fluid

© All Rights Reserved

18 views

fluid

© All Rights Reserved

- tempera.pdf
- The Law of Conservation of Energy
- 6 Thermodynamic Principles
- First Law of Thermodynamics Theory 1
- Thermodynamic, Part 1
- entropy-11-00702
- Chapter 4
- Economic and Biological Evolution - A Non-equilibrium Thermodynamic Theory (Chen)
- Changes in Temperature
- 12 - thermodynamics
- New Microsoft Word Document2333
- Chapter 10 Video Note Layout
- Heat and Temperature
- 3) Chapter 2 4 Energy Transfer Analysis
- chapter 14 - heat
- design group energy and power
- Thermodynamics II
- AP 21 Latent Heat of Water (S) S.doc
- 1&2__Introduction_2015.pptx
- 01B- Chapter 1-Sec 1.3 Black Text

You are on page 1of 5

Arunn Narasimhan

Associate Professor,

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Indian Institute of Technology Madras,

Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600036

Email: arunn@iitm.ac.in

Web http: // www. nonoscience. info/

(Energy is another one). If we want a quick and easy definition we probably

would settle for temperature is a property that gives a measure of the degree

of hotness or coldness of a body. But this post is about an extended concept:

The Bulk temperature or Adiabatic Mixing Cup temperature

The concept of bulk temperature is used in internal forced convection situations like pipe flows and heat exchangers. It is a compromise between Thermodynamics and Forced Convection Heat Transfer. From thermodynamics, for

a static homogeneous fluid system made of a single chemical constituent, we

can write the temperature as

T =

I

C

(1)

the ratio between total enthalpy, I ( = mass (m, kg) x specific enthalpy (i,

J/kg)), and heat capacity, C ( = mass (m, kg) x specific heat capacity (c,

J/kg.K)), of the system.

A little digression about the term heat capacity; It gives the erroneous impression of heat being contained in a system; after so much literature-usage it

is now too late to change it to the correct internal energy capacity, hence we

stick with the old oxymoron.

Now, consider the steady forced convection channel flow shown below, with

constant heat flux (q, W/m2) as shown in Fig. 1. Observe in Fig. 1, the

? intended as course notes.
Arunn

c

Narasimhan

flow configuration

the plane of the paper or computer screen). Hence the figure could represent a

parallel (top and bottom) plate confined channel flow or a parallelepiped pipe

flow (cross section being a rectangle).

Here, both the enthalpy and heat capacity become dependent on the rate of

flow, but, if we treat I and C as local quantities, Eq. (1) is still valid for

every point within the channel. To retain the notion of temperature in this

situation, a bulk flow model is employed. This is because the temperature

inside the channel at any point can be of different values, i.e. T = T (x, y).

Since the fluid in the channel is being heated from the walls, one can expect

the fluid near the wall to be hotter than the one near the axis (middle of the

channel).

This means, at any cross section along x, one can expect a temperature profile for the fluid that is very high near the wall and close to the inlet temperature (but can be greater than it) near the axis. This situation should be

true for any cross section along the x direction (from left to right in Fig. 1),

irrespective of the wall is kept at constant temperature (higher from that of

the fluid) or at constant heat flux (as shown in fig. 1). An explanatory picture

is given in Fig. 2.

So, it is obvious now that the situation cannot be treated even for steady state,

as a closed thermodynamics system represented by a single temperature. It is

convenient now to treat the channel flow as a thermodynamic analysis (energy

balance) of an open system with the definition in Eq. (1) recast for a cross

section of the channel, as

Tb =

rate of flow of heat-capacity through a cross section

2

(2)

Source: http://www.nonoscience.info/

flow configuration

In Eq. (2), we are accounting for the (cross sectional) spatial variation of

temperature within a (thermodynamic) system (i.e. the channel), a better

representation of the system temperature, when the system is treated as a

whole.

Hence we can do a thought experiment to measure the bulk temperature. If

we slice the channel at any cross section, at any location along its length, and

allow the fluid to pour itself into an adiabatic (thermally insulated from the

surrounding) cup, the well-mixed fluid in the cup itself can be treated as a

static homogeneous fluid system. Equation (1) holds for this system, and the

evaluated temperature of the cup (using the thermometer shown in Fig. 3)

is called the adiabatic mixing cup temperature, another name for the bulk

temperature.

But one cannot always translate this thought experiment into practice. For

devising a practical way to measure this bulk temperature, we need some more

things to be defined - for us to measure.

The mass flow rate across a cross sectional element in the channel as shown

in Fig. 2, is given as uAdA, where and u are the density and local velocity

(u = u(x, y)) of the flowing fluid respectively, A is the flow cross section area

of the channel at a particular x location. Similarly, the enthalpy flow rate

across a cross section at a given location x for the situation in Fig. 2, is given

3

Source: http://www.nonoscience.info/

fluid measured at constant pressure and T is the local temperature (T =

T (x, y)). Notice here enthalpy is replaced only by cP T , under the assumption

of negligible local pressure changes. If this is not true we have to include a

term with pressure change and beta, the volume expansivity of the fluid.

Equipped with the above definitions, we can recast Eq. (2) in a general shape

as,

R

ucP T dA

(3)

A ucP dA

Tb = RA

(3)

Notice the use of csubP/sub in Eq. (3) generalizes the concept to include

compressible fluid flow as well. For incompressible fluids (such as water),

csubP/sub can be replaced with their respective specific heat (c). With

csubP/sub treated as constant and the replacement of the area integral of

local velocity u by UA, the channel cross section averaged velocity times the

cross sectional area, Eq. (3) reduces to

1 Z

uT dA

Tb =

UA A

(4)

the generalized definition of bulk temperature. For the two dimensional channel in Fig. 1, Eq. (4) takes the form

1 Z 2H

Tb (x) =

(uT )x dy

2HU 0

(5)

This temperature defined in Eq. (5) is applicable while the fluid is flowing

4

Source: http://www.nonoscience.info/

forced convection situation

inside the channel and if the thought experiment of Fig. 3 could be performed,

would equal the temperature measured in Eq. (1). Further, as a concept, it is

valid for both laminar and turbulent internal flows.

However, this definition in Eq. (5) also makes it difficult to be measured in an

experiment accurately. But an approximation can be done using the method

suggested in the Fig. 4 below.

Each white dot is the place where actual temperature and local velocity measurements are made while the flow persists. Such local values are approximated

to represent the temperature for a control volume of the fluid region that surrounds those points (In Fig. 4, represented by the rectangles formed by the

grid). An area weighted summation of all such temperature values should give

an answer that is close to the RHS of Eq. (5). The fineness or coarseness of the

grid in Fig. 4 determines the accuracy of the bulk temperature measurement.

Source: http://www.nonoscience.info/

- tempera.pdfUploaded byKang Shilah
- The Law of Conservation of EnergyUploaded byChahatBhattiAli
- 6 Thermodynamic PrinciplesUploaded byMan Adja
- First Law of Thermodynamics Theory 1Uploaded byAnushee Avasthi
- Thermodynamic, Part 1Uploaded byfadhali
- entropy-11-00702Uploaded bySya'ban Syukur
- Chapter 4Uploaded byWyte Rock
- Economic and Biological Evolution - A Non-equilibrium Thermodynamic Theory (Chen)Uploaded bystrongmarathon8157
- Changes in TemperatureUploaded byHani Zahra
- 12 - thermodynamicsUploaded byapi-229838196
- New Microsoft Word Document2333Uploaded byabdulmatinhublikar
- Chapter 10 Video Note LayoutUploaded byGretchen
- Heat and TemperatureUploaded byRwandaA.MohammadIsa
- 3) Chapter 2 4 Energy Transfer AnalysisUploaded bySanggkar Selladurai
- chapter 14 - heatUploaded byapi-285146233
- design group energy and powerUploaded byapi-272055202
- Thermodynamics IIUploaded byMridula Rishav Bansal
- AP 21 Latent Heat of Water (S) S.docUploaded byKemani Campbell
- 1&2__Introduction_2015.pptxUploaded byhager
- 01B- Chapter 1-Sec 1.3 Black TextUploaded bykap42
- 20161110120532582411 b 0521151Uploaded byNagendra Patel
- 6. ThermodynamicsUploaded byAthulRKrishnan
- Lecture Notes _ ThermodynamicsUploaded byAnonymous qeSCvmyf
- Lok Sewa Aayog_RA PA 3rd_Mechanical 2nd paper syllabus.pdfUploaded byविशाल पुडासैनी
- Study Unit 2 First Law BbUploaded byLutendo Assurance Madzivhaa
- 1988_BookMatter_EngineeringThermodynamicsUploaded bybelnard billedo
- Lesson Plan for Observation a Detailed Lesson Plan in Grade 9Uploaded byGerald E Baculna
- EB Exe. SummaryUploaded byNajihah Jaffar
- Ten Year SampleUploaded byrahul gupta
- 33092_14Uploaded byAndré Oliveira

- Modern Marine Engineer Manual Volume I-10pUploaded bySushant Singh
- Whos Who SmartGrid and MeteringUploaded byChetan Heb
- Rocker Housing InstallationsUploaded byOumarba Kamanda
- Transformerless Topology for Grid-Conected Inverters With Unipolar PWM ControlUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Organisational Growth - Evolution_revolution - GreinerUploaded byDHRUV SONAGARA
- FAA-8083-30_IndexUploaded byArman Razni
- 16729466-SSSSESPOM-Sakai Sv512d Sv512t Sv512tf-e Workshop ManualUploaded byAndi Riko
- Transmission Line ComputingUploaded bydad1968
- antigravita' 1Uploaded byShane Barnes
- LabReport Style GuideUploaded byAnonymous KHA9aSDRM
- EPA Alternative QuestionsUploaded by2rQiTPh4Kn
- mobreyUploaded byPablo Catrilef
- Band pass filter design Part 4. Band Pass Filters from First Principles Richard Harris G3OTK .pdfUploaded byopacheco
- Development of a Free-Piston Linear Generator for Use in an Extended-Range Electric VehicleUploaded byCan Al
- isolator 1pdfUploaded bynetsavy71
- Real Assets PaperUploaded byyveslegoff
- Academic Dishonesty (Fachmi) 01-08Uploaded byNovia Winardi
- GasAlertMicroClip XT Accessories(6643 1 en)Uploaded byhadisufri
- Rotation, Ang MomentumUploaded bySarika Kandasamy
- Norland Bottled Water Equipment Products BrochureUploaded byDilip Thakare
- Building a Simple MotorUploaded byRegie Sacil Espiña
- ACDC Pages 17-32 (Low Res)Uploaded byNaufal Maulana
- Daikin Klima kullanma Kılavuzu.pdfUploaded bymuss21
- Compressor C65Uploaded byfrdn
- Toyota Aur IsUploaded byAgoeng Noegross
- Catalogo_componentes_hidraulicos_electronicos[1]Uploaded bySympatyaga
- Base PaperUploaded byVenkatesh Chintala
- TXU-30Uploaded byPoliana Poly
- Statistics ExercisesUploaded byeta_orionis7415
- BES-CO-05-003 Piping Flushing and Pressure TestingUploaded byGino De Landtsheer

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.