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Ergonomics Outline

AVIA 4000, Special Projects: Human Factors in Aviation


Raymond E. Cain, Jr., Ph.D., Instructor
Learning Objectives
After completing this unit of instruction, students will be able to demonstrate the following:
Define the term ergonomics
Explain ergonomics and discuss its application to aviation systems
Describe the musculoskeletal injuries related to aviation
Enumerate and explain several workplace design and control issues
Ergonomics versus Human Factors
Ergonomics
o How we interact with our work environment
o Matching the job to the worker and product to the user
o Focuses on how work affects workers
Human Factors
o How we interact with our environment
o Emphasizes designs that reduce the potential for human error
Ergonomics versus Human Factors
In aviation, a fine line exists between ergonomics and human factors; often they are used
interchangeably
What is Ergonomics?
Derived from the Greek
Ergon = Work/Effort
Nomos = Law
Thus: The Law of Work
Ergonomics looks at
Work stations
Tools
Motions
Physical conditions
Physical limitations
Environment(s)
Reasons for Ergonomics
WC costs (Medical + wages)
Medical/health insurance
Productivity
o Nonvalue added material handling
o Product spills (slips & falls, environmental, material costs)

Fines
Litigation
Regulations (OSHA, EPA, ADA...)
Employee wellbeing
Injury Categories
Traumatic (instantaneous)
o Safety programs usually address these injuries
Cumulative (long term)Musculoskeletal
o IH and/or ergo programs address these injuries
Musculoskeletal disorders
Musculoskeletal Disorders = MSDs
MSD symptoms
Dull, aching sensation
Discomfort with movements
Tenderness to the touch
Burning sensation
Pain
Tingling
Cramping
Stiffness
Common MSDs
Tendinitis
Tenosynovitis
Trigger finger
Raynauds syndrome
De Quervains disease
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Airline Industry Ergonomic Hazards
http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/airline_industry/hazards.html
Workplace risk factors
Repetitive motions
Fixed / awkward postures
Vibration
Force
Twisting / bending
Elevation of elbows
Lifting
2

Inappropriate tools
Continuous contact
Restricted clearance
Improper seating/support
Bad body mechanics
Nonadjustable equipment
Identify risk factors
Management/employee involvement
Audit work stations
Audit procedures
Engineering controls
Preferred method
Work station design
Tool design
Equipment design
Work station design
Provide adequate
Work space
Work height
Support
Storage space
Machine controls
Reduce static loading
Raise / lower working height
Remove hard/sharp edges
Provide mechanical advantages
Insulate heat/cold
Provide seating/support
Improve material orientation
Improve layout
Tool selection should minimize
Awkward, bent grip
Vibration
Excessive grip strength
Awkward positions to exert force
Repetitive motions

Administrative controls
Job rotation
Shift length
Overtime management
Rest breaks
Production rates
Work practice controls
Use proper techniques
Avoid unnecessary steps
Job training
Exercise/conditioning
Medical management
Early reporting & treatment
Symptoms survey
Medical treatment
Recordkeeping
Back disorders
Sprains
Strains
Ruptured/slipped disks
Muscle spasms
Back pain factors
Improper posture
Poor physical condition
Improper lifting
Proper lifting
Size up the load
Bend your knees
Do not twist
Clear path
Lower slowly
Push carts/dollies

The costs of ergonomic injuries