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Original Title: ACI 423.5R-99 Partially Prestressed Concrete

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ACI 423.5R-99 Partially Prestressed Concrete

ACI 423.5R-99 Partially Prestressed Concrete

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5R-99

State-of-the-Art Report on

Partially Prestressed Concrete

Reported by Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 423

Ward N. Marianos, Jr.*

Chairman

Sarah L. Billington

Kenneth B. Bondy

Secretary

Ned H. Burns*

William L. Gamble

Hans R. Ganz

J. Weston Hall

Mohammad Iqbal

Francis J. Jacques

Gregory P. Chacos*

Jack Christiansen

Todd Christopherson

Daniel P. Jenny

Paul Johal

Susan N. Lane

Dale Buckner

Steven R. Close

Les Martin

Thomas E. Cousins

*

Charles W. Dolan

Apostolos Fafitis

Mark W. Fantozzi

Martin J. Fradua

Catherine W. French*

Clifford Freyermuth

Alan H. Mattock*

Gerard J. McGuire

Mark

Moore*

Antoine E. Naaman*

Kenneth Napior

Thomas E. Nehil

Mrutyunjaya Pani

H. Kent Preston

Denis C. Pu

Julio A. Ramirez*

Ken B. Rear

Dave Rogowsky

Bruce W. Russell

David H. Sanders

Thomas Schaeffer*

Morris Schupack

Kenneth W. Shushkewich

Khaled S. Soubra

Richard W. Stone

Patrick Sullivan

Luc R. Taerwe

H. Carl Walker

Jim J. Zhao

Paul Zia*

*Subcommittee

preparing report (Michael Barker contributed to writing Chapters 4 and 5 of this report).

Partially prestressed concrete construction uses prestressed, or a combination of prestressed and nonprestressed, reinforcement. Partially prestressed

concrete falls between the limiting cases of conventionally reinforced concrete and fully prestressed concrete, which allows no flexural tension under

service loads. When flexural tensile stresses and cracking are allowed

under service loads, the prestressed members have historically been called

Commentaries are intended for guidance in planning,

designing, executing, and inspecting construction. This

document is intended for the use of individuals who

are competent to evaluate the significance and

limitations of its content and recommendations and

who will accept responsibility for the application of the

material it contains. The American Concrete Institute

disclaims any and all responsibility for the stated

principles. The Institute shall not be liable for any loss or

damage arising therefrom.

Reference to this document shall not be made in

contract documents. If items found in this document are

desired by the Architect/Engineer to be a part of the

contract documents, they shall be restated in mandatory

language for incorporation by the Architect/Engineer.

state of the art for partial prestressing of concrete structures. Research

findings and design applications are presented. Specific topics discussed

include the history of partial prestressing, behavior of partially prestressed

concrete members under static loads, time-dependent effects, fatigue, and

the effects of cyclic loadings.

Keywords: bridges; buildings; concrete construction; corrosion; cracking;

crack widths; cyclic loading; deflections; earthquake-resistant structures;

fatigue; partially prestressed concrete; post-tensioning; prestressing; prestress losses; shear; stresses; structural analysis; structural design; timedependent effects; torsion.

CONTENTS

Chapter 1Introduction, p. 423.5R-2

1.1Historical perspective

1.2Definition

1.3Design philosophy of partial prestressing

ACI 423.5R-99 became effective December 3, 1999.

Copyright 2000, American Concrete Institute.

All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any

means, including the making of copies by any photo process, or by electronic or

mechanical device, printed, written, or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduction or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system or device, unless permission in

writing is obtained from the copyright proprietors.

423.5R-1

423.5R-2

prestressing

1.5Partial prestressing and reinforcement indexes

1.6Report objective

Chapter 2Partially prestressed members under

static loading, p. 423.5R-5

2.1Behavior

2.2Methods of analysis

2.3Cracking

2.4Deflections

2.5Shear and torsion

Chapter 3Time-dependent behavior, p. 423.5R-12

3.1Prestress losses

3.2Cracking

3.3Deflections

3.4Corrosion

Chapter 4Effects of repeated loading (fatigue),

p. 423.5R-15

4.1Background

4.2Material fatigue strength

4.3Fatigue in partially prestressed beams

4.4Prediction of fatigue strength

4.5Serviceability aspects

4.6Summary of serviceability

Chapter 5Effects of load reversals, p. 423.5R-20

5.1Introduction

5.2Design philosophy for seismic loadings

5.3Ductility

5.4Energy dissipation

5.5Dynamic analyses

5.6Connections

5.7Summary

Chapter 6Applications, p. 423.5R-28

6.1Early applications

6.2Pretensioned concrete components

6.3Post-tensioned building construction

6.4Bridges

6.5Other applications

Chapter 7References, p. 423.5R-30

7.1Referenced standards and reports

7.2Cited references

AppendixNotations, p. 423.5R-36

CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION

1.1Historical perspective

Application of prestressing to concrete members imparts a

compressive force of an appropriate magnitude at a suitable

location to counteract the service-load effects and modifies

the structural behavior of the members. Although the concept of prestressed concrete was introduced almost concurrently in the U.S. and in Germany before the turn of the 20th

century (Lin and Burns 1981), its principle was not fully

established until Freyssinet published his classical study

a prestressed member is increased, flexural cracks would

appear in the tensile zones at a certain load level, which he

referred to as the transformation load. Even though the

cracks would close as the load was reduced and the structure

would recover its original appearance, Freyssinet advocated

avoiding cracks under service load so that the concrete

would behave as a homogeneous material.

A different design approach, however, was proposed by

von Emperger (1939) and Abeles (1940). They suggested

using a small amount of tensioned high-strength steel to

control deflection and crack width while permitting higher

working stresses in the main reinforcement of reinforced

concrete. Most of the early work in support of this design

concept was done by Abeles (1945) in England. Based on his

studies, Abeles determined that eliminating the tensile stress

and possible cracking in the concrete is unnecessary in many

designs. Abeles also realized that prestress can be applied to

counteract only part of the service load so that tensile stress,

or even hairline cracks, occur in the concrete under full

service load. Abeles did specify that under dead load only,

no flexural tension stress should be allowed at any member

face where large flexural tensile stresses occurred under

maximum load, so as to ensure closure of any cracks that

may have occurred at maximum load. Additional bonded

and well-distributed nonprestressed reinforcement could be

used to help control cracking and provide the required

strength. Abeles termed this design approach as partially

prestressed concrete. Therefore, the design approach advocated by Freyssinet was then termed as fully prestressed

concrete. In actual practice, nearly all prestressed concrete

components designed today would be partially prestressed

as viewed by Freyssinet and Abeles.

Interest in partial prestressing continued in Great Britain in

the 1950s and early 1960s. Many structures were designed

by Abeles based on the principle of partial prestressing, and

examinations of most of these structures around 1970

revealed no evidence of distress or structural deterioration,

as discussed in the technical report on Partial Prestressing

published by the Concrete Society (1983). Partially

prestressed concrete design was recognized in the First

Report on Prestressed Concrete published by the Institution

of Structural Engineers (1951). Provisions for partial

prestressing were also included in the British Standard Code

of Practice for Prestressed Concrete (CP 115) in 1959. In that

code, a permissible tensile stress in concrete as high as 750

psi (5.2 MPa) was accepted when the maximum working

load was exceptionally high in comparison with the load

normally carried by the structure. Presently, the British Code

(BS 8110) as well as the Model Code for Concrete Structures

(1978), published by CEB-FIP, defines three classes of

prestressed concrete structures:

Class 1Structures in which no tensile stress is permitted

in the concrete under full service load;

Class 2Structures in which a limited tensile stress is permitted in the concrete under full service load, but there is no

visible cracking; and

(0.2 mm [0.008 in.]) are permitted under full service load.

Calculations for Class 3 structures would be based on the

hypothetical tensile stress in the concrete assuming an

uncracked section. The allowable values of the hypothetical

tensile stress vary with the amount, type, and distribution of

the prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement.

Elsewhere in Europe, interest in partial prestressing also

developed in the 1950s and 1960s. In the mid-1950s, many

prestressed concrete structures in Denmark, especially

bridges, were designed using the partial prestressing concept.

Their performance was reported as satisfactory after 25 years

of service (Rostam and Pedersen 1980). In 1958, the first

partially prestressed concrete bridge in Switzerland

(Weinland Bridge) was completed near Zurich. Provisions

for partial prestressing were introduced in SIA Standard 162,

issued by the Swiss Society of Engineers and Architects

(1968), and since 1960, more than 3000 bridges have been

designed according to this concept with highly satisfactory

results (Birkenmaier 1984). Unlike the British Code and

CEP-FIP Model Code, the limit of partial prestressing in the

Swiss Code was not defined by the hypothetical tensile

stress. Instead, it was defined by the tensile stress in the

prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement, and

calculated using the cracked section. Under full service

load, the allowable stress in the nonprestressed

reinforcement was 22,000 psi (150 MPa), and in railroad

bridges, the stress increase in the prestressed reinforcement

was not to exceed 1/20 of the tensile strength. This value was

taken as 1/10 of the tensile strength in other structures. It was

required, however, that the concrete be in compression when

the structure supported only permanent load.

In the U.S., the design of prestressed concrete in the early

1950s was largely based on the Criteria for Prestressed Concrete Bridges (1954) published by the Bureau of Public

Roads, which did not permit tensile stress and cracking in

concrete under service loads. The ACI-ASCE Joint Committee 323 report (1958), however, recognized that complete

freedom from cracking may or may not be necessary at any

particular load stage. For bridge members, tensile stress

was not allowed in concrete subjected to full service load.

For building members not exposed to weather or corrosive

atmosphere, a flexural tension stress limit of 6f c psi* was

specified with the provision that the limit may be exceeded

if it is shown by tests that the structure will behave properly

under service load conditions and meet any necessary

requirements for cracking load or temporary overload.

Thus, partial prestressing was permitted in that first definitive design guide for prestressed concrete, and designers

were quick to embrace the idea. When the balanced load

design concept was published by Lin (1963), it provided a

convenient design tool and encouraged the practical application of partial prestressing.

In 1971, the first edition of the PCI Design Handbook was

published. Design procedures allowing tension stresses are

* In this report, when formulas or stress values are taken directly from U.S. codes

and recommendations, they are left in U.S. customary units.

423.5R-3

the term partial prestressing, and by the third edition (1985),

design examples of members with combined prestressed and

nonprestressed reinforcement were included. Presently, ACI

318 permits a tensile stress limit of 12f c psi with

requirements for minimum cover and a deflection check.

Section 18.4.3 of ACI 318 permits the limit to be exceeded on

the basis of analysis or test results. Bridge design guidelines or

recommendations, however, did not follow the development

until the publication of the Final Draft LRFD Specifications

for Highway Bridges Design and Commentary (1993), even

though most bridge engineers had been allowing tension in

their designs for many years.

The concept of partial prestressing was developed half a

century ago. Over the years, partial prestressing has been

accepted by engineers to the extent that it is now the normal

way to design prestressed concrete structures. Bennetts

work (1984) provides a valuable historical summary of the

development of partially prestressed concrete.

1.2Definition

Despite a long history of recognition of the concept of

partial prestressing, both in the U.S. and abroad, there has

been a lack of a uniform and explicit definition of the term,

partial prestressing. For example, Lin and Burns (1981)

state: When a member is designed so that under the working

load there are no tensile stresses in it, then the concrete is

said to be fully prestressed. If some tensile stresses will be

produced in the member under working load, then it is

termed partially prestressed. On the other hand, Naaman

(1982a) states: Partial prestressing generally implies a combination of prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement,

both contributing to the resistance of the member. The aim is

to allow tension and cracking under full service loads while

ensuring adequate strength. According to Nilson (1987),

Early designers of prestressed concrete focused on the complete elimination of tensile stresses in members at normal

service load. This is defined as full prestressing. As experience has been gained with prestressed concrete construction,

it has become evident that a solution intermediate between

full prestressed concrete and ordinary reinforced concrete

offers many advantages. Such an intermediate solution, in

which a controlled amount of concrete tension is permitted

at full service, is termed partial prestressing.

A unified definition of the term partial prestressing

should be based on the behavior of the prestressed member

under a prescribed loading. Therefore, this report defines

partial prestressing as: An approach in design and construction in which prestressed reinforcement or a combination of

prestressed and non-prestressed reinforcement is used such

that tension and cracking in concrete due to flexure are

allowed under service dead and live loads, while serviceability and strength requirements are satisfied.

For the purposes of this report, fully prestressed concrete

is defined as concrete with prestressed reinforcement and no

flexural tension allowed in the concrete under service loads.

Conventionally reinforced concrete is defined as concrete

with no prestressed reinforcement and generally, there is

423.5R-4

prestressed concrete falls between these two limiting cases.

Serviceability requirements include criteria for crack widths,

deformation, long-term effects (such as creep and shrinkage), and fatigue.

By the previous definition, virtually all prestressed concrete that uses unbonded tendons is partially prestressed,

as codes require that a certain amount of bonded reinforcement be provided to meet strength requirements. Most pretensioned members used in routine applications such as

building decks and frames, and bridges spanning to approximately 100 ft (30 m) will allow flexural tension under full

service load. The addition of nonprestressed reinforcement is

used only in special situations, such as unusually long spans

or high service loads, or where camber and deflection control

is particularly important.

1.3Design philosophy of partial prestressing

The basic design philosophy for partial prestressing is not

different from that of conventionally reinforced concrete or

fully prestressed concrete. The primary objective is to provide adequate strength and ductility under factored load and

to achieve satisfactory serviceability under full service load.

By permitting flexural tension and cracking in concrete,

the designer has more latitude in deciding the amount of prestressing required to achieve the most desirable structural

performance under a particular loading condition. Therefore,

partial prestressing can be viewed as a means of providing

adequate control of deformation and cracking of a prestressed member. If the amount of prestressed reinforcement

used to provide such control is insufficient to develop the

required strength, then additional nonprestressed reinforcement is used.

In the production of precast, pretensioned concrete members, serviceability can be improved by placing additional

strands, as this is more economical than placing reinforcing

bars. When this technique is used, the level of initial prestress in some or all of the strands is lowered. This is also a

useful technique to keep transfer stresses below the maximum values prescribed by codes. At least for purposes of

shear design, the ACI Building Code treats any member with

effective prestress force not less than 40% of the tensile

strength of the flexural reinforcement as prestressed concrete.

1.4Advantages and disadvantages of partial

prestressing

In the design of most building elements, the specified live

load often exceeds the normally applied load. This is to

account for exceptional loading such as those due to impact,

extreme temperature and volume changes, or a peak live

load substantially higher than the normal live loads. By

using partial prestressing, and by allowing higher flexural

tension for loading conditions rarely imposed, a more economical design is achieved with smaller sections and less

reinforcement.

Where uniformity of camber among different members of

a structure is important, partial prestressing will enable the

designer to exercise more control of camber differentials. In

riding comfort as a vehicle passes from one span to the next.

The relatively large mild steel bars used in partially prestressed members result in a transformed section that can be

significantly stiffer than a comparable section that relies

solely on prestressing strand, thus reducing both camber and

deflection.

Nonprestressed reinforcement used in partially prestressed

members will enhance the strength and also control crack

formation and crack width. Under ultimate load, a partially

prestressed member usually demonstrates greater ductility

than a fully prestressed member. Therefore, it will be able to

absorb more energy under extreme dynamic loading such as

an earthquake or explosion.

Because mild steel does not lose strength as rapidly as prestressing strands at elevated temperature, it is sometimes

added to prestressed members to improve their fire-resistance rating. See Chapter 9 of the PCI Design Handbook

(1992) and Design for Fire Resistance of Precast Prestressed Concrete (1989) for more information.

Partial prestressing is not without some disadvantages.

Under repeated loading, the fatigue life of a partially prestressed member can be a concern. In addition, durability is

a potential problem for partially prestressed members

because they can be cracked under full service load. Recent

studies (Harajli and Naaman 1985a; Naaman 1989; and Naaman and Founas 1991), however, have shown that fatigue

strength depends on the range of stress variation of the strand

(refer to Chapter 4) and that durability is related more to cover and spacing of reinforcement than to crack width, so these

concerns can be addressed with proper design and detailing

of the reinforcement (Beeby 1978 and 1979).

1.5Partial prestressing and reinforcement

indexes

Several indexes have been proposed to describe the extent

of prestressing in a structural member. These indexes are

useful in comparing relative performances of members made

with the same materials, but caution should be exercised in

using them to determine absolute values of such things as

deformation and crack width. Two of the most common indices are the degree of prestress , and the partial prestressing

ratio (PPR). These indexes are defined as

M dec

= --------------------MD + ML

(1-1)

where

Mdec = decompression moment (the moment that produces

zero concrete stress at the extreme fiber of a section,

nearest to the centroid of the prestressing force,

when added to the action of the effective prestress

alone);

MD = dead-load moment; and

ML = live-load moment

and

M np

PPR = -------Mn

(1-2)

where

Mnp =

reinforcement; and

Mn = total nominal moment capacity.

In the previous expressions, all moments are computed at

critical sections. This report will generally use the PPR to

describe the extent of prestressing in flexural members. The

tests, studies, and examples described in this report usually

concern members with PPR < 1, and the members are pretensioned unless otherwise noted.

Characterizing the total amount of flexural reinforcement

in a member is also important. This will be done with the

reinforcement index

f ps

f

f

----y = ----y- + p ----f c

f c

f c

(1-3)

where

A

= -----sbd

A

= ------sbd

A ps

p = ------bd p

and

Aps =

As

As

b

d

=

=

dp

f c

fps

fy

in.2 (mm2);

area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement, in.2

(mm2);

area of nonprestressed compression reinforcement, in.2 (mm2);

width of compression face of member, in. (mm);

distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of nonprestressed tension reinforcement, in.

(mm);

distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of prestressed reinforcement, in. (mm);

specified compressive strength of concrete, psi

(MPa);

stress in prestressed reinforcement at nominal

strength, psi (MPa); and

yield strength of nonprestressed reinforcement, psi

(MPa).

1.6Report objective

The objective of this report is to summarize the state of the

art of the current knowledge as well as recent developments

in partial prestressing so that engineers who are not experienced in prestressed concrete design will have a better

understanding of the concept.

423.5R-5

MEMBERS UNDER STATIC LOADING

2.1Behavior

There are a number of investigations on the behavior of

partially prestressed concrete beams under static loading

(Abeles 1968; Burns 1964; Cohn and Bartlett 1982; Harajli

1985; Harajli and Naaman 1985a; Shaikh and Branson 1970;

Thompson and Park 1980a; and Watcharaumnuay 1984). The

following results were observed for beams having the same

ultimate resistance in flexure but reinforced with various

combinations of prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement:

Partially prestressed beams show larger ultimate deflections, higher ductility, and higher energy absorption than

fully prestressed beams;

Partially prestressed beams tend to crack at lower load

levels than fully prestressed beams. Average crack spacing and crack widths are smaller. The stiffness of partially prestressed beams after cracking is larger;

For a given reinforcement index , the moment-curvature relationship is almost independent of the ratio of the

tensile reinforcement areas (prestressed versus nonprestressed);

Changing the effective prestress in the prestressing tendons does not lead to any significant change in the ultimate resistance and curvature of flexural members; and

A decrease in effective prestress leads to an increase in

yield curvature and a decrease in curvature ductility.

2.2Methods of analysis

Several methods can be followed to analyze partially

prestressed concrete members subjected to bending. In terms

of assumptions, purpose, and underlying principles, they are

identical to those used for reinforced and prestressed

concrete (Nilson 1976, Naaman and Siriaksorn 1979,

Siriaksorn and Naaman 1979, Al-Zaid and Naaman 1986,

and Tadros 1982).

2.2.1 Linear elastic analysisIn the elastic range of

behavior, the analysis must accommodate either a cracked or

an uncracked section subjected to bending, with or without

prestress in the steel. The usual assumptions of plane strain

distribution across the section, linear stress-strain relations,

and perfect bond between steel and concrete remain applicable. Linear elastic analysis under service loads assuming an

uncracked section is used for prestressed concrete. In the

U.S., the design of reinforced concrete is predominantly

based on strength requirement, but a linear elastic analysis

under service loads is also necessary to check serviceability

limitations such as crack widths, deflections, and fatigue.

Prestressed concrete beams can act as cracked or

uncracked sections, depending on the level of loading. In

contrast to reinforced concrete, the centroidal axis of the

cracked section does not coincide with the neutral axis point

of zero stress (Fig. 2.1). Moreover, the point of zero stress does

not remain fixed, but moves with a change in applied load.

When the effective prestress tends toward zero, the point of

zero stress and the centroidal axis tend to coincide. Generalized

equations have been developed to determine the zero stress

point based on satisfying equilibrium, strain compatibility, and

stress-strain relations (Nilson 1976; Naaman and Siriaksorn

1979; Siriaksorn and Naaman 1979; and Al-Zaid and Naaman

423.5R-6

elastic analysis of cracked and uncracked sections (Naaman

1985).

nonlinear analysis; (b) approximate nonlinear analysis;

and (c) ultimate strength analysis by ACI Code (Naaman

1985).

1986). They usually are third-order equations with respect to

member depth. Although they can be solved iteratively, charts,

tables, and computer programs have been developed for their

solution (Tadros 1982, Moustafa 1977). These equations

and partially prestressed sections.

2.2.2 Strength analysisAt ultimate or nominal moment

resistance, the assumptions related to the stress and strain

distributions in the concrete, such as the compression block

in ACI 318, or the stress and strain in the steel (such as yielding of the reinforcing steel) are identical for reinforced, prestressed, and partially prestressed concrete (Fig. 2.2). The

corresponding analysis is the same and leads to the nominal

moment resistance of the section. Numerous investigations

have shown close correlation between the predicted (based

on ACI 318) and experimental values of nominal moments.

The ACI 318 analysis, however, resulted in conservative

predictions of section curvatures at ultimate load, leading to

erroneous estimates of deformations and deflections (Wang

et al. 1978, Naaman et al. 1986). To improve the prediction

of nominal moment and curvature, either a nonlinear or a

simplified nonlinear analysis may be followed.

Simplified nonlinear analysisIn the simplified nonlinear

analysis procedure (also called pseudo-nonlinear analysis),

the actual stress-strain curve of the steel reinforcement is

considered while the concrete is represented by the ACI 318

compression block. A solution can be obtained by solving

two nonlinear equations with two unknowns, namely the

stress and the strain in the prestressing steel at nominal

moment resistance (Naaman 1977, Naaman 1983b).

Nonlinear analysisThe best accuracy in determining

nominal moments and corresponding curvatures is achieved

through a nonlinear analysis procedure (Cohn and Bartlett

1982, Naaman et al. 1986, Harajli and Naaman 1985b,

Moustafa 1986). Nonlinear analysis requires as input an

accurate analytical representation of the actual stress-strain

curves of the component materials (concrete, reinforcing

steel, and prestressing steel). Typical examples can be found

in two references (Naaman et al. 1986, Moustafa 1986).

2.3Cracking

Partially prestressed concrete permits cracking under service loads as a design assumption. To satisfy serviceability

requirements, the maximum crack width should be equal to, or

smaller than, the code-recommended limits on crack width.

The maximum allowable crack widths recommended by

ACI Committee 224 (1980) for reinforced concrete members

can be used, preferably with a reduction factor for prestressed and partially prestressed concrete members. To

select the reduction factor, consideration should be given to

the small diameter of the reinforcing elements (bars or

strands), the cover, and the exposure conditions.

Only a few formulas are used in the U.S. practice to predict

crack widths in concrete flexural members. Because the factors influencing crack widths are the same for reinforced and

partially prestressed concrete members, existing formulas

for reinforced concrete can be adapted to partially prestressed concrete. Five formulas (ACI 224 1980; Gergely

and Lutz 1968; Nawy and Potyondy 1971; Nawy and Huang

1977; Nawy and Chiang 1980; Martino and Nilson 1979; and

Meier and Gergely 1981) applicable to partially prestressed

beams are summarized in Table 2.1 (Naaman 1985). The vari-

423.5R-7

Table 2.1Crack width prediction equations applicable to partially prestressed beams (Naaman 1985)

Source

ACI Code (1971, 1977, and 1983)

ACI Committee 224 (1980)

5

W max = 7.6 10 f s 3 d c A b

dc = concrete cover to center of closest bar

layer

Ab = concrete tensile area per bar

= ratio of distances from tension face and

steel centroid to neutral axis

multiplication factor of 1.5 when strands,

rather than deformed bars, are used nearest

to beam tensile face.

W max = 1.44 10

= 5.31 10 ( f s 57.2 )

W max = 10

Nawy and Chiang (1980)

( f s 8.3 )

A

-------t- f ps

O

O = sum of perimeters of bonded

reinforcing elements

fps = net stress change in prestressing steel

after decompression

5.85 if pretensioning

=

6.51 if post-tensioning

W max = 14 10 dc f s + 0.0031

= 2 10 dc f s + 0.08

W max = C 1 ct d c

W max = C 2 ct d c 3 A b

C1, C2 = bond coefficients

For reinforcing bars: C1 = 12; C2 = 8.4

For strands:

C1 = 16; C2 = 12

ct = nominal concrete tensile strain at

tensile face

(1)

(2)

In the formulas shown, fs can be replaced by fps when applied to partially prestressed concrete.

by the stress change in the prestressing steel after decompression fps. The ACI 318 formula initially developed by

Gergely and Lutz (1968) for reinforced concrete could be

used as a first approximation for partially prestressed concrete. Meier and Gergely (1981), however, suggested a modified form (shown in Table 2.1) for the case of prestressed

concrete. This alternate formula uses the nominal strain at

the tensile face of the concrete (instead of the stress in the

steel), and the cover to the center of the steel dc. Both the

stress in the steel and the clear concrete cover are found to be

the controlling variables in the regression equation derived

by Martino and Nilson (1979). The two prediction equations

proposed by Nawy and Huang (1977) and Nawy and Chiang

(1980) contain most of the important parameters found in the

cracking behavior of concrete members except the concrete

cover, which is accounted for indirectly. Moreover, they are

based on actual experimental results on prestressed and partially prestressed beams.

As pointed out by Siriaksorn and Naaman (1979), large

differences can be observed in predicted crack widths

depending on the prediction formula used. Harajli and Naaman (1989) compared predicted crack widths with observed

crack widths from tests on twelve partially prestressed concrete beams. They considered the three prediction equations

recommended by Gergely and Lutz (1968), Nawy and Hua-

the three equations gave sufficiently good correlation with

experimental data for all conditions, the following observations were made (Fig. 2.3):

The Gergely and Lutz equation gave a lower prediction

in all cases (Fig. 2.3(a));

The Meier and Gergely equation gave the worst correlation (Fig. 2.3(c)); and

The Nawy and Huang equation gave a higher prediction

in most cases (Fig. 2.3(b)).

Although more experimental data are needed to improve

the accuracy of crack-width prediction equations available in

U.S. practice, there is sufficient information to judge if the

serviceability, with respect to cracking or crack width under

short-term loading, is satisfactory for a partially prestressed

member. The effects of long-term loading and repetitive

loading (fatigue) on the crack widths of partially prestressed

members need to be further clarified. A research investigation provided an analytical basis to deal with the problem

(Harajli and Naaman 1989); however, the proposed methodology is not amenable to a simple prediction equation that

can be easily implemented for design.

2.4Deflections

Fully prestressed concrete members are assumed to be

uncracked and linearly elastic under service loads. Instantaneous

short-term deflections are determined using general

423.5R-8

inertia Ieff , initially introduced by Branson (1977) for reinforced concrete, has been examined by several researchers

and modified accordingly to compute the deflection in

cracked prestressed and partially prestressed members. The

modified effective moment of inertia is defined (Naaman

1982a) as

I eff = I cr + ( ( M cr M dec ) ( M a M dec ) )

(2-1)

( I g I cr ) I g

where

= gross moment of inertia, in.4 (mm4);

Ig

Icr

= moment of inertia of cracked section, in.4 (mm4);

Mcr = cracking moment, in.-k (mm-N);

Mdec = decompression moment, in.-k (m-N); and

Ma = applied moment, in.-k (m-N).

Although there is general agreement for the use of the previous expression, substantial divergence of opinion exists as

to the computation of Icr and Mdec. The computation difference is whether the moment of inertia of the cracked section

should be computed with respect to the neutral axis of bending or with respect to the zero-stress point, and whether the

decompression moment should lead to decompression at the

extreme concrete fiber or whether it should lead to a state of

zero curvature in the section. The discussion of Tadros

paper (1982) by several experts in the field is quite informative on these issues. A systematic comparison between the

various approaches, combined with results from experimental tests, is given in work by Watcharaumnuay (1984), who

observed that the use of Icr with respect to the neutral axis of

bending is preferable, while the use of Mdec as that causing

decompression at the extreme concrete fiber, is easier and

leads to results similar to those obtained using the zero curvature moment.

crack widths (Naaman 1985).

principles of mechanics. To compute short-term deflections,

customary U.S. practice is to use the gross moment of inertia

Ig for pretensioned members, or the net moment of inertia In

for members with unbonded tendons, and the modulus of

elasticity of concrete at time of loading or transfer Eci.

Several approaches proposed by various researchers to

compute short-term and long-term deflections in prestressed

or partially prestressed uncracked members are summarized

in Table 2.2 (Branson and Kripanarayanan 1971; Branson

1974; Branson 1977; Naaman 1982a; Naaman 1983a;

Branson and Trost 1982a; Branson and Trost 1982b; Martin

1977; Tadros et al. 1975; Tadros et al. 1977; Dilger 1982;

and Moustafa 1986). Although no systematic evaluation or

comparison of these different approaches has been

undertaken, for common cases they lead to results of the

same order.

2.5.1 GeneralNonprestressed and fully prestressed

concrete (tensile stress in the concrete under full service load

is zero) are the two limiting cases of steel-reinforced concrete systems. Partially prestressed concrete represents a

continuous transition between the two limit cases. A unified

approach in design to combined actions including partial prestressing would offer designers a sound basis to make the

appropriate choice between the two limits (Thurlimann 1971).

The equivalent load concept provides a simple and

efficient design of prestressed concrete structures under

combined actions (Nilson 1987). For example, this approach

allows the designer to calculate the shear component of the

prestress anywhere in the beam, simply by drawing the shear

diagram due to the equivalent load resulting from a change

in the vertical alignment of the tendon (Fig. 2.4). That

equivalent load, together with the prestressing forces acting

at the ends of the member through the tendon anchorage,

may be looked upon as just another system of external forces

acting on the member. This procedure can be used for both

statically determinate and indeterminate structures, and it

accounts for the effects of secondary reactions due to

423.5R-9

Table 2.2Deflection prediction equations for prestressed and partially prestressed beams (from Naaman

1985)

Short-term instantaneous

deflection

deflection

analysis using Ft , Ect , and Ig .

(1971, 1977, and 1983)

elastic analysis using Ig for

uncracked sections.

integrating curvatures with due

account for creep effects and prestress

losses with time.

add shall be computed, taking into

account stresses under sustained load,

including effects of creep, shrinkage,

and relaxation.

Source

Remarks

Uncracked section; and

No provisions for As and As.

No provisions for partial

prestressing (cracking, As

and As ).

1+

add = 1 + ------------- k r C cu

2

Branson et al. (1971,

1974, and 1977)

analysis using Ect and Ig.

( t ) F + k r C CU ( t ) G + K CA k r C CU ( t ) SD

t

where

CCU = ultimate creep coefficient of

concrete;

= F/Ft;

kr = 1/(1 + As/Aps); and

KCA = age at loading factor for creep

1983)

predicted elastic modulus at

time of loading Ec (t).

from:

2

2

l

l

( t ) = 1 ( t ) --- + [ 2 ( t ) 1 ( t ) ] -----8

48

where

1(t) = midspan curvature at time t;

2(t) = support curvature at time t;

(t) = M/[Ece(t) I]; and

Ece(t) = equivalent modulus

(1982)

short-term deflection is

computed using Ieff modified

for partial prestressing.

but it is assumed that for a given t, the

earlier method is applicable.

add = 1 ( i ) G + 2 ( i ) F

Uncracked section;

k r is applicable only when

(t)Ft + G is a camber; and

Ft = initial prestressing force

immediately after transfer.

Uncracked section;

The pressure line is assumed

resulting from the sustained

loadings;

The profile of the pressure

line is assumed parabolic;

Prestress losses must be

estimated a priori;

Design chart is provided for

the equivalent modulus; and

As and As are accounted for

through It and neutral axis of

bending.

Cracked members.

E ci

1 = k r ------

Ec

= ( 2 1.2A s A s ) 0.6

2 = 1

kr = same as Branson;

Uncracked section;

Design values of 1 and 2

were recommended; and

The method is adopted in

PCI Design Handbook.

Martin (1977)

analysis using Ect and Ig.

1977)

analysis using Ec(t) and Ig.

by integrating the curvatures modified

by a creep recovery parameter and a

relaxation reduction factor that are

time-dependent.

For common loading cases,

only the curveatures at the

support

and

midspan

sections are needed.

Dilger (1982)

deflection expression at initial

loading time. The age adjusted

effective modulus and a creep

transformed moment of inertia

are used.

by integrating the curvature along the

member. The time-dependent

curvature is modified by the effect of

an equivalent force acting at the

centroid of the prestressing steel due

to creep and shrinkage strain.

Mc

( t ) = i C c ( t ) ------------------I tr E ca ( t )

Itr = transformed moment of inertia;

Mc = moment due to equivalent

transformed force; and

Eca(t) = age adjusted modulus

A relaxation reduction factor

is used.

Moustafa (1986)

analysis using actual material

properties.

creep and shrinkage into account,

using ACI creep and shrinkage

functions and a time step method.

A computer program is

available from PCI to

perform

the

nonlinear

analysis.

423.5R-10

Fig. 2.4Equivalent loads and moments produced by prestressing tendons (Nilson 1987);

P = prestressing force.

prestressing, as well. This approach allows the designer to

treat a prestressed concrete member as if it was a

nonprestressed concrete member. The prestressing steel is

treated as mild (passive) reinforcement for ultimate

conditions, with a remaining tensile capacity of (fps fpe),

where fps is the stress in the reinforcement at nominal

strength, and fpe is the effective stress in the prestressed

reinforcement (after allowance for all losses).

Most codes of practice (ACI 318; AASHTO Bridge

Design Specifications, Eurocode 2; and CSA Design of Concrete Structures for Buildings) use sectional methods for

design of conventional beams under bending, shear, and torsion. Truss models provide the basis for these sectional

design procedures that often include a term for the concrete

contribution (Ramirez and Breen 1991). The concrete contribution supplements the sectional truss model to reflect test

results in beams and slabs with little or no shear reinforcement and to ensure economy in the practical design of such

members.

In design specifications, the concrete contribution has

been taken as either the shear force or torsional moment at

transverse reinforcement. Therefore, detailed expressions

have been developed in terms of parameters relevant to the

strength of members without transverse reinforcement.

These parameters include the influence of axial compression, member geometry, support conditions, axial tension,

and prestress.

2.5.2 ShearThe following behavioral changes occur in

partially prestressed members at nominal shear levels, as

some of the longitudinal prestressing steel in the tension face

of the member is replaced by mild reinforcement, but the

same total flexural strength is maintained:

Due to the lower effective prestress, the external load

required to produce inclined cracking is reduced. This

results in an earlier mobilization of the shear reinforcement; and

After inclined cracking, there is a reduction in the concrete contribution. The reduction is less significant as the

degree of prestressing decreases. This can be explained

as follows:

The addition of mild reinforcement results in an

increase in the cross-sectional area of the longitudinal

and

The increase in stiffness of the longitudinal tension

reinforcement delays the development of the cracking pattern, so that the cracks are narrower and the

flexural compression zone is larger than in fully prestressed members of comparable flexural strength.

These behavioral changes are well documented in a series

of shear tests carried out by Caflisch et al. (1971). In this

series of tests, the only variable was the degree of prestressing. The cross sections of the prestressing steel and the reinforcing steel were selected so that all the beams had the same

flexural strength. These tests also showed that for the same

external load, a higher degree of prestressing delays the

onset of diagonal cracking and results in a decrease in the

stirrup forces. The decrease in stirrup forces can be

explained by the fact that a higher degree of prestressing in

the web of the member results in a lower angle of inclination

of the diagonal cracks. The lower angle of inclination of the

cracks leads to the mobilization of a larger number of stirrups.

In ACI 318, a cursory review of the design approach for

shear indicates that partially prestressed members can be

designed following the same procedure as for fully prestressed members. In ACI 318, it is assumed that flexure and

shear can be handled separately for the worst combination of

flexure and shear at a given section. The analysis of a beam

under bending and shear using the truss approach clearly

indicates that, to resist shear, the member needs both stirrups

and longitudinal reinforcement. The additional longitudinal

tension force due to shear can be determined from equilibrium conditions of the truss model as (V cot ), where V is the

shear force at the section, and is the angle of inclination of

the inclined struts with respect to the longitudinal axis of the

member.

In the shear provisions of ACI 318, no explicit check of the

shear-induced force in the longitudinal reinforcement is performed (Ramirez 1994). The difference between the flexural

strength requirements for the prestress reinforcement and the

ultimate tensile capacity of the reinforcement can be used to

satisfy the longitudinal tension requirement. The 1994 AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, in the section for

shear design, includes a check for longitudinal reinforcement.

These recommendations are based on a modified compression field theory (Vecchio and Collins 1986).

2.5.3 TorsionACI 318 includes design recommendation for the case of torsion or combined shear and torsion in

prestressed concrete members. These provisions model the

behavior of a prestressed concrete member before cracking

as a thin-walled tube and after cracking using a space-truss

model with compression diagonals inclined at an angle

around all faces of the member. For prestressed members,

can be taken equal to 37.5 degrees if the effective prestressing force is not less than 40% of the tensile strength of the

prestressed reinforcement. For other cases, can be taken

equal to 45 degrees. This approach is based on the work carried out in the 1960s and 1970s by European investigators

led by Thurlimann (1979). This work proposed a method

423.5R-11

with variable inclination of compression diagonals provides

a lower-bound (static) solution.

This procedure is representative of the behavior of thinwalled tubes in torsion. For these members, the shear

stresses induced by torsion can be determined using only

equilibrium relationships. Because the wall of the tube is

thin, a constant shear stress can be assumed across its thickness. In the longitudinal direction, equilibrium conditions

dictate that the torsion-induced shear stresses be resisted by

a constant shear flow around the perimeter of the section.

For other sections before cracking, the strength in torsion

can be computed from the elastic theory (de Saint-Venant

1956) or from the plastic theory (Nadai 1950). Rather than

using these more complex approaches, an approximate procedure is used in ACI 318 based on the concept that most torsion is resisted by the high shear stresses near the outer

perimeter of the section. In this approach, the actual cross

section before cracking is represented by an equivalent thinwalled tube with a wall thickness t of

A cp

t = 0.75 ------P cp

(2-2)

cross section, and Pcp = outside perimeter of the concrete

cross section. While the area enclosed by the shear flow

path, Ao, could be calculated from the external dimensions

and wall thickness of the equivalent tube, it is reasonable to

approximate it as equal to 2Acp/3. Cracking is assumed to

occur when the principal tensile stress reaches 4f c . For prestressed members, the cracking torque is increased by the

prestress. A Mohrs Circle analysis based on average stresses indicates that the torque required to cause a principal tensile stress equal to 4f c is the corresponding cracking torque

of a nonprestressed beam times

f pc

1 + -----------4 f c

(2-3)

where fpc in psi is the average precompression due to prestress at the centroid of the cross section resisting the externally applied loads or at the junction of web and flange if the

centroid lies within the flange.

In ACI 318, the design approach for combined actions

does not explicitly consider the change in conditions from

one side of the beam to the other. Instead, it considers the

side of the beam where shear and torsional effects are additive. After diagonal cracking, the concrete contribution of

the shear strength Vc remains constant at the value it has

when there is no torsion, and the torsion carried by the concrete is taken as zero. The approach in ACI 318 has been

compared with test results by MacGregor and Ghoneim

(1995).

In the AASHTO LRFD Specifications, the modified compression field theory proposed for members under shear has

423.5R-12

of service life for sections cracked and uncracked under

permanent loads (Watcharaumnuay and Naaman 1985).

been extended to include the effects of torsion. Similar to the

ACI 318 procedure, the AASHTO approach concentrates on

the design of the side of the beam where the shear and torsional stresses are additive.

As in the case of shear, torsion leads to an increase in the

tensile force on the longitudinal reinforcement. The longitudinal reinforcement requirement for torsion should be superimposed with the longitudinal reinforcement requirement for

bending that acts simultaneously with the torsion. In ACI

318, the longitudinal tension due to torsion can be reduced

by the compressive force in the flexural compression zone of

the member. Furthermore, in prestressed beams, the total

longitudinal reinforcement, including tendons at each section, can be used to resist the factored bending moment plus

the additional tension induced by torsion at that section.

ACI 318 and AASHTO Specifications recognize that, in

many statically indeterminate structures, the magnitude of

the torsional moment in a given member will depend on its

torsional stiffness. Tests have shown (Hsu 1968) that when a

member cracks in torsion, its torsional stiffness immediately

after cracking drops to approximately 1/5 of the value before

cracking, and at failure can be as low as 1/16 of the value

before cracking. This drastic drop in torsional stiffness

allows a significant redistribution of torsion in certain

indeterminate beam systems. In recognizing the reduction of

torsional moment that will take place after cracking in the

case of indeterminate members subjected to compatibilityinduced torsion, ACI 318R states that a maximum factored

torsional moment equal to the cracking torque can be

assumed to occur at the critical sections near the faces of

supports. This limit has been established to control the width

of the torsional cracks at service loads.

CHAPTER 3TIME-DEPENDENT BEHAVIOR

3.1Prestress losses

The stress in the tendons of prestressed concrete structures

decreases continuously with time. The total reduction in

stress during the life span of the structure is termed total

prestress loss. The total prestress loss consists of several

and time-dependent losses.

Instantaneous losses are due to elastic shortening, anchorage

seating, and friction. They can be computed for partially prestressed concrete in a manner similar to that for fully prestressed concrete.

Time-dependent losses are due to shrinkage and creep of

concrete and relaxation of prestressing steel. Several methods

are available to determine time-dependent losses in prestressed concrete members: lump-sum estimate of total losses, lump-sum estimates of separate losses (such as loss due

to shrinkage or creep), and calculation of losses by the timestep method. Because the numerical expressions

described, for instance, in the AASHTOs Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges or the PCI Design Handbook

(1992)for the first two methods were developed assuming

full prestressing, they are not applicable to partially prestressed members.

The combined presence of nonprestressed reinforcing bars

and a lower level of prestress in partially prestressed concrete

should lead to smaller time-dependent prestress losses than

for fully prestressed concrete. Another significant factor is

that a partially prestressed member can be designed as a

cracked member under sustained loading. A computerized

time-step analysis of the concrete and steel stresses along partially prestressed sections shows that the effect of creep of

concrete on the stress redistribution between the concrete and

steel tends to counteract the effect of prestress losses over

time. This is particularly significant for members that are

cracked under permanent loads. The result is illustrated in

Fig. 3.1 (Watcharaumnuay and Naaman 1985), which was

derived from the analysis of 132 beams with various values

of the partially prestressed ratio (PPR) and the reinforcement index . While time-dependent prestress losses can be

14% for uncracked fully prestressed sections, they remain

low for cracked sections up to relatively high values of the

PPR. Fig. 3.1 also shows that for uncracked sections, timedependent prestress losses decrease with a decrease in PPR.

Creep redistribution of force to reinforcing steel may reduce

the precompression in the concrete.

An investigation under NCHRP Project 12-33 has

addressed prestress losses in partially prestressed normal and

high-strength concrete beams. This work was described by

Naaman and Hamza (1993) and was adopted in the Final

Draft LRFD Specifications for Highway Bridge Design and

Commentary (Transportation Research Board 1993). It led to

lump-sum estimates of time-dependent losses for partially

prestressed beams that are assumed uncracked under the

design sustained loading. These are summarized in Table 3.1

and can be used as a first approximation in design.

3.2Cracking

Crack widths in reinforced and cracked partially

prestressed concrete members subjected to sustained loads

are known to increase with time. Bennett and Lee (1985)

reported that crack widths increase at a fast rate during the

early stages of loading then tend toward a slow steady rate of

increase. This is not surprising because deflections and

423.5R-13

1994)

Type of beam

section

Level

and solid slab

Average

Box girder

I-girder

Single-T, double-T,

hollow core, and

voided slab

fpu = 235, 250, or 270 ksi

29.0 + 4.0 PPR

26.0 + 4.0 PPR

Upper bound

Average

Average

f c 6.0

- + 6.0PPR

33.0 1.0 0.15 -----------------6.0

f c 6.0

- + 6.0PPR

Upper bound 39.0 1.0 0.15 -----------------6.0

Average

f c 6.0

- + 6.0PPR

33.0 1.0 0.15 -----------------6.0

19.0 + 6.0 PPR

15.0

19.0 + 6.0 PPR

f c 6.0

- + 6.0PPR

31.0 1.0 0.15 -----------------6.0

only localized effects, and their relative increase with time is

not proportional to the increase of deflections.

No studies have been reported where an analytical model

of crack width increase with time was developed. An investigation by Harajli and Naaman (1989), however, discussed

in Chapter 4 of this report, has led to the development of a

model to predict the increase in crack width under cyclic

fatigue loading. The model accounts for the effect of change

in steel stress due to cyclic creep of concrete in compression,

the increase in slip due to bond redistribution, and concrete

shrinkage.

3.3Deflections

Several experimental investigations have dealt with the

time-dependent deflection of partially prestressed concrete

members (Bennett and Lee 1985; Bruggeling 1977; Jittawait

and Tadros 1979; Lambotte and Van Nieuwenburg 1986;

Abeles 1965; and Watcharaumnuay and Naaman 1985).

Deflections and cambers in partially prestressed concrete

members are expected to vary with time similarly to reinforced or fully prestressed concrete. When positive deflection (opposite to camber) is present, in all cases the

deflection in partially prestressed beams falls between those

of reinforced concrete and fully prestressed concrete beams

(Fig. 3.2). A limited experimental study by Jittawait and

Tadros (1979) also seems to confirm this observation.

A study of the long-term behavior of partially prestressed

beams has been conducted at the Magnel laboratory in Belgium (Lambotte and Van Nieuwenburg 1986). Twelve partially prestressed beams with PPR of 0.8, 0.65, and 0.5 were

either kept unloaded or were loaded with an equivalent full

service load. For the unloaded beams, increased camber with

time was generally observed for PPR = 0.8; for PPR = 0.65,

the camber reached a peak value and then decreased with

time, resulting in a practically level beam; and for PPR = 0.5,

the initial camber decreased with time, resulting in a final

downward deflection. For the loaded beams, deflections

were observed in all cases and increased with time. These

observations are illustrated in Fig. 3.3. After 2 years of loading, the ratio of additional deflection to the initial deflection

partially prestressed (cracked and uncracked) beams

(Naaman 1982); 1 in. = 25.4 mm.

was about 1.25 for pretensioned members and 1.5 for posttensioned members.

Several analytical investigations have dealt with the timedependent deflections of prestressed and partially

prestressed beams assumed to be uncracked (Table 2.2). The

evaluation of deflections for cracked, partially prestressed

members has been conducted by several researchers

(Branson and Shaikh 1985; Ghali and Tadros 1985; Tadros

et al. 1985; Ghali and Favre 1986; Al-Zaid et al. 1988;

Elbadry and Ghali 1989; Ghali 1989; and Founas 1989).

Watcharaumnuay and Naaman (1985) proposed a method to

determine time- and cyclic-dependent deflections in simply

supported, partially prestressed beams in both the cracked

and uncracked state. The time-dependent deflection is

treated as a special case of cyclic deflection. Compared with

the time-step method where the deflection is obtained from

the summation of deflection increments over several time

423.5R-14

KD , KF =

steel profile;

M

=

sustained external moment at midspan;

F(t)

=

prestressing force at time t;

Ieff (t) =

effective moment of inertia of cracked section

at time t; and

Ece (t) =

equivalent elastic modulus of concrete at time t.

The eqivalent elastic modulus of concrete can be approximated by the following equation

Ec ( t )

E ce ( t ) = -------------------------------1 + Cc ( t tA )

unloaded specimens (Lambotte and Van Nieuwenburg

1986); 1 in. = 25.4 mm.

where

t

tA

Ec (t)

(3-2)

= age of concrete at time of loading;

= instantaneous elastic modulus of concrete at

time t;

and

Cc (t - tA) = creep coefficient of concrete at time t when

loaded at time tA.

Several expressions are available to predict the creep coefficient of concrete. The recommendations of ACI Committee

209 (1982) can be followed in most common applications.

Fig. 3.3(b)Variation with time of midspan deflection for

specimens under service loading (Lambotte and Van

Nieuwenburg 1986); 1 in. = 25.4 mm.

intervals, this method leads to the deflection at any time t and

cycle N directly. The method satisfies equilibrium and strain

compatibility. Using a slightly different approach, the

method proposed by Watcharaumnuay and Naaman (1985)

was generalized by Al-Zaid et al. (1988) and Founas (1989),

and was extended to include composite beams as well as

noncomposite beams.

In dealing with time-dependent deflections, several timedependent variables should be determined. These include the

prestressing force, the moment of inertia of the section, and

the equivalent modulus of elasticity of the concrete. The

expression for the effective moment of inertia described in

Eq. (2-1) can be used. In this expression, however, Mcr and

Icr are time-dependent variables because they depend on the

value of the prestressing force and the location of the neutral

axis (zero stress point along the section), both of which vary

with time. The equivalent modulus of elasticity of the concrete depends on the variation of creep strain with time.

The following method can be used to estimate deflection

at any time t in a cracked, simply supported beam

KF F ( t )

KD M

- + --------------------------- ( t ) = ---------------------------E ce ( t )I eff ( t ) E ce ( t )I eff ( t )

where

(3-1)

3.4Corrosion

The reinforcement in a fully prestressed member is better

protected against corrosion than the reinforcement in a

partially prestressed member. Cracks in partially prestressed

beams are potential paths for the passage of corrosive agents.

Although corrosion also occurs along uncracked sections,

cracking can facilitate corrosion. Abeles (1945) suggested

that corrosion of the prestressing steel in partially prestressed

members can be mitigated by requiring that the member

faces that are cracked under full service load be in

compression under permanent (dead) loads. He demonstrated

the effectiveness of this strategy in the behavior of beams

partially prestressed using small-diameter wires that were used

in the roof of an engine shed for steam locomotives. These

beams successfully resisted a very corrosive atmosphere caused

by the mixture of smoke and steam ejected onto them from the

funnels of the locomotives.

Limiting the size of crack widths to reduce the probability

of corrosion has been common practice in design. Later studies (ACI 222R-89), however, move away from this approach

by pointing out that corrosion is due to many causes, most of

which can proceed with or without cracking to be activated.

Corrosion in prestressing steels is much more serious than

corrosion in nonprestressed reinforcing steels. Prestressing

steel is generally stressed to over 50% of its strength, making

it susceptible to stress corrosion, and the diameter of individual prestressing steel wires is relatively small. Even a small,

uniform corrosive layer or a corroded spot can progressively

reduce the cross-sectional area of the steel and lead to wire

failure.

should be treated accordingly. Precautions should be taken

to prevent or to reduce prestressing steel corrosion.

ACI 423.3R addresses the historical causes of corrosion in

unbonded tendons. The Post-Tensioning Manual (Post-Tensioning Institute 1990) provides guidance for corrosion protection for bonded and unbonded tendons. Occasionally, for

pretensioned concrete, epoxy-coated prestressing strands

have been specified for corrosive environments. High curing

temperatures, however, could adversely affect the bond of

epoxy-coated strand. Guidelines for the Use of Epoxy-Coated Strand (PCI Ad Hoc Committee 1993) contains recommendations for its use.

Lenschow (1986) reported that crack widths less than

0.004 to 0.006 in. (0.1 to 0.15 mm), which develop under

maximum load, will heal under long-term compression.

Crack widths that increase to less than 0.01 in. (0.3 mm)

under rare overload (every 1 to 3 years) can reduce to 0.004

to 0.006 in. (0.1 to 0.15 mm) under sustained compression.

Keeping crack widths under such limits should avoid problems with corrosion.

CHAPTER 4EFFECTS OF REPEATED

LOADING (FATIGUE)

4.1Background

Two major requirements should be considered when

designing members subjected to repeated loads: member

strength and serviceability. The static strength and fatigue

strength of the member should exceed loads imposed and

adequate serviceability requirements (deflection and crack

control) should be provided.

The fatigue strength of a member is affected primarily by

the stress range (difference between maximum and minimum stress), the number of load applications or cycles, and

the applied stress levels. The fatigue life of a member is

defined as the number of load cycles before failure. The

higher the stress range imposed on the member, the shorter

the fatigue life.

Reliability analyses indicate that the probability of fatigue

failure of reinforcement in partially prestressed beams is

higher on average than failure by any other common serviceability or ultimate limit state criterion (Naaman 1985, Naaman and Siriaksorn 1982). Fatigue can be a critical loading

condition for partially prestressed concrete beams because

high stress ranges can be imposed on the member in the service-load range (Naaman and Siriaksorn 1979).

Partially prestressed concrete beams generally crack upon

first application of live load (Naaman 1982b). Subsequent

applications of live load cause the cracks to reopen at the

decompression load (when the stress at the extreme tensile

face is zero), which is less than the load that caused first

cracking. To maintain equilibrium in the section after cracking, the neutral axis shifts toward the extreme compression

fiber. This shift generates higher strains (stresses) in the tensile

reinforcement.

Under repeated loads, the larger stress changes (created

by opening and closing of the cracks) cause fatigue damage

in the constituent materials, bond deterioration, and

423.5R-15

(Naaman 1982b; Shakawi and Batchelor 1986; and ACI

Committee 215 1974). The increase in crack widths in partially prestressed beams, however, has been smaller than

that generated in similarly loaded, precracked, fully prestressed beams (Harajli and Naaman 1984).

Because the proportion of dead to total load often increases as the span length increases, the significance of fatigue as

a critical limit state tends to diminish as span lengths

increase (Freyermuth 1985).

Abeles demonstrated the practicability of using partially

prestressed concrete members when fatigue resistance is a

serious consideration (Abeles 1954). He persuaded British

Railways to consider the use of partial prestressing in the

reconstruction of highway bridges over the London to

Manchester line, when it was electrified around 1950. British Railways financed extensive cyclic loading tests of fullscale members, which were designed to allow 550 psi

(approximately 8f c or 3.8 MPa) tension under full service

load and 50 psi (0.34 MPa) compression under dead load

only. These members were cracked under static load and

were then subjected to 3 million cycles of load producing the

design range of stress, 50 psi (0.34 MPa) compression to 550

psi (3.8 MPa) tension at the flexural tension face. Behavior

was satisfactory, with essentially complete closure of cracks

and recovery of deflection after 3 million cycles of load. The

strength under static loading was not decreased by the cyclic

loading. Many relatively short-span bridges were constructed using such partially prestressed members and they performed satisfactorily.

Recently, Roller et al. (1995) conducted an experimental

program including four full-size, pretensioned, bulb-tee girders made with high-strength concrete and pretensioned. The

girders were 70 ft (21.3 m) long and 54 in. (1.4 m) deep with

a concrete compressive strength of 10,000 psi (69 MPa). One

of the four test girders with a simple span of 69 ft (21.0 m)

was subjected to cyclic (fatigue) flexural loading using two

point loads spaced 12 ft (3.66 m) apart at midspan. A concrete deck 10 ft (3.05 m) wide and 9.5 in. (250 mm) thick had

been cast on the girder to represent the effective flange of the

composite girder in a bridge.

During the cyclic flexural loading, the upper limit of the

load produced a midspan tensile stress at the extreme fiber of

the lower flange equal to 6f c . The lower limit of the load was

selected such that a steel stress range of 10,000 psi (69 MPa)

would be produced. After each million cycles of loading, the

girder was tested statically to determine its stiffness. Slight

reductions in stiffness and camber were observed, but there

was no significant change in prestress loss. The girder performed satisfactorily for 5 million cycles of fatigue loading.

After completion of the long-term fatigue load test, the girder was tested under static load to determine its ultimate flexural strength. It developed an ultimate moment equal to 94%

of the ultimate moment capacity of a companion girder that

had been under long-term sustained load. The measured

moment capacity also exceeded the calculated moment

capacity by 7.5% based on the AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges.

423.5R-16

in-air and embedded in concrete, to determine its fatigue properties. These tests have yielded varying results (Rehm 1960,

Soretz 1965). For straight deformed bars, ACI Committee 215

(1974), Model Code for Concrete Structures (CEB-FIP 1978),

FIP Commission on Model Code (1984), and Ontario Highway Bridge Design Code (Ministry of Transportation and

Communications 1983) recommend stress range limits of 20,

22, and 18 ksi (138, 152, and 124 MPa), respectively. The

lowest stress range found to cause fatigue failure in a hotrolled bar is 21 ksi (145 MPa) (ACI Committee 215 1974).

ACI 343R recommends limiting the reinforcement stress

range in terms of the minimum stress and reinforcement

deformation geometry

f f = 21 0.33f min + 8 ( r h )

(4-2)

where

ff

=

fmin =

r/h =

strands with existing data (Harajli and Naaman 1985a).

4.2Material fatigue strength

The fatigue resistance of a structural concrete member is

directly related to the fatigue properties of its component

materials (Naaman 1982b). Therefore, the fatigue behavior

of the constituent materials should be investigated first.

Fatigue of concreteThe applied stress range limit for

concrete recommended by ACI 215 (1974) is given by the

formula

f cr = 0.4f c f min 2

(4-1)

where

fcr = maximum recommended stress range for concrete;

= specified concrete compressive strength; and

f c

fmin = minimum applied stress.

Concrete can sustain a fluctuating stress between zero

and 50% of its static strength for approximately 10 million

cycles in direct compression, tension, or flexure without

failure (Norby 1958; Gylltoft 1978; McCall 1958; Stelson

and Cernica 1958; and Hilsdorf and Kesler 1966). Concrete

stresses resulting from service loads are generally smaller

than this magnitude (Shahawi and Batchelor 1986). Consequently, concrete fatigue failure generally will not control in

the case of repetitively loaded partially prestressed beams

(Naaman 1982b; Harajli and Naaman 1984; and Bennett

1986).

Fatigue of reinforcementFatigue failure of underreinforced

prestressed concrete beams is believed to be governed by the

fatigue failure of the steel reinforcement (Warner and Hulsbos 1966a).

minimum applied stress, ksi; and

ratio of base radius-to-height of rolled-on transverse deformation (a value of 0.3 can be used in

the absence of specific data).

The fatigue strength of prestressing reinforcement

depends upon the steel type (bar, wire, strand), anchorage

(unbonded post-tensioned reinforcement), extent of bond (ACI

Committee 215 1974), and steel treatment. Paulson et al.

(1983) conducted fatigue tests (in-air) of 50 seven-wire

strand samples obtained from six different manufacturers.

All of the strands conformed with ASTM A 416 requirements. The minimum stresses applied in the tests ranged

from 75 to 165 ksi (517 to 1138 MPa), and the stress ranges

varied from 22 to 81 ksi (152 to 559 MPa). A significant

variation was observed in results from even two samples of

the same product produced by the same manufacturer. The

effect of the end grips dominated the fatigue curves in the

region of long-life, low-stress-range.

The following relationship was found to lie above 95 to

97.5% of the failure points

log N = 11 3.5 log f sr

where

N =

fsr =

(4-3)

maximum stress range for a fatigue life of N cycles, ksi.

The researchers did not find the effect of minimum stress on

fatigue life great enough to warrant inclusion in the equation.

The FIP Commission on Prestressing Steel (1976) recommends a stress range of 15% of fpu with a minimum applied

stress not greater than 75% of fpu for a fatigue life of 2 million cycles. For the same fatigue life of two million cycles,

however, Naaman (1982b) recommends a reduced stress

range of 10% fpu with a minimum applied stress not greater

than 60% of fpu to better correlate with test results (Fig. 4.1).

The following equation can be used to predict other maximum safe stress ranges

423.5R-17

(4-4)

where

fsr =

cycles;

fpu = specified tensile strength of the prestressing

strand; and

Nf = number of cycles to failure.

The endurance limit (stress range for which the reinforcement will not fail for an infinite number of cycles) has not

been found for prestressing steel (Naaman 1982b); however,

a fatigue life of 2 million cycles is considered to be sufficient

for most applications.

The previous discussion applies to pretensioned strands.

For post-tensioned tendons, two more levels of fatigue

strength have to be considered: the strand/duct assembly and

the tendon anchorages. For the strand/duct assembly, fretting

fatigue may govern if high contact stresses between strand

and corrugated steel duct are combined with small relative

movements at cracks. Under such circumstances, the fatigue

strength of the strand/duct assembly can drop to as low as

14,300 psi (100 MPa). Fatigue strengths of anchorages are in

the order of 14,300 psi (100 MPa), according to FIP Commission on Prestressing Steel and Systems (1992).

Designers typically place tendon anchorages away from

areas with high stress variations and avoid fatigue problems

at the anchorages. A similar approach normally will not

work to avoid fretting fatigue because maximum stresses

often occur at sections with maximum tendon curvature and

maximum contact stresses between strand and duct. Fretting

fatigue between strand and duct, however, can be avoided by

using thick-walled plastic ducts rather than corrugated steel

ducts (Oertle 1988). With a thick-walled plastic duct, the

strand reaches fatigue strengths comparable to those of

strand in air. Fig. 4.2 shows the fatigue performance of tendons with steel and plastic ducts in simply supported beams

under four-point loading. In the specimen with a steel duct,

50% of the tendons failed at a fatigue amplitude of 25,000 psi

(175 MPa); in contrast, only 18% of the tendons in the specimen with a plastic duct failed at a fatigue amplitude of

39,400 psi (275 MPa).

4.3Fatigue in partially prestressed beams

To illustrate the relative importance of fatigue for partially

prestressed beams compared with that for ordinary reinforced

or fully prestressed beams, Naaman (1982b) analyzed three

concrete beams, identical except for the partially prestressed

reinforcement ratio (PPR = 0, 0.72 and 1.0). Note that PPR

= 0 represents an ordinary reinforced beam; PPR = 1.0 represents a fully prestressed beam; and PPR = 0.72 represents

a partially prestressed beam. All of the beams were designed

to provide the same ultimate moment capacity. Material

properties and relevant data are given by Naaman and Siriaksorn (1979).

For each beam, computed stress ranges in ordinary and prestressed steel were plotted with respect to the applied load (in

excess of the dead load) varying from zero to the specified

steel duct and in thick-walled plastic duct (Oertle 1988);

1 ksi = 6.9 MPa.

live load (Fig. 4.3). For the same type of beam section, the

effect of the PPR was plotted with respect to the reinforcement stress range due to the application of live loads (Fig.

4.4). The discontinuity in the plots corresponds with first

cracking of the concrete in the beams. It is evident from the

figures that higher stress ranges are associated with partially

prestressed sections. Thus, fatigue problems are more significant in partially prestressed sections than in their ordinary

reinforced or fully prestressed counterparts.

4.4Prediction of fatigue strength

The studies described have a common conclusion summarized by Naaman (1982b) and Warner and Hulsbos (1966b).

The critical limit state (fatigue failure) of partially prestressed concrete beams is generally due to failure of the

reinforcement. The fatigue life of the member can be predicted from the smaller of the fatigue lives of the reinforcing

steel or the prestressing steel. Many of these investigations

have indicated that in-air test results of reinforcement provide a good indication of the member fatigue life.

Naaman therefore recommends using Eq. (4-4) or Fig. 4.1

to estimate the fatigue life of stress-relieved seven-wire

strand for the appropriate stress range. A strand subjected to

a minimum stress less than 60% of its tensile strength with a

stress range of 10% of the tensile strength should provide a

fatigue life of approximately two million cycles.

For ordinary reinforcement, Naaman recommends using

Eq. (4-2) to determine safe stress ranges that provide fatigue

lives in excess of 2 million cycles.

ACI Committee 215 (1974) and Venuti (1965) recommend conducting a statistical investigation of at least six to

12 reinforcement samples at appropriate stress levels to establish the fatigue characteristics of the material. At least three

stress levels are required to establish the finite-life portion of

the S-N diagram: one stress level near the static strength, one

near the fatigue limit, and one in between.

The choice of the PPR and relative placement of the reinforcement have a significant effect on the fatigue response of the

members. Naaman (1982b) states that proper selection of these

variables can maintain the stress ranges in the reinforcement to

within acceptable limits.

423.5R-18

Fig. 4.3Typical comparison of stress changes in steel for reinforced, prestressed, and

partially prestressed beams (Naaman 1982a).

Balaguru (1981) and Balaguru and Shah (1982) have presented a method and a numerical example for predicting the fatigue

serviceability of partially prestressed members. The method

compares the stress ranges in the beam constituents to the fatigue

limits of each individual component (concrete, prestressing steel

and nonprestressing steel) using the equations derived by Naaman and Siriaksorn (1979) to calculate stresses for both

uncracked and cracked sections.

Naaman and Founas (1991) also presented models to calculate the structural responses that account for shrinkage,

static and cyclic creep, and relaxation of prestressing steel.

For any time t and cycle N, the models can be used to compute stresses, strains, curvatures, and deflections.

prestressing (Naaman 1982a).

4.5Serviceability aspects

In a cracked concrete member, whether nonprestressed,

partially prestressed, or fully prestressed, the crack widths

and deflections generally increase under repeated loadings

(Naaman 1982b).

The increase in crack widths and deflections in concrete

members is mostly attributed to the cyclic creep of concrete

and bond deterioration accompanied by slip between the

reinforcement and concrete on either side of existing cracks.

ACI Committee 224 (1980) notes that 1 million cycles of

load can double the crack widths.

for cyclic slip and stresses to compute crack widths in partially prestressed concrete beams. In the analysis, equilibrium was assumed between the reinforcement bond stresses

and the concrete tensile stresses in a concrete tensile prism

joining two successive cracks. In addition, a local bond

stress-slip relationship was assumed for the reinforcement.

The results of the analyses were in agreement compared

with the experimental results shown in Fig. 4.5 and 4.6 for

monotonic and cyclic loading, respectively. Agreement was

also obtained with tests conducted by Lovegrove and El Din

(1982) for which the steel stresses ranged from 7 to 43 ksi

(48 to 297 MPa).

The analytical models were also useful in predicting trends

in the crack patterns in terms of growth and mechanisms of

growth. From the analyses, Harajli and Naaman (1989)

attributed increased crack widths to increases in steel

stresses caused by cyclic creep of concrete in compression

and bond redistribution between cracks.

They indicated that partially prestressed beams have

smaller crack spacings and less crack growth than fully prestressed beams subjected to fatigue loads. The presence of

ordinary reinforcement in prestressed beams helps to control

cracking in static and fatigue tests. Ordinary reinforcement

reduces the increased steel stresses attributed to cyclic creep

of concrete. In addition, it minimizes bond redistribution.

Crack widths were observed to be a function of reinforcement stress and crack spacing. In tests that generated similar

crack spacings (3 to 4.5 in., [76 to 114 mm]), a nearly linear

relationship was observed between crack widths and reinforcement stress (Fig. 4.7). To estimate the crack spacing acs and

crack width W the following equations were given

a cs = 1.20A t P

(4-5)

W = 2S o B

(4-6)

W N = 2S o, N B N + [ ( f so, N f so )a cs B N E s ]

(4-7)

where

acs =

At

=

W

WN

So

So,N

B

BN

fso

fso,N

N

Es

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

effective area of concrete tension zone surrounding all reinforcementhaving the same centroid as

the reinforcement, in.2 (mm2);

sum of the perimeters of all tension reinforcement,

in. (mm);

crack width at the first loading cycle;

crack width at the Nth loading cycle;

slip of the reinforcement at the first cycle;

slip of the reinforcement at the Nth cycle;

distance ratio at the first cycle;

distance ratio at the Nth cycle;

steel stress at the primary crack at the first cycle;

steel stress at the primary crack at cycle N;

number of load cycles; and

modulus of elasticity of steel.

423.5R-19

widths for monotonically tested beams (Harajli and

Naaman 1989); 1 ksi = 6.9 MPa; 1 in. = 25.4 mm.

Tests by Shahawi and Batchelor (1986) indicated a similar

linear relationship between crack width and reinforcement

stress. They recommend the use of the FIP-CEB equation

(Eq. 4-8) for predicting the maximum crack widths in partially prestressed beams subjected to fatigue

W max = f s 10

(4-8)

where

Wmax = maximum crack width, mm; and

= change in steel stress from decompression at the

fs

extreme tensile fiber, MPa.

The previous FIP-CEB equation accounts for partial

debonding, but does not consider cyclic creep of the concrete. Balaguru (1981) and Balaguru and Shah (1982)

developed an equation to estimate maximum crack widths

that incorporates the effects of cyclic creep and progressive

deterioration of flexural stiffness. Comparing the results of

this equation with those of the FIP-CEB crack width formula

using data by Bhuvasorakul (1974), Balaguru determined the

following ratios of maximum crack width after N cycles to

initial maximum crack width: Wmax,N / Wmax = 2.45 (experimental) = 1.003 (FIP-CEB) = 2.15 (Balaguru). He attributed

the disparity in the result obtained by the FIP-CEB equation

to the lack of consideration of cyclic creep of concrete.

4.6Summary of serviceability

In all types of concrete members, crack widths and

deflections generally increase under repeated loadings

(Naaman 1982b). These increases occur during early load

stages and then generally stabilize until approximately 90%

of their fatigue life. Researchers (Harajli and Naaman 1989,

423.5R-20

Fig. 4.6Comparison of observed and predicted crack width increases with number of

loading cycles (Harajli and Naaman 1989); 1 in. = 25.4 mm.

Shahawi and Batchelor 1986) show a nearly linear relationship

between maximum crack width and reinforcement stress.

Deflections can increase to twice the static deflection of the first

load cycle.

The importance of correct reinforcement detailing for

crack control should be emphasized. Pretensioned wires or

nonprestressed bars can be placed near the tensile face to

help limit crack widths according to the report Partial Prestressing (Concrete Society 1983). The presence of ordinary

reinforcement in prestressed beams helps to control cracking

in static and fatigue tests. Ordinary reinforcement reduces

the increased steel stresses attributed to cyclic creep of concrete. In addition, it minimizes bond redistribution.

Balaguru (1981) and Balaguru and Shah (1982) have

derived a refined approach that incorporates the effects of

estimate maximum crack widths and deflections at a given

load cycle. Naaman and Founas (1991) also presented

models to compute stresses, strains, and deflections in

partially prestressed beams for static and cyclic loading

incorporating effects of shrinkage, creep, and relaxation.

CHAPTER 5EFFECTS OF LOAD REVERSALS

5.1Introduction

Cyclic load reversals can result from dynamic effects of

earthquake, shock, wind, or blast loadings. Earthquake loadings are imparted to the base of the structure through ground

motion, whereas wind loadings transmit forces to the aboveground portions of the structure. Shock or blast loadings can

involve both of these effects: air overpressure forces similar

423.5R-21

Fig. 4.7Crack width variation versus reinforcing steel stress at different PPR (Harajli

and Naaman 1985); 1 ksi = 6.9 MPa, 1 in. = 25.4 mm.

to wind loadings and ground motions accompanying either

buried, air, or contact blasts.

5.2Design philosophy for seismic loadings

In design for seismic effects, the primary concern is safety

of the occupants (Bertero 1986), and a secondary concern is

economics. Even for an earthquake with reasonable probability of occurrence; however, it is not possible to guarantee

with absolute certainty complete life safety and no structural

damage. The Federal Emergency Management Agency, in

their document NEHRP 1997 Recommended Provisions

(1998), give minimum requirements to provide reasonable

and prudent life safety. To achieve these objectives, structures should be proportioned to resist design forces with adequate strength and stiffness to limit damage to acceptable

levels. Design forces are determined by using a responsemodification coefficient R to reduce the forces obtained,

assuming that the structure responds linear elastically to the

ground motion. The reduction factor accounts for the

reduced strength demand due to a number of effects, including energy dissipation through hysteretic damping and

lengthening of the structural period as the structure becomes

inelastic.

In simplistic terms, there are two basic options in seismic

design: (1) make the structure strong enough so that it will

respond elastically; or (2) permit the structure to deform

inelastically while ensuring adequate ductility and energy

dissipation capacity. The second option permits the structure

for the first option.

Designing partially prestressed concrete structures in accordance with the second approach, raises the same concerns as

for the case of designing with conventional reinforced concrete; that is, the designer must ensure:

Ductility at plastic hinges; and

Adequate energy dissipation through damping and

hysteresis.

This chapter concentrates on these characteristics as they

relate to partially prestressed concrete.

5.3Ductility

Ductility allows the redistribution of forces in indeterminate

systems and ensures gradual rather than brittle failure, providing a warning to the occupants before collapse. If adequate

ductility is not provided at the critical regions (plastic hinge

zones), the member will be unable to develop the required

inelastic rotation.

Ductility is usually expressed for structural members and

systems in terms of a deformation ductility ratio, where the

deformation is described in terms of displacement, rotation,

or curvature (Naaman et al. 1986, Thompson and Park

1980a, Giannini et al. 1986). Deflection and rotation ductilities give an indication of drift (ratio of lateral displacement

to height) and are used in structural analysis. Curvature ductility is used to define member or section behavior at plastic

hinges.

The ductility ratio is defined as the ratio of the ultimate

deformation to the yield deformation. In the case of partially

423.5R-22

(Naaman et al. 1986).

prestressed concrete structures, the definition of yield

deformation can be quite arbitrary (Naaman et al. 1986;

Thompson and Park 1980a; Giannini et al. 1986). The

section contains both prestressed and nonprestressed

reinforcement that can have different yield stresses;

prestressing steel does not have a definite yield point, and

reinforcement located in different layers will yield at

different member deformations. The yield deformation,

therefore, can be defined in many ways.

Among numerous investigations on partially prestressed

concrete, there has not been a consistent definition of yield

deformation (Fig. 5.1). Cohn and Bartletts study (1982) on

partially prestressed concrete assumed that the yield curvature corresponded to yielding of ordinary reinforcement.

This approach gives a relatively high value of ductility

because the prestressing reinforcement yields at a much larger deformation. Thompson and Park (1980a) defined first

yield as the intersection of the tangent to the elastic portion

of the load-deformation curve and a horizontal line at ultimate load. In Park and Falconers study (1983) on prestressed piles, the yield deformation was taken at the

intersection of the secant from zero to 75% of the ultimate

moment capacity and the postelastic slope. Naaman et al.

(1986) defined the yield deformation as the intersection of

the secant from zero to the proportional limit of the prestressing steel and the postelastic slope. Although these latter definitions give slightly different results, they are all based on

the ductility of the member section rather than yielding of a

particular component in the cross section.

Local section ductility demands can be much more

severe than overall deflection ductilities of frames. Tests by

Muguruma et al. (1980) on partially prestressed concrete

frames indicated that the ratios of section curvature ductilities to deflection ductilities of the frame were 1.24 and 1.53

for partially prestressed concrete systems with bonded and

unbonded tendons, respectively.

5.3.1 Factors affecting ductilityNumerous investigations have been conducted to determine the effect of different parameters on ductility. Generally, factors that affect the

ductility of ordinary-reinforced concrete sections affect the

ductility of partially prestressed concrete sections as well.

Effects of anchorage, bond, transfer lengths, grouting, characteristics of high-strength prestressing steels, and level of

prestressing are additional parameters uniquely important to

prestressed and partially prestressed concrete members

(Bertero 1986).

Investigations were conducted to determine the effects of

the reinforcement ratio (Cohn and Ghosh 1972; MacGregor

1974; Scott et al. 1982; and Park and Thompson 1977),

concrete confinement (Park and Falconer 1983; Scott et al.

1982; Burns 1979; Kent and Park 1966; Wight and Sozen

1975; Sheikh and Uzumeri 1982; and Sheikh 1982), material

strengths and stress-strain properties (Wight and Sozen 1975,

Wang 1977), section geometry, ratio of compression

reinforcement (Park and Thompson 1977, Burns and Seiss

1962), PPR, and axial load (Lin and Burns 1981). Another

investigation by Thompson and Park (1980a) was conducted

to determine the effects of the content and distribution of

longitudinal reinforcement, transverse reinforcement, and

concrete cover. Naaman et al. (1986) analyzed beams with

four types of sections (rectangular, T, I, and box sections),

five different concrete strengths, three types of prestressing

steel, four levels of PPR, and seven reinforcing indexes .

For the rectangular and T-sections, five levels of effective

prestress fpe /fpu were analyzed, and in selected cases, four

levels of compression reinforcement ratios and the effect of

confinement were investigated. The following observations

were made from the parametric evaluation:

Reinforcement indexSection ductility decreases with

increasing because of the significant reduction in

ultimate curvatures associated with increased

reinforcement ratios (Fig. 5.2 and 5.3).

Effective prestressWhen the effective prestress was

decreased, it led to an increase in ultimate curvature for

reinforcing indices greater than approximately 0.12.

It also led to an increase in yield curvature irrespective

of the reinforcement index. Fig. 5.2 illustrates the

influence of effective prestress on ductility factor or the

ratio of these two quantities. The increase in yield

curvature tended to dominate the results and caused a

reduction in ductility with decreased effective prestress

irrespective of the reinforcing indices. This effect was

more significant for fully prestressed beams.

Partially prestressed ratioA decrease in PPR led to

an increase in both ultimate and yield curvatures, but in

terms of ductility, there was no consistent trend. The

effect of PPR on ductility became negligible with

increased concrete compressive strengths.

Transverse reinforcementIncreases in concrete

confinement resulted in corresponding increases in

sectional ductility irrespective of the reinforcement

index. This effect was also observed in tests by several

423.5R-23

of effective prestress in steel from analytical study (Naaman

et al. 1986).

al. 1982b; Iyengar et al. 1970; Okamoto 1980; and

Hawkins 1977).

Concrete strengthFor high values of reinforcement

index ( > 0.25), the concrete compressive strength did

not have a significant effect on ductility. For low values

of (< 0.25), however, the use of higher-strength

concrete reduced section ductility as much as 30%,

particularly in cases of low PPR (ordinary reinforced

concrete). This trend was also more pronounced for

rectangular sections as compared with box, T- and Isections. Tests by Muguruma et al. (1983) indicate that

high-strength concrete is effective in improving

ductility, but that the consequences of high-strength

tendon fracture and brittle compressive failure of highstrength concrete should be considered.

Section geometryThe section geometry did not have

an appreciable effect on ductility, provided that the

ductility index was expressed as a function of

equations (Naaman et al. 1986); = ratio of compressionto-tension steel force at ultimate; and 1 ksi = 6.9 MPa.

reinforcement index (computed using the web for Tsections).

Naaman et al. (1986) found the reinforcement index to

be an excellent independent variable for describing section

ductility, as it is proportional to c/dctf (c = distance from

extreme compression fiber to neutral axis; and dctf = depth

to centroid of tensile steel). Based on the reinforcement ratio

and concrete compressive strength, it can be used to describe

all three types of systems: reinforced concrete, prestressed

concrete, and partially prestressed concrete.

Based on the results of analysis and experimental tests

on twelve partially prestressed concrete beams (Harajli and

Naaman 1984) described in the previous chapter, Naaman

423.5R-24

where

= reinforcement index;

dctf = depth to centroid of tensile force in steel; and

Lp = equivalent plastic hinge length.

In Fig. 5.4, the equations are compared with the results of

several investigations (Kent and Park 1966; Corley 1966;

Mattock 1964; Mattock 1967; Harajli and Naaman 1985c;

Bishara and Brar 1974; and Baker and Amarakone 1964).

The equations show fairly good correlation with the results

(assuming a plastic hinge length Lp of dctf /2), and are recommended by Naaman et al. for use as a first approximation in

the design and detailing of ordinary reinforced, fully prestressed or partially prestressed members.

In a discussion of this work, Loov et al. (1987) recommend

specifying c/d rather than to ensure ductility, as is done in

the Standards Association of Australias Draft Unified Concrete Structure for Buildings (1984) and the CSAs Design

of Concrete Structures for Buildings. The use of c/d ensures

consistent ductility demands from sections independent of

geometry and concrete compressive strength. To accommodate this, Naaman et al. also provided the expressions in

terms of c/dctf, valid for c/dctf between 0.08 and 0.42:

Curvature ductility ratio

1

------------------------------------------Upper bound

0.73c d ctf 0.053

and plastic rotation as a function of the reinforcement index

. Three equations were derived for both the sectional ductility and plastic rotation to give upper limit, lower limit, and

average values for ranges of reinforcement index of 0.05 to

0.3 (Fig. 5.3). The upper and lower limits accommodate the

effects of parameters described previously, other than reinforcement index which were shown to have an effect on

ductility. For example, Naaman et al. suggest the lowerbound equation be used to describe cases with high-strength

concrete, low effective prestress, and high PPR. The upperbound equations are suggested for cases with normal strength

concrete, high effective prestress, and low PPR. The equations

are given as follows

Curvature ductility ratio

Upper bound

1

---------------------- 0.045

LP

1.05 - -----------------------------------850 35 d ctf 2

(5-1)

Lower bound

1

--------------------------------1.94 0.086

LP

1.05

1.65- -----------------------------------------1300 40 d ctf 2

(5-2)

Average

1

---------------------------1.5 0.075

1.07 1.58 L P

------------------------------- -------------1050 45 d ctf 2

(5-3)

(5-4)

Lower

bound

1

-------------------------------------------1.42c d ctf 0.102

---------------------------------------- -------------949c d ctf 50 d ctf 2

(5-5)

Average

1

----------------------------------------------1.095c d ctf 0.087

----------------------------------------- -------------766c d ctf 53 d ctf 2

(5-6)

where

c

=

experimental results (Naaman et al. 1986).

1.86 0.73c d ctf L P

---------------------------------------- -------------621c d ctf 42 d ctf 2

fiber;

dctf = depth to centroid of tensile force in steel; and

Lp = equivalent plastic hinge length.

Thompson and Park (1980a) agreed with a form of c/d as

a measure of the ductility in an investigation in which a

moment-curvature relation was developed applicable to ordinary reinforced, prestressed, and partially prestressed concrete

beams, and verified with experimental tests on symmetrically

reinforced (prestressed and ordinary reinforced) rectangular

beam-column assemblies subjected to cyclic load reversals.

The model was subsequently used to conduct a parametric

study. Their recommendations are as follows:

Effect of prestressing steel contentACI 318 limits the

prestressing steel content by requiring p 0.36 1,

where 1 is a parameter used to modify the neutral axis

depth c to determine the depth of the equivalent

rectangular stress block a. Although the code limits the

prestressing steel content, ACI 318 allows this value to

be exceeded if the additional reinforcement is not

considered in the flexural strength calculation. Although

this can result in sufficient ductility for gravity loading, it

can be insufficient for seismic loading. To ensure

adequate ductility, one can limit p to less than 0.2

(rather than 0.3 for the case of 1 = 0.85). Alternatively,

rather than using the previous equation, one can also

limit a/h 0.2 (a = depth of rectangular stress block; and

h = depth of section). This provides a given amount of

independent of tendon positions. This relationship has

been adopted by FIP (Cement and Concrete Association

of England 1977) and the Standards Association of New

Zealands Code of Practice for General Structural

Design and Design Loading for Buildings (1980).

Effect of prestressing steel distribution on ductility

Sections with only one tendon have reduced moment

capacity as the concrete in compression deteriorates.

Thompson and Park (1980a) recommend the use of at least

two grouted tendons (one near the top and one near the

bottom of the section) for seismic loading, and suggested

locating a third tendon towards the center of the section.

The use of unbonded tendons was generally not recommended for primary earthquake-resistant members

because of lack of information on the performance of the

anchorages (Muguruma 1986). In cases where partially

prestressed beams are designed with nonprestressed reinforcement in the extreme fibers providing at least 80% of

the seismic resistance, however, they indicated that the

prestress can be provided by one or more grouted or

unbonded tendons in the middle third of the beam depth.

The centrally located prestressing steel is recommended

because it can delay cracking and enhance strength without much reduction in ductility. Studies at the National

Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and as part

of the National Science Foundation Precast Seismic

Structural Systems (PRESSS) program (Cheok and Lew

1990) have explored the use of unbonded prestressing

reinforcement through the connections. In the studies at

NIST, central post-tensioning was used in conjunction

with mild steel reinforcement at the top and bottom of

the beam-column interface. The central post-tensioning

maintained integrity of the joint, while energy dissipation

was accommodated with the mild steel reinforcement. A

study by Priestley and Tao (1993) proposed the use of

lightly stressed, unbonded prestressing steel through the

joint (nonlinear-elastic concept). The system offers ductile

behavior through crack opening at the interface, while

maintaining a self-restoring force. Because the strands

do not yield, they work to bring the connection back to its

originally undeformed position. This system has been

studied further with other proposed connection systems

as part of the PRESSS program (Cheok and Lew 1990).

Effect of transverse reinforcement on ductilityThe

degree of confinement provided by the transverse reinforcement to the compression regions significantly increases

ductility. The confinement enhances the performance of the

concrete within the core and also inhibits buckling of the

compression reinforcement (Park and Thompson 1977;

Park and Paulay 1975; and Thompson 1975). Thompson

and Park recommend that the stirrups be spaced less than

d/4 or 6 in. (150 mm).

Effect of cover thicknessFor ductility, Thompson and

Park suggest that the cover be made as small as possible,

because loss of cover under cyclic loads causes a reduction in capacity. The effect of cover spalling on member

strength is not as great for deeper members where cover

is a smaller percentage of member depth.

Holding all other parameters constant, ductility decreases

with an increase in reinforcement index. ACI 318 gives a

maximum value for the reinforcement index of 0.36 1.

Maintaining this limit would give section ductilities on the

423.5R-25

order of 1.5 to three. With Parks suggested limit of 0.2, ductilities in excess of four or five can be obtained. Tests by

Muguruma et al. (1982a) indicate that if the sections do not

contain compression reinforcement, < 0.2 can give ductilities of only about three. If the reinforcement index is maintained at less than 0.1, ductilities in excess of 10 can be

achieved (Naaman et al. 1986).

Tests by Nakano and Okamoto (1978) on beam-column

subassemblages indicated that even when tension reinforcement is adequate (for example, < 0.15 to provide ductility

of five), hoop reinforcement (> 0.5%) is required to provide

the required deflection ductility. Okamoto (1980) carried out

similar tests on eleven simply supported beams and nine cantilever beams and reached similar conclusions.

5.3.2 Special cases

Compression membersRelatively little information is

available on partially prestressed concrete columns (Bertero

1986). Tertea and Onet (1983) analyzed 20 columns with

different PPR ranging from zero to 100%. As observed in the

beam tests, curvature ductility of columns improved with the

addition of nonprestressed reinforcement. Curvature ductility factors of 3.9, 6.1, and 9.8 corresponded with PPR of 100,

50, and 0%. Irrespective of the degree of prestressing, column ductilities improved with increased confinement.

Tests by Park and Falconer (1983) on prestressed piles

found that the curvature ductility increased with reduced axial load levels and increased confinement by spiral reinforcement. They discourage the use of hard-drawn reinforcing

wire for spirals as it commenced fracture at displacement

ductility factors of four to six. They recommend requiring

the wire to have high fracture strains.

ShearBeams should be proportioned to ensure ductile

flexural behavior and to avoid brittle shear behavior (Bertero

1986). To accomplish this objective, the FIP Commission

(Cement and Concrete Association of England 1977) recommends assuming material overstrengths on the order of 15%

in calculating the design shear force from the plastic hinge

moments. The New Zealand Code of Practice for General

Structural Design and Design Loading for Buildings (Standards Association of New Zealand 1980) recommend

neglecting the concrete contribution to shear resistance when

the axial compression is less than 0.1 f c .

Muguruma et al. (1983) determined that concrete resistance to shear can be improved by prestressing. Experiments

were conducted on 7 x 10 in. (180 x 250 mm) simply supported beams with span lengths of 7.22 ft. (2.20 m) to investigate shear in prestressed beams. The flexural shear

cracking load was found to increase in direct proportion to

the increase in flexural cracking load (due to an increase in

prestressing). Muguruma (1986) suggests in the design of

partially prestressed concrete beams that the concrete contribution to shear resistance can be increased by the shear force

corresponding to the decompression moment at the critical

section. This effect is taken into consideration in ACI 318.

Beam-column jointsBeam-column joints should be

designed and detailed so that the plastic-hinge zones in the

beams can develop their full plastic capacities. Muguruma

(1986) indicates that there are no differences in joint design

423.5R-26

except that the prestressing tendons do not bond to the concrete as well as ordinary deformed reinforcement. Research

on the performance of bond between tendons and concrete in

joints (Muguruma and Tominaga 1972) has indicated that

tendons undergo bond deterioration at early load stages.

Tendon slip causes a reduction in energy dissipation capacity

by pinching the hysteresis loops.

Parks investigation of beam-column subassemblages

with grouted post-tensioned tendons (Applied Technology

Council 1981) recommended minimizing the possibility of

failure in the joint. To avoid this type of failure, the hinge

zones should be displaced away from the beam-column

interface. This can be accomplished by haunching the

beams, adding additional reinforcement at the interface, or

using cruciform shapes (Bertero 1986). Displacing the hinge

from the interface has the added advantage of locating the

failure in a region in which nonprestressed reinforcement is

located, increasing ductility and energy dissipation. Displacing the hinge further into the beam results in increased shear

at the interface when the hinge reaches its capacity and

produces increased ductility demands relative to hinges at

the interface when subjected to similar drift levels. Using

post-tensioned tendons through the joint core at middepth

can reduce the amount of required joint shear reinforcement as it serves to maintain integrity of the joint (Park and

Thompson 1977).

5.4Energy dissipation

Energy dissipation can be attributed to viscous and hysteretic damping described separately below. Energy dissipation

of prestressed concrete is as little as 0.15 times that of conventional reinforced concrete of comparable size and

strength (Bertero 1986).

5.4.1 Viscous dampingIn a 1978 state-of-the-art report

by Hawkins (1977) on seismic resistance of prestressed and

precast structures, a thorough review of the research on

damping was presented. Tests by Penzien (1964) indicated

that the level of prestress and concrete strength affects damping by affecting cracking. Decreases in cracking cause a

reduction in damping.

Tests by Spencer (1969) on centrally prestressed beams

indicated that damping ratios were not frequency dependent.

Damping ratios tended to increase with end rotations and

prestress. Spencer also found damping to be higher for

beams loaded in uniform shear rather than uniform moment

and attributed this result to the higher effects of interface

shear and bond slip in the case of uniform shear loading.

Tests by Brondum-Nielsen (1973) on centrally prestressed

beams indicated damping decreased with increased prestress

levels, which is the opposite of what Spencer observed. Values of damping obtained by Nakano (1965) from tests of 1/3

scale four-story frames were 1% before cracking, 3% at

cracking, and 7% before inelastic behavior.

5.4.2 Hysteretic behaviorThe energy dissipation (area

enclosed within the force-deformation hysteresis loops) of

prestressed concrete members is lower than that of

reinforced concrete members designed to develop similar

reinforced, and partially prestressed concrete (Thompson

and Park 1980b); = ratio of strength of reinforced

concrete component to total strength of partially prestressed

concrete system; and = ratio of strength of prestressed

concrete component to total strength of partially prestressed

concrete system.

strengths (Thompson and Park 1980b). Prestressed concrete

members can achieve significant elastic recoveries even at

large deformations (Schoeder 1977) because of the initial

tensile stress in the strand due to prestressing. In elastic

recoveries, the strand unloads its tensile force and is capable

of achieving large recoveries. The member will not achieve

significant energy dissipation unless the prestressing steel

yields, the concrete crushes, or the nonprestressed deformed

bar yields (Nakano 1965; Blakeley and Park 1973b; Guyon

1965; Blakeley and Park 1971; and Bertero 1973). The

addition of nonprestressed reinforcement in partially

prestressed concrete members has been shown to provide a

marked improvement in energy dissipation characteristics

(Thompson and Park 1980b, Inomata 1986). This is evident

in Fig. 5.5, which shows typical hysteresis loops for

cyclically loaded fully prestressed, ordinary reinforced, and

partially prestressed concrete members. In addition, by

reducing the strength degradation, the presence of

longitudinal nonprestressed reinforcing steel improves

ductility by acting as compression reinforcement (Park and

Thompson 1977, Inomata 1986). As mentioned previously,

Cheok and Lew (1990) have investigated the use of lightly

prestressed unbonded reinforcement. The performance of

the PRESSS connections has the advantage of a selfrestoring force (nonlinear-elastic system). The stiffness

reduction compared with that of a monolithic counterpart

can compensate for the reduced energy dissipation. Hybrid

connections (Cheok and Lew 1991) have been investigated

that combine the nonlinear elastic system with elements that

yield or dissipate energy.

Thompson and Park (1980a, 1980b) developed idealized

moment-curvature relations for partially prestressed

concrete sections by combining relations obtained by

Blakeley (1971) and Blakeley and Park (1973a) for

prestressed concrete and by Ramberg and Osgood for

reinforced concrete (Iwan 1973). The idealized hysteresis

moment-curvature relations for prestressed concrete section

(Thompson and Park 1980b).

curves agree with those obtained experimentally from tests

on beam-column subassemblages. Fig. 5.6 through 5.8 show

the idealized and experimental moment-curvature

relationships for fully prestressed, reinforced, and partially

prestressed members subjected to cyclic loading.

In the fully prestressed member (Fig. 5.6), the energy dissipation capacity of the member increased (although still with

considerable elastic recovery) after the beam-moment capacity had been reached and crushing of the concrete had commenced. The compression steel in the beam was nominal and

the significant degradation in the strength and stiffness was

attributed to the reduction in the sectional area when the cover

concrete crushed.

After the beam-moment capacity had been reached and

crushing of the concrete had commenced for the partially

prestressed member (Fig. 5.8), the energy dissipation capacity of the partially prestressed member was considerably

greater than that observed for the fully prestressed member.

For this particular test, the beneficial effect of the nonprestressed longitudinal steel in the compression zone of the

beam plastic hinge region was evident from the stable

moment-curvature relations. The strength degradation was

not large because after concrete crushing commenced, the

nonprestressed steel was able to carry some of the compression previously carried by the cover concrete and therefore

helped maintain the internal lever arm (Thompson and Park

1980b).

Similar findings were obtained by Muguruma et al.

(1982a, 1982b), who tested 24 partially prestressed (eccentric) beams with various levels of prestress, and also by

Nakano and Okamoto (1978), who tested 21 partially prestressed (symmetric) beams subjected to cyclic-load reversals.

Confining the concrete has a marked benefit on the ductility

of partially prestressed concrete and also improves the hysteretic behavior. Closely spaced stirrup ties or spirals in the hinging regions enhance ductility and energy dissipation by

confining the concrete compression zone, reducing stiffness

degradation, and inhibiting buckling of the compression steel.

423.5R-27

moment-curvature relations for reinforced concrete section

(Thompson and Park 1980b).

moment-curvature relations for partially prestressed concrete section (Thompson and Park 1980b).

5.5Dynamic analyses

Giannini et al. (1986) presented an analytical investigation

on the seismic behavior of fully prestressed and partially prestressed concrete. The influences of the fundamental period,

PPR, and seismic intensity were considered. The response

was obtained in the form of time histories and peak values in

terms of displacements, curvatures, local strains (in the constituents), forces, and dissipated energy.

Partially prestressed concrete seems to couple the

advantages of fully prestressed concrete with those of ordinary

reinforced concrete in resisting loads. Fully prestressed

concrete has a tendency to greater strain and deformation

demands than ordinary reinforced concrete. After a strong

impulse, the displacements of the reinforced concrete and

partially prestressed concrete systems tended to damp out,

whereas those of the fully prestressed concrete system did

not. The analysis showed that fully prestressed concrete

resists the design seismic intensity, but for greater

intensities, it rapidly approaches collapse. Fully prestressed

concrete structures, however, can behave better for low

intensity seismic excitation.

423.5R-28

Thompson and Park (1980b). They used the idealized

moment-curvature relations (discussed previously) to conduct a nonlinear dynamic analysis of ordinary reinforced,

fully prestressed, and partially prestressed concrete singledegree-of-freedom systems. Displacements of fully prestressed concrete systems are larger than those of ordinary

reinforced and partially prestressed concrete systems

because of the reduced energy dissipation associated with

prestressing.

Fully prestressed systems also undergo a significant

reduction in stiffness after cracking that counteracts the

increased displacements under dynamic loading. The reduction in stiffness causes a reduction in the effective period of

vibration that can reduce the displacement response. Under

the combination of both of these effects, the analyses indicate that fully prestressed frames will have, on average, 30%

greater maximum lateral displacements than reinforced concrete systems designed to have the same strength, viscous

damping ratio, and initial stiffness (Thompson and Park

1980b).

Similar analytical studies have been conducted as part of

the NSF PRESSS program (Palmieri et al. 1996, El Sheikh

et al. 1999) that indicated systems incorporating unbonded

post-tensioned connections experienced moderate increases

in displacements in comparison with those expected from

monolithic concrete frame systems. An advantage of the

unbonded post-tensioned connections was the reduction in

residual drift associated with the nonlinear elastic behavior

of the system in comparison with the permanent system

deformations associated with the inelastic response of the

ordinary reinforced frames.

Fully prestressed concrete members can be detailed to

accommodate increased displacements in a ductile manner;

however, these higher displacements can result in greater

nonstructural damage and P-delta effects. An advantage of

using full prestressing and partial prestressing is the reduction in residual displacements due to the self-restoring nature

of these systems. The addition of nonprestressed reinforcement can reduce these deflections.

post-tensioned connections displacing the plastic-hinge

region from the beam-column interface, and taperedthreaded splice connections that emulate the performance of

monolithically cast beam-column connections. It was also

suggested that advantage be taken of composite action

between the beam and the slab.

5.6Connections

Results of tests (Berg and Degenkolb 1973; Elliott 1972;

Kunze et al. 1965; Sutherland 1965; Ozaka 1968; FIP 1970;

FIP 1974; Arya 1970; and Architectural Institute of Japan

1970) and observations on the past performance of prestressed concrete in earthquakes indicate that most prestressed concrete members perform well. Most failures have

been found to occur in connections between elements.

Several investigations have been conducted to study the

performance of connections between fully prestressed and

partially prestressed concrete precast elements. As mentioned

previously, ductile connection concepts have been tested as

part of the PRESSS program. French et al. (1989a, 1989b),

Amu and French (1985), Hafner and French (1986),

Jayashankar and French (1987), and Tarzikhan and French

(1987) investigated post-tensioned, welded, bolted,

composite, threaded coupler, and tapered-threaded splice

CHAPTER 6APPLICATIONS

6.1 Early applications

Partial prestressing has been used in the design of

structures since the early 1950s. In 1952, partially prestressed

beams with post-tensioned cables were first used in the roof

of a freight depot at Bury St. Edmunds, England (Bennet

1984). Lower concrete tensile stresses were specified

initially, but with successful experience and an increasing

amount of test data, the permissible fictitious tensile stresses

were increased to 750 psi (5.2 N/mm2) for pretensioning and

650 psi (4.5 N/mm2) for post-tensioning (Bennet 1984).

Other early applications of partial prestressing included the

development of a concrete mast for overhead power lines

and structures designed to withstand mining collapse; with

both applications, the most severe design load was usually a

temporarily unbalanced load (Bennet 1984).

5.7Summary

If members are detailed properly, it is possible to ensure

ductile behavior in fully prestressed and partially prestressed

concrete beams (Applied Technology Council 1981).

Ordinary reinforced concrete has an advantage in energydissipation characteristics. Prestressed concrete has an

advantage in its ability to reach large displacements with

only a small loss in load-carrying capacity and almost complete recovery of displacements. Joint performance is

improved by the use of continuous prestressed strand

through the joint.

Partially prestressed concrete couples the advantages of

prestressed concrete with those of ordinary reinforced concrete (Giannini et al 1986). The sections can be detailed so

that energy dissipation and deformation demands are on the

same order as those of ordinary reinforced concrete. Partially

prestressed concrete also offers the possibility of calibrating

the subsequent yielding of both prestressed and nonprestressed of reinforcement to optimize stiffness and energydissipation properties (Giannini et al 1986).

A recommended design concept is to balance all or part of

the gravity loads, satisfy serviceability criteria with draped

or blanketed prestressing strands, and place sufficient nonprestressed reinforcement in the section to meet the additional requirements for seismic design strength, ductility, and

energy dissipation (Hawkins 1977; Inomata 1986; and

Thompson and Park 1980b). Stirrup ties should be located in

hinging regions to prevent bar buckling, confine concrete,

and increase shear strength (Park and Thompson 1977, Park

and Paulay 1975).

In the early 1980s, a survey was conducted among the pretensioned, precast-concrete plants in the U.S. and Canada

(Jenny 1985) concerning the use of partial prestressing in the

industry. Sixty-five plants responded to the survey. Four of

the plants manufactured only bridge girders, and partial prestressing was rarely considered in their production. The survey revealed, however, that there was a general familiarity

with partial prestressing and the concept was used for meeting special design situations rather than as a routine production standard. Only seven of the 61 remaining plants

responding to the survey indicated that they did not allow

any product to exceed a nominal tensile stress of 6f c psi

(f c /2 MPa) for certain members, such as stemmed units,

inverted tees, spandrel beams, hollow-core slabs, or columns

(Jenny 1985).

The nominal stress levels reported by the plants were: 7.5

to 12f c psi (f c / 1.6 to f c MPa) for stemmed units; 7.5

to 12f c psi (f c /1.6 to f c MPa) for beams; 7.5 to 9f c

psi (f c / 1.6 to f c /1.33 MPa) for hollow-core slabs; and

7.5f c psi (f c /1.6 MPa) for columns. Reasons for designing these members with a nominal tensile stress greater than

6f c psi (f c /2 MPa) were to meet special design loads,

reduce camber, save steel and lower the cost, reduce the

required concrete strength at release, and achieve competitive span-depth ratios (Jenny 1985).

6.3Post-tensioned building construction

The majority of post-tensioned building construction in

the U.S. is based on the use of unbonded tendons in conjunction with code-specified minimum amounts of bonded nonprestressed reinforcement. Maximum design tensile stresses

range from 6 to 12f c psi (f c /2 to f c MPa) (Feyermuth

1985). For designs where durability considerations do not

govern, service-load nominal tensile stress levels of 6 to

12f c psi (f c /2 to f c MPa) are now routine for one-way,

post-tensioned systems. According to Feyermuth, The use

of partial prestressing, especially as applied to flat slabs, has

reduced the incidence of significant cracking problems in

post-tensioning buildings. This results from lower prestress

levels, inducing proportionately smaller elastic and creep

shortening movements, and the presence of bonded nonprestressed reinforcement to control crack widths (1985).

In the design of office and hotel structures, the use of partial

prestressing is often cost-effective. Post-tensioned beams, as

well as one-way slabs, designed to an extreme nominal fiber

stress in tension between 6 and 12f c psi (f c /2 and f c

MPa) have performed well in practice. The use of partially

prestressed design is especially effective when certain

designated areas of a building are required to have a higher

design live load than the majority of the floor area. The 1100

Peachtree Tower (shown in Fig. 6.1) is a 27-story, cast-inplace concrete office building located in Atlanta, Ga. The slab

is 5 in. (127 mm) thick, conventionally reinforced, and

supported by post-tensioned beams 14 in. (356 mm) wide and

22 in. (559 mm) deep. By allowing the nominal tensile stress

in the beams to reach 10f c psi (f c /1.2 MPa) under service

loads, economy was achieved by reducing the overall number

423.5R-29

Office Tower, Atlanta, Ga.

of tendons and by reducing the overall height of the structure,

owing to the shallower beam depths.

For two-way flat-plate designs, ACI 318 limits the stress

at column locations as calculated by the equivalent frame

method or other approximate methods to 6f c ( f c /2

MPa). This is in recognition of the gross approximation of

the actual strains in the vicinity of the column. Higher allowable stresses, however, are permitted in conjunction with

more precise analytical procedures.

6.4Bridges

Prestressed concrete bridges designed to permit cracking

under service loads are still rare in the U.S., even though it is

common to allow flexural tension in extreme fibers under

service load. The primary concerns about bridge members

being cracked under service loads have to do with fatigue

and durability. Partially prestressed concrete bridges have

been built in Europe and Japan.

Taerwe (1990) has described a number of partially prestressed concrete bridges constructed in Belgium. These

highway bridges were designed according to the Class 2 conditions described in Chapter 1 of this report. As of 1990, the

bridges described by Taerwe (built between 1965 and 1975)

performed satisfactorily.

The Kannonji Viaduct in Japan was completed in 1991

(Soda and Kazuo 1994). The bridge has a total length of

2464 ft (751 m), with an average span length of 92 ft (28 m).

The bridge superstructure units are continuous for three or

four spans each. It was designed to allow flexural cracking

under service loads at midspan but not over interior supports.

Four other partially prestressed concrete highway bridges

also have been constructed in Japan (Soda and Kazuo 1994).

AASHTOs Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges

does not currently allow service load cracking in prestressed

concrete bridges. AASHTO, however, has adopted a load-

423.5R-30

and resistance-factor design specification for highway bridges (AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications) that does

specifically address partially prestressed concrete. This can

lead to a wider use of partially prestressed concrete for highway bridges in the U.S.

The reports and standards listed above were the latest editions at the time this document was prepared. Because these

documents are revised frequently, the reader is advised to

contact the proper sponsoring group if it is desired to refer to

the latest version.

6.5Other applications

Dolan* reports that the prismatic beams on the Walt Disney World Monorail were designed for tensile stresses of

nearly 12f c psi (f c MPa) for certain load combinations.

The beams were precast and post-tensioned to provide continuity. Reinforcing bars were used to control cracking at the

continuity joint.

Partial prestressing also has applications in nuclear-containment structures, cylindrical shells, and rectangular water

vessels. In the 1960s, the first prestressed concrete containment structures for nuclear reactors were partially prestressed in the vertical direction only with nonprestressed

reinforcement in the circumferential (hoop) direction of the

cylinder and in the dome. Two examples are the containment

structures at R.E. Ginna and H.B. Robinson Unit 2 nuclear

stations (Ashar et al. 1994). Similarly, partial prestressing is

used vertically in the walls of cylindrical shell and rectangular water-storage structures. If these structures are designed

with restrained bases, high negative or positive vertical

bending moments, or both, will be present. An economical

design can be produced when a small amount of vertical prestressing in the range of 200 psi (1.4 MPa) is provided and

nonprestressed reinforcement is added to resist any net flexural tensile stresses. These high bending moments occur

only at one point in the wall. Therefore, the economy is

achieved by not overreinforcing the entire height of wall.

This method of design has been used since the 1970s.

AASHTO

444 N. Capitol Street NW

Suite 249

Washington D.C. 20001

CHAPTER 7REFERENCES

7.1Referenced standards and reports

American Concrete Institute

222R

Corrosion of Metals in Concrete

318

Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary

343R

Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Bridge Structures

423.3R

Recommendations for Concrete Members Prestressed with Unbonded Tendons

ASTM

A 416

Standard Specification for Uncoated SevenWire Stress-Relieved Strand for Prestressed

Concrete

American Association of State Highway and Transportation

Officials (AASHTO)

AASHTO/ Bridge Design Specifications

LRFD

AASHTO Standard Specification for Highway Bridges

26, 1995 correspondence from Steven R. Close to Nick Marianos.

October

P.O. Box 9094

Farmington Hills, Mich. 48333-9094

ASTM

100 Barr Harbor Drive

West Conshohocken, PA 19428

7.2Cited references

Abeles, P. W., 1940, Saving Reinforcement by Prestressing, Concrete and Constructional Engineering, V. 35, 3 pp.

Abeles, P. W., 1945, Fully and Partially Prestressed

Reinforced Concrete, ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 41,

No. 3, Jan., pp. 181-214.

Abeles, P. W., 1954, Static and Fatigue Tests on Partially

Prestressed Concrete Constructions, ACI JOURNAL, V. 51,

No. 12, Dec., 361 pp.

Abeles, P. W., 1965, Studies of Crack Widths and Deformation Under Sustained and Fatigue Loading, PCI Journal,

V. 10, No. 6, Dec., pp. 43-52.

Abeles, P. W., 1968, Preliminary Report on Static and

Sustained Loading Tests, PCI Journal, V. 13, No. 4, Aug.,

pp. 12-32.

ACI Committee 209, 1982, Prediction of Creep, Shrinkage, and Temperature Effects in Concrete Structures,

Designing for Creep and Shrinkage, SP-76, B. B. Goyal,

ed., American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills,

Mich., pp. 193-300.

ACI Committee 215, 1974, Considerations for Design of

Concrete Structures Subjected to Fatigue Loading, ACI

JOURNAL, V. 71, No. 3, Mar., pp. 97-121.

ACI Committee 224, 1980, Control of Cracking in Concrete Structures, Concrete International, V. 2, No. 10, Oct.,

pp. 35-76.

ACI-ASCE Joint Committee 323, 1958, Tentative Recommendations for Prestressed Concrete, ACI JOURNAL,

Proceedings V. 54, No. 7, Jan., pp. 545-578.

Al-Zaid, R. Z., and Naaman, A. E., 1986, Analysis of

Partially Prestressed Composite Beams, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, V. 112, No. 4, Apr., pp. 709-725.

Al-Zaid, R. Z.; Naaman, A. E.; and Nowak, A. S., 1988,

Analysis of Partially Prestressed Composite Beams under

Sustained and Cyclic Fatigue Loading, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, V. 114, No. 2, Feb., pp. 269-291.

Amu, O. O., and French, C. W., 1985, Moment Resistant

Connections in Precast Structures Subjected to Cyclic Lateral Loads, Structural Research Report No. 87-07,

Deptartment of Civil and Mineral Engineering, University

of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn.

Applied Technology Council, 1981, Proceedings, Work-

Earthquake Loads, Los Angeles, Calif., Apr.,

Architectural Institute of Japan, 1970, Design Essentials

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a

acs

APPENDIXNOTATIONS

= depth of equivalent rectangular compressive

stress block

= crack spacing

Acp

cross section

= area of prestressed reinforcement in tension

Aps

zone

= area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement

As

= area of nonprestressed compression reinforcement

As

= effective area of concrete tension zone surAt

rounding all reinforcementhaving the same

centroid as reinforcement

b

= width of compression face of member

B

= distance ratio at first loading cycle

= distance ratio at the Nth loading cycle

BN

c

= depth to neutral axis from extreme compression

fiber

= depth of neutral axis after Nth cycle of loading

cN

c2

= constant

Cc(ttA) = creep coefficient of concrete at time t when

loaded at time tA

d

= distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of nonprestressedtension reinforcement

= cover to center of reinforcing steel

dc

d c

= concrete clear cover

dctf

= depth to centroid of tensile force in steel

de

= depth to centroid of nonprestressed tension

reinforcement

dmax,N = maximum deflection after Nth cycle

= distance from extreme compression fiber to cendp

troid of prestressed reinforcement

= average strain in concrete between the cracks

er,n

after N cycles of loading

es,n

= steel strain at crack calculated using cracked

section elastic analysis afterN cycles of loading

= instantaneous elastic modulus of concrete at

Ec(t)

time t

Ece(t) = equivalent elastic modulus of concrete at time t

Eci

= elastic modulus of concrete at time of loading or

transfer

= instantaneous elastic modulus of concrete at

Ei(t)

time t

= cyclic modulus of elasticity after N cycles

EN

= modulus of elasticity of steel

Es

fc

= concrete compressive strength

= maximum recommended stress range for concrete

fcr

ff

= safe stress range

fmin

= minimum applied stress (in concrete or reinforcing

steel, as applicable)

= average precompression in concrete due to prefpc

stress at centroid of cross-section

= effective stress in prestressing steel

fpe

fps

= stress in prestressed reinforcement at nominal

bending strength

= ultimate strength of the prestressing steel

fpu

fs

= tensile stress in reinforcing steel, or change in

steel stress from decompression

= steel stress at primary crack at first cycle

fso

= steel stress at primary crack at cycle N

fso,N

fsr

= maximum recommended stress range in reinforcing

steel (prestressedor nonprestressed, as applicable)

= yield strength of nonprestressed reinforcement

fy

F

= prestressing force

F(t)

= prestressing force at time t

h

= depth of member

= distance from neutral axis to centroid of

reinforcement

= moment of inertia of cracked section

Icr

= effective moment of inertia of cracked section at

Ieff(t)

time t

= effective moment of inertia after N cycles

IeN

= gross moment of inertia

Ig

KD, KF = constants depending on type of loading and

steel profile

= equivalent plastic hinge length

Lp

= sustained external moment at midspan

M

= applied moment

Ma

= dead load moment

MD

= decompression moment (moment which proMdec

duces zero concrete stressat extreme fiber of a

section, nearest to centroid of the prestressing

force, when added to action of effective prestress alone)

= cracking moment

Mcr

= live-load moment

ML

= total nominal moment capacity

Mn

= moment capacity provided by prestressed

Mnp

reinforcement

= number of load cycles

N

= number of cycles to failure

Nf

= sum of perimeters of all tension reinforcement

P

= outside perimeter of concrete cross section

Pcp

= partial prestressing ratio

PPR

= applied load

Q

h1

h2

423.5R-37

= ratio of base radius to height of rolled-on transverse deformation (value of 0.3 may be used in

absence of specific data)

= slip of reinforcement at first cycle

So

= slip of reinforcement at Nth cycle

So,N

= time or age of concrete

t

= age of concrete at time of loading

tA

= concrete contribution of shear strength

Vc

= crack width at the first loading cycle

W

= crack width at the Nth loading cycle

WN

Wmax = maximum crack width

Wmax,N = maximum crack width after N cycles

= slope of descending portion of concrete comZ

pression curve

= parameter relating neutral axis depth to depth of

1

equivalent rectangular compression block

= change in stress in prestressing steel

fps

= deflection at time t

(t)

= degree of prestress

reinforcement

= reinforcement ratio of compressive nonpre

stressed reinforcement

p

= reinforcement ratio of tensile prestressed

reinforcement

= sum of perimeters of all tension reinforcement

o

= reinforcing index

p

Qser

r/h

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