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I.

Manometers are used to provide a visible pressure measurement and to perform acc
urate pressure measurement of pressure sensing devices.
Manometers are used as an indicating device connected to pressure sensing device
s with actual pressure being applied to both the pressure sensing device and the
manometer to verify accurate sensing capabilities to the device being calibrate
d.

Barometer is a manometer used to measure atmospheric pressure.


Barometric Pressure is a pressure reading made with a barometer. The earliest ba
rometer was a long vertical glass tube that had been sealed at the bottom and fi
lled with mercury. The open end was then turned upside down into a container of
mercury without allowing any air into the tube. The mercury in the tube falls to
a level where the head of the mercury is equal to the atmospheric pressure.

Bourdon tubes measure gauge pressure, relative to ambient atmospheric pressure,


as opposed to absolute pressure; vacuum is sensed as a reverse motion.
Some aneroid barometers use Bourdon tubes closed at both ends. When the measured
pressure is rapidly pulsing, such as when the gauge is near a reciprocating pum
p, an orifice restriction in the connecting pipe is frequently used to avoid unn
ecessary wear on the gears and provide an average reading; when the whole gauge
is subject to mechanical vibration, the entire case including the pointer and in
dicator card can be filled with an oil or glycerin.

Diaphragm uses deflection of a flexible membrane that separates regions of diffe


rent pressure.
The amount of deflection is repeatable for known pressures so the pressure can b
e determined by using calibration. The deformation of a thin diaphragm is depend
ent on the difference in pressure between its two faces. The reference face can
be open to atmosphere to measure gauge pressure, open to a second port to measur
e differential pressure, or can be sealed against a vacuum or other fixed refere
nce pressure to measure absolute pressure. The deformation can be measured using

mechanical, optical or capacitive techniques. Ceramic and metallic diaphragms a


re used.

Bellows type elements are constructed of tubular membranes that are convoluted a
round the circumference.
The membrane is attached at one end to the source and at the other end to an ind
icating device or instrument. The bellows element can provide a long range of mo
tion (stroke) in the direction of the arrow when input pressure is applied.

Capsular There are two different devices that are referred to as capsule.
The first is pressure is applied to the inside of the capsule and if it is fixed
only at the air inlet it can expand like a balloon. This arrangement is not muc
h different from the diaphragm except that it expands both ways. The capsule con
sists of two circular shaped, convoluted membranes (usually stainless steel) sea
led tight around the circumference. The pressure acts on the inside of the capsu
le and the generated stroke movement is shown by the direction of the arrow.
The second type of capsule, the capsule in the bottom is constructed with two di
aphragms forming an outer case and the inter-space is filled with viscous oil. P
ressure is applied to both side of the diaphragm and it will deflect towards the
lower pressure. To provide over-pressurized protection, a solid plate with diap
hragm-matching convolutions is usually mounted in the centre of the capsule. Sil
icone oil is then used to fill the cavity between the diaphragms for even pressu
re transmission.

II.
1.
Semiconductor Strain Gauge, The function of a semiconductor strain gauge
essentially consists in a very considerable and accurate change in its electric
al resistance with applied mechanical strain. Sensors with these elements give t
o all mechanisms the ability to respond sensitively to mechanic impulses. They a
re usually used for force, mass, pressure, torque, acceleration and deformation
electric measurements. The most common use of strain gauges is for half-bridge o
r full-bridge, because during statical measurements it compensates the temperatu
re effects. Measurement of electric resistance of one strain gauge can be used o
nly there, where we don t need to compensate the temperature effects.
2.
Variable Capsule Pressure Detector is strain-based, wherein a magnetic c
ircuit is formed, and the parameter input causes mechanical deflection of the sp

ring member as a function of pressure, force, or acceleration. To provide a stat


ic output capability, variable reluctance sensors require an oscillator and demo
dulator system internally limiting operational temperatures from -40 C to +120 C
. The spring member is comprised of magnetic, high-permeability material and is
centrally located between two coils
III.
1.
Hydroelectric Pressure System
A hydraulic system utilizing an accumulator can use a smaller fluid pump since t
he accumulator stores energy from the pump during low demand periods. This energ
y is available for instantaneous use, released upon demand at a rate many times
greater than could be supplied by the pump alone.
2.
Pneumatic Pressure System
A pneumatic system is a system that uses compressed air to transmit and control
energy. Pneumatic systems are used in controlling train doors, automatic product
ion lines, and mechanical clamps.
3.

Vacuum Pressure System

A typical vacuum system consists of a vacuum source, delivery lines, fittings, a


nd various control valves, switches, filters, and protective devices. Leakage pr
evention is especially important with vacuum systems because even very small lea
ks can greatly diminish performance and efficiency. If plastic tubing is used
as
is often the case be sure it is designed for vacuum service.