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International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882

Volume 3, Issue 9, December 2014

A Review on Various Transformer Testing Systems


1

Manohar Wagh1,Pramod Gite2, Bhagwan Kakade3


(Assistant Professor, Eletronics&Telecommunication, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Nashik)
2
(Eletronics&Telecommunication, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Nashik)
3
(Eletronics&Telecommunication, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Nashik)

Abstract
The fault free operation of transformers is a factor of
major economic importance and safety in power supply
utilities and industrial consumers of electricity. In
manual method lot of time required to test of transformer
& risk also. For Industrial safety purpose. In this paper
various intelligence techniques are used to test the
transformer. Such techniques used as Temperature test,
Voltage test and Current test of transformer. Also check
winding resistance of transformer. This study is focus on
the temperature of transformer winding. Experiment is
carried out in diff temp condition. Current test is carried
out by current transformer and also voltage test is carried
out by potential transformer
Keywords Current transformer,
temperature test, voltage transformer

resistance

coil and temperature at which they operated and


going to saturation is manually operating.
Resistance and winding initially tested and
operating voltage also but, the changes in the output
will be take place as the time increase, because the
temperature of coil increases as temperature
increases, hence output also changes the change in
output have to note data every time which will time
consumption and the man power consumption
process. This paper is made such that the industry
reduce cost of product that is what required the
industry .In this paper conduct the four test and
result of this test directly shown on PC .certified
result is computed

test,

1. INTRODUCTION
Over the years, a number of diagnosis methods have
been introduced and employed on distribution and power
transformers to find internal defects within this valuable
asset [1]. The electric energy produced at generating
stations is transported over high voltage transmission
lines to point of utilization. In early days (until 1917),
electric systems were operated as isolated system with
only point to point transmission at voltages that are
considered low by todays standard. The Electric Power
System is divided into many different sections. One
which is transmission system,where power is transmitted
from generating station and substation via transmission
line to consumer. Incipient fault detection in
transformers can provide early warning of electrical
failure and could prevent catastrophic losses[2].The life
of a transformer depends directly on the life of its
insulation[3].

The fault free operation of power transformers is a


factor of major economic importance and safety in
power supply utilities and industrial consumers of
electricity. Currently in the industries which have a
product Transformer, they are going to test the
parameter of transformer like resistance, turns of

2. VARIOUS TRANSFORMERS TESTING


TECHNIQUES:
2.1 Voltage testing using voltage transformer
In practice a voltage transformer can be used as a
voltage sensor. The voltage transformer must be
connected across the transmission lines. The primary of
the transformer must be connected to the transmission
lines and the secondary must be given to the
microcontroller. A step down voltage transformer is
used. In the paper made use of a potentiometer in place
of a voltage sensor. A potentiometer (colloquially known
as a "pot") is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding
contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider. It is a
measuring device which measures the voltage or current
at the output by comparing it with the known input
voltage. Varying the input voltage is a difficult process
and requires advanced equipments. In the potentiometer
the input is fixed at some maximum and minimum value.
By turning the notch of the potentiometer the output
voltage is varied, whenever the output voltage exceeds
the bounds it indicates the occurrence of fault. After the
fault is indicated the microcontroller gives trip signals to
the relay which in turn operates the circuit breaker .
However in real time applications a potentiometer
cannot be used, a voltage transformer should be used.
2.1.1 Actual Test

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International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882
Volume 3, Issue 9, December 2014

For voltage sensing we are using Potential


Transformer(PT).We applied product at input of
transformer and output voltage of transformer is sense
by PT and Output of PT is given to signal condition
block.The signal condition block is connected to ADC .
Microcontroller take input from ADC and give to
LCD.LCD show the Value of Voltage.
For Step up transformer
Input to transformer:- 230v AC
Output of transformer:-230+10% i.e.253+-1%
If this output is getting then test pass otherwise test Fail
For step down transformer
Input to transformer:- 230v AC
Output of transformer:-207+10% i.e.207+-1%
If this output is getting then test pass otherwise test Fail
2.2 Current test using current transformer
Current transformer (CT) is used for measurement of
alternating electric currents. Current transformers,
together with voltage (or potential) transformers (VT or
PT), are known as instrument transformers. When
current in a circuit is too high to apply directly to
measuring instruments, a current transformer produces a
reduced current accurately proportional to the current in
the circuit, which can be conveniently connected to
measuring and recording instruments. A current
transformer isolates the measuring instruments from
what may be very high voltage in the monitored circuit.
Current transformers are commonly used in metering
and protective relays in the electrical power industry
[4].
2.2.1 Actual Test
For current sensing we are using current
transformer(CT). Applied product at input of
transformer and output load of transformer is sense by
CT and Output of CT is given to signal condition block.
The signal condition block is connected to ADC.
Microcontroller take input from ADC and give to
LCD.LCD show the Value of current.
For Step up transformer
Output load:- 0.5A 120w Lamp Load
Output Current:- 0.5A i.e.0.3A test pass otherwise test
will fail.
For step down transformer
Output load:- 0.6A 120w Lamp Load
Output Current :- 0.6A i.e.0.3 test pass otherwise test
will fail.
2.3 Temperature Test using LM35
Temperature Recorder using LM35:
Here is how you can make an LM35 a temperature
recorder by using the 12F675 PIC microcontroller as the
controller and data store. It generates serial output so
that you can view the results on a PC and it also

calculates the temperature reading in Fahrenheit sending


both to the serial port at half second intervals. In
temperature testing we placed temperature sensor across
winding of transformer. From that we measure the
winding temperature of transformer.Observe the
Temperature before and after Time Test.It should be
within Range. IF temp cross range test will be Fail.
For Step up transformer
Output load :-0.5A
Output temp :- 65 degrees i.e. 65 degrees test pass
otherwise test Fail.
For step down transformer
Output load :-0.6A
Output temp :- 65 degrees i.e. 65 degrees test pass
otherwise test Fail.
2.4 Timer test using relay
Time Test means to find out the behavior of solenoid
relay. It should be ON for that particular time.If before
time solenoid relay off test will be Fail. If ON test will
be pass.

3. STANDARD RATINGS REQUIREMENTS


FOR TRANSFORMER TESTING METHODS
3.1 Design of step down transformer:The following information must be available to the
designer of the transformer.
1) Power output.
2) Operating voltage.
3) Frequency range.
4) Efficiency and regulation.
Size of core is one of the first consideration in regard of
weight and volume of a transformer. This depends on
type of core and winding configuration used. Generally
following formula is used to find Area or Size of the
Core.Ai = WP / 0.87
Where Ai = Area of cross section in square cm.
Wp = Primary Wattage.
We require +5V output, so transformer secondary
winding rating is 9V, 500mA.
So secondary power wattage is,
P2 = 9 * 500 = 4.5Watt
Ai = 4.5 / 0.87 = 2.4
Generally 10% of area should be added to the core.
So, Ai = 2.8
3.1.1 Turns per volt:Turns per volt of transformer are given by relation.
Turns per volt = 100000 / 4.44 f * Bm * Ai
Where,
F = Frequency in Hz.

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International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882
Volume 3, Issue 9, December 2014

Bm = Density in Wb / Square meter.


Ai = Net area of the cross section.
Following table gives the value of turns per volt for 50
Hz frequency.
Table1. Value of turns per volt
Flux
density
1.14
1.01
0.76 Wb
/sq m

0.91

0.83

Turns per
Volt
40 / Ai
45 / Ai

50 / Ai

55 / Ai

45 / Ai

R1 = input impedance of voltage regulator IC


C = 3 * 0.1 * 50 * 28
= 1030 f
= 1000 f
Voltage rating of filter capacitor should be greater than
the i/p Vdc i.e. rectifier output which is 8.08 V so we
choose 1000f / 25V filter capacitor.
Table2. Specification of voltage regulator IC
Parameter
Rating
Available
voltage.

Generally lower the flux density better the quality of


transformer.we has taken the turns per volt are 0.91 Wb /
sq.m from above table.
Turns per volt = 50 / Ai
= 50 / 2.8
= 17.85
Thus the turns for the primary winding is,
220 * 17.85 = 3927
And for secondary winding,
9 * 17.85 = 160
3.1.2 Wire size: - As stated above the size is depends
upon the current to be carried out by winding which
depends upon current density. For our transformer one
tie can safely use current density of 3.1 Amp / sq.mm.
For less copper loss 1.6Amp/sq.mm or 2.4sq.mm may be
used generally even size gauge of wire are used.
R.M.S secondary voltage at secondary to transformer is
9V. so maximum voltage Vm across secondary is = 9 *
1.141 = 12.727v
D.C output voltage Vm across secondary is,
Vdc = 2 * Vm/Pi
= 2 * 12.727/3.14
= 8.08 V
P.I.V rating of each diode is
PIV = 2 Vdc = 2 * 8.08 = 16.16 V
Maximum forward current, which flow from each diode
is 500 mA. So from above parameter, we select diode
1N4007 from the diode selection manual.
3.2 Design of filter capacitor:Formula for calculating filter capacitor is
C = 3 r * F * R1
Where,
r = ripple present at output of rectifier, which is
maximum 0.1 for full wave rectifier.
F = frequency of AC main.

output

DC +5V

Line regulation.

0.03

Load regulation.

0.5

Vin maximum.

16.16 V

Ripple rejection.

60-80db

4. USE OF AUTO TRANSFORMER


The use of auto trasformer in this paper is to set voltage
which are given input to the transformer which are to be
tested.An auto transformer (sometimes called autostep
down transformer)[5] is an electrical transformer with
only one winding. The "auto" (Greek for "self") prefix
refers to the single coil acting on itself and not to any
kind of automatic mechanism. In an auto transformer,
portions of the same winding act as both the primary
and secondary sides of the transformer. In contrast, an
ordinary transformer has separate primary and secondary
winding which are not connected. The winding has at
least three taps where electrical connections are made.
Since part of the winding does "double duty", auto
transformers have the advantages of often being smaller,
lighter, and cheaper than typical dual-winding
transformers, but the disadvantage of not providing
electrical isolation. Other advantages of auto
transformers include lower leakage reactance, lower
losses, lower excitation current, and increased KVA
rating[5].
Auto transformers are often used to step up or step down
voltages in the 110-115-120 V range and voltages in the
220-230-240 volt rangefor example. providing 110 V
or 120 V (with taps) from 230 V input, allowing
equipment designed for 100 or 120 volts to be used with
a 230 volt supply (as in using US electrical equipment
with higher European voltages).

4 .1 Proposed System
In this system we used the microcontroller
ADC,LCD,voltage transformer,current transformer and

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International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882
Volume 3, Issue 9, December 2014

relays through the conduct these test according to


following way.

5. CONCLUSION
This paper is giving us the correct result of different test
parameter. This is the system which shows correctly the
test pass and test failed by displaying the correct result
on LCD as well as PC.This techniques is simple than

others techniques.but disadvantage is the not battery


operated .but having many more advantages for
industry like reduces manpower so that reduces the
investment in that get more profit.
REFERENCES
[1] M. Bagheri, M. S. Naderi and T. Blackburn,
Advanced transformer winding deformation diagnosis:
moving from off-line to on-line, IEEE Trans. Dielectr.
Electr. Insul., Vol. 19, No. 6, pp.1860-1870, 2012.
[2] H.Wang Modeling Transformers With Internal
Incipient Faults, Student Member,IEEE, and Karen L.
Butler, Senior Member , IEEE Transactions On Power
Delivery,Vol.17,no.2,April 2002 ,PP [500-509].
[3] D. Bhalla , R . K . Bansal and H . Gupta ,Application
of Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Dissolved Gas
Analysis of Transformers World Academy of
Science,Engineering and Technology Vol:4 2010-02-27
PP-[177-185].
[4] E. E.Lesniewska, R. Rajchert Application of the
Field-Circuit Method for the Computation of
Measurement Properties of Current Transformers With
Cores Consisting of Different Magnetic Materials,IEEE
Transaction On Magnetic, Vol. 46, No. 10, 2010
[5] Paul Horowitz and Winfield Hill, The Art of
Electronics Second Edition, Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge MA, 1989, ISBN 0-521-37095-7, page
58
[6]M. A. Taghikhani , Power Transformer Insulation
Lifetime Estimation Methods, International Journal of
Energy Engineering 2011 ,PP[9-11].

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