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Some objectives of database derive directly from the assumed context of organizations and management information systems. The objectives of share ability, availability, resolvability and integrity are briefed below.
An ability to share data resources is a fundamental objective of database management. In its fullest interpretation, this means different people and different processes using the same actual data at virtually the same time. Rather far reaching ramifications stem from the stated objective of share ability - Serving differently types of users with varying skill levels - Handling different user views of the same stored data. - Combining interrelated data - Setting standards - Controlling concurrent updates so as to maintain data integrity - Coordinating restart and recovery operations across multiple users. This list indicates some of the additional problems which arise in managing shared data. A central implication of sharing is that compromise will often be required between conflicting user needs as, for example, in the establishment of a data structure and corresponding storage structure.
Availability means bringing the data of an organization to the users of that data. They system which manages data resources should be easily accessible to the people within n organization – making the data available when and where it is needed, and in the manner and form in which it is needed. Availability refers to both the data and the DBMS which delivers the data. Availability functions make the database available to users: defining and creating a database, and getting data in and out of a database. These are the direct functions performed by a DBMS. A DBMS should accommodate diversity in the data stored. A database management system must be capable of reaching beyond this region to handle greater diversity in the data stored, including subjective data, fragmentary marketing intelligence data, uncertain forecasts and aggregated data, as well as factual marketing, manufacturing, personnel and accounting data.
Resolvability refers to the ability of the DBMS to change in response to growing user needs and advancing technology. Resolvability is the system characteristic that enhances
future availability of the data resources. Resolvability is not the same as expandability or extensibility, which imply extending or adding to the system, which then grows ever larger. Resolvability covers expansion or contraction, both of which may occur as the system changes to fit the ever changing needs and desires of the using environment. Adaptability is a more advanced form of resolvability in which built in algorithms enable a system to change itself, rather than having a change made to it. Adaptability involves purposive, self organizing, or self controlling behavior, that is, self regulation toward a single criterion of success: ultimate, long-term survival.. Resolvability implies the gradual unfolding, development and growth of a system to better meet the needs of the using environment: and it implies change of the system in response to changing needs and technology. With the present state of technology, such change is externally administered. In the future such change may occur automatically within the system, thus exhibiting adaptive behavior.
The importance and pervasiveness of the need to maintain database integrity is rooted in the reality that man is perfect. Destruction, errors and improper disclosure must be anticipated and explicit mechanisms provided for handling them. The three primary facets of database integrity are: - protecting the existence of the database - Maintaining the quality of the database - Ensuring the privacy of the database. In developing DBMSs, the accountant’s concept of internal control has been practically ignored. Computer specialists need such concepts to improve database integrity and enhance management confidence.
Object Vs. Relational:
Structural Flexibility While relational databases easily provide one-to-many and many-to-one relationships, object databases allow for many-to-many relationships. Information systems that require complex relationships can store their data in an object database with greater ease than a relational database.
Object Modeling When information systems are modeled as objects, they can employ the powerful inheritance capability. Instead of building a table of employees with department and job information in separate tables, the type of employee is modeled. The employee class contains the data and the processing for all employees. Each subclass (manager, secretary, etc.) contains the data and processing unique to that person's job. Changes can be made globally or individually by modifying the class in question.
These are the few keys used in relationship diagram.
Object databases are also suited for applications that are not necessarily based on an object model, but use a large number of in-memory indexes that are difficult to store in a relational database. Object databases may be used for real-time applications whereby they can extend memory beyond the operating system's own virtual memory limit.
Q: 2 Define Terms:-
Database Management System (DBMS):
“It is software that controls the organization, storage, retrieval, security and integrity of data in a database.” Or “A collection of programs that enables you to store, modify, and extract information from a database.” It accepts requests from the application and instructs the operating system to transfer the appropriate data. The major DBMS vendors are Oracle, IBM, Microsoft and Sybase (see Oracle database, DB2, SQL Server and ASE). MySQL is a very popular open source product (see MySQL). There are many different types of DBMSs, ranging from small systems that run on personal computers to huge systems that run on mainframes. The following are examples of database applications: • computerized library systems • automated teller machines • flight reservation systems • computerized parts inventory systems
Major Features of a DBMS:
Data Security Data Integrity Interactive Query Interactive Data Entry and Updating Data Independence
Relational Database Management System (RDBMS):
“It is a type of database management system (DBMS) that stores data in the form of related tables.” “It is software for storing data using SQL (structured query language).” A relational database uses SQL to store data in a series of tables that not only record existing relationships between data items, but which also permit the data to be joined in new relationships. SQL is based on a system of algebra developed by E F Codd, an IBM scientist who first defined the relational model in 1970. Relational databases are optimized for storing transactional data, and the majority of modern business software applications therefore use an RDBMS as their data store. The leading RDBMS vendors are Oracle, IBM and Microsoft.
Relational databases are powerful because they require few assumptions about how data is related or how it will be extracted from the database. As a result, the same database can be viewed in many different ways.
A primary key is an attribute (or combination of attributes) that uniquely identifies each row in a relation. A primary key is designated by underlining the attribute name. The primary key of an entity set allows us to distinguish among the various entities of the set.
A foreign key is an attribute in a relation of database that serves as the primary key of another relation in the same database. A foreign key is a key field (column) that identifies records in a table, by matching a primary key in a different table. The foreign keys are used to cross-reference tables. It is a database key that is used as a reference to relate one entity to another entity. It may be a unique value, or used in conjunction with another Foreign Key to create a unique value. A field in a table which links it to another related table (Customer ID might link a customer with the customer's invoice). More accurately, if field X is the primary key of table A and also appears in table B, it is a foreign key in table B. Foreign keys do not exist in information models.
“In database management systems, a file that defines the basic organization of a database is Data Dictionary.” A data dictionary contains a list of all files in the database, the number of records in each file, and the names and types of each field. Most database management systems keep the data dictionary hidden from users to prevent them from accidentally destroying its contents. Data dictionaries do not contain any actual data from the database, only bookkeeping information for managing it. Without a data dictionary, however, a database management system cannot access data from the database. It holds the name, type, range of values, source, and authorization for access for each data element in the organization's files and databases. It also indicates which application programs use that data so that when a change in a data structure is contemplated, a list of affected programs can be generated. The data dictionary may be a stand-alone system or an integral part of the DBMS. Data integrity and accuracy is better ensured in the latter case.
data mart can be define as a smaller-scale data warehouse.
A data warehouse is a repository of an organization's electronically stored data. Data warehouses are designed to facilitate reporting and analysis. This classic definition of the data warehouse focuses on data storage. However, the means to retrieve and analyze data, to extract, transform and load data, and to manage the data dictionary are also considered essential components of a data warehousing system. Thus, an expanded definition for data warehousing includes business intelligence tools, tools to extract, transform, and load data into the repository, and tools to manage and retrieve metadata. Bottom-up design: In the bottom-up approach data marts are first created to provide reporting and analytical capabilities for specific business processes. Top-down design: Data warehouse is a centralized repository for the entire enterprise. In this design the data warehouse is designed using a normalized enterprise data model. "Atomic" data, that is, data at the lowest level of detail, are stored in the data warehouse. A data warehouse is a central repository for all or significant parts of the data that an enterprise's various business systems collect.
Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD):
Data models are tools used in analysis to describe the data requirements and assumptions in the system from a top-down perspective. They also set the stage for the design of databases later on in the SDLC. Entity Relationship Diagrams (ERDs) can be considered as graphical representations of DD Entries. Information modeling is concerned with the definition of data within the system in terms of its meaning, composition and relationships.
There are three basic elements in ER models: Entities are the "things" about which we seek information. Attributes are the data we collect about the entities. Relationships provide the structure needed to draw information from multiple entities.
Q: 3 what are the network topologies?
A: There are five types of network topologies which are as follows:
• • • • • Star topology Ring Topology Bus Topology Tree Topology Mesh Topology
Star Topology: Many home networks use the star topology. A star network features a central connection point called a "hub" that may be a hub, switch or router. Devices typically connect to the hub with Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Ethernet. Compared to the bus topology, a star network generally requires more cable, but a failure in any star network cable will only take down one computer's network access and not the entire LAN. (If the hub fails, however, the entire network also fails.) Ring Topology: In a ring network, every device has exactly two neighbors for communication purposes. All messages travel through a ring in the same direction (either "clockwise" or "counterclockwise"). A failure in any cable or device breaks the loop and can take down the entire network. To implement a ring network, one typically uses FDDI, SONET, or Token Ring technology. Ring topologies are found in some office buildings or school campuses. Bus Topology: Bus networks (not to be confused with the system bus of a computer) use a common backbone to connect all devices. A single cable, the backbone functions as a shared communication medium that devices attach or tap into with an interface connector. A device wanting to communicate with another device on the network sends a broadcast message onto the wire that all other devices see, but only the intended recipient actually accepts and processes the message. Tree Topology: Tree topologies integrate multiple star topologies together onto a bus. In its simplest form, only hub devices connect directly to the tree bus and each hub functions as the "root" of a tree of devices. This bus/star hybrid approach supports future expandability of the network much better than a bus (limited in the number of devices due to the broadcast traffic it generates) or a star (limited by the number of hub connection points) alone.
Mesh Topology: Mesh topologies involve the concept of routes. Unlike each of the previous topologies, messages sent on a mesh network can take any of several possible paths from source to destination. (Recall that even in a ring, although two cable paths exist, messages can only travel in one direction.) Some WANs, most notably the Internet, employ mesh routing. A mesh network in which every device connects to every other is called a full mesh. As shown in the illustration below, partial mesh networks also exist in which some devices connect only indirectly to others.
UMT is using the bus topology.