950s, many
prestressed concrete structures in Denmark, especially
bridges, were designed using the partial prestressing concept.
Their performance was reported as satisfactory after 25 years
of service (Rostam and Pedersen 1980). In 1958, the first
partially prestressed concrete bridge in Switzerland
(Weinland Bridge) was completed near Zurich. Provisions
for partial prestressing were introduced in SIA Standard 162,
issued by the Swiss Society of Engineers and Architects
(1968), and since 1960, more than 3000 bridges have been
designed according to this concept with highly satisfactory
results (Birkenmaier 1984). Unlike the British Code and
CEP-FIP Model Code, the limit of partial prestressing in the
Swiss Code was not defined by the hypothetical tensile
stress. Instead, it was defined by the tensile stress in the
prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement, and
calculated using the cracked section. Under full service
load, the allowable stress in the nonprestressed
reinforcement was 22,000 psi (150 MPa), and in railroad
bridges, the stress increase in the prestressed reinforcement
was not to exceed 1/20 of the tensile strength. This value was
taken as 1/10 of the tensile strength in other structures. It was
required, however, that the concrete be in compression when
the structure supported only permanent load.
In the U.S., the design of prestressed concrete in the early
1950s was largely based on the Criteria for Prestressed Concrete Bridges (1954) published by the Bureau of Public
Roads, which did not permit tensile stress and cracking in
concrete under service loads. The ACI-ASCE Joint Committee 323 report (1958), however, recognized that complete
freedom from cracking may or may not be necessary at any
particular load stage. For bridge members, tensile stress
was not allowed in concrete subjected to full service load.
For building members not exposed to weather or corrosive
atmosphere, a flexural tension stress limit of 6f c psi* was
specified with the provision that the limit may be exceeded
if it is shown by tests that the structure will behave properly
under service load conditions and meet any necessary
requirements for cracking load or temporary overload.
Thus, partial prestressing was permitted in that first definitive design guide for prestressed concrete, and designers
were quick to embrace the idea. When the balanced load
design concept was published by Lin (1963), it provided a
convenient design tool and encouraged the practical application of partial prestressing.
In 1971, the first edition of the PCI Design Handbook was
published. Design procedures allowing tension stresses are
* In this report, when formulas or stress values are taken directly from U.S. codes
and recommendations, they are left in U.S. customary units.

423.5R-3

illustrated in that guide. The second edition (1978) mentioned


the term partial prestressing, and by the third edition (1985),
design examples of members with combined prestressed and
nonprestressed reinforcement were included. Presently, ACI
318 permits a tensile stress limit of 12f c psi with
requirements for minimum cover and a deflection check.
Section 18.4.3 of ACI 318 permits the limit to be exceeded on
the basis of analysis or test results. Bridge design guidelines or
recommendations, however, did not follow the development
until the publication of the Final Draft LRFD Specifications
for Highway Bridges Design and Commentary (1993), even
though most bridge engineers had been allowing tension in
their designs for many years.
The concept of partial prestressing was developed half a
century ago. Over the years, partial prestressing has been
accepted by engineers to the extent that it is now the normal
way to design prestressed concrete structures. Bennetts
work (1984) provides a valuable historical summary of the
development of partially prestressed concrete.
1.2Definition
Despite a long history of recognition of the concept of
partial prestressing, both in the U.S. and abroad, there has
been a lack of a uniform and explicit definition of the term,
partial prestressing. For example, Lin and Burns (1981)
state: When a member is designed so that under the working
load there are no tensile stresses in it, then the concrete is
said to be fully prestressed. If some tensile stresses will be
produced in the member under working load, then it is
termed partially prestressed. On the other hand, Naaman
(1982a) states: Partial prestressing generally implies a combination of prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement,
both contributing to the resistance of the member. The aim is
to allow tension and cracking under full service loads while
ensuring adequate strength. According to Nilson (1987),
Early designers of prestressed concrete focused on the complete elimination of tensile stresses in members at normal
service load. This is defined as full prestressing. As experience has been gained with prestressed concrete construction,
it has become evident that a solution intermediate between
full prestressed concrete and ordinary reinforced concrete
offers many advantages. Such an intermediate solution, in
which a controlled amount of concrete tension is permitted
at full service, is termed partial prestressing.
A unified definition of the term partial prestressing
should be based on the behavior of the prestressed member
under a prescribed loading. Therefore, this report defines
partial prestressing as: An approach in design and construction in which prestressed reinforcement or a combination of
prestressed and non-prestressed reinforcement is used such
that tension and cracking in concrete due to flexure are
allowed under service dead and live loads, while serviceability and strength requirements are satisfied.
For the purposes of this report, fully prestressed concrete
is defined as concrete with prestressed reinforcement and no
flexural tension allowed in the concrete under service loads.
Conventionally reinforced concrete is defined as concrete
with no prestressed reinforcement and generally, there is

423.5R-4

ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

flexural tension in concrete under service loads. Partially


prestressed concrete falls between these two limiting cases.
Serviceability requirements include criteria for crack widths,
deformation, long-term effects (such as creep and shrinkage), and fatigue.
By the previous definition, virtually all prestressed concrete that uses unbonded tendons is partially prestressed,
as codes require that a certain amount of bonded reinforcement be provided to meet strength requirements. Most pretensioned members used in routine applications such as
building decks and frames, and bridges spanning to approximately 100 ft (30 m) will allow flexural tension under full
service load. The addition of nonprestressed reinforcement is
used only in special situations, such as unusually long spans
or high service loads, or where camber and deflection control
is particularly important.
1.3Design philosophy of partial prestressing
The basic design philosophy for partial prestressing is not
different from that of conventionally reinforced concrete or
fully prestressed concrete. The primary objective is to provide adequate strength and ductility under factored load and
to achieve satisfactory serviceability under full service load.
By permitting flexural tension and cracking in concrete,
the designer has more latitude in deciding the amount of prestressing required to achieve the most desirable structural
performance under a particular loading condition. Therefore,
partial prestressing can be viewed as a means of providing
adequate control of deformation and cracking of a prestressed member. If the amount of prestressed reinforcement
used to provide such control is insufficient to develop the
required strength, then additional nonprestressed reinforcement is used.
In the production of precast, pretensioned concrete members, serviceability can be improved by placing additional
strands, as this is more economical than placing reinforcing
bars. When this technique is used, the level of initial prestress in some or all of the strands is lowered. This is also a
useful technique to keep transfer stresses below the maximum values prescribed by codes. At least for purposes of
shear design, the ACI Building Code treats any member with
effective prestress force not less than 40% of the tensile
strength of the flexural reinforcement as prestressed concrete.
1.4Advantages and disadvantages of partial
prestressing
In the design of most building elements, the specified live
load often exceeds the normally applied load. This is to
account for exceptional loading such as those due to impact,
extreme temperature and volume changes, or a peak live
load substantially higher than the normal live loads. By
using partial prestressing, and by allowing higher flexural
tension for loading conditions rarely imposed, a more economical design is achieved with smaller sections and less
reinforcement.
Where uniformity of camber among different members of
a structure is important, partial prestressing will enable the
designer to exercise more control of camber differentials. In

multispan bridges, camber control is important in improving


riding comfort as a vehicle passes from one span to the next.
The relatively large mild steel bars used in partially prestressed members result in a transformed section that can be
significantly stiffer than a comparable section that relies
solely on prestressing strand, thus reducing both camber and
deflection.
Nonprestressed reinforcement used in partially prestressed
members will enhance the strength and also control crack
formation and crack width. Under ultimate load, a partially
prestressed member usually demonstrates greater ductility
than a fully prestressed member. Therefore, it will be able to
absorb more energy under extreme dynamic loading such as
an earthquake or explosion.
Because mild steel does not lose strength as rapidly as prestressing strands at elevated temperature, it is sometimes
added to prestressed members to improve their fire-resistance rating. See Chapter 9 of the PCI Design Handbook
(1992) and Design for Fire Resistance of Precast Prestressed Concrete (1989) for more information.
Partial prestressing is not without some disadvantages.
Under repeated loading, the fatigue life of a partially prestressed member can be a concern. In addition, durability is
a potential problem for partially prestressed members
because they can be cracked under full service load. Recent
studies (Harajli and Naaman 1985a; Naaman 1989; and Naaman and Founas 1991), however, have shown that fatigue
strength depends on the range of stress variation of the strand
(refer to Chapter 4) and that durability is related more to cover and spacing of reinforcement than to crack width, so these
concerns can be addressed with proper design and detailing
of the reinforcement (Beeby 1978 and 1979).
1.5Partial prestressing and reinforcement
indexes
Several indexes have been proposed to describe the extent
of prestressing in a structural member. These indexes are
useful in comparing relative performances of members made
with the same materials, but caution should be exercised in
using them to determine absolute values of such things as
deformation and crack width. Two of the most common indices are the degree of prestress , and the partial prestressing
ratio (PPR). These indexes are defined as
M dec
= --------------------MD + ML

(1-1)

where
Mdec = decompression moment (the moment that produces
zero concrete stress at the extreme fiber of a section,
nearest to the centroid of the prestressing force,
when added to the action of the effective prestress
alone);
MD = dead-load moment; and
ML = live-load moment
and

PARTIALLY PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

M np
PPR = -------Mn

(1-2)

where
Mnp =

nominal moment capacity provided by prestressed


reinforcement; and
Mn = total nominal moment capacity.
In the previous expressions, all moments are computed at
critical sections. This report will generally use the PPR to
describe the extent of prestressing in flexural members. The
tests, studies, and examples described in this report usually
concern members with PPR < 1, and the members are pretensioned unless otherwise noted.
Characterizing the total amount of flexural reinforcement
in a member is also important. This will be done with the
reinforcement index
f ps
f
f
----y = ----y- + p ----f c
f c
f c

(1-3)

where
A
= -----sbd
A
= ------sbd
A ps
p = ------bd p
and
Aps =
As

As

b
d

=
=

dp

f c

fps

fy

area of prestressed reinforcement in tension zone,


in.2 (mm2);
area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement, in.2
(mm2);
area of nonprestressed compression reinforcement, in.2 (mm2);
width of compression face of member, in. (mm);
distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of nonprestressed tension reinforcement, in.
(mm);
distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of prestressed reinforcement, in. (mm);
specified compressive strength of concrete, psi
(MPa);
stress in prestressed reinforcement at nominal
strength, psi (MPa); and
yield strength of nonprestressed reinforcement, psi
(MPa).

1.6Report objective
The objective of this report is to summarize the state of the
art of the current knowledge as well as recent developments
in partial prestressing so that engineers who are not experienced in prestressed concrete design will have a better
understanding of the concept.

423.5R-5

CHAPTER 2PARTIALLY PRESTRESSED


MEMBERS UNDER STATIC LOADING
2.1Behavior
There are a number of investigations on the behavior of
partially prestressed concrete beams under static loading
(Abeles 1968; Burns 1964; Cohn and Bartlett 1982; Harajli
1985; Harajli and Naaman 1985a; Shaikh and Branson 1970;
Thompson and Park 1980a; and Watcharaumnuay 1984). The
following results were observed for beams having the same
ultimate resistance in flexure but reinforced with various
combinations of prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement:
Partially prestressed beams show larger ultimate deflections, higher ductility, and higher energy absorption than
fully prestressed beams;
Partially prestressed beams tend to crack at lower load
levels than fully prestressed beams. Average crack spacing and crack widths are smaller. The stiffness of partially prestressed beams after cracking is larger;
For a given reinforcement index , the moment-curvature relationship is almost independent of the ratio of the
tensile reinforcement areas (prestressed versus nonprestressed);
Changing the effective prestress in the prestressing tendons does not lead to any significant change in the ultimate resistance and curvature of flexural members; and
A decrease in effective prestress leads to an increase in
yield curvature and a decrease in curvature ductility.
2.2Methods of analysis
Several methods can be followed to analyze partially
prestressed concrete members subjected to bending. In terms
of assumptions, purpose, and underlying principles, they are
identical to those used for reinforced and prestressed
concrete (Nilson 1976, Naaman and Siriaksorn 1979,
Siriaksorn and Naaman 1979, Al-Zaid and Naaman 1986,
and Tadros 1982).
2.2.1 Linear elastic analysisIn the elastic range of
behavior, the analysis must accommodate either a cracked or
an uncracked section subjected to bending, with or without
prestress in the steel. The usual assumptions of plane strain
distribution across the section, linear stress-strain relations,
and perfect bond between steel and concrete remain applicable. Linear elastic analysis under service loads assuming an
uncracked section is used for prestressed concrete. In the
U.S., the design of reinforced concrete is predominantly
based on strength requirement, but a linear elastic analysis
under service loads is also necessary to check serviceability
limitations such as crack widths, deflections, and fatigue.
Prestressed concrete beams can act as cracked or
uncracked sections, depending on the level of loading. In
contrast to reinforced concrete, the centroidal axis of the
cracked section does not coincide with the neutral axis point
of zero stress (Fig. 2.1). Moreover, the point of zero stress does
not remain fixed, but moves with a change in applied load.
When the effective prestress tends toward zero, the point of
zero stress and the centroidal axis tend to coincide. Generalized
equations have been developed to determine the zero stress
point based on satisfying equilibrium, strain compatibility, and
stress-strain relations (Nilson 1976; Naaman and Siriaksorn
1979; Siriaksorn and Naaman 1979; and Al-Zaid and Naaman

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ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

Fig. 2.1Assumed stress or strain distribution in linear


elastic analysis of cracked and uncracked sections (Naaman
1985).

Fig. 2.2Assumed strain distribution and forces in: (a)


nonlinear analysis; (b) approximate nonlinear analysis;
and (c) ultimate strength analysis by ACI Code (Naaman
1985).
1986). They usually are third-order equations with respect to
member depth. Although they can be solved iteratively, charts,
tables, and computer programs have been developed for their
solution (Tadros 1982, Moustafa 1977). These equations

provide unified treatment for cracked reinforced, prestressed,


and partially prestressed sections.
2.2.2 Strength analysisAt ultimate or nominal moment
resistance, the assumptions related to the stress and strain
distributions in the concrete, such as the compression block
in ACI 318, or the stress and strain in the steel (such as yielding of the reinforcing steel) are identical for reinforced, prestressed, and partially prestressed concrete (Fig. 2.2). The
corresponding analysis is the same and leads to the nominal
moment resistance of the section. Numerous investigations
have shown close correlation between the predicted (based
on ACI 318) and experimental values of nominal moments.
The ACI 318 analysis, however, resulted in conservative
predictions of section curvatures at ultimate load, leading to
erroneous estimates of deformations and deflections (Wang
et al. 1978, Naaman et al. 1986). To improve the prediction
of nominal moment and curvature, either a nonlinear or a
simplified nonlinear analysis may be followed.
Simplified nonlinear analysisIn the simplified nonlinear
analysis procedure (also called pseudo-nonlinear analysis),
the actual stress-strain curve of the steel reinforcement is
considered while the concrete is represented by the ACI 318
compression block. A solution can be obtained by solving
two nonlinear equations with two unknowns, namely the
stress and the strain in the prestressing steel at nominal
moment resistance (Naaman 1977, Naaman 1983b).
Nonlinear analysisThe best accuracy in determining
nominal moments and corresponding curvatures is achieved
through a nonlinear analysis procedure (Cohn and Bartlett
1982, Naaman et al. 1986, Harajli and Naaman 1985b,
Moustafa 1986). Nonlinear analysis requires as input an
accurate analytical representation of the actual stress-strain
curves of the component materials (concrete, reinforcing
steel, and prestressing steel). Typical examples can be found
in two references (Naaman et al. 1986, Moustafa 1986).
2.3Cracking
Partially prestressed concrete permits cracking under service loads as a design assumption. To satisfy serviceability
requirements, the maximum crack width should be equal to, or
smaller than, the code-recommended limits on crack width.
The maximum allowable crack widths recommended by
ACI Committee 224 (1980) for reinforced concrete members
can be used, preferably with a reduction factor for prestressed and partially prestressed concrete members. To
select the reduction factor, consideration should be given to
the small diameter of the reinforcing elements (bars or
strands), the cover, and the exposure conditions.
Only a few formulas are used in the U.S. practice to predict
crack widths in concrete flexural members. Because the factors influencing crack widths are the same for reinforced and
partially prestressed concrete members, existing formulas
for reinforced concrete can be adapted to partially prestressed concrete. Five formulas (ACI 224 1980; Gergely
and Lutz 1968; Nawy and Potyondy 1971; Nawy and Huang
1977; Nawy and Chiang 1980; Martino and Nilson 1979; and
Meier and Gergely 1981) applicable to partially prestressed
beams are summarized in Table 2.1 (Naaman 1985). The vari-

PARTIALLY PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

423.5R-7

Table 2.1Crack width prediction equations applicable to partially prestressed beams (Naaman 1985)
Source

Gergely and Lutz (1968)


ACI Code (1971, 1977, and 1983)
ACI Committee 224 (1980)

Nawy and Potyondy (1971)

Equation* with U.S. system, (in., ksi)

Equation* with SI system, (mm., N/mm2)

5
W max = 7.6 10 f s 3 d c A b

Multiply expression by 0.1451

fs = tensile stress in reinforcing steel


dc = concrete cover to center of closest bar
layer
Ab = concrete tensile area per bar
= ratio of distances from tension face and
steel centroid to neutral axis

Note: ACI Committee 224 recommends


multiplication factor of 1.5 when strands,
rather than deformed bars, are used nearest
to beam tensile face.

W max = 1.44 10

= 5.31 10 ( f s 57.2 )

W max = 10

Nawy and Huang (1977)


Nawy and Chiang (1980)

( f s 8.3 )

A
-------t- f ps
O

At = area of concrete tensile zone


O = sum of perimeters of bonded
reinforcing elements
fps = net stress change in prestressing steel
after decompression

Multiply expression by 0.1451

5.85 if pretensioning
=
6.51 if post-tensioning
W max = 14 10 dc f s + 0.0031

= 2 10 dc f s + 0.08

Martino and Nilson (1979)

dc= concrete clear cover

Meier and Gergely (1981)

W max = C 1 ct d c

W max = C 2 ct d c 3 A b
C1, C2 = bond coefficients
For reinforcing bars: C1 = 12; C2 = 8.4
For strands:
C1 = 16; C2 = 12
ct = nominal concrete tensile strain at
tensile face

(1)

(1) Same equation

(2)

(2) Multiply by 220

In the formulas shown, fs can be replaced by fps when applied to partially prestressed concrete.

able tensile stress in the reinforcing steel fs should be replaced


by the stress change in the prestressing steel after decompression fps. The ACI 318 formula initially developed by
Gergely and Lutz (1968) for reinforced concrete could be
used as a first approximation for partially prestressed concrete. Meier and Gergely (1981), however, suggested a modified form (shown in Table 2.1) for the case of prestressed
concrete. This alternate formula uses the nominal strain at
the tensile face of the concrete (instead of the stress in the
steel), and the cover to the center of the steel dc. Both the
stress in the steel and the clear concrete cover are found to be
the controlling variables in the regression equation derived
by Martino and Nilson (1979). The two prediction equations
proposed by Nawy and Huang (1977) and Nawy and Chiang
(1980) contain most of the important parameters found in the
cracking behavior of concrete members except the concrete
cover, which is accounted for indirectly. Moreover, they are
based on actual experimental results on prestressed and partially prestressed beams.
As pointed out by Siriaksorn and Naaman (1979), large
differences can be observed in predicted crack widths
depending on the prediction formula used. Harajli and Naaman (1989) compared predicted crack widths with observed
crack widths from tests on twelve partially prestressed concrete beams. They considered the three prediction equations
recommended by Gergely and Lutz (1968), Nawy and Hua-

ng (1977), and Meier and Gergely (1981). Although none of


the three equations gave sufficiently good correlation with
experimental data for all conditions, the following observations were made (Fig. 2.3):
The Gergely and Lutz equation gave a lower prediction
in all cases (Fig. 2.3(a));
The Meier and Gergely equation gave the worst correlation (Fig. 2.3(c)); and
The Nawy and Huang equation gave a higher prediction
in most cases (Fig. 2.3(b)).
Although more experimental data are needed to improve
the accuracy of crack-width prediction equations available in
U.S. practice, there is sufficient information to judge if the
serviceability, with respect to cracking or crack width under
short-term loading, is satisfactory for a partially prestressed
member. The effects of long-term loading and repetitive
loading (fatigue) on the crack widths of partially prestressed
members need to be further clarified. A research investigation provided an analytical basis to deal with the problem
(Harajli and Naaman 1989); however, the proposed methodology is not amenable to a simple prediction equation that
can be easily implemented for design.
2.4Deflections
Fully prestressed concrete members are assumed to be
uncracked and linearly elastic under service loads. Instantaneous
short-term deflections are determined using general

423.5R-8

ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

The widely accepted concept of the effective moment of


inertia Ieff , initially introduced by Branson (1977) for reinforced concrete, has been examined by several researchers
and modified accordingly to compute the deflection in
cracked prestressed and partially prestressed members. The
modified effective moment of inertia is defined (Naaman
1982a) as
I eff = I cr + ( ( M cr M dec ) ( M a M dec ) )

(2-1)

( I g I cr ) I g
where
= gross moment of inertia, in.4 (mm4);
Ig
Icr
= moment of inertia of cracked section, in.4 (mm4);
Mcr = cracking moment, in.-k (mm-N);
Mdec = decompression moment, in.-k (m-N); and
Ma = applied moment, in.-k (m-N).
Although there is general agreement for the use of the previous expression, substantial divergence of opinion exists as
to the computation of Icr and Mdec. The computation difference is whether the moment of inertia of the cracked section
should be computed with respect to the neutral axis of bending or with respect to the zero-stress point, and whether the
decompression moment should lead to decompression at the
extreme concrete fiber or whether it should lead to a state of
zero curvature in the section. The discussion of Tadros
paper (1982) by several experts in the field is quite informative on these issues. A systematic comparison between the
various approaches, combined with results from experimental tests, is given in work by Watcharaumnuay (1984), who
observed that the use of Icr with respect to the neutral axis of
bending is preferable, while the use of Mdec as that causing
decompression at the extreme concrete fiber, is easier and
leads to results similar to those obtained using the zero curvature moment.

Fig. 2.3Comparison of observed and theoretically predicted


crack widths (Naaman 1985).
principles of mechanics. To compute short-term deflections,
customary U.S. practice is to use the gross moment of inertia
Ig for pretensioned members, or the net moment of inertia In
for members with unbonded tendons, and the modulus of
elasticity of concrete at time of loading or transfer Eci.
Several approaches proposed by various researchers to
compute short-term and long-term deflections in prestressed
or partially prestressed uncracked members are summarized
in Table 2.2 (Branson and Kripanarayanan 1971; Branson
1974; Branson 1977; Naaman 1982a; Naaman 1983a;
Branson and Trost 1982a; Branson and Trost 1982b; Martin
1977; Tadros et al. 1975; Tadros et al. 1977; Dilger 1982;
and Moustafa 1986). Although no systematic evaluation or
comparison of these different approaches has been
undertaken, for common cases they lead to results of the
same order.

2.5Shear and torsion


2.5.1 GeneralNonprestressed and fully prestressed
concrete (tensile stress in the concrete under full service load
is zero) are the two limiting cases of steel-reinforced concrete systems. Partially prestressed concrete represents a
continuous transition between the two limit cases. A unified
approach in design to combined actions including partial prestressing would offer designers a sound basis to make the
appropriate choice between the two limits (Thurlimann 1971).
The equivalent load concept provides a simple and
efficient design of prestressed concrete structures under
combined actions (Nilson 1987). For example, this approach
allows the designer to calculate the shear component of the
prestress anywhere in the beam, simply by drawing the shear
diagram due to the equivalent load resulting from a change
in the vertical alignment of the tendon (Fig. 2.4). That
equivalent load, together with the prestressing forces acting
at the ends of the member through the tendon anchorage,
may be looked upon as just another system of external forces
acting on the member. This procedure can be used for both
statically determinate and indeterminate structures, and it
accounts for the effects of secondary reactions due to

PARTIALLY PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

423.5R-9

Table 2.2Deflection prediction equations for prestressed and partially prestressed beams (from Naaman
1985)
Short-term instantaneous
deflection

Long-term or additional long-term


deflection

ACI 435 (1963)

t is obtained from elastic


analysis using Ft , Ect , and Ig .

ACI Code Section 9.5


(1971, 1977, and 1983)

t shall be obtained from


elastic analysis using Ig for
uncracked sections.

Long-term deflection obtained by


integrating curvatures with due
account for creep effects and prestress
losses with time.
add shall be computed, taking into
account stresses under sustained load,
including effects of creep, shrinkage,
and relaxation.

Source

Remarks
Uncracked section; and
No provisions for As and As.
No provisions for partial
prestressing (cracking, As
and As ).

1+
add = 1 + ------------- k r C cu
2
Branson et al. (1971,
1974, and 1977)

t is obtained from elastic


analysis using Ect and Ig.

( t ) F + k r C CU ( t ) G + K CA k r C CU ( t ) SD
t

where
CCU = ultimate creep coefficient of
concrete;
= F/Ft;
kr = 1/(1 + As/Aps); and
KCA = age at loading factor for creep

Naaman (1982 and


1983)

t is obtained using Ig and the


predicted elastic modulus at
time of loading Ec (t).

The long-term deflection is estimated


from:
2
2
l
l
( t ) = 1 ( t ) --- + [ 2 ( t ) 1 ( t ) ] -----8
48
where
1(t) = midspan curvature at time t;
2(t) = support curvature at time t;
(t) = M/[Ece(t) I]; and
Ece(t) = equivalent modulus

Bronson and Trost


(1982)

For cracked members, the


short-term deflection is
computed using Ieff modified
for partial prestressing.

Long-term deflection is not addressed


but it is assumed that for a given t, the
earlier method is applicable.
add = 1 ( i ) G + 2 ( i ) F

Uncracked section;
k r is applicable only when
(t)Ft + G is a camber; and
Ft = initial prestressing force
immediately after transfer.

Uncracked section;
The pressure line is assumed
resulting from the sustained
loadings;
The profile of the pressure
line is assumed parabolic;
Prestress losses must be
estimated a priori;
Design chart is provided for
the equivalent modulus; and
As and As are accounted for
through It and neutral axis of
bending.
Cracked members.

E ci
1 = k r ------
Ec
= ( 2 1.2A s A s ) 0.6
2 = 1

kr = same as Branson;
Uncracked section;
Design values of 1 and 2
were recommended; and
The method is adopted in
PCI Design Handbook.

Martin (1977)

t is obtained from elastic


analysis using Ect and Ig.

Tadros et al. (1975 and


1977)

t is obtained from elastic


analysis using Ec(t) and Ig.

The long-term deflection is obtained


by integrating the curvatures modified
by a creep recovery parameter and a
relaxation reduction factor that are
time-dependent.

Uncracked sections; and


For common loading cases,
only the curveatures at the
support
and
midspan
sections are needed.

Dilger (1982)

t is obtained from long-term


deflection expression at initial
loading time. The age adjusted
effective modulus and a creep
transformed moment of inertia
are used.

The long-term deflection is obtained


by integrating the curvature along the
member. The time-dependent
curvature is modified by the effect of
an equivalent force acting at the
centroid of the prestressing steel due
to creep and shrinkage strain.
Mc
( t ) = i C c ( t ) ------------------I tr E ca ( t )
Itr = transformed moment of inertia;
Mc = moment due to equivalent
transformed force; and
Eca(t) = age adjusted modulus

Uncracked sections; and


A relaxation reduction factor
is used.

Moustafa (1986)

t is obtained from nonlinear


analysis using actual material
properties.

The nonlinear analysis takes both


creep and shrinkage into account,
using ACI creep and shrinkage
functions and a time step method.

A computer program is
available from PCI to
perform
the
nonlinear
analysis.

423.5R-10

ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

Fig. 2.4Equivalent loads and moments produced by prestressing tendons (Nilson 1987);
P = prestressing force.
prestressing, as well. This approach allows the designer to
treat a prestressed concrete member as if it was a
nonprestressed concrete member. The prestressing steel is
treated as mild (passive) reinforcement for ultimate
conditions, with a remaining tensile capacity of (fps fpe),
where fps is the stress in the reinforcement at nominal
strength, and fpe is the effective stress in the prestressed
reinforcement (after allowance for all losses).
Most codes of practice (ACI 318; AASHTO Bridge
Design Specifications, Eurocode 2; and CSA Design of Concrete Structures for Buildings) use sectional methods for
design of conventional beams under bending, shear, and torsion. Truss models provide the basis for these sectional
design procedures that often include a term for the concrete
contribution (Ramirez and Breen 1991). The concrete contribution supplements the sectional truss model to reflect test
results in beams and slabs with little or no shear reinforcement and to ensure economy in the practical design of such
members.
In design specifications, the concrete contribution has
been taken as either the shear force or torsional moment at

cracking, or as the capacity of an equivalent member without


transverse reinforcement. Therefore, detailed expressions
have been developed in terms of parameters relevant to the
strength of members without transverse reinforcement.
These parameters include the influence of axial compression, member geometry, support conditions, axial tension,
and prestress.
2.5.2 ShearThe following behavioral changes occur in
partially prestressed members at nominal shear levels, as
some of the longitudinal prestressing steel in the tension face
of the member is replaced by mild reinforcement, but the
same total flexural strength is maintained:
Due to the lower effective prestress, the external load
required to produce inclined cracking is reduced. This
results in an earlier mobilization of the shear reinforcement; and
After inclined cracking, there is a reduction in the concrete contribution. The reduction is less significant as the
degree of prestressing decreases. This can be explained
as follows:
The addition of mild reinforcement results in an
increase in the cross-sectional area of the longitudinal

PARTIALLY PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

tension reinforcement and the reinforcement stiffness;


and
The increase in stiffness of the longitudinal tension
reinforcement delays the development of the cracking pattern, so that the cracks are narrower and the
flexural compression zone is larger than in fully prestressed members of comparable flexural strength.
These behavioral changes are well documented in a series
of shear tests carried out by Caflisch et al. (1971). In this
series of tests, the only variable was the degree of prestressing. The cross sections of the prestressing steel and the reinforcing steel were selected so that all the beams had the same
flexural strength. These tests also showed that for the same
external load, a higher degree of prestressing delays the
onset of diagonal cracking and results in a decrease in the
stirrup forces. The decrease in stirrup forces can be
explained by the fact that a higher degree of prestressing in
the web of the member results in a lower angle of inclination
of the diagonal cracks. The lower angle of inclination of the
cracks leads to the mobilization of a larger number of stirrups.
In ACI 318, a cursory review of the design approach for
shear indicates that partially prestressed members can be
designed following the same procedure as for fully prestressed members. In ACI 318, it is assumed that flexure and
shear can be handled separately for the worst combination of
flexure and shear at a given section. The analysis of a beam
under bending and shear using the truss approach clearly
indicates that, to resist shear, the member needs both stirrups
and longitudinal reinforcement. The additional longitudinal
tension force due to shear can be determined from equilibrium conditions of the truss model as (V cot ), where V is the
shear force at the section, and is the angle of inclination of
the inclined struts with respect to the longitudinal axis of the
member.
In the shear provisions of ACI 318, no explicit check of the
shear-induced force in the longitudinal reinforcement is performed (Ramirez 1994). The difference between the flexural
strength requirements for the prestress reinforcement and the
ultimate tensile capacity of the reinforcement can be used to
satisfy the longitudinal tension requirement. The 1994 AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, in the section for
shear design, includes a check for longitudinal reinforcement.
These recommendations are based on a modified compression field theory (Vecchio and Collins 1986).
2.5.3 TorsionACI 318 includes design recommendation for the case of torsion or combined shear and torsion in
prestressed concrete members. These provisions model the
behavior of a prestressed concrete member before cracking
as a thin-walled tube and after cracking using a space-truss
model with compression diagonals inclined at an angle
around all faces of the member. For prestressed members,
can be taken equal to 37.5 degrees if the effective prestressing force is not less than 40% of the tensile strength of the
prestressed reinforcement. For other cases, can be taken
equal to 45 degrees. This approach is based on the work carried out in the 1960s and 1970s by European investigators
led by Thurlimann (1979). This work proposed a method

423.5R-11

supported by the theory of plasticity, in which a space truss


with variable inclination of compression diagonals provides
a lower-bound (static) solution.
This procedure is representative of the behavior of thinwalled tubes in torsion. For these members, the shear
stresses induced by torsion can be determined using only
equilibrium relationships. Because the wall of the tube is
thin, a constant shear stress can be assumed across its thickness. In the longitudinal direction, equilibrium conditions
dictate that the torsion-induced shear stresses be resisted by
a constant shear flow around the perimeter of the section.
For other sections before cracking, the strength in torsion
can be computed from the elastic theory (de Saint-Venant
1956) or from the plastic theory (Nadai 1950). Rather than
using these more complex approaches, an approximate procedure is used in ACI 318 based on the concept that most torsion is resisted by the high shear stresses near the outer
perimeter of the section. In this approach, the actual cross
section before cracking is represented by an equivalent thinwalled tube with a wall thickness t of
A cp
t = 0.75 ------P cp

(2-2)

where Acp = area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete


cross section, and Pcp = outside perimeter of the concrete
cross section. While the area enclosed by the shear flow
path, Ao, could be calculated from the external dimensions
and wall thickness of the equivalent tube, it is reasonable to
approximate it as equal to 2Acp/3. Cracking is assumed to
occur when the principal tensile stress reaches 4f c . For prestressed members, the cracking torque is increased by the
prestress. A Mohrs Circle analysis based on average stresses indicates that the torque required to cause a principal tensile stress equal to 4f c is the corresponding cracking torque
of a nonprestressed beam times
f pc
1 + -----------4 f c

(2-3)

where fpc in psi is the average precompression due to prestress at the centroid of the cross section resisting the externally applied loads or at the junction of web and flange if the
centroid lies within the flange.
In ACI 318, the design approach for combined actions
does not explicitly consider the change in conditions from
one side of the beam to the other. Instead, it considers the
side of the beam where shear and torsional effects are additive. After diagonal cracking, the concrete contribution of
the shear strength Vc remains constant at the value it has
when there is no torsion, and the torsion carried by the concrete is taken as zero. The approach in ACI 318 has been
compared with test results by MacGregor and Ghoneim
(1995).
In the AASHTO LRFD Specifications, the modified compression field theory proposed for members under shear has

423.5R-12

ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

Fig. 3.1Typical stress change in prestressing steel at end


of service life for sections cracked and uncracked under
permanent loads (Watcharaumnuay and Naaman 1985).
been extended to include the effects of torsion. Similar to the
ACI 318 procedure, the AASHTO approach concentrates on
the design of the side of the beam where the shear and torsional stresses are additive.
As in the case of shear, torsion leads to an increase in the
tensile force on the longitudinal reinforcement. The longitudinal reinforcement requirement for torsion should be superimposed with the longitudinal reinforcement requirement for
bending that acts simultaneously with the torsion. In ACI
318, the longitudinal tension due to torsion can be reduced
by the compressive force in the flexural compression zone of
the member. Furthermore, in prestressed beams, the total
longitudinal reinforcement, including tendons at each section, can be used to resist the factored bending moment plus
the additional tension induced by torsion at that section.
ACI 318 and AASHTO Specifications recognize that, in
many statically indeterminate structures, the magnitude of
the torsional moment in a given member will depend on its
torsional stiffness. Tests have shown (Hsu 1968) that when a
member cracks in torsion, its torsional stiffness immediately
after cracking drops to approximately 1/5 of the value before
cracking, and at failure can be as low as 1/16 of the value
before cracking. This drastic drop in torsional stiffness
allows a significant redistribution of torsion in certain
indeterminate beam systems. In recognizing the reduction of
torsional moment that will take place after cracking in the
case of indeterminate members subjected to compatibilityinduced torsion, ACI 318R states that a maximum factored
torsional moment equal to the cracking torque can be
assumed to occur at the critical sections near the faces of
supports. This limit has been established to control the width
of the torsional cracks at service loads.
CHAPTER 3TIME-DEPENDENT BEHAVIOR
3.1Prestress losses
The stress in the tendons of prestressed concrete structures
decreases continuously with time. The total reduction in
stress during the life span of the structure is termed total
prestress loss. The total prestress loss consists of several

components, which are generally grouped into instantaneous


and time-dependent losses.
Instantaneous losses are due to elastic shortening, anchorage
seating, and friction. They can be computed for partially prestressed concrete in a manner similar to that for fully prestressed concrete.
Time-dependent losses are due to shrinkage and creep of
concrete and relaxation of prestressing steel. Several methods
are available to determine time-dependent losses in prestressed concrete members: lump-sum estimate of total losses, lump-sum estimates of separate losses (such as loss due
to shrinkage or creep), and calculation of losses by the timestep method. Because the numerical expressions
described, for instance, in the AASHTOs Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges or the PCI Design Handbook
(1992)for the first two methods were developed assuming
full prestressing, they are not applicable to partially prestressed members.
The combined presence of nonprestressed reinforcing bars
and a lower level of prestress in partially prestressed concrete
should lead to smaller time-dependent prestress losses than
for fully prestressed concrete. Another significant factor is
that a partially prestressed member can be designed as a
cracked member under sustained loading. A computerized
time-step analysis of the concrete and steel stresses along partially prestressed sections shows that the effect of creep of
concrete on the stress redistribution between the concrete and
steel tends to counteract the effect of prestress losses over
time. This is particularly significant for members that are
cracked under permanent loads. The result is illustrated in
Fig. 3.1 (Watcharaumnuay and Naaman 1985), which was
derived from the analysis of 132 beams with various values
of the partially prestressed ratio (PPR) and the reinforcement index . While time-dependent prestress losses can be
14% for uncracked fully prestressed sections, they remain
low for cracked sections up to relatively high values of the
PPR. Fig. 3.1 also shows that for uncracked sections, timedependent prestress losses decrease with a decrease in PPR.
Creep redistribution of force to reinforcing steel may reduce
the precompression in the concrete.
An investigation under NCHRP Project 12-33 has
addressed prestress losses in partially prestressed normal and
high-strength concrete beams. This work was described by
Naaman and Hamza (1993) and was adopted in the Final
Draft LRFD Specifications for Highway Bridge Design and
Commentary (Transportation Research Board 1993). It led to
lump-sum estimates of time-dependent losses for partially
prestressed beams that are assumed uncracked under the
design sustained loading. These are summarized in Table 3.1
and can be used as a first approximation in design.
3.2Cracking
Crack widths in reinforced and cracked partially
prestressed concrete members subjected to sustained loads
are known to increase with time. Bennett and Lee (1985)
reported that crack widths increase at a fast rate during the
early stages of loading then tend toward a slow steady rate of
increase. This is not surprising because deflections and

PARTIALLY PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

423.5R-13

Table 3.1Time-dependent losses, ksi (LRFD Bridge Design Specifications


1994)
Type of beam
section

Level

Rectangular beams Upper bound


and solid slab
Average
Box girder

I-girder

Single-T, double-T,
hollow core, and
voided slab

For wires and strands with


fpu = 235, 250, or 270 ksi
29.0 + 4.0 PPR
26.0 + 4.0 PPR

Upper bound

21.0 + 4.0 PPR

Average

19.0 + 4.0 PPR

Average

f c 6.0
- + 6.0PPR
33.0 1.0 0.15 -----------------6.0

f c 6.0
- + 6.0PPR
Upper bound 39.0 1.0 0.15 -----------------6.0
Average

f c 6.0
- + 6.0PPR
33.0 1.0 0.15 -----------------6.0

For bars with fpu = 145 or 160 ksi


19.0 + 6.0 PPR
15.0
19.0 + 6.0 PPR

f c 6.0
- + 6.0PPR
31.0 1.0 0.15 -----------------6.0

camber increase with time. Crack widths, however, represent


only localized effects, and their relative increase with time is
not proportional to the increase of deflections.
No studies have been reported where an analytical model
of crack width increase with time was developed. An investigation by Harajli and Naaman (1989), however, discussed
in Chapter 4 of this report, has led to the development of a
model to predict the increase in crack width under cyclic
fatigue loading. The model accounts for the effect of change
in steel stress due to cyclic creep of concrete in compression,
the increase in slip due to bond redistribution, and concrete
shrinkage.
3.3Deflections
Several experimental investigations have dealt with the
time-dependent deflection of partially prestressed concrete
members (Bennett and Lee 1985; Bruggeling 1977; Jittawait
and Tadros 1979; Lambotte and Van Nieuwenburg 1986;
Abeles 1965; and Watcharaumnuay and Naaman 1985).
Deflections and cambers in partially prestressed concrete
members are expected to vary with time similarly to reinforced or fully prestressed concrete. When positive deflection (opposite to camber) is present, in all cases the
deflection in partially prestressed beams falls between those
of reinforced concrete and fully prestressed concrete beams
(Fig. 3.2). A limited experimental study by Jittawait and
Tadros (1979) also seems to confirm this observation.
A study of the long-term behavior of partially prestressed
beams has been conducted at the Magnel laboratory in Belgium (Lambotte and Van Nieuwenburg 1986). Twelve partially prestressed beams with PPR of 0.8, 0.65, and 0.5 were
either kept unloaded or were loaded with an equivalent full
service load. For the unloaded beams, increased camber with
time was generally observed for PPR = 0.8; for PPR = 0.65,
the camber reached a peak value and then decreased with
time, resulting in a practically level beam; and for PPR = 0.5,
the initial camber decreased with time, resulting in a final
downward deflection. For the loaded beams, deflections
were observed in all cases and increased with time. These
observations are illustrated in Fig. 3.3. After 2 years of loading, the ratio of additional deflection to the initial deflection

Fig. 3.2Long-term deflections of fully prestressed and


partially prestressed (cracked and uncracked) beams
(Naaman 1982); 1 in. = 25.4 mm.
was about 1.25 for pretensioned members and 1.5 for posttensioned members.
Several analytical investigations have dealt with the timedependent deflections of prestressed and partially
prestressed beams assumed to be uncracked (Table 2.2). The
evaluation of deflections for cracked, partially prestressed
members has been conducted by several researchers
(Branson and Shaikh 1985; Ghali and Tadros 1985; Tadros
et al. 1985; Ghali and Favre 1986; Al-Zaid et al. 1988;
Elbadry and Ghali 1989; Ghali 1989; and Founas 1989).
Watcharaumnuay and Naaman (1985) proposed a method to
determine time- and cyclic-dependent deflections in simply
supported, partially prestressed beams in both the cracked
and uncracked state. The time-dependent deflection is
treated as a special case of cyclic deflection. Compared with
the time-step method where the deflection is obtained from
the summation of deflection increments over several time

423.5R-14

ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

KD , KF =

constants depending on type of loading and


steel profile;
M
=
sustained external moment at midspan;
F(t)
=
prestressing force at time t;
Ieff (t) =
effective moment of inertia of cracked section
at time t; and
Ece (t) =
equivalent elastic modulus of concrete at time t.
The eqivalent elastic modulus of concrete can be approximated by the following equation
Ec ( t )
E ce ( t ) = -------------------------------1 + Cc ( t tA )

Fig. 3.3(a)Variation with time of midspan deflection for


unloaded specimens (Lambotte and Van Nieuwenburg
1986); 1 in. = 25.4 mm.
where
t
tA
Ec (t)

(3-2)

= time or age of concrete;


= age of concrete at time of loading;
= instantaneous elastic modulus of concrete at
time t;

and
Cc (t - tA) = creep coefficient of concrete at time t when
loaded at time tA.
Several expressions are available to predict the creep coefficient of concrete. The recommendations of ACI Committee
209 (1982) can be followed in most common applications.
Fig. 3.3(b)Variation with time of midspan deflection for
specimens under service loading (Lambotte and Van
Nieuwenburg 1986); 1 in. = 25.4 mm.
intervals, this method leads to the deflection at any time t and
cycle N directly. The method satisfies equilibrium and strain
compatibility. Using a slightly different approach, the
method proposed by Watcharaumnuay and Naaman (1985)
was generalized by Al-Zaid et al. (1988) and Founas (1989),
and was extended to include composite beams as well as
noncomposite beams.
In dealing with time-dependent deflections, several timedependent variables should be determined. These include the
prestressing force, the moment of inertia of the section, and
the equivalent modulus of elasticity of the concrete. The
expression for the effective moment of inertia described in
Eq. (2-1) can be used. In this expression, however, Mcr and
Icr are time-dependent variables because they depend on the
value of the prestressing force and the location of the neutral
axis (zero stress point along the section), both of which vary
with time. The equivalent modulus of elasticity of the concrete depends on the variation of creep strain with time.
The following method can be used to estimate deflection
at any time t in a cracked, simply supported beam
KF F ( t )
KD M
- + --------------------------- ( t ) = ---------------------------E ce ( t )I eff ( t ) E ce ( t )I eff ( t )
where

(3-1)

3.4Corrosion
The reinforcement in a fully prestressed member is better
protected against corrosion than the reinforcement in a
partially prestressed member. Cracks in partially prestressed
beams are potential paths for the passage of corrosive agents.
Although corrosion also occurs along uncracked sections,
cracking can facilitate corrosion. Abeles (1945) suggested
that corrosion of the prestressing steel in partially prestressed
members can be mitigated by requiring that the member
faces that are cracked under full service load be in
compression under permanent (dead) loads. He demonstrated
the effectiveness of this strategy in the behavior of beams
partially prestressed using small-diameter wires that were used
in the roof of an engine shed for steam locomotives. These
beams successfully resisted a very corrosive atmosphere caused
by the mixture of smoke and steam ejected onto them from the
funnels of the locomotives.
Limiting the size of crack widths to reduce the probability
of corrosion has been common practice in design. Later studies (ACI 222R-89), however, move away from this approach
by pointing out that corrosion is due to many causes, most of
which can proceed with or without cracking to be activated.
Corrosion in prestressing steels is much more serious than
corrosion in nonprestressed reinforcing steels. Prestressing
steel is generally stressed to over 50% of its strength, making
it susceptible to stress corrosion, and the diameter of individual prestressing steel wires is relatively small. Even a small,
uniform corrosive layer or a corroded spot can progressively
reduce the cross-sectional area of the steel and lead to wire
failure.

PARTIALLY PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Corrosion is mostly an electrochemical problem and


should be treated accordingly. Precautions should be taken
to prevent or to reduce prestressing steel corrosion.
ACI 423.3R addresses the historical causes of corrosion in
unbonded tendons. The Post-Tensioning Manual (Post-Tensioning Institute 1990) provides guidance for corrosion protection for bonded and unbonded tendons. Occasionally, for
pretensioned concrete, epoxy-coated prestressing strands
have been specified for corrosive environments. High curing
temperatures, however, could adversely affect the bond of
epoxy-coated strand. Guidelines for the Use of Epoxy-Coated Strand (PCI Ad Hoc Committee 1993) contains recommendations for its use.
Lenschow (1986) reported that crack widths less than
0.004 to 0.006 in. (0.1 to 0.15 mm), which develop under
maximum load, will heal under long-term compression.
Crack widths that increase to less than 0.01 in. (0.3 mm)
under rare overload (every 1 to 3 years) can reduce to 0.004
to 0.006 in. (0.1 to 0.15 mm) under sustained compression.
Keeping crack widths under such limits should avoid problems with corrosion.
CHAPTER 4EFFECTS OF REPEATED
LOADING (FATIGUE)
4.1Background
Two major requirements should be considered when
designing members subjected to repeated loads: member
strength and serviceability. The static strength and fatigue
strength of the member should exceed loads imposed and
adequate serviceability requirements (deflection and crack
control) should be provided.
The fatigue strength of a member is affected primarily by
the stress range (difference between maximum and minimum stress), the number of load applications or cycles, and
the applied stress levels. The fatigue life of a member is
defined as the number of load cycles before failure. The
higher the stress range imposed on the member, the shorter
the fatigue life.
Reliability analyses indicate that the probability of fatigue
failure of reinforcement in partially prestressed beams is
higher on average than failure by any other common serviceability or ultimate limit state criterion (Naaman 1985, Naaman and Siriaksorn 1982). Fatigue can be a critical loading
condition for partially prestressed concrete beams because
high stress ranges can be imposed on the member in the service-load range (Naaman and Siriaksorn 1979).
Partially prestressed concrete beams generally crack upon
first application of live load (Naaman 1982b). Subsequent
applications of live load cause the cracks to reopen at the
decompression load (when the stress at the extreme tensile
face is zero), which is less than the load that caused first
cracking. To maintain equilibrium in the section after cracking, the neutral axis shifts toward the extreme compression
fiber. This shift generates higher strains (stresses) in the tensile
reinforcement.
Under repeated loads, the larger stress changes (created
by opening and closing of the cracks) cause fatigue damage
in the constituent materials, bond deterioration, and

423.5R-15

increased crack widths and deflections under service loads


(Naaman 1982b; Shakawi and Batchelor 1986; and ACI
Committee 215 1974). The increase in crack widths in partially prestressed beams, however, has been smaller than
that generated in similarly loaded, precracked, fully prestressed beams (Harajli and Naaman 1984).
Because the proportion of dead to total load often increases as the span length increases, the significance of fatigue as
a critical limit state tends to diminish as span lengths
increase (Freyermuth 1985).
Abeles demonstrated the practicability of using partially
prestressed concrete members when fatigue resistance is a
serious consideration (Abeles 1954). He persuaded British
Railways to consider the use of partial prestressing in the
reconstruction of highway bridges over the London to
Manchester line, when it was electrified around 1950. British Railways financed extensive cyclic loading tests of fullscale members, which were designed to allow 550 psi
(approximately 8f c or 3.8 MPa) tension under full service
load and 50 psi (0.34 MPa) compression under dead load
only. These members were cracked under static load and
were then subjected to 3 million cycles of load producing the
design range of stress, 50 psi (0.34 MPa) compression to 550
psi (3.8 MPa) tension at the flexural tension face. Behavior
was satisfactory, with essentially complete closure of cracks
and recovery of deflection after 3 million cycles of load. The
strength under static loading was not decreased by the cyclic
loading. Many relatively short-span bridges were constructed using such partially prestressed members and they performed satisfactorily.
Recently, Roller et al. (1995) conducted an experimental
program including four full-size, pretensioned, bulb-tee girders made with high-strength concrete and pretensioned. The
girders were 70 ft (21.3 m) long and 54 in. (1.4 m) deep with
a concrete compressive strength of 10,000 psi (69 MPa). One
of the four test girders with a simple span of 69 ft (21.0 m)
was subjected to cyclic (fatigue) flexural loading using two
point loads spaced 12 ft (3.66 m) apart at midspan. A concrete deck 10 ft (3.05 m) wide and 9.5 in. (250 mm) thick had
been cast on the girder to represent the effective flange of the
composite girder in a bridge.
During the cyclic flexural loading, the upper limit of the
load produced a midspan tensile stress at the extreme fiber of
the lower flange equal to 6f c . The lower limit of the load was
selected such that a steel stress range of 10,000 psi (69 MPa)
would be produced. After each million cycles of loading, the
girder was tested statically to determine its stiffness. Slight
reductions in stiffness and camber were observed, but there
was no significant change in prestress loss. The girder performed satisfactorily for 5 million cycles of fatigue loading.
After completion of the long-term fatigue load test, the girder was tested under static load to determine its ultimate flexural strength. It developed an ultimate moment equal to 94%
of the ultimate moment capacity of a companion girder that
had been under long-term sustained load. The measured
moment capacity also exceeded the calculated moment
capacity by 7.5% based on the AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges.

423.5R-16

ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

Tests have been conducted on ordinary reinforcement, both


in-air and embedded in concrete, to determine its fatigue properties. These tests have yielded varying results (Rehm 1960,
Soretz 1965). For straight deformed bars, ACI Committee 215
(1974), Model Code for Concrete Structures (CEB-FIP 1978),
FIP Commission on Model Code (1984), and Ontario Highway Bridge Design Code (Ministry of Transportation and
Communications 1983) recommend stress range limits of 20,
22, and 18 ksi (138, 152, and 124 MPa), respectively. The
lowest stress range found to cause fatigue failure in a hotrolled bar is 21 ksi (145 MPa) (ACI Committee 215 1974).
ACI 343R recommends limiting the reinforcement stress
range in terms of the minimum stress and reinforcement
deformation geometry
f f = 21 0.33f min + 8 ( r h )

(4-2)

where
ff
=
fmin =
r/h =

Fig. 4.1Comparison of observed fatigue life of prestressing


strands with existing data (Harajli and Naaman 1985a).
4.2Material fatigue strength
The fatigue resistance of a structural concrete member is
directly related to the fatigue properties of its component
materials (Naaman 1982b). Therefore, the fatigue behavior
of the constituent materials should be investigated first.
Fatigue of concreteThe applied stress range limit for
concrete recommended by ACI 215 (1974) is given by the
formula
f cr = 0.4f c f min 2

(4-1)

where
fcr = maximum recommended stress range for concrete;
= specified concrete compressive strength; and
f c
fmin = minimum applied stress.
Concrete can sustain a fluctuating stress between zero
and 50% of its static strength for approximately 10 million
cycles in direct compression, tension, or flexure without
failure (Norby 1958; Gylltoft 1978; McCall 1958; Stelson
and Cernica 1958; and Hilsdorf and Kesler 1966). Concrete
stresses resulting from service loads are generally smaller
than this magnitude (Shahawi and Batchelor 1986). Consequently, concrete fatigue failure generally will not control in
the case of repetitively loaded partially prestressed beams
(Naaman 1982b; Harajli and Naaman 1984; and Bennett
1986).
Fatigue of reinforcementFatigue failure of underreinforced
prestressed concrete beams is believed to be governed by the
fatigue failure of the steel reinforcement (Warner and Hulsbos 1966a).

safe stress range, ksi;


minimum applied stress, ksi; and
ratio of base radius-to-height of rolled-on transverse deformation (a value of 0.3 can be used in
the absence of specific data).
The fatigue strength of prestressing reinforcement
depends upon the steel type (bar, wire, strand), anchorage
(unbonded post-tensioned reinforcement), extent of bond (ACI
Committee 215 1974), and steel treatment. Paulson et al.
(1983) conducted fatigue tests (in-air) of 50 seven-wire
strand samples obtained from six different manufacturers.
All of the strands conformed with ASTM A 416 requirements. The minimum stresses applied in the tests ranged
from 75 to 165 ksi (517 to 1138 MPa), and the stress ranges
varied from 22 to 81 ksi (152 to 559 MPa). A significant
variation was observed in results from even two samples of
the same product produced by the same manufacturer. The
effect of the end grips dominated the fatigue curves in the
region of long-life, low-stress-range.
The following relationship was found to lie above 95 to
97.5% of the failure points
log N = 11 3.5 log f sr
where
N =
fsr =

(4-3)

number of cycles; and


maximum stress range for a fatigue life of N cycles, ksi.
The researchers did not find the effect of minimum stress on
fatigue life great enough to warrant inclusion in the equation.
The FIP Commission on Prestressing Steel (1976) recommends a stress range of 15% of fpu with a minimum applied
stress not greater than 75% of fpu for a fatigue life of 2 million cycles. For the same fatigue life of two million cycles,
however, Naaman (1982b) recommends a reduced stress
range of 10% fpu with a minimum applied stress not greater
than 60% of fpu to better correlate with test results (Fig. 4.1).
The following equation can be used to predict other maximum safe stress ranges

PARTIALLY PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

f sr f pu = 0.123 log N f + 0.87

423.5R-17

(4-4)

where
fsr =

maximum safe stress range for a fatigue life of N


cycles;
fpu = specified tensile strength of the prestressing
strand; and
Nf = number of cycles to failure.
The endurance limit (stress range for which the reinforcement will not fail for an infinite number of cycles) has not
been found for prestressing steel (Naaman 1982b); however,
a fatigue life of 2 million cycles is considered to be sufficient
for most applications.
The previous discussion applies to pretensioned strands.
For post-tensioned tendons, two more levels of fatigue
strength have to be considered: the strand/duct assembly and
the tendon anchorages. For the strand/duct assembly, fretting
fatigue may govern if high contact stresses between strand
and corrugated steel duct are combined with small relative
movements at cracks. Under such circumstances, the fatigue
strength of the strand/duct assembly can drop to as low as
14,300 psi (100 MPa). Fatigue strengths of anchorages are in
the order of 14,300 psi (100 MPa), according to FIP Commission on Prestressing Steel and Systems (1992).
Designers typically place tendon anchorages away from
areas with high stress variations and avoid fatigue problems
at the anchorages. A similar approach normally will not
work to avoid fretting fatigue because maximum stresses
often occur at sections with maximum tendon curvature and
maximum contact stresses between strand and duct. Fretting
fatigue between strand and duct, however, can be avoided by
using thick-walled plastic ducts rather than corrugated steel
ducts (Oertle 1988). With a thick-walled plastic duct, the
strand reaches fatigue strengths comparable to those of
strand in air. Fig. 4.2 shows the fatigue performance of tendons with steel and plastic ducts in simply supported beams
under four-point loading. In the specimen with a steel duct,
50% of the tendons failed at a fatigue amplitude of 25,000 psi
(175 MPa); in contrast, only 18% of the tendons in the specimen with a plastic duct failed at a fatigue amplitude of
39,400 psi (275 MPa).
4.3Fatigue in partially prestressed beams
To illustrate the relative importance of fatigue for partially
prestressed beams compared with that for ordinary reinforced
or fully prestressed beams, Naaman (1982b) analyzed three
concrete beams, identical except for the partially prestressed
reinforcement ratio (PPR = 0, 0.72 and 1.0). Note that PPR
= 0 represents an ordinary reinforced beam; PPR = 1.0 represents a fully prestressed beam; and PPR = 0.72 represents
a partially prestressed beam. All of the beams were designed
to provide the same ultimate moment capacity. Material
properties and relevant data are given by Naaman and Siriaksorn (1979).
For each beam, computed stress ranges in ordinary and prestressed steel were plotted with respect to the applied load (in
excess of the dead load) varying from zero to the specified

Fig. 4.2Fatigue resistance of post-tensioned tendon in


steel duct and in thick-walled plastic duct (Oertle 1988);
1 ksi = 6.9 MPa.
live load (Fig. 4.3). For the same type of beam section, the
effect of the PPR was plotted with respect to the reinforcement stress range due to the application of live loads (Fig.
4.4). The discontinuity in the plots corresponds with first
cracking of the concrete in the beams. It is evident from the
figures that higher stress ranges are associated with partially
prestressed sections. Thus, fatigue problems are more significant in partially prestressed sections than in their ordinary
reinforced or fully prestressed counterparts.
4.4Prediction of fatigue strength
The studies described have a common conclusion summarized by Naaman (1982b) and Warner and Hulsbos (1966b).
The critical limit state (fatigue failure) of partially prestressed concrete beams is generally due to failure of the
reinforcement. The fatigue life of the member can be predicted from the smaller of the fatigue lives of the reinforcing
steel or the prestressing steel. Many of these investigations
have indicated that in-air test results of reinforcement provide a good indication of the member fatigue life.
Naaman therefore recommends using Eq. (4-4) or Fig. 4.1
to estimate the fatigue life of stress-relieved seven-wire
strand for the appropriate stress range. A strand subjected to
a minimum stress less than 60% of its tensile strength with a
stress range of 10% of the tensile strength should provide a
fatigue life of approximately two million cycles.
For ordinary reinforcement, Naaman recommends using
Eq. (4-2) to determine safe stress ranges that provide fatigue
lives in excess of 2 million cycles.
ACI Committee 215 (1974) and Venuti (1965) recommend conducting a statistical investigation of at least six to
12 reinforcement samples at appropriate stress levels to establish the fatigue characteristics of the material. At least three
stress levels are required to establish the finite-life portion of
the S-N diagram: one stress level near the static strength, one
near the fatigue limit, and one in between.
The choice of the PPR and relative placement of the reinforcement have a significant effect on the fatigue response of the
members. Naaman (1982b) states that proper selection of these
variables can maintain the stress ranges in the reinforcement to
within acceptable limits.

423.5R-18

ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

Fig. 4.3Typical comparison of stress changes in steel for reinforced, prestressed, and
partially prestressed beams (Naaman 1982a).
Balaguru (1981) and Balaguru and Shah (1982) have presented a method and a numerical example for predicting the fatigue
serviceability of partially prestressed members. The method
compares the stress ranges in the beam constituents to the fatigue
limits of each individual component (concrete, prestressing steel
and nonprestressing steel) using the equations derived by Naaman and Siriaksorn (1979) to calculate stresses for both
uncracked and cracked sections.
Naaman and Founas (1991) also presented models to calculate the structural responses that account for shrinkage,
static and cyclic creep, and relaxation of prestressing steel.
For any time t and cycle N, the models can be used to compute stresses, strains, curvatures, and deflections.

Fig. 4.4Typical stress changes in steel at different levels of


prestressing (Naaman 1982a).

4.5Serviceability aspects
In a cracked concrete member, whether nonprestressed,
partially prestressed, or fully prestressed, the crack widths
and deflections generally increase under repeated loadings
(Naaman 1982b).
The increase in crack widths and deflections in concrete
members is mostly attributed to the cyclic creep of concrete
and bond deterioration accompanied by slip between the
reinforcement and concrete on either side of existing cracks.
ACI Committee 224 (1980) notes that 1 million cycles of
load can double the crack widths.

PARTIALLY PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Harajli and Naaman (1989) developed an analytical model


for cyclic slip and stresses to compute crack widths in partially prestressed concrete beams. In the analysis, equilibrium was assumed between the reinforcement bond stresses
and the concrete tensile stresses in a concrete tensile prism
joining two successive cracks. In addition, a local bond
stress-slip relationship was assumed for the reinforcement.
The results of the analyses were in agreement compared
with the experimental results shown in Fig. 4.5 and 4.6 for
monotonic and cyclic loading, respectively. Agreement was
also obtained with tests conducted by Lovegrove and El Din
(1982) for which the steel stresses ranged from 7 to 43 ksi
(48 to 297 MPa).
The analytical models were also useful in predicting trends
in the crack patterns in terms of growth and mechanisms of
growth. From the analyses, Harajli and Naaman (1989)
attributed increased crack widths to increases in steel
stresses caused by cyclic creep of concrete in compression
and bond redistribution between cracks.
They indicated that partially prestressed beams have
smaller crack spacings and less crack growth than fully prestressed beams subjected to fatigue loads. The presence of
ordinary reinforcement in prestressed beams helps to control
cracking in static and fatigue tests. Ordinary reinforcement
reduces the increased steel stresses attributed to cyclic creep
of concrete. In addition, it minimizes bond redistribution.
Crack widths were observed to be a function of reinforcement stress and crack spacing. In tests that generated similar
crack spacings (3 to 4.5 in., [76 to 114 mm]), a nearly linear
relationship was observed between crack widths and reinforcement stress (Fig. 4.7). To estimate the crack spacing acs and
crack width W the following equations were given
a cs = 1.20A t P

(4-5)

W = 2S o B

(4-6)

W N = 2S o, N B N + [ ( f so, N f so )a cs B N E s ]

(4-7)

where
acs =
At
=

W
WN
So
So,N
B
BN
fso
fso,N
N
Es

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

crack spacing, in. (mm);


effective area of concrete tension zone surrounding all reinforcementhaving the same centroid as
the reinforcement, in.2 (mm2);
sum of the perimeters of all tension reinforcement,
in. (mm);
crack width at the first loading cycle;
crack width at the Nth loading cycle;
slip of the reinforcement at the first cycle;
slip of the reinforcement at the Nth cycle;
distance ratio at the first cycle;
distance ratio at the Nth cycle;
steel stress at the primary crack at the first cycle;
steel stress at the primary crack at cycle N;
number of load cycles; and
modulus of elasticity of steel.

423.5R-19

Fig. 4.5Comparison of observed and predicted crack


widths for monotonically tested beams (Harajli and
Naaman 1989); 1 ksi = 6.9 MPa; 1 in. = 25.4 mm.
Tests by Shahawi and Batchelor (1986) indicated a similar
linear relationship between crack width and reinforcement
stress. They recommend the use of the FIP-CEB equation
(Eq. 4-8) for predicting the maximum crack widths in partially prestressed beams subjected to fatigue
W max = f s 10

(4-8)

where
Wmax = maximum crack width, mm; and
= change in steel stress from decompression at the
fs
extreme tensile fiber, MPa.
The previous FIP-CEB equation accounts for partial
debonding, but does not consider cyclic creep of the concrete. Balaguru (1981) and Balaguru and Shah (1982)
developed an equation to estimate maximum crack widths
that incorporates the effects of cyclic creep and progressive
deterioration of flexural stiffness. Comparing the results of
this equation with those of the FIP-CEB crack width formula
using data by Bhuvasorakul (1974), Balaguru determined the
following ratios of maximum crack width after N cycles to
initial maximum crack width: Wmax,N / Wmax = 2.45 (experimental) = 1.003 (FIP-CEB) = 2.15 (Balaguru). He attributed
the disparity in the result obtained by the FIP-CEB equation
to the lack of consideration of cyclic creep of concrete.
4.6Summary of serviceability
In all types of concrete members, crack widths and
deflections generally increase under repeated loadings
(Naaman 1982b). These increases occur during early load
stages and then generally stabilize until approximately 90%
of their fatigue life. Researchers (Harajli and Naaman 1989,

423.5R-20

ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

Fig. 4.6Comparison of observed and predicted crack width increases with number of
loading cycles (Harajli and Naaman 1989); 1 in. = 25.4 mm.
Shahawi and Batchelor 1986) show a nearly linear relationship
between maximum crack width and reinforcement stress.
Deflections can increase to twice the static deflection of the first
load cycle.
The importance of correct reinforcement detailing for
crack control should be emphasized. Pretensioned wires or
nonprestressed bars can be placed near the tensile face to
help limit crack widths according to the report Partial Prestressing (Concrete Society 1983). The presence of ordinary
reinforcement in prestressed beams helps to control cracking
in static and fatigue tests. Ordinary reinforcement reduces
the increased steel stresses attributed to cyclic creep of concrete. In addition, it minimizes bond redistribution.
Balaguru (1981) and Balaguru and Shah (1982) have
derived a refined approach that incorporates the effects of

cyclic creep of the concrete and tension stiffening effects to


estimate maximum crack widths and deflections at a given
load cycle. Naaman and Founas (1991) also presented
models to compute stresses, strains, and deflections in
partially prestressed beams for static and cyclic loading
incorporating effects of shrinkage, creep, and relaxation.
CHAPTER 5EFFECTS OF LOAD REVERSALS
5.1Introduction
Cyclic load reversals can result from dynamic effects of
earthquake, shock, wind, or blast loadings. Earthquake loadings are imparted to the base of the structure through ground
motion, whereas wind loadings transmit forces to the aboveground portions of the structure. Shock or blast loadings can
involve both of these effects: air overpressure forces similar

PARTIALLY PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

423.5R-21

Fig. 4.7Crack width variation versus reinforcing steel stress at different PPR (Harajli
and Naaman 1985); 1 ksi = 6.9 MPa, 1 in. = 25.4 mm.
to wind loadings and ground motions accompanying either
buried, air, or contact blasts.
5.2Design philosophy for seismic loadings
In design for seismic effects, the primary concern is safety
of the occupants (Bertero 1986), and a secondary concern is
economics. Even for an earthquake with reasonable probability of occurrence; however, it is not possible to guarantee
with absolute certainty complete life safety and no structural
damage. The Federal Emergency Management Agency, in
their document NEHRP 1997 Recommended Provisions
(1998), give minimum requirements to provide reasonable
and prudent life safety. To achieve these objectives, structures should be proportioned to resist design forces with adequate strength and stiffness to limit damage to acceptable
levels. Design forces are determined by using a responsemodification coefficient R to reduce the forces obtained,
assuming that the structure responds linear elastically to the
ground motion. The reduction factor accounts for the
reduced strength demand due to a number of effects, including energy dissipation through hysteretic damping and
lengthening of the structural period as the structure becomes
inelastic.
In simplistic terms, there are two basic options in seismic
design: (1) make the structure strong enough so that it will
respond elastically; or (2) permit the structure to deform
inelastically while ensuring adequate ductility and energy
dissipation capacity. The second option permits the structure

to be designed for considerably lower forces than required


for the first option.
Designing partially prestressed concrete structures in accordance with the second approach, raises the same concerns as
for the case of designing with conventional reinforced concrete; that is, the designer must ensure:
Ductility at plastic hinges; and
Adequate energy dissipation through damping and
hysteresis.
This chapter concentrates on these characteristics as they
relate to partially prestressed concrete.
5.3Ductility
Ductility allows the redistribution of forces in indeterminate
systems and ensures gradual rather than brittle failure, providing a warning to the occupants before collapse. If adequate
ductility is not provided at the critical regions (plastic hinge
zones), the member will be unable to develop the required
inelastic rotation.
Ductility is usually expressed for structural members and
systems in terms of a deformation ductility ratio, where the
deformation is described in terms of displacement, rotation,
or curvature (Naaman et al. 1986, Thompson and Park
1980a, Giannini et al. 1986). Deflection and rotation ductilities give an indication of drift (ratio of lateral displacement
to height) and are used in structural analysis. Curvature ductility is used to define member or section behavior at plastic
hinges.
The ductility ratio is defined as the ratio of the ultimate
deformation to the yield deformation. In the case of partially

423.5R-22

ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

Fig. 5.1Definitions of yield for determination of ductility


(Naaman et al. 1986).
prestressed concrete structures, the definition of yield
deformation can be quite arbitrary (Naaman et al. 1986;
Thompson and Park 1980a; Giannini et al. 1986). The
section contains both prestressed and nonprestressed
reinforcement that can have different yield stresses;
prestressing steel does not have a definite yield point, and
reinforcement located in different layers will yield at
different member deformations. The yield deformation,
therefore, can be defined in many ways.
Among numerous investigations on partially prestressed
concrete, there has not been a consistent definition of yield
deformation (Fig. 5.1). Cohn and Bartletts study (1982) on
partially prestressed concrete assumed that the yield curvature corresponded to yielding of ordinary reinforcement.
This approach gives a relatively high value of ductility
because the prestressing reinforcement yields at a much larger deformation. Thompson and Park (1980a) defined first
yield as the intersection of the tangent to the elastic portion
of the load-deformation curve and a horizontal line at ultimate load. In Park and Falconers study (1983) on prestressed piles, the yield deformation was taken at the
intersection of the secant from zero to 75% of the ultimate
moment capacity and the postelastic slope. Naaman et al.
(1986) defined the yield deformation as the intersection of
the secant from zero to the proportional limit of the prestressing steel and the postelastic slope. Although these latter definitions give slightly different results, they are all based on
the ductility of the member section rather than yielding of a
particular component in the cross section.
Local section ductility demands can be much more
severe than overall deflection ductilities of frames. Tests by
Muguruma et al. (1980) on partially prestressed concrete

frames indicated that the ratios of section curvature ductilities to deflection ductilities of the frame were 1.24 and 1.53
for partially prestressed concrete systems with bonded and
unbonded tendons, respectively.
5.3.1 Factors affecting ductilityNumerous investigations have been conducted to determine the effect of different parameters on ductility. Generally, factors that affect the
ductility of ordinary-reinforced concrete sections affect the
ductility of partially prestressed concrete sections as well.
Effects of anchorage, bond, transfer lengths, grouting, characteristics of high-strength prestressing steels, and level of
prestressing are additional parameters uniquely important to
prestressed and partially prestressed concrete members
(Bertero 1986).
Investigations were conducted to determine the effects of
the reinforcement ratio (Cohn and Ghosh 1972; MacGregor
1974; Scott et al. 1982; and Park and Thompson 1977),
concrete confinement (Park and Falconer 1983; Scott et al.
1982; Burns 1979; Kent and Park 1966; Wight and Sozen
1975; Sheikh and Uzumeri 1982; and Sheikh 1982), material
strengths and stress-strain properties (Wight and Sozen 1975,
Wang 1977), section geometry, ratio of compression
reinforcement (Park and Thompson 1977, Burns and Seiss
1962), PPR, and axial load (Lin and Burns 1981). Another
investigation by Thompson and Park (1980a) was conducted
to determine the effects of the content and distribution of
longitudinal reinforcement, transverse reinforcement, and
concrete cover. Naaman et al. (1986) analyzed beams with
four types of sections (rectangular, T, I, and box sections),
five different concrete strengths, three types of prestressing
steel, four levels of PPR, and seven reinforcing indexes .
For the rectangular and T-sections, five levels of effective
prestress fpe /fpu were analyzed, and in selected cases, four
levels of compression reinforcement ratios and the effect of
confinement were investigated. The following observations
were made from the parametric evaluation:
Reinforcement indexSection ductility decreases with
increasing because of the significant reduction in
ultimate curvatures associated with increased
reinforcement ratios (Fig. 5.2 and 5.3).
Effective prestressWhen the effective prestress was
decreased, it led to an increase in ultimate curvature for
reinforcing indices greater than approximately 0.12.
It also led to an increase in yield curvature irrespective
of the reinforcement index. Fig. 5.2 illustrates the
influence of effective prestress on ductility factor or the
ratio of these two quantities. The increase in yield
curvature tended to dominate the results and caused a
reduction in ductility with decreased effective prestress
irrespective of the reinforcing indices. This effect was
more significant for fully prestressed beams.
Partially prestressed ratioA decrease in PPR led to
an increase in both ultimate and yield curvatures, but in
terms of ductility, there was no consistent trend. The
effect of PPR on ductility became negligible with
increased concrete compressive strengths.
Transverse reinforcementIncreases in concrete
confinement resulted in corresponding increases in
sectional ductility irrespective of the reinforcement
index. This effect was also observed in tests by several

PARTIALLY PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

423.5R-23

Fig. 5.2Typical variation of curvature ductility as function


of effective prestress in steel from analytical study (Naaman
et al. 1986).

other investigators (Watanabe et al. 1980; Muguruma et


al. 1982b; Iyengar et al. 1970; Okamoto 1980; and
Hawkins 1977).
Concrete strengthFor high values of reinforcement
index ( > 0.25), the concrete compressive strength did
not have a significant effect on ductility. For low values
of (< 0.25), however, the use of higher-strength
concrete reduced section ductility as much as 30%,
particularly in cases of low PPR (ordinary reinforced
concrete). This trend was also more pronounced for
rectangular sections as compared with box, T- and Isections. Tests by Muguruma et al. (1983) indicate that
high-strength concrete is effective in improving
ductility, but that the consequences of high-strength
tendon fracture and brittle compressive failure of highstrength concrete should be considered.
Section geometryThe section geometry did not have
an appreciable effect on ductility, provided that the
ductility index was expressed as a function of

Fig. 5.3Comparison of analytical results with prediction


equations (Naaman et al. 1986); = ratio of compressionto-tension steel force at ultimate; and 1 ksi = 6.9 MPa.
reinforcement index (computed using the web for Tsections).
Naaman et al. (1986) found the reinforcement index to
be an excellent independent variable for describing section
ductility, as it is proportional to c/dctf (c = distance from
extreme compression fiber to neutral axis; and dctf = depth
to centroid of tensile steel). Based on the reinforcement ratio
and concrete compressive strength, it can be used to describe
all three types of systems: reinforced concrete, prestressed
concrete, and partially prestressed concrete.
Based on the results of analysis and experimental tests
on twelve partially prestressed concrete beams (Harajli and
Naaman 1984) described in the previous chapter, Naaman

423.5R-24

ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

where

= reinforcement index;
dctf = depth to centroid of tensile force in steel; and
Lp = equivalent plastic hinge length.
In Fig. 5.4, the equations are compared with the results of
several investigations (Kent and Park 1966; Corley 1966;
Mattock 1964; Mattock 1967; Harajli and Naaman 1985c;
Bishara and Brar 1974; and Baker and Amarakone 1964).
The equations show fairly good correlation with the results
(assuming a plastic hinge length Lp of dctf /2), and are recommended by Naaman et al. for use as a first approximation in
the design and detailing of ordinary reinforced, fully prestressed or partially prestressed members.
In a discussion of this work, Loov et al. (1987) recommend
specifying c/d rather than to ensure ductility, as is done in
the Standards Association of Australias Draft Unified Concrete Structure for Buildings (1984) and the CSAs Design
of Concrete Structures for Buildings. The use of c/d ensures
consistent ductility demands from sections independent of
geometry and concrete compressive strength. To accommodate this, Naaman et al. also provided the expressions in
terms of c/dctf, valid for c/dctf between 0.08 and 0.42:
Curvature ductility ratio
1
------------------------------------------Upper bound
0.73c d ctf 0.053

et al. developed prediction equations for sectional ductility


and plastic rotation as a function of the reinforcement index
. Three equations were derived for both the sectional ductility and plastic rotation to give upper limit, lower limit, and
average values for ranges of reinforcement index of 0.05 to
0.3 (Fig. 5.3). The upper and lower limits accommodate the
effects of parameters described previously, other than reinforcement index which were shown to have an effect on
ductility. For example, Naaman et al. suggest the lowerbound equation be used to describe cases with high-strength
concrete, low effective prestress, and high PPR. The upperbound equations are suggested for cases with normal strength
concrete, high effective prestress, and low PPR. The equations
are given as follows
Curvature ductility ratio

Plastic rotation (radians)

Upper bound

1
---------------------- 0.045

LP
1.05 - -----------------------------------850 35 d ctf 2

(5-1)

Lower bound

1
--------------------------------1.94 0.086

LP
1.05
1.65- -----------------------------------------1300 40 d ctf 2

(5-2)

Average

1
---------------------------1.5 0.075

1.07 1.58 L P
------------------------------- -------------1050 45 d ctf 2

(5-3)

(5-4)

Lower
bound

1
-------------------------------------------1.42c d ctf 0.102

1.86 1.28c d ctf L P


---------------------------------------- -------------949c d ctf 50 d ctf 2

(5-5)

Average

1
----------------------------------------------1.095c d ctf 0.087

1.88 1.15c d ctf L P


----------------------------------------- -------------766c d ctf 53 d ctf 2

(5-6)

where
c
=

Fig. 5.4Comparison of prediction equations with


experimental results (Naaman et al. 1986).

Plastic rotation (radians)


1.86 0.73c d ctf L P
---------------------------------------- -------------621c d ctf 42 d ctf 2

depth to neutral axis from extreme compression


fiber;
dctf = depth to centroid of tensile force in steel; and
Lp = equivalent plastic hinge length.
Thompson and Park (1980a) agreed with a form of c/d as
a measure of the ductility in an investigation in which a
moment-curvature relation was developed applicable to ordinary reinforced, prestressed, and partially prestressed concrete
beams, and verified with experimental tests on symmetrically
reinforced (prestressed and ordinary reinforced) rectangular
beam-column assemblies subjected to cyclic load reversals.
The model was subsequently used to conduct a parametric
study. Their recommendations are as follows:
Effect of prestressing steel contentACI 318 limits the
prestressing steel content by requiring p 0.36 1,
where 1 is a parameter used to modify the neutral axis
depth c to determine the depth of the equivalent
rectangular stress block a. Although the code limits the
prestressing steel content, ACI 318 allows this value to
be exceeded if the additional reinforcement is not
considered in the flexural strength calculation. Although
this can result in sufficient ductility for gravity loading, it
can be insufficient for seismic loading. To ensure
adequate ductility, one can limit p to less than 0.2
(rather than 0.3 for the case of 1 = 0.85). Alternatively,
rather than using the previous equation, one can also
limit a/h 0.2 (a = depth of rectangular stress block; and
h = depth of section). This provides a given amount of

PARTIALLY PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

ductility by specifying the location of the neutral axis


independent of tendon positions. This relationship has
been adopted by FIP (Cement and Concrete Association
of England 1977) and the Standards Association of New
Zealands Code of Practice for General Structural
Design and Design Loading for Buildings (1980).
Effect of prestressing steel distribution on ductility
Sections with only one tendon have reduced moment
capacity as the concrete in compression deteriorates.
Thompson and Park (1980a) recommend the use of at least
two grouted tendons (one near the top and one near the
bottom of the section) for seismic loading, and suggested
locating a third tendon towards the center of the section.
The use of unbonded tendons was generally not recommended for primary earthquake-resistant members
because of lack of information on the performance of the
anchorages (Muguruma 1986). In cases where partially
prestressed beams are designed with nonprestressed reinforcement in the extreme fibers providing at least 80% of
the seismic resistance, however, they indicated that the
prestress can be provided by one or more grouted or
unbonded tendons in the middle third of the beam depth.
The centrally located prestressing steel is recommended
because it can delay cracking and enhance strength without much reduction in ductility. Studies at the National
Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and as part
of the National Science Foundation Precast Seismic
Structural Systems (PRESSS) program (Cheok and Lew
1990) have explored the use of unbonded prestressing
reinforcement through the connections. In the studies at
NIST, central post-tensioning was used in conjunction
with mild steel reinforcement at the top and bottom of
the beam-column interface. The central post-tensioning
maintained integrity of the joint, while energy dissipation
was accommodated with the mild steel reinforcement. A
study by Priestley and Tao (1993) proposed the use of
lightly stressed, unbonded prestressing steel through the
joint (nonlinear-elastic concept). The system offers ductile
behavior through crack opening at the interface, while
maintaining a self-restoring force. Because the strands
do not yield, they work to bring the connection back to its
originally undeformed position. This system has been
studied further with other proposed connection systems
as part of the PRESSS program (Cheok and Lew 1990).
Effect of transverse reinforcement on ductilityThe
degree of confinement provided by the transverse reinforcement to the compression regions significantly increases
ductility. The confinement enhances the performance of the
concrete within the core and also inhibits buckling of the
compression reinforcement (Park and Thompson 1977;
Park and Paulay 1975; and Thompson 1975). Thompson
and Park recommend that the stirrups be spaced less than
d/4 or 6 in. (150 mm).
Effect of cover thicknessFor ductility, Thompson and
Park suggest that the cover be made as small as possible,
because loss of cover under cyclic loads causes a reduction in capacity. The effect of cover spalling on member
strength is not as great for deeper members where cover
is a smaller percentage of member depth.
Holding all other parameters constant, ductility decreases
with an increase in reinforcement index. ACI 318 gives a
maximum value for the reinforcement index of 0.36 1.
Maintaining this limit would give section ductilities on the

423.5R-25

order of 1.5 to three. With Parks suggested limit of 0.2, ductilities in excess of four or five can be obtained. Tests by
Muguruma et al. (1982a) indicate that if the sections do not
contain compression reinforcement, < 0.2 can give ductilities of only about three. If the reinforcement index is maintained at less than 0.1, ductilities in excess of 10 can be
achieved (Naaman et al. 1986).
Tests by Nakano and Okamoto (1978) on beam-column
subassemblages indicated that even when tension reinforcement is adequate (for example, < 0.15 to provide ductility
of five), hoop reinforcement (> 0.5%) is required to provide
the required deflection ductility. Okamoto (1980) carried out
similar tests on eleven simply supported beams and nine cantilever beams and reached similar conclusions.
5.3.2 Special cases
Compression membersRelatively little information is
available on partially prestressed concrete columns (Bertero
1986). Tertea and Onet (1983) analyzed 20 columns with
different PPR ranging from zero to 100%. As observed in the
beam tests, curvature ductility of columns improved with the
addition of nonprestressed reinforcement. Curvature ductility factors of 3.9, 6.1, and 9.8 corresponded with PPR of 100,
50, and 0%. Irrespective of the degree of prestressing, column ductilities improved with increased confinement.
Tests by Park and Falconer (1983) on prestressed piles
found that the curvature ductility increased with reduced axial load levels and increased confinement by spiral reinforcement. They discourage the use of hard-drawn reinforcing
wire for spirals as it commenced fracture at displacement
ductility factors of four to six. They recommend requiring
the wire to have high fracture strains.
ShearBeams should be proportioned to ensure ductile
flexural behavior and to avoid brittle shear behavior (Bertero
1986). To accomplish this objective, the FIP Commission
(Cement and Concrete Association of England 1977) recommends assuming material overstrengths on the order of 15%
in calculating the design shear force from the plastic hinge
moments. The New Zealand Code of Practice for General
Structural Design and Design Loading for Buildings (Standards Association of New Zealand 1980) recommend
neglecting the concrete contribution to shear resistance when
the axial compression is less than 0.1 f c .
Muguruma et al. (1983) determined that concrete resistance to shear can be improved by prestressing. Experiments
were conducted on 7 x 10 in. (180 x 250 mm) simply supported beams with span lengths of 7.22 ft. (2.20 m) to investigate shear in prestressed beams. The flexural shear
cracking load was found to increase in direct proportion to
the increase in flexural cracking load (due to an increase in
prestressing). Muguruma (1986) suggests in the design of
partially prestressed concrete beams that the concrete contribution to shear resistance can be increased by the shear force
corresponding to the decompression moment at the critical
section. This effect is taken into consideration in ACI 318.
Beam-column jointsBeam-column joints should be
designed and detailed so that the plastic-hinge zones in the
beams can develop their full plastic capacities. Muguruma
(1986) indicates that there are no differences in joint design

423.5R-26

ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

for ordinary reinforced or partially prestressed systems,


except that the prestressing tendons do not bond to the concrete as well as ordinary deformed reinforcement. Research
on the performance of bond between tendons and concrete in
joints (Muguruma and Tominaga 1972) has indicated that
tendons undergo bond deterioration at early load stages.
Tendon slip causes a reduction in energy dissipation capacity
by pinching the hysteresis loops.
Parks investigation of beam-column subassemblages
with grouted post-tensioned tendons (Applied Technology
Council 1981) recommended minimizing the possibility of
failure in the joint. To avoid this type of failure, the hinge
zones should be displaced away from the beam-column
interface. This can be accomplished by haunching the
beams, adding additional reinforcement at the interface, or
using cruciform shapes (Bertero 1986). Displacing the hinge
from the interface has the added advantage of locating the
failure in a region in which nonprestressed reinforcement is
located, increasing ductility and energy dissipation. Displacing the hinge further into the beam results in increased shear
at the interface when the hinge reaches its capacity and
produces increased ductility demands relative to hinges at
the interface when subjected to similar drift levels. Using
post-tensioned tendons through the joint core at middepth
can reduce the amount of required joint shear reinforcement as it serves to maintain integrity of the joint (Park and
Thompson 1977).
5.4Energy dissipation
Energy dissipation can be attributed to viscous and hysteretic damping described separately below. Energy dissipation
of prestressed concrete is as little as 0.15 times that of conventional reinforced concrete of comparable size and
strength (Bertero 1986).
5.4.1 Viscous dampingIn a 1978 state-of-the-art report
by Hawkins (1977) on seismic resistance of prestressed and
precast structures, a thorough review of the research on
damping was presented. Tests by Penzien (1964) indicated
that the level of prestress and concrete strength affects damping by affecting cracking. Decreases in cracking cause a
reduction in damping.
Tests by Spencer (1969) on centrally prestressed beams
indicated that damping ratios were not frequency dependent.
Damping ratios tended to increase with end rotations and
prestress. Spencer also found damping to be higher for
beams loaded in uniform shear rather than uniform moment
and attributed this result to the higher effects of interface
shear and bond slip in the case of uniform shear loading.
Tests by Brondum-Nielsen (1973) on centrally prestressed
beams indicated damping decreased with increased prestress
levels, which is the opposite of what Spencer observed. Values of damping obtained by Nakano (1965) from tests of 1/3
scale four-story frames were 1% before cracking, 3% at
cracking, and 7% before inelastic behavior.
5.4.2 Hysteretic behaviorThe energy dissipation (area
enclosed within the force-deformation hysteresis loops) of
prestressed concrete members is lower than that of
reinforced concrete members designed to develop similar

Fig. 5.5Moment-curvature idealizations for prestressed,


reinforced, and partially prestressed concrete (Thompson
and Park 1980b); = ratio of strength of reinforced
concrete component to total strength of partially prestressed
concrete system; and = ratio of strength of prestressed
concrete component to total strength of partially prestressed
concrete system.
strengths (Thompson and Park 1980b). Prestressed concrete
members can achieve significant elastic recoveries even at
large deformations (Schoeder 1977) because of the initial
tensile stress in the strand due to prestressing. In elastic
recoveries, the strand unloads its tensile force and is capable
of achieving large recoveries. The member will not achieve
significant energy dissipation unless the prestressing steel
yields, the concrete crushes, or the nonprestressed deformed
bar yields (Nakano 1965; Blakeley and Park 1973b; Guyon
1965; Blakeley and Park 1971; and Bertero 1973). The
addition of nonprestressed reinforcement in partially
prestressed concrete members has been shown to provide a
marked improvement in energy dissipation characteristics
(Thompson and Park 1980b, Inomata 1986). This is evident
in Fig. 5.5, which shows typical hysteresis loops for
cyclically loaded fully prestressed, ordinary reinforced, and
partially prestressed concrete members. In addition, by
reducing the strength degradation, the presence of
longitudinal nonprestressed reinforcing steel improves
ductility by acting as compression reinforcement (Park and
Thompson 1977, Inomata 1986). As mentioned previously,
Cheok and Lew (1990) have investigated the use of lightly
prestressed unbonded reinforcement. The performance of
the PRESSS connections has the advantage of a selfrestoring force (nonlinear-elastic system). The stiffness
reduction compared with that of a monolithic counterpart
can compensate for the reduced energy dissipation. Hybrid
connections (Cheok and Lew 1991) have been investigated
that combine the nonlinear elastic system with elements that
yield or dissipate energy.
Thompson and Park (1980a, 1980b) developed idealized
moment-curvature relations for partially prestressed
concrete sections by combining relations obtained by
Blakeley (1971) and Blakeley and Park (1973a) for
prestressed concrete and by Ramberg and Osgood for
reinforced concrete (Iwan 1973). The idealized hysteresis

PARTIALLY PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Fig. 5.6Comparison of idealized and experimental


moment-curvature relations for prestressed concrete section
(Thompson and Park 1980b).
curves agree with those obtained experimentally from tests
on beam-column subassemblages. Fig. 5.6 through 5.8 show
the idealized and experimental moment-curvature
relationships for fully prestressed, reinforced, and partially
prestressed members subjected to cyclic loading.
In the fully prestressed member (Fig. 5.6), the energy dissipation capacity of the member increased (although still with
considerable elastic recovery) after the beam-moment capacity had been reached and crushing of the concrete had commenced. The compression steel in the beam was nominal and
the significant degradation in the strength and stiffness was
attributed to the reduction in the sectional area when the cover
concrete crushed.
After the beam-moment capacity had been reached and
crushing of the concrete had commenced for the partially
prestressed member (Fig. 5.8), the energy dissipation capacity of the partially prestressed member was considerably
greater than that observed for the fully prestressed member.
For this particular test, the beneficial effect of the nonprestressed longitudinal steel in the compression zone of the
beam plastic hinge region was evident from the stable
moment-curvature relations. The strength degradation was
not large because after concrete crushing commenced, the
nonprestressed steel was able to carry some of the compression previously carried by the cover concrete and therefore
helped maintain the internal lever arm (Thompson and Park
1980b).
Similar findings were obtained by Muguruma et al.
(1982a, 1982b), who tested 24 partially prestressed (eccentric) beams with various levels of prestress, and also by
Nakano and Okamoto (1978), who tested 21 partially prestressed (symmetric) beams subjected to cyclic-load reversals.
Confining the concrete has a marked benefit on the ductility
of partially prestressed concrete and also improves the hysteretic behavior. Closely spaced stirrup ties or spirals in the hinging regions enhance ductility and energy dissipation by
confining the concrete compression zone, reducing stiffness
degradation, and inhibiting buckling of the compression steel.

423.5R-27

Fig. 5.7Comparison of idealized and experimental


moment-curvature relations for reinforced concrete section
(Thompson and Park 1980b).

Fig. 5.8Comparison of idealized and experimental


moment-curvature relations for partially prestressed concrete section (Thompson and Park 1980b).
5.5Dynamic analyses
Giannini et al. (1986) presented an analytical investigation
on the seismic behavior of fully prestressed and partially prestressed concrete. The influences of the fundamental period,
PPR, and seismic intensity were considered. The response
was obtained in the form of time histories and peak values in
terms of displacements, curvatures, local strains (in the constituents), forces, and dissipated energy.
Partially prestressed concrete seems to couple the
advantages of fully prestressed concrete with those of ordinary
reinforced concrete in resisting loads. Fully prestressed
concrete has a tendency to greater strain and deformation
demands than ordinary reinforced concrete. After a strong
impulse, the displacements of the reinforced concrete and
partially prestressed concrete systems tended to damp out,
whereas those of the fully prestressed concrete system did
not. The analysis showed that fully prestressed concrete
resists the design seismic intensity, but for greater
intensities, it rapidly approaches collapse. Fully prestressed
concrete structures, however, can behave better for low
intensity seismic excitation.

423.5R-28

ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

Similar conclusions were obtained from a study by


Thompson and Park (1980b). They used the idealized
moment-curvature relations (discussed previously) to conduct a nonlinear dynamic analysis of ordinary reinforced,
fully prestressed, and partially prestressed concrete singledegree-of-freedom systems. Displacements of fully prestressed concrete systems are larger than those of ordinary
reinforced and partially prestressed concrete systems
because of the reduced energy dissipation associated with
prestressing.
Fully prestressed systems also undergo a significant
reduction in stiffness after cracking that counteracts the
increased displacements under dynamic loading. The reduction in stiffness causes a reduction in the effective period of
vibration that can reduce the displacement response. Under
the combination of both of these effects, the analyses indicate that fully prestressed frames will have, on average, 30%
greater maximum lateral displacements than reinforced concrete systems designed to have the same strength, viscous
damping ratio, and initial stiffness (Thompson and Park
1980b).
Similar analytical studies have been conducted as part of
the NSF PRESSS program (Palmieri et al. 1996, El Sheikh
et al. 1999) that indicated systems incorporating unbonded
post-tensioned connections experienced moderate increases
in displacements in comparison with those expected from
monolithic concrete frame systems. An advantage of the
unbonded post-tensioned connections was the reduction in
residual drift associated with the nonlinear elastic behavior
of the system in comparison with the permanent system
deformations associated with the inelastic response of the
ordinary reinforced frames.
Fully prestressed concrete members can be detailed to
accommodate increased displacements in a ductile manner;
however, these higher displacements can result in greater
nonstructural damage and P-delta effects. An advantage of
using full prestressing and partial prestressing is the reduction in residual displacements due to the self-restoring nature
of these systems. The addition of nonprestressed reinforcement can reduce these deflections.

connections. The most viable alternatives were continuous


post-tensioned connections displacing the plastic-hinge
region from the beam-column interface, and taperedthreaded splice connections that emulate the performance of
monolithically cast beam-column connections. It was also
suggested that advantage be taken of composite action
between the beam and the slab.

5.6Connections
Results of tests (Berg and Degenkolb 1973; Elliott 1972;
Kunze et al. 1965; Sutherland 1965; Ozaka 1968; FIP 1970;
FIP 1974; Arya 1970; and Architectural Institute of Japan
1970) and observations on the past performance of prestressed concrete in earthquakes indicate that most prestressed concrete members perform well. Most failures have
been found to occur in connections between elements.
Several investigations have been conducted to study the
performance of connections between fully prestressed and
partially prestressed concrete precast elements. As mentioned
previously, ductile connection concepts have been tested as
part of the PRESSS program. French et al. (1989a, 1989b),
Amu and French (1985), Hafner and French (1986),
Jayashankar and French (1987), and Tarzikhan and French
(1987) investigated post-tensioned, welded, bolted,
composite, threaded coupler, and tapered-threaded splice

CHAPTER 6APPLICATIONS
6.1 Early applications
Partial prestressing has been used in the design of
structures since the early 1950s. In 1952, partially prestressed
beams with post-tensioned cables were first used in the roof
of a freight depot at Bury St. Edmunds, England (Bennet
1984). Lower concrete tensile stresses were specified
initially, but with successful experience and an increasing
amount of test data, the permissible fictitious tensile stresses
were increased to 750 psi (5.2 N/mm2) for pretensioning and
650 psi (4.5 N/mm2) for post-tensioning (Bennet 1984).
Other early applications of partial prestressing included the
development of a concrete mast for overhead power lines
and structures designed to withstand mining collapse; with
both applications, the most severe design load was usually a
temporarily unbalanced load (Bennet 1984).

5.7Summary
If members are detailed properly, it is possible to ensure
ductile behavior in fully prestressed and partially prestressed
concrete beams (Applied Technology Council 1981).
Ordinary reinforced concrete has an advantage in energydissipation characteristics. Prestressed concrete has an
advantage in its ability to reach large displacements with
only a small loss in load-carrying capacity and almost complete recovery of displacements. Joint performance is
improved by the use of continuous prestressed strand
through the joint.
Partially prestressed concrete couples the advantages of
prestressed concrete with those of ordinary reinforced concrete (Giannini et al 1986). The sections can be detailed so
that energy dissipation and deformation demands are on the
same order as those of ordinary reinforced concrete. Partially
prestressed concrete also offers the possibility of calibrating
the subsequent yielding of both prestressed and nonprestressed of reinforcement to optimize stiffness and energydissipation properties (Giannini et al 1986).
A recommended design concept is to balance all or part of
the gravity loads, satisfy serviceability criteria with draped
or blanketed prestressing strands, and place sufficient nonprestressed reinforcement in the section to meet the additional requirements for seismic design strength, ductility, and
energy dissipation (Hawkins 1977; Inomata 1986; and
Thompson and Park 1980b). Stirrup ties should be located in
hinging regions to prevent bar buckling, confine concrete,
and increase shear strength (Park and Thompson 1977, Park
and Paulay 1975).

PARTIALLY PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

6.2Pretensioned concrete components


In the early 1980s, a survey was conducted among the pretensioned, precast-concrete plants in the U.S. and Canada
(Jenny 1985) concerning the use of partial prestressing in the
industry. Sixty-five plants responded to the survey. Four of
the plants manufactured only bridge girders, and partial prestressing was rarely considered in their production. The survey revealed, however, that there was a general familiarity
with partial prestressing and the concept was used for meeting special design situations rather than as a routine production standard. Only seven of the 61 remaining plants
responding to the survey indicated that they did not allow
any product to exceed a nominal tensile stress of 6f c psi
(f c /2 MPa) for certain members, such as stemmed units,
inverted tees, spandrel beams, hollow-core slabs, or columns
(Jenny 1985).
The nominal stress levels reported by the plants were: 7.5
to 12f c psi (f c / 1.6 to f c MPa) for stemmed units; 7.5
to 12f c psi (f c /1.6 to f c MPa) for beams; 7.5 to 9f c
psi (f c / 1.6 to f c /1.33 MPa) for hollow-core slabs; and
7.5f c psi (f c /1.6 MPa) for columns. Reasons for designing these members with a nominal tensile stress greater than
6f c psi (f c /2 MPa) were to meet special design loads,
reduce camber, save steel and lower the cost, reduce the
required concrete strength at release, and achieve competitive span-depth ratios (Jenny 1985).
6.3Post-tensioned building construction
The majority of post-tensioned building construction in
the U.S. is based on the use of unbonded tendons in conjunction with code-specified minimum amounts of bonded nonprestressed reinforcement. Maximum design tensile stresses
range from 6 to 12f c psi (f c /2 to f c MPa) (Feyermuth
1985). For designs where durability considerations do not
govern, service-load nominal tensile stress levels of 6 to
12f c psi (f c /2 to f c MPa) are now routine for one-way,
post-tensioned systems. According to Feyermuth, The use
of partial prestressing, especially as applied to flat slabs, has
reduced the incidence of significant cracking problems in
post-tensioning buildings. This results from lower prestress
levels, inducing proportionately smaller elastic and creep
shortening movements, and the presence of bonded nonprestressed reinforcement to control crack widths (1985).
In the design of office and hotel structures, the use of partial
prestressing is often cost-effective. Post-tensioned beams, as
well as one-way slabs, designed to an extreme nominal fiber
stress in tension between 6 and 12f c psi (f c /2 and f c
MPa) have performed well in practice. The use of partially
prestressed design is especially effective when certain
designated areas of a building are required to have a higher
design live load than the majority of the floor area. The 1100
Peachtree Tower (shown in Fig. 6.1) is a 27-story, cast-inplace concrete office building located in Atlanta, Ga. The slab
is 5 in. (127 mm) thick, conventionally reinforced, and
supported by post-tensioned beams 14 in. (356 mm) wide and
22 in. (559 mm) deep. By allowing the nominal tensile stress
in the beams to reach 10f c psi (f c /1.2 MPa) under service
loads, economy was achieved by reducing the overall number

423.5R-29

Fig. 6.1Structural floor plan layout of 1100 Peachtree


Office Tower, Atlanta, Ga.
of tendons and by reducing the overall height of the structure,
owing to the shallower beam depths.
For two-way flat-plate designs, ACI 318 limits the stress
at column locations as calculated by the equivalent frame
method or other approximate methods to 6f c ( f c /2
MPa). This is in recognition of the gross approximation of
the actual strains in the vicinity of the column. Higher allowable stresses, however, are permitted in conjunction with
more precise analytical procedures.
6.4Bridges
Prestressed concrete bridges designed to permit cracking
under service loads are still rare in the U.S., even though it is
common to allow flexural tension in extreme fibers under
service load. The primary concerns about bridge members
being cracked under service loads have to do with fatigue
and durability. Partially prestressed concrete bridges have
been built in Europe and Japan.
Taerwe (1990) has described a number of partially prestressed concrete bridges constructed in Belgium. These
highway bridges were designed according to the Class 2 conditions described in Chapter 1 of this report. As of 1990, the
bridges described by Taerwe (built between 1965 and 1975)
performed satisfactorily.
The Kannonji Viaduct in Japan was completed in 1991
(Soda and Kazuo 1994). The bridge has a total length of
2464 ft (751 m), with an average span length of 92 ft (28 m).
The bridge superstructure units are continuous for three or
four spans each. It was designed to allow flexural cracking
under service loads at midspan but not over interior supports.
Four other partially prestressed concrete highway bridges
also have been constructed in Japan (Soda and Kazuo 1994).
AASHTOs Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges
does not currently allow service load cracking in prestressed
concrete bridges. AASHTO, however, has adopted a load-

423.5R-30

ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

and resistance-factor design specification for highway bridges (AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications) that does
specifically address partially prestressed concrete. This can
lead to a wider use of partially prestressed concrete for highway bridges in the U.S.

The reports and standards listed above were the latest editions at the time this document was prepared. Because these
documents are revised frequently, the reader is advised to
contact the proper sponsoring group if it is desired to refer to
the latest version.

6.5Other applications
Dolan* reports that the prismatic beams on the Walt Disney World Monorail were designed for tensile stresses of
nearly 12f c psi (f c MPa) for certain load combinations.
The beams were precast and post-tensioned to provide continuity. Reinforcing bars were used to control cracking at the
continuity joint.
Partial prestressing also has applications in nuclear-containment structures, cylindrical shells, and rectangular water
vessels. In the 1960s, the first prestressed concrete containment structures for nuclear reactors were partially prestressed in the vertical direction only with nonprestressed
reinforcement in the circumferential (hoop) direction of the
cylinder and in the dome. Two examples are the containment
structures at R.E. Ginna and H.B. Robinson Unit 2 nuclear
stations (Ashar et al. 1994). Similarly, partial prestressing is
used vertically in the walls of cylindrical shell and rectangular water-storage structures. If these structures are designed
with restrained bases, high negative or positive vertical
bending moments, or both, will be present. An economical
design can be produced when a small amount of vertical prestressing in the range of 200 psi (1.4 MPa) is provided and
nonprestressed reinforcement is added to resist any net flexural tensile stresses. These high bending moments occur
only at one point in the wall. Therefore, the economy is
achieved by not overreinforcing the entire height of wall.
This method of design has been used since the 1970s.

AASHTO
444 N. Capitol Street NW
Suite 249
Washington D.C. 20001

CHAPTER 7REFERENCES
7.1Referenced standards and reports
American Concrete Institute
222R
Corrosion of Metals in Concrete
318
Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary
343R
Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete
Bridge Structures
423.3R
Recommendations for Concrete Members Prestressed with Unbonded Tendons
ASTM
A 416
Standard Specification for Uncoated SevenWire Stress-Relieved Strand for Prestressed
Concrete
American Association of State Highway and Transportation
Officials (AASHTO)
AASHTO/ Bridge Design Specifications
LRFD
AASHTO Standard Specification for Highway Bridges

April 16, 1991 corresponence from Charles W. Dolan to Paul Zia.


26, 1995 correspondence from Steven R. Close to Nick Marianos.

October

American Concrete Institute


P.O. Box 9094
Farmington Hills, Mich. 48333-9094
ASTM
100 Barr Harbor Drive
West Conshohocken, PA 19428
7.2Cited references
Abeles, P. W., 1940, Saving Reinforcement by Prestressing, Concrete and Constructional Engineering, V. 35, 3 pp.
Abeles, P. W., 1945, Fully and Partially Prestressed
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Abeles, P. W., 1954, Static and Fatigue Tests on Partially
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No. 12, Dec., 361 pp.
Abeles, P. W., 1965, Studies of Crack Widths and Deformation Under Sustained and Fatigue Loading, PCI Journal,
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Abeles, P. W., 1968, Preliminary Report on Static and
Sustained Loading Tests, PCI Journal, V. 13, No. 4, Aug.,
pp. 12-32.
ACI Committee 209, 1982, Prediction of Creep, Shrinkage, and Temperature Effects in Concrete Structures,
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ACI Committee 215, 1974, Considerations for Design of
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ACI Committee 224, 1980, Control of Cracking in Concrete Structures, Concrete International, V. 2, No. 10, Oct.,
pp. 35-76.
ACI-ASCE Joint Committee 323, 1958, Tentative Recommendations for Prestressed Concrete, ACI JOURNAL,
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Al-Zaid, R. Z., and Naaman, A. E., 1986, Analysis of
Partially Prestressed Composite Beams, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, V. 112, No. 4, Apr., pp. 709-725.
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Deptartment of Civil and Mineral Engineering, University
of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn.
Applied Technology Council, 1981, Proceedings, Work-

PARTIALLY PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

shop on Design of Prefabricated Concrete Buildings for


Earthquake Loads, Los Angeles, Calif., Apr.,
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Balaguru, P. N., 1981, Analysis of Prestressed Concrete
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May-July, pp. 70-94.
Balaguru, P. N., and Shah, S. P., 1982, Method of Predicting Crack Widths and Deflections for Fatigue Loading,
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153-175.
Beeby, A. W., 1978, Corrosion of Reinforcing Steel in
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Beeby, A. W., 1979, The Prediction of Crack Widths in
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Bennett, E. W., and Lee, K. H., 1985, Deflection of Partially Prestressed Beams under a Combination of LongTime and Short-Time Loading, Deflections of Concrete
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Berg, G. V., and Degenkolb, H. J., 1973, Engineering Lessons from the Managua Earthquake, Managua, Nicaragua
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Bertero, V. V., 1973, Experimental Studies Concerning
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Bhuvasorakul, T., 1974, Performance of Members Reinforced with Smooth Welded Wire Fabric Under Static and
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Bishara, A. G., and Brar, G. S., 1974, Rotational Capac-

423.5R-31

ity of Prestressed Concrete Beams, Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, V. 100, No. ST9, Sept., pp. 18831895.
Blakeley, R. W. G., 1971, Ductility of Prestressed Concrete Frames under Seismic Loading, PhD thesis, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
Blakeley, R. W. G., and Park, R., 1971, Seismic Resistance of Prestressed Concrete Beam-Column Assemblies,
ACI JOURNAL, V. 68, No. 9, Sept., pp. 677-692.
Blakeley, R. W. G., and Park, R., 1973a, Response of
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Branson, D. E., 1974, The Deformation of Non-Composite and Composite Prestressed Concrete Members, Deflections of Concrete Structures, SP-43, American Concrete
Institute, Farmington Hills, Mich., pp. 83-128.
Branson, D. E., 1977, Deformation of Concrete Structures, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Branson, D. E., and Kripanarayanan, K. M., 1971, Loss
of Prestress, Camber, and Deflections of Non-Composite
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Branson, D. E., and Shaikh, A. F., 1985, Deflection of
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Branson, D. E., and Trost, H., 1982a Unified Procedures
for Predicting the Deflection and Centroidal Axis Location
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119-130.
Branson, D. E., and Trost, H., 1982b Application of the IEffective Method in Calculating Deflections of Partially Prestressed Members, PCI Journal, V. 27, No. 5, Sept.-Oct.
Brondum-Nielsen, T., 1973, Effect of Prestress on the
Damping of Concrete, Resistance and Ultimate Deformability of Structures Acted on by Well Defined Repeated
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Bruggeling, A. S. G., 1977, Time Dependent Deflection
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Bureau of Public Roads, 1954, Criteria for Prestressed
Concrete Bridges, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C.
Burns, N. H., 1964, Moment Curvature Relationship for
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Burns, N. H., and Siess, C. P., 1962, Loading Deformation Characteristics of Beam-Column Connections in Reinforced Concrete, Civil Engineering Studies, Structural
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Burns, V. V., 1979, Inelastic Behavior of Structural Elements and Structures, Proceedings, NSF Workshop (Dec.
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Caflisch, R.; Krauss, R.; and Thurlimann, B., 1971,
Beige-und Schubversuche and Teilweise Vorgespannten
Betonbalken, Serie C., Bericht 6504-3, Institut fur Baustatik, ETH, Zurich.

423.5R-32

ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

CEB-FIP; 1978, Model Code for Concrete Structures,


Paris, 348 pp.
Cement and Concrete Association, 1977, Recommendations for the Design of Aseismic Prestressed Concrete Structures, London, Nov., 28 pp.
Cheok, G. S., and Lew, H. S., 1990, Performance of 1/3Scale Model Precast Concrete Beam-Column Connections
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Cheok, G. S., and Lew, H. S., 1991, Performance of 1/3Scale Model Precast Concrete Beam-Column Connections
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Cohn, M. Z., and Ghosh, S. K., 1972, The Flexural Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Sections, Publications, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering,
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Elbadry, M. M., and Ghali, A., 1989, Serviceability
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Elliott, A. L., 1972, Hindsight and Foresight on the Performance of Prestressed Concrete Bridges in the San
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El-Sheikh, M. T.; Sause, R.; Pessiki, S.; and Lu, L-W.,
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Eurocode 2 (EC2): Design of Concrete Structures, Part 1:
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Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1998, NEHRP
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(FEMA 302), Part 2Commentary (FEMA 303), Building
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FIP Commission on Model Code, 1984, Recommendations for Practical Design of Reinforced and Prestressed
Concrete Structures Based on the CEB-FIP Model Code
(MC78), Federation Internationale de la Precontrainte
(FIP), London, England.
FIP Commission on Prestressing Steel and Systems, 1976

Report on Prestressing Steels: Types and Properties, Federation Internationale de la Precontrainte (FIP), London,
England, Aug.,18 pp.
FIP Commission on Prestressing Steel and Systems, 1992,
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FIP Commission on Seismic Structures, 1970, Report of
the FIP Commission on Seismic Structures, Proceedings,
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de la Precontrainte (FIP), London, England, pp. 91-95.
FIP Commission on Seismic Structures, 1974, Report of
the FIP Commission on Seismic Structures, Proceedings,
Seventh Congress of FIP (New York), Federation Internationale de la Precontrainte (FIP), London, England, pp. 64-73.
FIP-CEB Joint International Committee, 1970, Recommendations for the Design and Construction of Concrete
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Founas, M, 1989, Deformation and Deflections of Partially
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French, C. W.; Amu, O.; and Tarzikhan, C., 1989a, Connections between Precast ElementsFailure Outside Connection Region, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE,
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Freyermuth, C. L., 1985, Practice of Partial Prestressing
for Continuous Post-Tensioned Structures in North America, PCI Journal, V. 30, No. 1, Jan.-Feb., pp. 154-172.
Freyssinet, E., 1933, New Ideas and Methods, Science
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Gergely, P., and Lutz, L. A., 1968, Maximum Crack
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Ghali, A., 1989, Stress and Strain Analysis in Prestressed
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Ghali, A., and Favre, R., 1986, Concrete Structures:
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Concrete Structures, Journal of Structural Engineering,
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Giannini, R.; Menegotto, M.; and Nuti C., 1986 Influence of Prestressing on Seismic Response of Structures: A
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Connections between Precast Elements Subjected to Cyclic

PARTIALLY PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Lateral Loads, Structural Research Report No. 87-09,


Department of Civil and Mineral Engineering, University of
Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn.
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423.5R-33

Department of Civil Engineering, West Virginia University.


Kent, D. C., and Park, R., 1966, Flexural Members with
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Moustafa, S. E., 1977 Design of Partially Prestressed

423.5R-34

ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

Flexural Members, PCI Journal, V. 22, No. 3, May-June.


Moustafa, S. E., 1986, Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced
and Prestressed Concrete Members, PCI Journal, V. 31,
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Muguruma, H., 1986 Seismic Problems of PPC Building
Structures with Special Reference to Basic Research in
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Muguruma, H., and Tominaga, H., 1972, Deformation
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18th National Symposium on Bridge and Structural Engineering, Japan, pp. 123-136.
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and Partially Prestressed Sections by Strain Compatibility,
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PARTIALLY PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

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423.5R-35

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423.5R-36

ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

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a
acs

APPENDIXNOTATIONS
= depth of equivalent rectangular compressive
stress block
= crack spacing

Acp

= area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete


cross section
= area of prestressed reinforcement in tension
Aps
zone
= area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement
As
= area of nonprestressed compression reinforcement
As
= effective area of concrete tension zone surAt
rounding all reinforcementhaving the same
centroid as reinforcement
b
= width of compression face of member
B
= distance ratio at first loading cycle
= distance ratio at the Nth loading cycle
BN
c
= depth to neutral axis from extreme compression
fiber
= depth of neutral axis after Nth cycle of loading
cN
c2
= constant
Cc(ttA) = creep coefficient of concrete at time t when
loaded at time tA
d
= distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of nonprestressedtension reinforcement
= cover to center of reinforcing steel
dc
d c
= concrete clear cover
dctf
= depth to centroid of tensile force in steel
de
= depth to centroid of nonprestressed tension
reinforcement
dmax,N = maximum deflection after Nth cycle
= distance from extreme compression fiber to cendp
troid of prestressed reinforcement
= average strain in concrete between the cracks
er,n
after N cycles of loading
es,n
= steel strain at crack calculated using cracked
section elastic analysis afterN cycles of loading
= instantaneous elastic modulus of concrete at
Ec(t)
time t
Ece(t) = equivalent elastic modulus of concrete at time t
Eci
= elastic modulus of concrete at time of loading or
transfer
= instantaneous elastic modulus of concrete at
Ei(t)
time t
= cyclic modulus of elasticity after N cycles
EN
= modulus of elasticity of steel
Es
fc
= concrete compressive strength
= maximum recommended stress range for concrete
fcr
ff
= safe stress range
fmin
= minimum applied stress (in concrete or reinforcing
steel, as applicable)
= average precompression in concrete due to prefpc
stress at centroid of cross-section
= effective stress in prestressing steel
fpe
fps
= stress in prestressed reinforcement at nominal
bending strength
= ultimate strength of the prestressing steel
fpu
fs
= tensile stress in reinforcing steel, or change in
steel stress from decompression
= steel stress at primary crack at first cycle
fso
= steel stress at primary crack at cycle N
fso,N
fsr
= maximum recommended stress range in reinforcing
steel (prestressedor nonprestressed, as applicable)
= yield strength of nonprestressed reinforcement
fy
F
= prestressing force
F(t)
= prestressing force at time t
h
= depth of member

PARTIALLY PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

= distance from neutral axis to tension face


= distance from neutral axis to centroid of
reinforcement
= moment of inertia of cracked section
Icr
= effective moment of inertia of cracked section at
Ieff(t)
time t
= effective moment of inertia after N cycles
IeN
= gross moment of inertia
Ig
KD, KF = constants depending on type of loading and
steel profile
= equivalent plastic hinge length
Lp
= sustained external moment at midspan
M
= applied moment
Ma
= dead load moment
MD
= decompression moment (moment which proMdec
duces zero concrete stressat extreme fiber of a
section, nearest to centroid of the prestressing
force, when added to action of effective prestress alone)
= cracking moment
Mcr
= live-load moment
ML
= total nominal moment capacity
Mn
= moment capacity provided by prestressed
Mnp
reinforcement
= number of load cycles
N
= number of cycles to failure
Nf
= sum of perimeters of all tension reinforcement
P
= outside perimeter of concrete cross section
Pcp
= partial prestressing ratio
PPR
= applied load
Q
h1
h2

423.5R-37

= applied service load


= ratio of base radius to height of rolled-on transverse deformation (value of 0.3 may be used in
absence of specific data)
= slip of reinforcement at first cycle
So
= slip of reinforcement at Nth cycle
So,N
= time or age of concrete
t
= age of concrete at time of loading
tA
= concrete contribution of shear strength
Vc
= crack width at the first loading cycle
W
= crack width at the Nth loading cycle
WN
Wmax = maximum crack width
Wmax,N = maximum crack width after N cycles
= slope of descending portion of concrete comZ
pression curve
= parameter relating neutral axis depth to depth of
1
equivalent rectangular compression block
= change in stress in prestressing steel
fps
= deflection at time t
(t)
= degree of prestress

= strain (in general)

= reinforcement ratio of tensile nonprestressed

reinforcement
= reinforcement ratio of compressive nonpre
stressed reinforcement
p
= reinforcement ratio of tensile prestressed
reinforcement
= sum of perimeters of all tension reinforcement
o
= reinforcing index

= reinforcing index for prestressing steel


p
Qser
r/h