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1. Diode
In electronics, a diode is a component that restricts the direction of movement of
charge carriers. Essentially, it allows an electric current to flow in one direction,
but blocks it in the opposite direction. Today the most common diodes are made
from semiconductor materials such as silicon or germanium.

Semiconductor Diodes
Most modern diodes are based on semiconductor P-N junctions. In a P-N diode,
conventional current can flow from the P-type side (the anode) to the N-type side
(the cathode), but not in the opposite direction. A semiconductor diode s currentvoltage, or I-V, characteristic curve is ascribed to the behaviour of the so-called
depletion layer or depletion zone which exists at the P-N junction between the
differing semiconductors. When a P-N junction is first created, conduction band
(mobile) electrons from the N-doped region diffuse into the P-doped region where
there is a large population of holes (places for electrons in which no electron is
present) with which the electrons recombine. When a mobile electron recombines

with a hole, the hole vanishes and the electron is no longer mobile. Thus, two
charge carriers have vanished. The region around the P-N junction becomes
depleted of charge carriers and thus behaves as an insulator.

2.Voltage regulator

7805 Voltage regulator

5V DC Voltage Regulator Data Sheet / Specs
The 7805 provides circuit designers with an easy way to regulate DC voltages to

Encapsulated in a single chip/package (IC), the 7805 is a positive voltage DC

regulator that has only 3 terminals. They are: Input voltage, Ground, Output
Voltage. Although the 7805 were primarily designed for a fixed-voltage output
(5V). 7812 Voltage regulator

12V DC Voltage Regulator Data Sheet / Specs The 78012 provides circuit
designers with an easy way to regulate DC voltages to 12v. Encapsulated in a
single chip/package (IC), the 78012 is a positive voltage DC regulator that has only
3 terminals. They are: Input voltage, Ground, Output Voltage. Although the 78012
were primarily designed for a fixed-voltage output (12V). 7812 Voltage regulator
It is indeed possible to use external components in order to obtain DC output
voltages of: 5V, 6V, 8V, 9V, 10V, 12V, 15V, 18V, 20V, 24V. Note that the input
voltage must, of course, be greater than the required output voltage, so that it can
be regulated downwards

In the Regulated power supply the rating of the chosen capacitor filter is 1000F.
A capacitor (originally known as condenser) is a passive two-terminal electrical
component used to store energy in an electric field. The forms of practical
capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two electrical conductors separated
by a dielectric (insulator); for example, one common construction consists of metal
foils separated by a thin layer of insulating film. Capacitors are widely used as
parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices.When there is a
potential difference (voltage) across the conductors, a static electric field develops
across the dielectric, causing positive charge to collect on one plate and negative
charge on the other plate. Energy is stored in the electrostatic field. An ideal

capacitor is characterized by a single constant value, capacitance, measured in

farads. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential
difference between them.

The capacitance is greatest when there is a narrow separation between large areas
of conductor, hence capacitor conductors are often called "plates," referring to an
early means of construction. In practice, the dielectric between the plates passes a
small amount of leakage current and also has an electric field strength limit,
resulting in a breakdown voltage, while the conductors and leads introduce an
undesired inductance and resistance. Capacitors are widely used in electronic
circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass, in
filter networks, for smoothing the output of power supplies, in the resonant circuits
that tune radios to particular frequencies, in electric power transmission systems
for stabilizing voltage and power flow, and for many other purposes.


An NPN transistor can be considered as two diodes with a shared anode. In typical
operation, the base-emitter junction is forward biased and the basecollector
junction is reverse biased. In an NPN transistor, for example, when a positive
voltage is applied to the baseemitter junction, the equilibrium between thermally
generated carriers and the repelling electric field of the depletion region becomes
unbalanced, allowing thermally excited electrons to inject into the base region.
These electrons wander (or "diffuse") through the base from the region of high
concentration near the emitter towards the region of low concentration near the
collector. The electrons in the base are called minority carriers because the base is
doped p-type which would make holes the majority carrier in the base.

Transistors can be regarded as a type of switch, as can many electronic

components. They are used in a variety of circuits and you will find that it is rare
that a circuit built in a school Technology Department does not contain at least one
transistor. They are central to electronics and there are two main types; NPN and

PNP. Most circuits tend to use NPN. There are hundreds of transistors which work
at different voltages but all of them fall into these two categories.

Transistors are manufactured in different shapes but they have three leads (legs).
The BASE - which is the lead responsible for activating the transistor.
The COLLECTOR - which is the positive lead.The EMITTER - which is the
negative lead.The diagram below shows the symbol of an NPN transistor. They are
not always set out as shown in the diagrams to the left and right, although the tab
on the type shown to the left is usually next to the emitter.

A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical
resistance as a circuit element. The current through a resistor is in direct proportion
to the voltage across the resistor's terminals. Thus, the ratio of the voltage applied
across a resistor's terminals to the intensity of current through the circuit is called
resistance. This relation is represented by Ohm's law: where I is the current
through the conductor in units of amperes, V is the potential difference measured
across the conductor in units of volts, and R is the resistance of the conductor in

units of ohms. More specifically, Ohm's law states that the R in this relation is
constant, independent of the current. Resistors are common elements of electrical
networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in electronic equipment.
Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films, as well as
resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as nickel-chrome).
Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits, particularly analog
devices, and can also be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits.

The electrical functionality of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common

commercial resistors are manufactured over a range of more than nine orders of
magnitude. When specifying that resistance in an electronic design, the required
precision of the resistance may require attention to the manufacturing tolerance of
the chosen resistor, according to its specific application. The temperature
coefficient of the resistance may also be of concern in some precision applications.
Practical resistors are also specified as having a maximum power rating which
must exceed the anticipated power dissipation of that resistor in a particular circuit:
this is mainly of concern in power electronics applications. Resistors with higher

power ratings are physically larger and may require heat sinks. In a high-voltage
circuit, attention must sometimes be paid to the rated maximum working voltage of
the resistor