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Network King Round 2 Content

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Computer Networks Introduction


Basic Hardware in Networking
Network Medium
OSI Layer
IPV4 Addressing
Routing
Working with Cisco Packet tracer (CPT)

Computer Networks Introduction


Computer network A collection of computing devices that are connected in various ways in
order to communicate and share resources. Usually, the connections between computers in a
network are made using physical wires or cables

Types of Networks
LAN
Network in small geographical Area (Room, Building
or a Campus) is called LAN (Local Area Network)
MAN

Network in a City is call MAN (Metropolitan Area


Network)
WAN
Network spread geographically (Country or across
Globe) is called WAN (Wide Area Network)

Basic Terminology

Server
Client
Nodes
Authentication
Encryption
Internet
Intranet
Protocol

Client/ Server : Computer networks have opened up an entire frontier in the world of computing
called the client/server model

Node : A node is either a connection point, a redistribution point or a communication endpoint

15-6

Authentication is a network security measure in which a computer user or some other network
component proves its identity in order to gain access to network resources.
The possible authentication method is:
User Name and Password Authentication

Who I am
How do I know?
User name & password

Approved

Encryption is a network security measure in which information is encoded or scrambled prior to transmission
so that it cannot be read unless the recipient knows the decoding mechanism, or key.

Client

Server

Ox12j

Data

Encrypted data

Decrypted data

Internet - The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer network


( Communication between networks)
Intranet Communication inside the network
Protocol Set of rules

Types of Communications
Simplex = Only receive

Half Duplex = Either send or receive at a time

Full Duplex = Send or receive at any point of time

Types of Address

Basic Hardware in Networking

NIC (MAC Address)


Hub
Bridge
Switch
Router
Repeater
WAP
Firewall

NIC ( Network Interface Card )


In computer networking, a NIC provides the hardware interface between a
computer and a network.

MAC ( Media Access Control) Address


The MAC address is a unique value associated with a network adapter.
MAC addresses are also known as hardware addresses or physical addresses.
They uniquely identify an adapter on a LAN.
MAC addresses are 12-digit hexadecimal numbers (48 bits in length). By convention, MAC addresses are usually written in one of the
following two formats:

MM:MM:MM:SS:SS:SS
MM-MM-MM-SS-SS-SS
The first half of a MAC address contains the ID number of the adapter manufacturer. These IDs are regulated by an Internet standards
body .The second half of a MAC address represents the serial number assigned to the adapter by the manufacturer. In the example,

00:A0:C9:14:C8:29
The prefix

00A0C9
indicates the manufacturer is Intel Corporation.

Hub

It is a networking device that is used to connect two or more than two computers within a
network. Hubs are also called as multi port repeaters, and a hub is a duffer device because it
does not know any type of address (MAC address or IP address).
Its only knows the source port, so it broadcasts the data to all the ports except the source
port.
Its internally based on bus topology according to which only one user can communicate at
a time. Either hub can send the data or receive the data. It is layer 1 device.
It divides the actual bandwidth among the users.
Hub always makes a broadcast and as a result of broadcast bandwidth will get wasted.
Collisions are common in case of Hubs. Due to collision there is data loss as well as
wastage of LAN bandwidth.

BRIDGE
A bridge is a layer 2 device that provides communication between two or more segments. Work
stations on one segment are able to communicate with those on another segment via bridge. Like a
repeater, a bridge extends the maximum distance of network. It is a software based device.

SWITCH
It is a networking device that is used to connect two or more computers within a LAN.
It is an intelligent data link layer device because it works on MAC addresses.
It has MAC address table in it, by using this MAC address table it forwards the frames. Its internally
based upon the mesh topology. So all the users can communicate at the same time with the same
bandwidth.
It provides additional bandwidth to the existing users in comparison to hubs.
MAC table is also known as filter table or CAM table.
When a source sends a frame, the switch checks the destination MAC address. If the destination MAC
address is available in MAC table, it will forward to the corresponding port; if the destination MAC
address is not available in the MAC table, it will forward to all ports except the source port. Once the
address is there in the table then there is no need of broadcasting. But when we start the switch, first it
makes broadcast to enter the entry for the client computer; once entry is made, then there is no type of
broadcasting done, i.e. Limited broadcasting.
Broadcast domain= one.
Collision domain =no. of ports of a switch.

REPEATER

It is used to strengthen the signal.


Hub is the multi port repeater.
Repeater will suppress the noise.

ROUTER
It is a networking device that is used to connect two or more than two different networks.
It is an intelligent device that works on IP addresses.
Routing means identifying the route to reach from source to destination.
It has routing table, based on this it will forward the packets

Wireless access points (WAPs) WIFI Modem


Used to connect multiple wireless nodes

Firewalls
A device which is used to restrict the unauthorized access
Hardware firewall Cisco ASA, Sonicwall, Smartwall etc
Software firewall Antivirus, Windows firewall

Network Medium

Wires Medium

Copper Straight - Connect different devices


Copper Cross - Connect same devices
Console (Roll over cable) - Configuration
Coaxial Cable TV, CCTV
Serial DCE Router to Router
Serial DTE Router to Router
Octal - Terminal server to configuring devices

OSI Layer ( Open System Interconnection )


The OSI model is used to help the vendors in creating network devices and software in the form of
protocols so that the different vendor networks can communicate with each other.

IPV4 Addressing

It is a location attribute
32 bit in length
Represented in Dotted decimal format
32 bit is divided in to 4 octal
Each octal is separated by dot .
Format of IP address is

Slide 23

Network ID
This part specifies the unique number assigned to your particular network. Its also the part that
identifies the class of network assigned

Host ID

This is the part of the IP address that you assign to each host; it uniquely identifies each host on your
network.

Classes of IPV4 Address

Sub netting/Super netting


It is also called sub networking.
It is a process through which a very large complex network is sub divided into smaller
parts and each such part is known as subnet or sub network.
Benefits
Reduced network traffic
Easy to manage and troubleshoot
More chances of expansion

Sub netting Class A Addresses


10.0.0.0/16this is class A network address.
subnets 2^n i.e. 2 ^ 8 = 256
Host 2^ m-2 i.e. 2^16 - 2= 65534 (8 bits in the third octet and 8 bits in the fourth)
Identify the value of new subnet mask
255.11111111.00000000.00000000

255.255.0.0

Sub netting Increasing the network


Super netting Increasing the host

Networking
Private Address

Routing
What is Routing
Routing is the process of selecting best paths in a network. Router is the device which is used for
routing. It forwards the packets based on the routing table.

Types of routing

Static Manually updating the routing table


Dynamic Automatically the routing table will be updates by using dynamic
routing protocols
Default Manually configuring the routing table to set the default path.

Working with Cisco Packet tracer (CPT)

Drag and Drop 3 PCs in work place

Click on end devices Generic PC Drag and Drop PC0, PC1 and PC2

Connect all the 3 PCs using a 2950 Switch0

Click on switches 2950 Drag and Drop 2950 switch0

Explain the cables used to connect PC to 2950 Switch 0

Use straight cable to connect different devices

Assign IP address to all PCs in 10.0.0.0 Network

Assign IP address to PC0 as 10.0.0.10 similarly assign to PC1 and PC2

Note the IP address to PC0 using place note

Check the connectivity between PCs using ping in CMD

Verified the connectivity using ping command

Name the network as LAN1

Drag and Drop one 1841 Router0

Connect the LAN 1 switch to the 1841 Router0s fast Ethernet 0/0 interface using straight cable

Show the physical device view of 1841 Router0

Show how to add or remove the interface in 1841 Router0

Drag and Drop an new 2950 Switch1, 1841 Router1 and 1841 Router 2

Connect Router0, Router1, and Router2 using Switch 1

Assign IP address in the Routers interface connected to the Switch in 20.0.0.0 network.

Click on the Router0 enter in to CLI of router and assign the IP address to the interfaces.
Similarly assign to the other routers

Create one new LAN2 network (1 PC) with network ID as 30.0.0.0 and connect it to Router R1

Drag and Drop Router3

Show how to add the serial interface in Routers

Connect Router3 and Router2 using serial DCE cable

Assign IP in 40.0.0.0 network range to Router2 and Router3 serial link.

Create one new LAN3 network (2 PCs) with network ID as 50.0.0.0 and connect it to Router R3

Explain Cisco IOS basic commands


Cisco IOS( Internetwork Operating System used in cisco routers and switches

Commands to assign IP address to the interfaces


Router>enable
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End
with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#interface fastethernet 0/1
Router(config-if)#ip address 20.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
Router(config-if)#no shutdown
Commands to save the configuration

Router#copy running-config startup-config


Destination filename [startup-config]?
Building configuration...
[OK]
Router#

Commands to check the running configuration

Router#show running-config
Building configuration...
Current configuration : 514 bytes
!
version 12.4
no service timestamps log datetime msec
no service timestamps debug datetime msec
no service password-encryption
!
hostname Router
!
!
!
!
!
!

Commands to check the interface status


Router#show ip interface brief
Interface
IP-Address OK? Method Status

Protocol

FastEthernet0/0

10.0.0.1

YES manual up

up

FastEthernet0/1

20.0.0.1

YES manual up

up

Vlan1

unassigned

YES unset administratively down down

Commands to check the routing table

Router#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area
* - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
P - periodic downloaded static route
Gateway of last resort is not set

C 10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0


C 20.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/1

Configure static routing in all the Routers with correct static routes
In Router0
Network ID Subnet Mask
Gateway

Router(config)#ip route 30.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 20.0.0.2


Router(config)#ip route 40.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 20.0.0.3
Router(config)#ip route 50.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 20.0.0.3
In Router1
Router(config)#ip route 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 20.0.0.1
Router(config)#ip route 40.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 20.0.0.3
Router(config)#ip route 50.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 20.0.0.3
In Router2
Router(config)#ip route 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 20.0.0.1
Router(config)#ip route 30.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 20.0.0.2
Router(config)#ip route 50.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 40.0.0.2
In Router3
Router(config)#ip route 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 40.0.0.1
Router(config)#ip route 20.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 40.0.0.1
Router(config)#ip route 30.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 40.0.0.1

Assign the correct default gateway to the PCs in LAN 1, LAN 2 and LAN 3

LAN1 Default Gateway - 10.0.0.1


LAN2 Default Gateway - 30.0.0.1
LAN3 Default Gateway 50.0.0.1

Similarly assign the correct default gateway to all the PCs in all the networks

Check the connectivity from PC in LAN 1 network to the PC in LAN 2 network

Check the connectivity between LAN 3 and LAN 2

Make sure all the LAN 1, LAN 2 and LAN 3 pings with each other