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Mapua Institute of Technology

School of Civil, Environmental, and Geological Engineering

ADVANCED SURVEYING
FIELD MANUAL

FIELDWORK NO. 1
LAYING A SIMPLE CURVE BY TRANSIT AND TAPE
(THE INCREMENTAL CHORDS AND DEFLECTION ANGLE METHOD)

COURSE AND SECTION: CE121F / A2

SUBMITTED BY:
Name: TILLAS, Angelika Wynne D.

Chief of Party: TILLAS, Angelika Wynne D.

Date of Fieldwork: 10/29/2015

Date of Submission: 11/10/2015

SUBMITTED TO:
Engr. Bienvenido Cervantes

GRADE
Objectives

1. To be able to lay a simple curve by deflection angle.

2. To master the skill in leveling, orienting and using the transit effectively.

Instruments

Range Pole
It is a surveying instrument consisting of a
painted in bands of alternate red and white each one
used for sighting by surveyors.

straight rod
foot wide. It is

Chalk
It is a soft, white, porous sedimentary
rock, a form of limestone composed of the
calcite.

50 meter tape

carbonate
mineral

It is used in surveying for measuring

vertical or slope distances. Tapes are
various lengths and widths and graduated
ways.

horizontal,
issued in
in variety of

Marking Pins
These are made either of iron,
brass wire, as preferred. They
about fourteen inches long
at one end to enter the ground,
formed into a ring at the other
convenience in handling.

Theodolite
An instrument similar to an ordinary surveyor's
level but capable of finer readings and including
a prism arrangement that permits simultaneous
observation of the rod and the leveling bubble.

steel or
are
pointed
and
end for

PROCEDURES
Procedure:
1. The professor gives the following data:
a. R =
b. Backward Tangent Direction =
c. Forward Tangent Direction =
d. Station of the Vertex =
e. Adopt Full Chord Length=

360 m
N48O36E
S64O30E
25+102
20 m

2. The student compute the elements of the simple curve using the following formulas:
If the azimuths of the backward and forward tangents are given, the intersection angle I
can be solved using:
I = azimuth of the forward tangent - azimuth of the backward tangent
The tangent distance must be solved using:
T = R*tan( I/2)
The middle ordinate distance can be computed using:
M = R*( 1 - cos(I/2) )
The length of the curve (Lc) can be computed using (provided that I is in radians):
Lc = I * R
The long chord (C) can be solved using:
C = 2*R*sin (I/2)
The station of PC can be computed using:
Station of PC = Station V - T

The station of PT can be found by:

Station of PT = Station PC + Lc

The length of the first sub chord from PC, if PC is not exactly on a full station (otherwise C1
= a full chord length):
C1 = first full station on the curve - Station PC
The length of the last sub chord from PC, if PC is not exactly on a full station (otherwise C2
= a full chord length):
C2 = Station PT - last full station on the curve
The value of the first deflection angle d1:
d1 = 2*sin-1 ( C1 / 2R )
The value of the last deflection angle d2:
D2 = 2*sin-1 ( C2 / 2R )
3. Set up the transit/theodolite over the vertex V, level the instrument and sight/locate
PC and PT using the computed length of the tangent segments. Mark the position of
PC and PT by marking pins if on soft ground or chalk if on pavement.
4. Transfer the instrument over PC, level and start locating points of the curve using the
following procedures:
a. Initialize the horizontal vernier by setting to zero reading. Tighten the upper
clamp and adjust it with the upper tangent screw.
b. Using the telescope, sight the vertex or PI with the vernier still at zero reading.
c. Tighten the lower clamp and focus it using the lower tangent screw.
d. With the lower tangent screw already tight, loosen the upper clamp and start to
measure half the first deflection angle. Mark the direction with a range pole.
Along this line, using a marking pin/chalk, mark point A measured with a tape
the length of the first subchord.
e. Locate the next point B, a full chord length from point A but this time
intersecting the line sighted at an angle of half the sum of d1 and the full D of
the curve. Note that the transit/theodolite is still positioned over station PC.
f. Proceed in locating other points on the curve following step E until you cover all
full chord stations on the entire length of the curve.

and from the last full station on the curve and

intersecting the line of sight with a deflection angle equal to half the intersection
angle, mark the last point as PT.
5. Check the position of PT by determining the length of PC from PT and compare it to
the computed total length of the chord of the simple curve.

COMPUTATIONS
If the azimuths of the backward and forward tangents are given, the intersection angle I
can be solved using:
I = azimuth of the forward tangent - azimuth of the backward tangent
The tangent distance must be solved using:
T = R*tan( I/2)
The middle ordinate distance can be computed using:
M = R*( 1 - cos(I/2) )
The length of the curve (Lc) can be computed using (provided that I is in radians)
Lc = I * R
The long chord (C) can be solved using:
C = 2*R*sin (I/2)
The station of PC can be computed using:
Station of PC = Station V - T
The station of PT can be found by:
Station of PT = Station PC + Lc
The length of the first sub chord from PC, if PC is not exactly on a full station (otherwise C1
= a full chord length):
C1 = first full station on the curve - Station PC
The length of the last sub chord from PC, if PC is not exactly on a full station (otherwise C2
= a full chord length):
C2 = Station PT - last full station on the curve

The value of the first deflection angle d1:

d1 = 2*sin-1 ( C1 / 2R )
The value of the last deflection angle d2:
d2 = 2*sin-1 ( C2 / 2R )

FINAL DATA SHEET

FIELD WORK 1 LAYING OF A SIMPLE CURVE BY TRANSIT AND TAPE (THE INCREMENTAL CHORD
AND DEFLECTION ANGLE METHOD)

Data Supplied:
R1 =
Backward Tangent Direction:
Forward Tangent Direction:
Station of the Vertex:
Adopt Full Chord Length:

360m
N48036E
S64o30E
25+102
20 m

Station

Central
Incremental
Angle

Deflection
Angle From
Back
Tangent

Occupied

Observed

Increment
al Chord

27+843

27+860

15.83

2o318.359

1o1526.37

27+843

27+880

20

3o

2o44

27+843

27+900

20

3o

4o14

27+843

27+920

20

3o

5o44

27+843

27+940

20

3o

7o14

27+843

27+960

20

3o

8o44

27+843

27+980

20

3o

10o14

27+843

28+000

20

3o

11o44

27+843

28+020

20

3o

13o14

27+843

28+040

20

3o

14o44

27+843

28+060

20

3o

16o14

27+843

28+080

20

3o

17o44

27+843

28+100

20

3o

19o14

27+843

28+120

20

3o

20o44

27+843

28+140

20

3o

22o14

27+843

28+160

20

3o

23o44

27+843

28+180

20

3o

25o14

27+843

28+200

20

3o

26o44

27+843

28+220

20

3o

28o14

27+843

28+240

20

3o

29o44

27+843

28+260

20

3o

31o14

27+843

28+280

20

3o

32o44

27+843

28+300

20

3o

34o14

27+843

28+303.48

3.478

0o438.523

34o30

Computed Length of the Chord: 396.9 m

Actual Length of the Chord: 398 m

Computations
I = Front Azimuth - Back Azimuth T = R tan (I/2)
= 113o30 48o30
= 80 tan (65o/2
= 65o
= 50.9656m
Lc = IR
= 80 (65pi/180)
= 90.7571m

C = 2R sin (I/2)
= 2*80*sin (65/2)
= 85.9679m

Station PC = Station V - PT
= 30+001 - 50.9656
= 29+950
Central Incremental Angle

Station PT = Station PC + Lc
= 29+950 + 90
= 30+040

CIAPC-A = (10/80)(180/pi) = 7o943.1

CIAPC-A = (20/80)(180/pi) = 14o1926.2
CIAPC-B = (20/80)(180/pi) = 14o1926.2
CIAPC-C = (20/80)(180/pi) = 14o1926.2
CIAPC-PT = (20/80)(180/pi) = 14o1926.2
d1 =2 sin (1o/2*80) =7o959.92
Deflection Pc-A = d0/2 = 3O3459.96
Deflection Pc-B = (d1o + Do)/2 =10o4443.06
Deflection Pc-c = (d1o + 2Do)/2 =17o5426.16
Deflection Pc-D = (d1o + 3Do)/2 =25o49.26

Deflection Pc-Pt = I/2 =32o30

Sketch

Discussion of Results
In this method, curves are staked out by use of deflection angles
turned at the point of curvature from the tangent to points along the curve.
Driving pegs at regular interval equal to the length of the normal chord sets out
the curve. Usually, the sub-chords are provided at the beginning and end of the

curve to adjust the actual length of the curve. The method is based on the
assumption that there is no difference between length of the arcs and their
corresponding chords of normal length or less. The underlying principle of this
method is that the deflection angle to any point on the circular curve is
measured by the one-half the angle subtended at the center of the circle by the
arc from the P.C. to that point.
The simple curve is an arc of a circle. It is the most commonly used.
The radius of the circle determines the sharpness or flatness of the curve.
The larger the radius, the flatter the curve. As the degree of curve increases,
the radius decreases. It should be noted that for a given intersecting angle or
central angle, when using the arc definition, all the elements of the curve are
inversely proportioned to the degree of curve. Civilian engineers in highway
construction primarily use this definition.
The radius and the degree of curve are not inversely proportional
even though, as in the arc definition, the larger the degree of curve the
sharper the curve and the shorter the radius. The chord definition is used
primarily on railroads in civilian practice and for both roads and railroads by the
military.
On route surveys, the surveyor numbers the stations forward from the
beginning of the project. For example, 0+00 indicates the beginning of the
project. The 15+52.96 would indicate a point 1,552.96 feet from the beginning.
A full station is 100 feet or 30 meters, making 15+00 and 16+00 full stations. A
plus station indicates a point between full stations. (15+52.96 is a plus station.)
When using the metric system, the surveyor does not use the plus system of
numbering stations. The station number simply becomes the distance from the
beginning of the project.

Conclusion
In this fieldwork, we were able to lay a simple curve by deflection
angle and to master the skill in leveling, orienting, and using the transit
effectively. Through this fieldwork, Ive learned terms such as simple curve,
deflection angle, external distance, tangent distance, middle ordinate, long
chord, length of curve, degree of curve, backward tangent, forward tangent,
and point of curvature. Ive also learned how to lay a simple curve using
theodolite and tape, and how to sight the point of curvature and point of
tangency with the given azimuth. Computing for the elements of the simple
curve such as long chord and deflection angle has been added to my
knowledge.
It can be seen in the data gathered that the actual length of the chord
is close to the computed length of the chord. There are factors that can affect
the determination of the actual length. One of them is the angle when the points
are sighted. In the computations, the angle appears to have minutes and

seconds in them. The theodolite may not be able to measure the exact angle
given or computed. Another factor of error is the process of measuring using
the tape. It may be due to pull, or sag, or temperature. We avoided the error
that can be caused by laying down the tape on uneven ground since we
measured it with the tape being held above the ground.
To avoid these kind of errors, you should measure the length in short
distances like 10 m and put a mark on them, instead of measuring the whole
distance and laying out all the tape. Also, make sure that the line you are
measuring can still be sighted in the theodolite. There are instances that the
direction you are headed is not in the line of sight of the transit anymore,
especially when you are measuring long distances. Also, make sure that you
and your groupmates are all helping out. Point out all the possible worst-case
scenarios before setting up the vertex, so your group will not do the whole
fieldwork all over again.

Research
The simple curve is an arc of a circle. It is the most commonly used.
The radius of the circle determines the sharpness or flatness of the curve.
The larger the radius, the flatter the curve. As the degree of curve increases,
the radius decreases. It should be noted that for a given intersecting angle or
central angle, when using the arc definition, all the elements of the curve are
inversely proportioned to the degree of curve. Civilian engineers in highway
construction primarily use this definition.
The radius and the degree of curve are not inversely proportional
even though, as in the arc definition, the larger the degree of curve the
sharper the curve and the shorter the radius. The chord definition is used
primarily on railroads in civilian practice and for both roads and railroads by the
military. This focuses on a particular approach called incremental distance
computation, which assumes that between successive calls to the collision
detection algorithm, the bodies move only a small amount. Under this

assumption the algorithm achieves ``almost constant time'' performance for the
case of convex polyhedral bodies Nonconvex bodies can be decomposed into
convex components.