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Q: Explain the factors that affect the employee ethics?

Discuss ethics in international context?

Ans:
Following are the factors that affect ethics of employee in work context.

Principles, values, and beliefs that define right and wrong:

If a person has a firm belief in the self made principled then he would do the things that
he feels are right. He would do the thighs that he feels are right for others and have no
harm for any one. He would follow self chosen principles.

Stages of moral development (Preconventional, Conventional,


Principled):

It’s also very important factor regarding the ethical behavior of the person. If a person is
at a preconventional stage, he would strictly for the rules that he knows. This might have
good and bad effect on the organization. There might be some places where rules might
be needed to violate for an overall betterment of the organization. He would do thighs
with the immediate interest.

A person in conventional stage of his moral development would do the thighs that would
make happy those persons that are more important for him like supervisor for this
worker. This may lead to the unethical activities for getting the personal goals. He might
also do the thighs for which he would ask to do.

Individual Issue intensity


characteristics

Stage of Ethical and unethical


Ethical
Moral behavior
Dilemma
development Moderators

Organizational
Structural Culture
Variable
Individual characteristics (Values, Ego Strength, Locus of control):

Values:
If a person posses a set of values that could lead him towards following the self interest
thighs this may destructed ethical values that needed to be follow. On the other hand
person with values that well judge right and wrong could and fulfill his tasks assign to
him (obeying type) can prove to have high degree of ethics for the society then first one.

Ego Strength:
A person with high ego value resists impulse unethically and instead follows his
conviction. Hey more likely think that what they think is right. This kind of persons is
consistent in moral judgments actions then those with low ego.

Locus of control:
It is degree to which people believe they control their own fate.

Internal locus of control> They feel they control their own destiny.
External Locus of Control> They believe on luck.

External locus person is less likely to take personal responsibilities for the consequences
of their behavior and are more likely to rely on external forces.
On the other hand people with internal locus likely to take responsibilities for the job
done. They follow the standards of right and wrong to guide their behavior. They prove
to be more consistent in moral judgment.

Structural Variables (Formal rules and regulations, Work Goals,


Performance appraisal system, Reward allocation):

One organization may provide stronger guidance while other may provide ambiguity and
uncertainty. Organization with less ambiguity and uncertainty get work through formal
rules and regulations. Employees are more likely to be encouraged for the ethical
behavior. Mechanisms that influence ethics include the use of goals, performance
appraisal system and reward allocation system.
People who did not come up with goals, this may also lad to ward the unethical behavior.
For example if one is unable to come up the goals he would use some unfair mean to get
to that goal so that he could get the reward.
Performance appraisal system also effect ethics. Some focus exclusively o out come
while other may focus on the end as well. If employees are evaluating on the basis of out
come this enforce the employee to minimize his standards of ethics. Just think of this type
of thinking. Danger view is that supervisor takes more lenient view for successful
employee which would serve as the role model. Behavior of the employee is significantly
important to influence the ethics of the employee.
Organizational Culture (Strong Culture):

Organization culture that encourages high ethical standards is one that is high in risk
tolerance and control and conflict tolerance. In such culture employee will be encourage
to be innovative and he knows that unethical behavior will not be tolerated. Stronger this
culture greater will be ethics.

Issue Intensity (Greatness of harm, Consensus of wrong, Probability of


harm, Immediacy of consequences, Proximity of victims, and
Concentration of effect):
Greater the intensity of the issue greater will be the importance of that issue for the
person. Larger the number harm greater the agreement that act is wrong., greater the like
hood that action will be harm, more immediate consequences of that action will be felt,
closer the victim feel to the victim more concentrated effect of the action on the victim,
greater the issue intensity. More important a ethical issue is that is more intense, the more
we should accept employee to behave ethically.

Greatness of harm Consensus of wrong


Probability of harm

Intensity of Issue

Immediacy of
Concentration of effect consequences
Proximity to victim

Ethics in International Context:

If one living in one end of the world want to do work in an international environment he
got to recognize various social, culture and political influences on what is appropriate and
acceptable behavior. Global organization mi\must clarify their ethical values guideline so
that employee can work in accordance to the requirement of that particular area. One can
not say that if one thing is right in one particular country will be right I n other part of the
world. Gesture is one of the examples that need to be considering while working in
international context.
In a international context a firm working globally is enforced by the competitive and
human right protecting agencies, environmentally protecting agencies and those who are
making sure labor standards to be ethical which might not that much important in the
national context. International rules and regulation authorities like Anti Bribery
Convention also enforce the firm to behave ethically.