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ADVANCED SURVEYING

FIELD MANUAL

FIELDWORK NO. 1

LAYING A SIMPLE CURVE BY TRANSIT AND TAPE

(THE INCREMENTAL CHORDS AND DEFLECTION ANGLE METHOD)

SUBMITTED BY:

Name: TILLAS, Angelika Wynne D.

Date of Fieldwork: 10/29/2015

SUBMITTED TO:

Engr. Bienvenido Cervantes

GRADE

Objectives

2. To master the skill in leveling, orienting and using the transit effectively.

Instruments

Range Pole

It is a surveying instrument consisting of a

painted in bands of alternate red and white each one

used for sighting by surveyors.

straight rod

foot wide. It is

Chalk

It is a soft, white, porous sedimentary

rock, a form of limestone composed of the

calcite.

50 meter tape

carbonate

mineral

vertical or slope distances. Tapes are

various lengths and widths and graduated

ways.

horizontal,

issued in

in variety of

Marking Pins

These are made either of iron,

brass wire, as preferred. They

about fourteen inches long

at one end to enter the ground,

formed into a ring at the other

convenience in handling.

Theodolite

An instrument similar to an ordinary surveyor's

level but capable of finer readings and including

a prism arrangement that permits simultaneous

observation of the rod and the leveling bubble.

steel or

are

pointed

and

end for

PROCEDURES

Procedure:

1. The professor gives the following data:

a. R =

b. Backward Tangent Direction =

c. Forward Tangent Direction =

d. Station of the Vertex =

e. Adopt Full Chord Length=

360 m

N48O36E

S64O30E

25+102

20 m

2. The student compute the elements of the simple curve using the following formulas:

If the azimuths of the backward and forward tangents are given, the intersection angle I

can be solved using:

I = azimuth of the forward tangent - azimuth of the backward tangent

The tangent distance must be solved using:

T = R*tan( I/2)

The middle ordinate distance can be computed using:

M = R*( 1 - cos(I/2) )

The length of the curve (Lc) can be computed using (provided that I is in radians):

Lc = I * R

The long chord (C) can be solved using:

C = 2*R*sin (I/2)

The station of PC can be computed using:

Station of PC = Station V - T

Station of PT = Station PC + Lc

The length of the first sub chord from PC, if PC is not exactly on a full station (otherwise C1

= a full chord length):

C1 = first full station on the curve - Station PC

The length of the last sub chord from PC, if PC is not exactly on a full station (otherwise C2

= a full chord length):

C2 = Station PT - last full station on the curve

The value of the first deflection angle d1:

d1 = 2*sin-1 ( C1 / 2R )

The value of the last deflection angle d2:

D2 = 2*sin-1 ( C2 / 2R )

3. Set up the transit/theodolite over the vertex V, level the instrument and sight/locate

PC and PT using the computed length of the tangent segments. Mark the position of

PC and PT by marking pins if on soft ground or chalk if on pavement.

4. Transfer the instrument over PC, level and start locating points of the curve using the

following procedures:

a. Initialize the horizontal vernier by setting to zero reading. Tighten the upper

clamp and adjust it with the upper tangent screw.

b. Using the telescope, sight the vertex or PI with the vernier still at zero reading.

c. Tighten the lower clamp and focus it using the lower tangent screw.

d. With the lower tangent screw already tight, loosen the upper clamp and start to

measure half the first deflection angle. Mark the direction with a range pole.

Along this line, using a marking pin/chalk, mark point A measured with a tape

the length of the first subchord.

e. Locate the next point B, a full chord length from point A but this time

intersecting the line sighted at an angle of half the sum of d1 and the full D of

the curve. Note that the transit/theodolite is still positioned over station PC.

f. Proceed in locating other points on the curve following step E until you cover all

full chord stations on the entire length of the curve.

intersecting the line of sight with a deflection angle equal to half the intersection

angle, mark the last point as PT.

5. Check the position of PT by determining the length of PC from PT and compare it to

the computed total length of the chord of the simple curve.

COMPUTATIONS

If the azimuths of the backward and forward tangents are given, the intersection angle I

can be solved using:

I = azimuth of the forward tangent - azimuth of the backward tangent

The tangent distance must be solved using:

T = R*tan( I/2)

The middle ordinate distance can be computed using:

M = R*( 1 - cos(I/2) )

The length of the curve (Lc) can be computed using (provided that I is in radians)

Lc = I * R

The long chord (C) can be solved using:

C = 2*R*sin (I/2)

The station of PC can be computed using:

Station of PC = Station V - T

The station of PT can be found by:

Station of PT = Station PC + Lc

The length of the first sub chord from PC, if PC is not exactly on a full station (otherwise C1

= a full chord length):

C1 = first full station on the curve - Station PC

The length of the last sub chord from PC, if PC is not exactly on a full station (otherwise C2

= a full chord length):

C2 = Station PT - last full station on the curve

d1 = 2*sin-1 ( C1 / 2R )

The value of the last deflection angle d2:

d2 = 2*sin-1 ( C2 / 2R )

FIELD WORK 1 LAYING OF A SIMPLE CURVE BY TRANSIT AND TAPE (THE INCREMENTAL CHORD

AND DEFLECTION ANGLE METHOD)

Data Supplied:

R1 =

Backward Tangent Direction:

Forward Tangent Direction:

Station of the Vertex:

Adopt Full Chord Length:

360m

N48036E

S64o30E

25+102

20 m

Station

Central

Incremental

Angle

Deflection

Angle From

Back

Tangent

Occupied

Observed

Increment

al Chord

27+843

27+860

15.83

2o318.359

1o1526.37

27+843

27+880

20

3o

2o44

27+843

27+900

20

3o

4o14

27+843

27+920

20

3o

5o44

27+843

27+940

20

3o

7o14

27+843

27+960

20

3o

8o44

27+843

27+980

20

3o

10o14

27+843

28+000

20

3o

11o44

27+843

28+020

20

3o

13o14

27+843

28+040

20

3o

14o44

27+843

28+060

20

3o

16o14

27+843

28+080

20

3o

17o44

27+843

28+100

20

3o

19o14

27+843

28+120

20

3o

20o44

27+843

28+140

20

3o

22o14

27+843

28+160

20

3o

23o44

27+843

28+180

20

3o

25o14

27+843

28+200

20

3o

26o44

27+843

28+220

20

3o

28o14

27+843

28+240

20

3o

29o44

27+843

28+260

20

3o

31o14

27+843

28+280

20

3o

32o44

27+843

28+300

20

3o

34o14

27+843

28+303.48

3.478

0o438.523

34o30

Actual Length of the Chord: 398 m

Computations

I = Front Azimuth - Back Azimuth T = R tan (I/2)

= 113o30 48o30

= 80 tan (65o/2

= 65o

= 50.9656m

Lc = IR

= 80 (65pi/180)

= 90.7571m

C = 2R sin (I/2)

= 2*80*sin (65/2)

= 85.9679m

Station PC = Station V - PT

= 30+001 - 50.9656

= 29+950

Central Incremental Angle

Station PT = Station PC + Lc

= 29+950 + 90

= 30+040

CIAPC-A = (20/80)(180/pi) = 14o1926.2

CIAPC-B = (20/80)(180/pi) = 14o1926.2

CIAPC-C = (20/80)(180/pi) = 14o1926.2

CIAPC-PT = (20/80)(180/pi) = 14o1926.2

d1 =2 sin (1o/2*80) =7o959.92

Deflection Pc-A = d0/2 = 3O3459.96

Deflection Pc-B = (d1o + Do)/2 =10o4443.06

Deflection Pc-c = (d1o + 2Do)/2 =17o5426.16

Deflection Pc-D = (d1o + 3Do)/2 =25o49.26

Sketch

Discussion of Results

In this method, curves are staked out by use of deflection angles

turned at the point of curvature from the tangent to points along the curve.

Driving pegs at regular interval equal to the length of the normal chord sets out

the curve. Usually, the sub-chords are provided at the beginning and end of the

curve to adjust the actual length of the curve. The method is based on the

assumption that there is no difference between length of the arcs and their

corresponding chords of normal length or less. The underlying principle of this

method is that the deflection angle to any point on the circular curve is

measured by the one-half the angle subtended at the center of the circle by the

arc from the P.C. to that point.

The simple curve is an arc of a circle. It is the most commonly used.

The radius of the circle determines the sharpness or flatness of the curve.

The larger the radius, the flatter the curve. As the degree of curve increases,

the radius decreases. It should be noted that for a given intersecting angle or

central angle, when using the arc definition, all the elements of the curve are

inversely proportioned to the degree of curve. Civilian engineers in highway

construction primarily use this definition.

The radius and the degree of curve are not inversely proportional

even though, as in the arc definition, the larger the degree of curve the

sharper the curve and the shorter the radius. The chord definition is used

primarily on railroads in civilian practice and for both roads and railroads by the

military.

On route surveys, the surveyor numbers the stations forward from the

beginning of the project. For example, 0+00 indicates the beginning of the

project. The 15+52.96 would indicate a point 1,552.96 feet from the beginning.

A full station is 100 feet or 30 meters, making 15+00 and 16+00 full stations. A

plus station indicates a point between full stations. (15+52.96 is a plus station.)

When using the metric system, the surveyor does not use the plus system of

numbering stations. The station number simply becomes the distance from the

beginning of the project.

Conclusion

In this fieldwork, we were able to lay a simple curve by deflection

angle and to master the skill in leveling, orienting, and using the transit

effectively. Through this fieldwork, Ive learned terms such as simple curve,

deflection angle, external distance, tangent distance, middle ordinate, long

chord, length of curve, degree of curve, backward tangent, forward tangent,

and point of curvature. Ive also learned how to lay a simple curve using

theodolite and tape, and how to sight the point of curvature and point of

tangency with the given azimuth. Computing for the elements of the simple

curve such as long chord and deflection angle has been added to my

knowledge.

It can be seen in the data gathered that the actual length of the chord

is close to the computed length of the chord. There are factors that can affect

the determination of the actual length. One of them is the angle when the points

are sighted. In the computations, the angle appears to have minutes and

seconds in them. The theodolite may not be able to measure the exact angle

given or computed. Another factor of error is the process of measuring using

the tape. It may be due to pull, or sag, or temperature. We avoided the error

that can be caused by laying down the tape on uneven ground since we

measured it with the tape being held above the ground.

To avoid these kind of errors, you should measure the length in short

distances like 10 m and put a mark on them, instead of measuring the whole

distance and laying out all the tape. Also, make sure that the line you are

measuring can still be sighted in the theodolite. There are instances that the

direction you are headed is not in the line of sight of the transit anymore,

especially when you are measuring long distances. Also, make sure that you

and your groupmates are all helping out. Point out all the possible worst-case

scenarios before setting up the vertex, so your group will not do the whole

fieldwork all over again.

Research

The simple curve is an arc of a circle. It is the most commonly used.

The radius of the circle determines the sharpness or flatness of the curve.

The larger the radius, the flatter the curve. As the degree of curve increases,

the radius decreases. It should be noted that for a given intersecting angle or

central angle, when using the arc definition, all the elements of the curve are

inversely proportioned to the degree of curve. Civilian engineers in highway

construction primarily use this definition.

The radius and the degree of curve are not inversely proportional

even though, as in the arc definition, the larger the degree of curve the

sharper the curve and the shorter the radius. The chord definition is used

primarily on railroads in civilian practice and for both roads and railroads by the

military. This focuses on a particular approach called incremental distance

computation, which assumes that between successive calls to the collision

detection algorithm, the bodies move only a small amount. Under this

assumption the algorithm achieves ``almost constant time'' performance for the

case of convex polyhedral bodies Nonconvex bodies can be decomposed into

convex components.

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