This paper introduces the inverse control design using neural network based self tuning regulator (STR) for control the Flexible Transmission. The controller is the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) and acts as inverse of the Flexible Transmission. The Flexible Transmission parameters are estimated online using the system identification method where uses the Auto-regressive moving average (ARX) model which depends on the input and output values of the Flexible Transmission. The difference between the output of the dc motor and the reference signal is used to adjust coefficients of ARX model. These coefficients of ARX are used to update the weights of the RBFNN. The weight update equations are derived based on the least mean squares principle. The speed output tracks the reference trajectory though the self tuning regulator (STR) structure exposed to different types of disturbances for wide range of operating conditions. Then compared its result with the result of using proportional-plus-integral feedback (PI) self tuning regulator.

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This paper introduces the inverse control design using neural network based self tuning regulator (STR) for control the Flexible Transmission. The controller is the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) and acts as inverse of the Flexible Transmission. The Flexible Transmission parameters are estimated online using the system identification method where uses the Auto-regressive moving average (ARX) model which depends on the input and output values of the Flexible Transmission. The difference between the output of the dc motor and the reference signal is used to adjust coefficients of ARX model. These coefficients of ARX are used to update the weights of the RBFNN. The weight update equations are derived based on the least mean squares principle. The speed output tracks the reference trajectory though the self tuning regulator (STR) structure exposed to different types of disturbances for wide range of operating conditions. Then compared its result with the result of using proportional-plus-integral feedback (PI) self tuning regulator.

© All Rights Reserved

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Using Neural Network

Gaber elsaady1, Abd-el meged mohamed2, Ashraf hemeda3, Asmaa fawzy4

1

engineering faculty, Assiut University, Egypt

2

engineering faculty, Aswan University, Egypt

3,4

energy engineering faculty, Aswan University, Egypt

Abstract

This paper introduces the inverse control design using

neural network based self tuning regulator (STR) for

control the Flexible Transmission. The controller is the

radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) and acts

as inverse of the Flexible Transmission. The Flexible

Transmission parameters are estimated online using the

system identification method where uses the Autoregressive moving average (ARX) model which depends

on the input and output values of the Flexible

Transmission. The difference between the output of the

dc motor and the reference signal is used to adjust

coefficients of ARX model. These coefficients of ARX

are used to update the weights of the RBFNN. The

weight update equations are derived based on the least

mean squares principle. The speed output tracks the

reference trajectory though the self tuning regulator

(STR) structure exposed to different types of

disturbances for wide range of operating conditions.

Then compared its result with the result of using

proportional-plus-integral feedback (PI) self tuning

regulator.

Keywords: STR,

Transmission

RBFNN,

ARX,

LMS,

Flexible

1. INTRODUCTION

Adaptive control schemes are used for the control of

plants, where the parameters of the plant are not known

exactly or slowly time varying. Some reasons for using

Adaptive control such as variations in process dynamics

and variations in the character of the disturbances [1, 2].

Enzeng and others [3] present a neural network based

self tuning PID controller for autonomous underwater

vehicle, the control system consists of neural network

identifier and neural network controller, and the weights

of neural networks are trained by using Davidon least

square method, also[4].

Neural network (NN) is a good structure for control

the nonlinear plants and has many types [5, 6]. Kumar

[7] used neural network for modeling the retention

process and as controller. In this paper, we used the

RBFNN as a controller. This type is faster one and uses

least number of neurons at hidden layer [8, 9]. The

inverse control means that the controller (RBFNN) acts

output tracks the reference input [10].

Flexible systems with very low damping factor are in

general very difficult to control in the presence of large

load variation. However, a high-performance controller

is normally needed for this type of systems, particularly

in aerospace applications. An application of the multiple

models adaptive control based on switching and tuning

to a flexible transmission system presented by Alireza K.

and Dore L [11]. This approach has been considered in

order to assure high control performance in the presence

of large load variation on the system.

In this paper, we consider a flexible transmission

system with two very oscillatory vibration modes subject

to large load variations (leading to about 100% variation

of the first vibration mode).

Sabahi [12] used a new adaptive and nonlinear control

based on neural network approaches, this method has

been named feedback error learning (FEL) approaches,

that classical controller is used for training of neural

network feedforward controller. Pal [13] proposed a

simple self-tuning scheme for PI-type fuzzy logic

controllers (FLCs) for a real time water pressure control

system. This scheme is improved performance of the

system even at load change and set point variations.

Kota [14] used PID controller and fuzzy logic controller

for control separately excited dc motor. Fuzzy selftuning PID has better dynamic response curve, shorter

response time, small overshoot, and small steady state

error compared to the conventional PID controller. Saad

[15] proved that the proposed Neural Network (NN)

self-tuning PID controller is more efficient to control the

robot manipulator to follow the desired trajectory

compared to classical tuning method of PID controller.

In this paper a new technique is proposed that gives a

good control for the Flexible Transmission. An online

control algorithm is structured using the radial basis

function neural network (RBFNN). The Flexible

Transmission parameters are estimated on line and are

used to update the weights of the RBFNN. The weight

update equations are derived based on the least mean

squares principle. The RBFNN virtually models the

inverse of the Flexible Transmission and thus the output

tracks the reference trajectory.

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96

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882

Volume 4 Issue 2, February 2015

2. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

The flexible transmission system consists of three

horizontal pulleys connected by two elastic belts. The

schematic diagram and the photo of the system are

shown, respectively, in Fig.1. The first pulley is driven

by a dc motor whose position is controlled by local

feedback. Since the dynamic of this feedback loop is

much faster than that of the mechanical parts, it can be

neglected in the analysis of the system. The objective is

to control the position of the third pulley which may be

loaded with small disks. The system input is the

reference for the axis position of the first pulley. A PC

is used to control the system. The system has a pure

time delay equal to two sampling periods and an

unstable zero.

The discrete-time plant is described by the following

transfer operator:

H q

q d B q 1

A q 1

structure

3.1 ARX model

The process is modeled by an ARX model [16],

whose output is given by

n

y (t ) ai y (t i ) b j x(t j )

i 1

plant pure time delay and

j 1

Or in terms of q

y(t )

operator

B(q ) d

q x(t )

A(q 1 )

A single input single output radial basis function

neural network (SISO RBFNN) is shown in Fig.3. It

consists of an input node r (t ) , a hidden layer with n

neurons and an output node x(t ) . Each of the input

nodes is connected to all the nodes in the hidden layer

through unity weights (direct connection). While each

of the hidden layer nodes is connected to the output

node through some weights w1 ,, wn0 .

its center and passes the resulting scalar through

nonlinearity. So the output of the hidden neuron is

given by [8, 16]

(d ) exp( 12 d 2 ) exp( 12 r (t ) ci )

2

r (t ) cn0

r (t ) c1

d

1

2

2

NEURAL NETWORK

Autoregressive with exogenous input (ARX) is

used to identify the flexible transmission and found

the model. The model coefficients are updated

online depending on flexible transmission

parameters variation. These coefficients are fed the

weight update block which trains the controller

whether RBFNN or PI controller using the least

mean square LMS algorithm, fig.2.

ci

is

the

center

of

i th

hidden

layer

node

the nonlinear basis function. Normally this function is

taken as a Gaussian function of width . The output

x(t ) is a weighted sum of the outputs of the hidden

layer, given by

n0

x(t ) wi ( r (t ) ci )

i 1

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97

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882

Volume 4 Issue 2, February 2015

utilized a radial construction mechanism. This gives the

hidden layer parameters of RBF networks a better

interpretation than for the multilayer perceptron

network MLP, and therefore allows new, faster training

methods.

(r (t ) m (t ))

1

n

r (t ) a1 q a n q m (t )

e(t )

b1 q 1 ... bm q m q d ref (t )

e(t )

I

e(t ) (t )

( K 1) ( K ) e(t ) (t )

The partial derivatives for the weights are derived as

follows,

Fig. 3: A general RBF network

ALGORITHM

The parameters of the flexible transmission model

are estimated online and are used to update the

coefficients of the controller (weights of the RBFNN /

parameters of PI). The weight/coefficient update

equations are derived based on a recursive scheme

(least mean squares principle). This previous

parameters are updated by minimizing the performance

index I given by [9]

I

1 e 2 (t )

W 2 W

B(q 1 ) d

r (t )

e(t )

q ref (t )

1

W

A(q )

I

e(t ) B(q 1 )q d (t )

W

The final weight update equation will be,

coefficients update equation of PI will be,

PI ( K 1) PI ( K ) e(t ) B(q 1 )q d

( ref (t 1) (t s 1) ref (t ))

I 12 e 2 (t )

e(t ) r (t ) m (t )

is the output position of the flexible transmission

model. The coefficients of the ARX model and the

weights of the RBFNN/parameters of the PI are updated

in the negative direction of the gradient as,

I

( K )

I

W ( K 1) W ( K )

W ( K )

( K 1) ( K )

PI ( K 1) PI ( K )

I

PI ( K )

W w1 w2 wn0

PI k p k i vector for the parameters proportionalintegral (PI) and is the learning parameter. The

variable K is used to show the iteration number of

training.

Keeping the regressions of the variables in the

system

in

a

regression

vector

as

(t ) m (t 1) m (t n) ref (t d ) ref (t m d )

and

5. SIMULATION RESULTS

The proposed self-tuning regulator (STR) structure

exposed to different disturbances. Firstly, the flexible

transmission parameters are changing because of a

disturbance which is applied at the output of the plant

(the angular position of the third pulley is changed by

adding sine wave signal which has varied magnitude

and frequency). Secondly, we tested the controller with

different loads like as no load case, half load case and

full load case. Therefore, we study these variations

where the flexible transmission model parameters are

estimated online and are used to update the weights of

the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) at

the same instant.

As a result, fig.4 shows the efficient response of the

self tuning flexible transmission adaptive control for the

square wave excitation (reference) signal, the error

signal which the variance between the reference signal

and the output system also, the model parameters

growth at the no load case.

I 1 e 2 (t )

2

www.ijsret.org

98

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882

Volume 4 Issue 2, February 2015

1

1

-1

-1

50

100

150

200

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350

400

450

500

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400

450

500

350

400

450

500

350

400

450

500

50

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150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

1

rpm

1

rpm

0

-1

50

100

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300

-1

50

100

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-1

50

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parameters evolution

-1

50

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500

parameters evolution

2

-50

0

-2

50

100

150

200

250

time(sec)

300

350

400

450

500

(a)RBFNN

a square wave input

1

50

100

150

200

250

time(sec)

300

(b)PI

Fig. 5: Simulation Results for self-tuning flexible

transmission system for change load ( 0% 100% in

two stages at 150s, 350s).

a square wave input

2

-1

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

-2

rpm

50

100

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200

250

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500

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450

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350

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450

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350

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2

-1

50

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rpm

1

0

-2

50

100

150

200

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2

-1

50

100

150

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250

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350

400

450

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parameters evolution

50

-2

50

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150

200

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300

parameters evolution

2

-50

50

100

150

200

250

time(sec)

300

350

400

450

500

0

-2

(b)PI

Fig. 4: Simulation Results for self-tuning flexible

transmission system for no-load case

50

100

150

200

250

time(sec)

300

(a)RBFNN

a square wave input

1

2

0

-2

-1

50

100

150

200

250

300

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150

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250

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1

rpm

2

rpm

-1

0

50

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300

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-2

50

100

150

200

250

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400

450

500

0

2

-1

-2

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parameters evolution

50

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150

200

250

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350

400

450

500

parameters evolution

-50

50

100

150

200

250

time(sec)

300

0

-2

50

100

150

200

250

time(sec)

300

(a) RBFNN

350

400

450

500

(b) PI

Fig. 6: Simulation Results for self-tuning flexible

transmission system for change load ( 100% 0% in

two stages at 50s, 150s).

www.ijsret.org

99

Volume 4 Issue 2, February 2015

started without load on the third pulley and at the

instants 150s and 350s 50% of the total load is added on

the third pulley. Therefore the system without load

becomes full loaded in two stages. Fig. 5 shows very

good performances in tracking. The control system with

the same synthesis parameters as well as the same

reference signal is again considered. The plant is

initially full loaded case and it passes to unloaded case

in two stages (at 50s and 150s). The results illustrated

in Fig. 6 show the good tracking performances of the

system; likewise fig. 7 that shows the transition from

full load case to unload case direct (at 300s).

Then, at the changed load case from unloaded state to

full load state in two stages that previously mentioned,

we suffix the sine wave signal to the position output of

the system at specific time period 250 t 300 and

400 t 450 in fig .8. In summary, we see that the

output of self-tuning regulator (STR) structure mimics

the track accurately at first status but another trajectory

misses when noise enlarged lightly.

1

rpm

0.5

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-0.5

-1

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2

0

-2

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time(sec)

300

1

rpm

0.5

0

-0.5

-1

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-0.5

rpm

-1

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-2

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-2

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time(sec)

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(a)RBFNN

0

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time(sec)

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1

(a) RBFNN

0

-1

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1

-1

rpm

0

-1

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rpm

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-1

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parameters evolution

50

0

-1

150

-50

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50

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time(sec)

300

parameters evolution

50

0

-50

50

100

150

200

250

time(sec)

300

350

400

450

500

(b) PI

Fig. 7: Simulation Results for self-tuning flexible

transmission system for change load ( 100% 0% at

300s).

(b) PI

Fig. 8: Simulation Results for self-tuning flexible

transmission system for ( 0% 100% ) case with

output disturbance (e.g. (a) 0.05 sin(t ) and 0.5 sin(t )

(b) 0.05 sin(t ) )

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100

Volume 4 Issue 2, February 2015

6. CONCLUSIONS

This paper introduces a very simple structure for

control the flexible transmission that updates itself

online. The exact model of the flexible transmission

needs not to be known and just the estimates are enough

to drive the RBFNN as the process inverse.

We consider a flexible transmission system with two

very oscillatory vibration modes subject to large load

variations (leading to about 100% variation of the first

vibration mode). The proposed radial basis self tuning

structure has been considered in order to assure high

control performance in the presence of large load

variation on the system.

The RBFNN is a fast neural network compared with

others type due to using least mean squares principle as

training algorithm. Its structure has 2 neurons in hidden

layer.

REFERENCES

[1] K. J. Astrom and B.Wittenmark. Adaptive

Control. Addison Wesley, 1995.

[2] Won Seok Oh; Kim Sol ; Kyu Min Cho ;

Kyungsang Yoo ; Young Tae Kim. Self-tuning

speed controller for induction motor drives.

Power

Electronics,

Electrical

Drives,

Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM), 2012

International Symposium.

[3] Enzeng Dong, Shuxiang Guo, Xichuan Lin,

Xiaoqiong Li, Yunliang Wang A neural

network-based self-tuning PID controller of an

autonomous underwater vehicle, Mechatronics

and Automation (ICMA), 2012 International

Conference

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5-8 Aug. 2012, pp 898 903.

[4] Zhao Ximei , Sun Xianfeng. Neural-NetworkBased Self-Tuning. PI Controller for Permanent.

Magnet

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Machines and Systems (ICEMS), 2011

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[5] Rahmouni, A.; Lachiver, G. Optimal speed

tracking control of induction motor using

artificial intelligence techniques . Power

Electronics Specialist Conference, 2003. PESC

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[6] K. S. Narendra and K. Parthasarathy.

Identification and control of system using neural

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Networks, 1:427, 1990.

[7] Kumar Rajesh, A.K.Ray. Artificial neural

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[10]

Vali U.,M .Yasir. Multiple Layer

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[11]

Karimi A., Landau I.D. "Robust

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vol. 8, no. 2, March 2000

[12]

K.sabahi.

Application of ANN

Technique for DC-Motor Control by Using FEL

Approaches.

pp.131-134,

2011

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International Conference on Genetic and

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[13]

A.K.Pal, I.Naskar.

Design of SelfTuning Fuzzy PI controller in LABVIEW for

Control of a Real Time Process. International

Journal of Electronics and Computer Science

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[14]

Kota, B.V.S Goud. Fuzzy PID Control

for Networked Control System of DC Motor

with Random Design. International Journal of

Computer Applications (0975 8887) Volume

52 No. 7, August 2012.

[15]

Saad Zaghlul. Tuning PID Controller

by Neural Network for Robot Manipulator

Trajectory Tracking Al-Khwarizmi Engineering

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[16]

Oliver. Nonlinear System Identification

From Classical Approaches To Neural Networks

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