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What's in a name- How a name affects the consumer buying behaviour

MAFMG 2014-2016
Semester 1

WHATS IN A NAME - HOW A NAME AFFECTS THE


CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR
Priyanka Kumari
Ma in Fashion Marketing
Priyankamgt768@gmail.com
Pearl Academy, Naraina, New Delhi, India

Abstract
A product is something that is made in a factory; a brand is something that is bought by a
customer. A product can be copied by a competitor, a brand is unique. A product can be
quickly out-dated, a successful brand is timeless (Quiston, 2004, p 345). Many brands today
mean little to consumers, who have become accustomed to buying on price alone. But a new
tool can help companies separate themselves from the crowd. (David Aaker).Branding has
emerged as a top management priority in the last decade due to the growing realization that
brands are one of the most valuable intangible assets that firms have. Driven in part by this
intense industry interest, academic researchers have explored a number of different brandrelated topics in recent years, generating scores of papers, articles, research reports, and
books. This paper identifies some of the influential work in the branding area, highlighting
what has been learned from an academic perspective on important topics such as brand
positioning, brand integration, brand-equity measurement, brand growth, and brand
management. The paper also outlines some gaps that exist in the research of branding and
brand equity and formulates a series of related research questions. Choice modelling
implications of the branding concept and the challenges of incorporating main and
interaction effects of branding as well as the impact of competition are discussed.
Key Words: Brand, Brand name, consumer behaviour, purchase decision, level of
involvement, brand equity , brand extensions.

1. Introduction
Whats in a name? That which we call a rose
By any other name would smell as sweet.
-Shakespeare
Shakespeare had it wrong. A rose by any other name would not smell as sweet. When we
smell a rose, its not just the scent that reaches us, but a nexus of connotations stemming from
one little word.

Academic paper/Priyanka Kumari

What's in a name- How a name affects the consumer buying behaviour


MAFMG 2014-2016
Semester 1

Brands have been used since ancient times. For example, people burned singular designs into
the skin of their livestock to prove ownership, while potters and silversmiths marked
their wares with initials or other personal tags. But it is only since the second half of the
nineteenth century that branding evolved into an advanced marketing tool. The industrial
revolution, new communication systems, and improved modes of transporting goods made it
both easier and more necessary for companies to advertise brands over larger regions. As
manufacturers gained access to national markets, numerous brand names were born that
would achieve legendary U.S. and global status. Procter and Gamble, Kraft, Heinz, CocaCola, Kodak, and Sears were a few of the initial brands that would become common
household names by the mid-1900s. (Anon, 2010)
The brand history tells us how the people have used the brand as a mark of identification. In
the earlier times the brand mark was used to differentiate the goods of one producer to others.
Now a days brand is not only used for differentiation but also used to justify the purchase
decision. Brand is a combination of name, symbol and design. Brands represent the
customers perceptions and opinion about performance of the product.
The powerful brand is which resides in the mind of the consumer. Brands differ in the amount
of power and worth they have in the market place. Some brands are usually unknown to the
customers in the marketplace while on the other hand some brands show very high degree of
awareness. The brands with high awareness have a high level of acceptability and customers
do not refuse to buy such brands as they enjoy the brand performance. Some brands
commend high level of brand loyalty. Brands also have a symbolic value which helps the
people to choose the best product according to their need and satisfaction. Usually people do
not buy certain brands just for design and requirement, but also in an attempt to enhance their
self-esteem in the society (Leslie and Malcolm, 1992).
Brand names present many things about a product and give number of information about it to
the customers and also tell the customer or potential buyer what the product means to them.
Furthermore it represents the customers convenient summary like their feelings, knowledge
and experiences with the brand. More over customer do not spend much time to do find out
about the product. When customer considers about the purchase they evaluate the product
immediately by reconstructed product from memory and cued by the brand name (Hansen
and Christensen, 2003).

1.1 Brand Name - A conceptual understanding


The brand name is very significant choice because some time it captures the central theme or
key association of a product in a very condensed and reasonable fashion. Brand names can be
extremely successful means of communication. Some companies assign their product with a
brand name that in reality has nothing to do with the emotional experience but is catchy and a
Academic paper/Priyanka Kumari

What's in a name- How a name affects the consumer buying behaviour


MAFMG 2014-2016
Semester 1

name that people can easily memorize. The core base of naming a brand is that it should be
unique can be easily discriminated from other names, easy to remember and are attractive to
customers (Keller, 2008).
A brand is a unique and identifiable symbol, association, name or trademark which serves to
differentiate competing products or services; it represents not only a physical trigger but
moreover an emotional hooks to create a relationship between consumers and the
product/service (Blackston 2000). On the one hand, a brand is concrete (e.g. a symbol or
name); on the other hand, it is also a relatively ambiguous 'trigger' that over time is used to
class beliefs and feelings toward products so labelled. For this reason, the meaning of the
brand is of critical concern to advertisers. Meaning (in the context of brands) refers to the
overall assessment on the part of the consumer regarding what a particular brand means to
him or her (La Foret & Saunders 1994). Over time, the meaning marketers infuse in a brand and the subsequent meaning consumers associate with the brand - is transferred to the
products to which the brand is attached
A brand has a value; this depends on the quality of its products in the market and the
satisfaction or content of the customer in its products and services. This provides the trust of
the customers in the brand. If customers trust a brand quality it makes a positive connection
to the brand and customers will have a reason to become a loyal to the brand. Loyalty and
trust of the customers is very important for a company because it reduces the chance of attack
from competitors (Aaker, 1996).
Brands play a very important role in the consumer decision making processes. It is really
important for companies to find out customers decision making process and identify the
conditions, which customers apply while making decision (Cravens and piercy, 2003).

2. Types of brand names


Company names can be classified into one of seven broad categories.

Descriptive names-What you see is what you get

Descriptive names are a shade less undesirable than


generic names, but only barely. A descriptive name
immediately conveys an idea of the ingredients, qualities
or characteristics of the goods or services, writes
intellectual property lawyer Jill Hubbard Bowman.
(Friedman, 2013)

Academic paper/Priyanka Kumari

What's in a name- How a name affects the consumer buying behaviour


MAFMG 2014-2016
Semester 1

Descriptive names are not eligible for trademark protection, because nothing prevents your
competitors from making the identical descriptive claim. Why do many companies ignore the
Google
advice of trademark lawyers (and naming consultants) and pickSource:
descriptive
names?
Companies may choose a descriptive trademark even though it is a weak mark because there
are marketing benefits to using a mark that describes the product, is how the descriptively
named Registering a Trademark website puts it. (Friedman, 2013)
Moreover, theres a sliver of hope for descriptive names: eventually, if theyre really
successful, they may acquire whats known as secondary meaning, which occurs when
consumers begin to associate the descriptive name of a product with only one source or
maker, as the Schwegman Lundberg Woessner legal blog puts it: Two descriptive words
together may become distinctive, and so may surnames.
Holiday Inn, for example, started life as a descriptive name for inns where people spent their
holidays. Over time, the public came to associate the name with a particular provider of
hotel services, and not with hotel services in general, according to the Harvard cyber-law
blog. (Friedman, 2013)
Moral: If you have a lot of time, and a big budget to fight similarly descriptive brands, go
right ahead with that descriptive name of yours. If you dont, keep reading.
Descriptiveness sometimes plays a legitimate role in nomenclature. Some productsmedical
and technical instruments, for instanceare best served by descriptive names. Certainly your
product copy should be clear and descriptive. And often a descriptive tagline provides clarity
and balance in support of a suggestive, arbitrary, or fanciful name.

Allusive names-More than greets the eye

Allusive name suggest or hint at the product, service,


institution or its main benefits. Allusive names evoke or
suggest a characteristic of the underlying good, as the
Harvard blog puts it. Greyhound for a bus company suggests
the speed of racing dogs; Amazon for an online retailer
suggests a mighty river of products. Balance Point, a name I
created for a pioneer in the divorce-funding industry,
suggests fairness, financial accounts, and attention to detail.
Source: Google
It draws on the power of metaphor and analogy to create
positive associations in customers minds. Theyre tougher to createmetaphor isnt easy!
and more challenging to market than descriptive names, but theyre much more likely to be
granted trademark protection and to become sustainable, scalable brands. (Friedman, 2013)

Academic paper/Priyanka Kumari

What's in a name- How a name affects the consumer buying behaviour


MAFMG 2014-2016
Semester 1

Coined names-New words for the language

Coined (invented) and have no inherent meaning other than


the one assigned to them. Kodak is the classic example: the
name was constructed to appear symmetrical and to have no
meaning in any known language. Xerox was constructed
from a real Greek root (xer-, meaning dry, for the dry toner
used in early copiers), but at the time of its coining Xerox
had no dictionary meaning.
Source: Google

There are plenty of fanciful-name flops, as well: see my posts about Shpoonkle Blellow,
and Infegy. Coined names can sound as though they were created by robots (as in fact many
of them are) or toddlers. On the other hand, the best fanciful names, like Zulily, have
appropriate sound symbolism and are easy to pronounce.
Fanciful names are usually considered the easiest names to protect legally, but they arent
shoo-ins. If, for example, Zulily had had a competitor named Zulia hypothetical coined
namethe sailing would not have been so smooth. In fact, though, Zulily was granted the
first of its trade marks in 2010. It is no accident that Zulily was named with the help of an
experienced naming consultant (and linguist), The Name Inspector. (Friedman, 2013)

Generic names- As simple as it look.

Generic names identify an entire class of products or


services; they are the weakest of all names and cannot be
granted trademark protection. That doesnt mean generic
names dont exist. You may have seen generic labels in the
supermarket: Cigarettes, Milk, Dog Food. Youve
also seen them online: Hotels.com, Cars.com,
Vibrators.com.
Why choose a name that cant be legally protected? In
supermarkets, generic names identify low-cost products that
arent supported by advertising. Online, especially in the
Source: Google
early days of the Web, many companies wanted to stake a claim to an entire market segment.
They chose the lowest common denominator, a generic name, over the challenge of
distinctiveness. (Friedman, 2013)
Some brand names that started out as descriptive or suggestive, like Aspirin and Escalator,
became generic when customers used them to describe a class of products. The process is
known as genericide.
Academic paper/Priyanka Kumari

What's in a name- How a name affects the consumer buying behaviour


MAFMG 2014-2016
Semester 1

Note: a generic name is not merely a household word or a dictionary word. Context
matters. Milk is a generic name for a dairy product; its an arbitrary (and thus legally
protectable) name for a branding agency.

Arbitrary names-The real name.

Arbitrary names are real (dictionary) words used out of context. It illustrates how
dictionary words used non descriptively become arbitrary trademarks. Shell (for an oil
company), Apple (for a technology company), Quaker (for a food company), and Camel (for
a tobacco company) are all real words and arbitrary names. (Friedman, 2013)
Arbitrary names are even more likely than suggestive names to
receive trademark protection. The trade-off: they require more
storytelling to make their case.
Good arbitrary marks have a loose relationship to
suggestiveness, in that some quality evoked by the namethe
wholesomeness of milk, for example, or the directness of
the Religious Society of Friendsapplies to the thing being
named. Connecting the dots often requires a nimble imagination
and sophisticated writing skills. (Friedman, 2013)

3. Deciding a brand name

Source: Google

Choosing the name of a company is often unscientific. Since most companies start small with
the emphasis on the idea for the product or service rather than the brand, the name arises as
an afterthought. There is a strong likelihood that the name will be chosen on emotive grounds
rather than because brand name testing has been conducted to ensure suitability for the target
market. Since every company needs a name and because one name is just as good as another,
why not pluck it out of the air? And often it is.
A name which projects positive values and has a good sound to it must be an advantage to a
new company. In certain circumstances a wacky name, even an irreverent name can work too
but there are limits. Perhaps in some fashion markets, a name which pokes fun at itself (eg
FCUK) may work but not in sober industrial markets. Clearly you should not select a name
that suggests deficiencies in the product (the Crumbling Brick Company would hardly do for
a brick manufacturer but may be possible for a demolition business) or implies some negative
values (the Inaccurate Bookkeeping Company), but generally these sort of pitfalls are fairly
obvious. However, there are also names which, although not outright disasters, may have
drawbacks which only become apparent in time.

Academic paper/Priyanka Kumari

What's in a name- How a name affects the consumer buying behaviour


MAFMG 2014-2016
Semester 1

There are also the potential translation dangers if the brand is to be used outside the domestic
market. An innocuous English name may mean something very different written or spoken in
French, German or some other language.
Choosing a name is a very personal thing. Anyone who has named their offspring will have
gone through a questioning process which could just as reasonably be applied to that of a
company:

Is it a name which will last?


Is it a name which is too fashionable?
Will it fit their personality?
Does it have 'the right' connotations? Are the brand values projected - young and
vibrant, large and well established, localised or international, a specialist, etc?
Does it produce an acceptable acronym together with the other initials in the name?
Is it a name which will be appropriate in all stages of life?
Is it easy for everyone to pronounce?
Will it be remembered?
Will the name get shortened or altered to one that is acceptable?

While your name is certainly not everything, it is an important piece to building a lasting
brand. Great brand names:

Are emotional
Are memorable
Have personality
Have the presence to tell a story and communicate

As soon as you pick a brand, see if you can secure a domain name that is consistent with your
brand name. You should also research trademark availability. Should a name be literal and
descriptive or obscure and emotional? There are strong arguments on both sides. Leaning
toward the obscure and emotional can lead to very distinctive brands, but literal and
descriptive can speed up the process of communicating your message to your audience. When
you have come up with a name or slogan, research it. Check the Internet and the trademark
office to see if anyone else is using it.

Academic paper/Priyanka Kumari

What's in a name- How a name affects the consumer buying behaviour


MAFMG 2014-2016
Semester 1

Be original
Generic names like Senior Mortgage, Reverse Mortgage Lending, or Senior Lending may
just make you spend more and work harder at building a brand. They dont have legs and will
likely drown in the sea of sameness. Being descriptiveas opposed to being genericis not
a bad thing for names. Given your limited budget, it can actually be a great way to go. Try to
be original so your name stands out, so it means something, so you can own it, and so it will
be much harder to copy. Avoid names that are hard to spell or pronounce
Ask yourself, how will the market receive the name? Will the market get it? Will it jive with
your strategic positioning of the brand? Are there negative connotations or associations with
the name?
Theres no magic or fool-proof method for testing names. Dont get bogged down.
Sometimes too much analysis just delays the decision and can derail the process of naming
your brand. Come up with a few ideas and then test a little, talk to your colleagues,
customers, friends and family, listen to people you respect, trust your gut feelings, and make
a choice.
While the brand name is important, few brand names can stand on their own. A great brand
should fix itself in the consciousness of the public as a symbol to your story, differentiate
your company in your marketplace, and trigger a memory or emotion. The brand name and
how your branding campaign is executed are essential to building brand awareness, but they
are only part of your branding arsenal.

Create a Logo
A logo is the visual image of your company that will be used in a variety of applications.
When you are considering a design, think simple. Many of the most effective logos are one
colour. For a start-up, this can save you a lot on printing and marketing expenses.
It is important to test how your logo photo copies and works in a digital environment, fax,
website, letterhead, etc. Sample other venues that you may grow into, like an outdoor sign,
moving vehicle, posters or promotional items. Can it work as well on a small or large scale?
The right logo can make a great first impression. Your business card, corporate stationery and
website are often where your logo is initially presented to your potential customers and
clients. Whether your logo is full-colour or one colour, make sure you leave them with the
best possible impression through the use of high quality business cards, letterhead and
envelopes. The good news is that in this age of computer graphics it doesnt have to cost a
fortune.
Academic paper/Priyanka Kumari

What's in a name- How a name affects the consumer buying behaviour


MAFMG 2014-2016
Semester 1

Make a List of all Your Touch Points


Every time you touch a customer or prospect; you should feel your brand coming through.
This should include your workplace, promotional activities, correspondence, and even how
your phone is answered. Remember the brand is the summation of your company; infuse as
many
contact
areas
as
possible
with
your
brand
essence.
Create a Demand for your Brand
your products performance, your customer service, follow-through, and the quality of your
advertising, marketing and communication add up to the brand experience. Positive
experiences turn your brand into a magnet for new and repeat business. Customers will seek
you out, refer you to their friends, and remain loyal. Your branding can make the consumers
choice easier and comfortable. The power of a well-executed brand can change your fortune!
Brand Marketing
Brand marketing is communication that differentiates you from competitors and increases
awareness of your brand promise. Brand marketing sets the stage for advertising, direct
marketing and other communication by positioning your product in the minds of potential
customers. Direct marketing or product marketing then hones in on customers and gives them
an opportunity to buy with confidence, aware of the brand promise your branding campaign
has instilled in them.
Use IMC
Integrated Marketing Communications is the process that aligns communications to build
positive and lasting relationships with customers and other stakeholders. It is a customercentric approach to marketing and branding that stresses communicating to consumers in
order to speak with one voice through multiple forms of media.
In other words, its how you present your company or advertising and prevent it from having
multiple, conflicting messages sent out by individuals who shouldnt be sending them out. A
good IMC plan balances an institutions responsibility to create awareness with its need to
generate results.
The IMC process has three distinct functions: brand marketing, direct marketing and
customer
relationship management.

3.1 Brand Name Registration


Brand Name is other name of Trademark. Brand Name Registration in India governed by the
Trade Marks Act, 1999 & Trade Marks Rules, 2002 (and amendments thereof). The
Trademark Act & Trademark Rules seeks to provide for the registration of Brand Name
Academic paper/Priyanka Kumari

What's in a name- How a name affects the consumer buying behaviour


MAFMG 2014-2016
Semester 1

relating to goods and services in India. The rights granted under the Act, are operative in the
whole of India.
Brand Name registration is a very essential thing in
the companys brand building and to provide it a
unique image. Every company owns exclusive
rights for its Brand and it wants that no one should
use that Brand so the trademark is needed for that
purpose.
Under the Trademark Laws a letter, number, word,
phrase, logo, graphic, shape, smell, sound or
combination of these things are available for
registration in India.
Registered Brand Names give companies instant
recognition with buyers and represent an organizations individuality. Brands for well-known
Source: Google
companies can be identified at a glance and have tremendous marketing
power. Thats why
companies invest big bucks in finding top-notch designs. Simplicity is the key in todays
competitive Brand world. (Tyagi, 2014)
After the Brand Name registration in India no other company or the person can use the Brand
other than the owner. It is very essential to protect the Brand in this era of high competition.
If your Brand Name is trademarked than you can entitle to get the statutory damages against
any person who copy your mark in bad faith and the law imposes criminal liabilities against
the wrong doer as well.
The best way to safeguard your Brand is to trademark it. Trademarks protect words, names,
symbols, sounds and colours and distinguish one companys goods and products from
another. Trade marketing a Brand protects it from being used by other similar companies and
also protects a company from unknowingly infringing upon an existing Brand this is the
best reason to make sure your trademark can be clearly identified.
We are comprised of experienced, capable and dedicated Legal Professionals, Trademark
Consultants, Trademark Law Attorneys and Trademark Agents enabling us to provide best
Trademark & Logo registration services in India. We are working in collaboration with many
renowned law firms and eminent lawyers. Our underlying belief in being transparent, candid
and interactive with the client has earned us many satisfying clients across the country.
(Tyagi, 2014)

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What's in a name- How a name affects the consumer buying behaviour


MAFMG 2014-2016
Semester 1

3.2 Brand Name Registration Procedure


STEP 1: Brand Name Search:
A Brand Name search is the first step in the Brand Name registration procedure. A search is
to be conducted in order to determine the uniqueness of the brand, and its similarity to other,
pre-existing brands. It is very much advisable to conduct a Brand Name search before
registering or using a Brand Name. Without a search, there are chances for being sued for
Trademark infringement, the rejection of the Brand Name application, and a third-party
challenging the Brand Name registration application.
STEP 2: Filing of Brand Name Registration Application:
The second step in the Brand Name registration procedure is filing of Brand Name
registration application after getting the positive search report. After receiving of the
acknowledgement the applicant can use the symbol TM along with the applied brand. If the
application for the registration of Brand Name filed through e-filing system of Brand Name
registration than the acknowledgement of the application along with the government receipt
generate immediately after the filing. If the application for the registration filed manually
than the acknowledgement provided only after 15-20 days.
STEP 3: Examination of Brand Name Registration Application:
Third step in the Brand Name registration procedure is issuance of examination report by the
Registration office. Upon receipt of Brand Name registration application, the Registrar issues
an examination report after examining the application. Applications are examined to ensure
that they comply with the requirements of the law and that they do not conflict with brands
which are already registered, or which are the subjects of earlier pending applications.
STEP 4: Publication of Mark in Trademark Journal:
Fourth step in the Brand Name registration procedure is the publication of the brand in the
Trademark journal. If the Registrar considers the mark as a distinctive brand or after the
removal of the objections, if any, raised by the Registrar he may cause the application to be
advertised in Trademark journal. If no opposition to the brand is filed within 90 days from the
date of publication, or 120 days if request for extension of time is given to the opponent and
opposition is refused, brand proceeds for the acceptance of Registration.
STEP 5: Trademark Registration:
Fifth step in the Brand Name registration procedure is the issuance of Trademark registration
certificate. After the application for Registration of Brand Name is accepted by the Registrar,
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What's in a name- How a name affects the consumer buying behaviour


MAFMG 2014-2016
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the Registrar shall issue to the applicant a Certificate of Registration under the seal of the
Trademark Registry.
Time Duration: If there is no objection and /or opposition raised, the process of Registration
of Brand Name usually takes 15 to 18 months. (Tyagi, 2014)

4. Building brand identity with brand name


4.1. Brand Identity
Brand management has become an emerging issue today for any organization where branding
starts with the concept of building brand identity in the target market. For the success of
consumer goods or service brand, it is obvious to track brand through research. Brands of
lifestyle products operate within extremely narrow target audience with highly specialized
interest. The nature of this niche market demands strong brand identity and brand planning to
secure sustainable relationship with customers.
(Farhana, 2014).

4.2 Establishing brand identity


Brand identity is a unique set of brand
associations implying a promise to customers
and includes a core and extended identity. Core
identity is the central, timeless essence of the
brand that remains constant as the brand moves
to new markets and new products. Core identity
broadly focuses on product attributes, service,
user profile, store ambience and product
Source: Google
performance. Extended identity is woven around brand identity elements organized into
cohesive and meaningful groups that provide brand texture and completeness, and focuses on
brand personality, relationship, and strong symbol association. To be effective, a brand
identity needs to resonate with customers, differentiate the brand from competitors, and
represent what the organization can and will do over time (Aaker and Joachimsthaler, 2000).
To excel, a brand image must be well planned, nurtured, supported, and vigilantly guarded
(Knapp, 2000).
One key to successful brand-building is to understand how to develop a brand identity to
know what the brand stands for and to effectively express that identity (Aaker, 1996). A brand
is a distinctive identity that differentiates a relevant, enduring, and credible promise of value
associated with a product, service, or organization and indicates the source of that promise
(Ward et al., 1999). Companies that present a cohesive, distinctive, and relevant brand
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identity can create a preference in the marketplace, add value to their products and services,
and may command a price premium (Schmitt and Simonson, 1997).
When brand faces aggressive competition in marketplace, brand personality and reputation of
the brand help it distinguish from competing offerings. This can result in gaining customer
loyalty and achieve growth. A strong brand identity that is well understood and experienced
by the customers helps in developing trust which, in turn, results in differentiating the brand from competition. A company needs to establish a clear and consistent brand identity by
linking brand attributes with the way they are communicated which can be easily understood
by the customers. Brand association a set of brand associations enable a brand to develop a
rich and clear brand identity.
While some customers may attach greater importance to functional benefits, emotional value
helps the brand stand above others. Building brand associations requires a company to
understand its brand as well as competitors brands through customer research. Customer
research should study existing and prospective customers, former customers, industry
experts, and intermediaries. Brand strengths associated with beliefs and values are the most
powerful and most difficult to imitate. Brand image is the perception in the mind of the
customers about the brand and its associations. In contrast to brand image (the brands current
associations), a brand identity is inspirational and may imply that the image needs to be
changed or augmented. In a fundamental sense, the brand identity represents what the
organization wants the brand to stand for (Aaker and Joachimsthaler, 2000). The brand as
personality stage marks an important transition phase since not all brands evolve into
consumer icons, especially if the consumers do not relate to, or believe in, the
communications of the brand, or they sense some inconsistencies with the brands
communications (Wee and Ming, 2003). A brands personality provides a richer source of
competitive advantage than any functional feature can (Sherrington, 2003).
Personality attributes help the brand to achieve sustainable differentiation as they are more
difficult to copy Building brand identity in competitive markets Bhimrao M. Ghodeswar
Journal of Product & Brand Management Volume 17 Number 1 2008 412 5than
functional features of the product and service by the competition. Another advantage of the
personality association is that it establishes direct relationship with the customers.
The conception of brand identity was mentioned for the first time in Europe by Kapferer,
1986. The importance of the conception and its understanding quickly disseminated in the
entire world. The literature on brand management, which has been widely examined, uses the
terms equity (Aaker, 1996).
According to J. Kapferer, brand identity could be de-fined by answering the following
questions:
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- What is the aim and individual vision of a brand?


- What makes a brand distinguished?
- How satisfaction could be achieved?
- What is brands equity?
- What are brand competence, validity and legitimacy?
- What are the features of its recognition?
It could be claimed that the conception of brand identity includes the uniqueness, meaning,
aim, values, and personality and provides a possibility to position the brand better, and, thus,
achieve the competitive advantage.

4.3 Brand identity Prism

Source: Google

First of all brand contains an external specificity that is physical appearance, which is the
core of brand and its value added. This determines a traditional brand management due to
orientation to know how, classical positioning, selecting a principal good or brand features
and the benefit. The first step building up a brand is the definition of physical factors,
identifying what it is, what it does and how does it look like. Physical appearance is closely
connected with a brand prototype, revealing the quality of a brand (for example Coca-Cola
bottles on tins of Coca-Cola).
The second element of identity prism is brand personality. With a help of communication
brand character is being developed and this is a way by which any brand talks about its
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What's in a name- How a name affects the consumer buying behaviour


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goods and services and indicates a particular human person. The trait of personality within
the prism of identity is inner source. It should not be mixes up with the image of consumer s
reflection which is an ideal portrait of every recipient. Brand personality is described and
measured using those features of consumer personality that are directly related to brands.
Since 1996 the research was directed towards studies of brand personality (Kapferer, 2003).
D. Grundey (2002) claims that the success of brand expression percentage in the market
depends on the choice of every element of personality and its reconciliation. Brand
personality is closely connected with self-image and image of a consumer because the
identification of consumers with a particular segment reflects brand features.
Brand is culture. Brands possess that culture in which they originated. Brand is a
representative of its culture, including communication. From this perspective culture entails a
lot of values that provide brand with inspiration. Cultural features a correlated with external
principles of brand management (a good and communication) Culture is in the core of brand.
Global brands usually reveal their culture (Benetton, Coca-Cola, IBM). The aspect of culture
enables to discover differences between other competing brands. The attention is focused on
brand personality; however, eventually only those brands become leaders that possess not
only personality but culture. Brand culture is based on the culture, values and aims of an
enterprise. This is one of good lineaments while comparing brands of different companies as
it is not likely that two different companies will have identical cultural features ( Grundey,
2002). Countries producers are the sources of brand culture as well. However, this is not the
only factor, providing value added. The degree of brand freedom is frequently restricted by
the culture of a company as this is the most visible and external brand feature. Culture plays
the essential role in brand differentiation as it indicated what moral values are embodied in
goods and services. This feature helps identifying the strongest brands because sources, basic
ideals and a set of values are revealed.
Brand includes relationship as brands frequently take the most important place in the process
of human transactions and exchange. This is extremely reflected in the sphere of services and
retail companies. This feature emphasizes the way of behavior which is identified with brand
most of all. A lot of actions such as the fact how brands influence and provide services in
connection to their consumers determine this feature. According to Kapferer (2003), brand is
a voice that consumers should hear because brands survive in the market because of
communication. D. Grundey (2002) singles out the following ways of communication:
-Advertising and other support
elements;
-Direct consumers communication while purchasing a
good.
Marketing culture of a company is extremely significant as it is a constitutive part of
companys culture, manifested through the relationship of consumers and the company.
Invisible communication is created with a means of associations and its can start between
people (a seller, buyer or employee) seeking for the same or different goals. Communicating
it is important to reconcile different need of people and present the entire useful information
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allowing

perceiving

the

essence

and

peculiarities

of

brand.

Brand is a customer reflection. Consumers can easily define what goods of a particular
brand are produced for a particular type of consumers (for example, this automobile was
developed only for show stars). Brand communication and goods aim at reflecting a
consumer, for whom those goods are addressed. Consumer reflection is often confused with
the target market (Kapferer, 2003). The target market determines potential consumers though
consumer reflection does not define target market. A consumer has to be reflected in a way,
which would show how he or she could image themselves consuming a particular good. The
representatives of the target market should be presented differently from what they are but
what they would like to be. Consumers use goods of certain brands seeking to create their
own identity. Brands should control their consumer reflection. A constant repetition stating
that this brand was developed for a certain target group weakens brand image.
Consumer self-image-Brand is closely related to the understanding of consumer self-image
that is the features with which consumers identify themselves and the very same features they
would like to be reflected by the chosen good and its brand. Consumer self-image is
important in the explanation of consumer behaviour as consumers purchase goods,
corresponding to their self-image. The conception of consumer self-image includes an
amount of individual ideas, thoughts and feelings about him in relationship with other objects
within socially defined boundaries (Onkvisitir Shaw, 1994). This is the understanding of an
individual about his ability, semblance and characteristics on personality. The conception of
consumer self-image is developed within timeframes and is based on that what a consumer
sees around himself and how other consumers evaluate and respond to him. The conception is
a set of beliefs about oneself, retained in memory. The conception of consumer self-image
can be determined and strengthened by examining purchase and consumption. Consumers
acquire the reconciliation of oneself having positive attitude towards a certain goods of that
brand ( for example, a man who identifies himself as strong and muscular will choose
Marlboro cigarettes, while a woman, identifying herself as attractive and modern will
choose, Virginia Slims cigarettes) ( Graeff, 1996).
All six elements emphasize brand identity. The prism of identity originated from the basic
conception that brand is marked by the gift of speech. Brands can exist only then when
they communicate. Physical appearance and personality allow determining the sender. The
recipient is defined by consumer reflection and self-image. The last two elements of brand
identity: culture and relationship link the sender and the recipient.
The prism of brand identity maintains a vertical subdivision: the elements on the left such as
physical appearance, relationship and consumer reflection are social and provide brand with
external
expression
(image)
and
are
visible.
The elements on the right such as personality, culture and consumer self-image are connected
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with the inside of a brand and its soul.


Summing on the prism of brand identity it can be noted that it is the unit of brand identity as a
live system of elements, possessing internal and external sides and determining possible
limits for brand development and variation.

5. Significance of brand name on consumer Decision making


Source: Google

People have strong connection to brands and brands name. Brand name influences the
customer decision. The consumer decision making process defines different steps when a
consumer goes through to purchase a product. If customer wants to make a purchase he or
she takes a sequence of steps in order to do complete this purchase. Problem recognition
includes when consumer feel a significant difference between the current state and ideal so
consumer thinks there is some problem to be solved. The problem may be small or big.
In the second step, the consumer seeks information about the product. The extent of
information search relies on the level of consumer involvement. In case of expensive
products, the level of involvement is high. Conversely, in case of relatively cheap products
the level of involvement is usually low. In the third step, the consumer evaluates the different
attributes of the brands. Consumer may consider the product attributes and compare brand
products. In the final step consumer makes his choice about a product. Its true that a
consumer may not necessarily go through all the decision making steps for every purchase he
or she makes. At times, consumer makes his or her decision automatically and the decision
may be based on heuristics or mental shortcuts. Other times, in case of high involvement
products consumer may take a long time before reaching a final purchase decision. It depends
on consumers importance of the products like purchase of a car or home. More over
consumers try to make an estimated brand universe on the basis of available information
about the brands, and to make an estimated the utility function on the basis of past
consumption experience (Solomon, 2006).

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Marketers are highly concerned to know how brand names influence the customer purchase
decision. Why customers purchase a particular brand also implies how customers decide what
to buy. Customers follow the sequence of steps in decision process to purchase a specific
product. They start realizing a requirement of product, get information, identify & evaluate
alternative products and finally decide to purchase a product from a specific brand. When
customers purchase particular brand frequently, he or she uses his or her past experience
about that brand product regarding performance, quality and aesthetic appeal (Keller,2008).

5.1 Case study- Nike

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1) Physique
The Physique of Nike is shown by its logo which is swoosh with a tagline of Just do it.For
sports and fitness, they deal in the sports equipments, footwear, accessories, apparel and
services. Physically they are present as EBO and as Worlds largest suppliers of athletic shoes
and apparel and a major manufacturer of sports equipments. (Kala, 2014)
2) Personality
Nike brand personality is that of Exciting, confident, sportive spirit, athlete and energetic, as
Nike is a brand for sport persons and fitness conscious. Examples of person it could be are
Maria Sharapova and Roger Federer since these two tennis players have the personality of
Exciting, confident, arrogant, aggressive and energetic which these character can represent
the Nike brand.
3) Relationship
The relationship Nike brand maintains is very strong and a good relationship with customers
by creating memorable award winning campaigns such as Nike running marathon. Nike also
sponsors the athletes as well sponsors the game such as Olympic game. Nike also sponsors
various teams in football and cricket also which also creates a good relationship with
customers. (Kala, 2014)
4) Culture

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Nike takes its culture from the American culture. Nike is a global brand that reveals its
culture by which symbolizes the American way which is being individual and aggressive like
Michael Jordan. Nike has aggressive winner attitude that can be related to the American sport
attitude. This culture will help Nike in the way to differentiate Nike from other competing
brands, such as Adidas, as the brand culture indicates what values are included in the Nike
products and services. In addition, Nike communicates with their people by relating it with
cultural values by creating a provocative attitude by encouraging them to let loose (Just do
it)
5) Reflection
Customers will be reflected Nike for dynamic lifestyle, for athletic and never giving up
attitude, aggressive and for winning with cool fashion. Over time, Nike will use advertising
to continue address our customer reflection, so as a result of buying Nike sports apparels,
footwear and accessories. Customers will perceive their own identity to be dynamic,
energetic, athletic, and fashionable and certainly to win. (Kala, 2014)
6) Self Image
Nike prism, the person who identifies himself/herself as fun, smart , sport person and fitness
conscious will buy our Nike since customers buy Nike sports merchandise corresponding to
their self-image. Nike now have more fashionable sports merchandise rather than being only
traditionally about their sports merchandise, buyers of Nike will try to prove themselves
too that they are in-fashion, having their own style, as well as they are fit and sport person
and feel fun and cool. When they wear Nike , they belong to a fashionable sport society.
(Kala, 2014)

5.2 Case study - Clean and clear - Characteristics of a good brand name

Source: Google

Source: Google

It is easy to remember
Since it is only one word it is very to remember, pronounce and spell.
It suggests something about product benefits or use.

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It is obvious that the purpose of the Clear Hair & Scalp Therapy shampoo is to clear the scalp against
the dandruff with regular use.
It must be distinctive
The colors are very recognizable since it has simple font on the logo which has black and white
colors. The packaging colors are blue (for boys) and white (for girls) and have variants.
It must be legally protected
It is legally protected since it is a Unilever product definitely not an imitation of any patented brands
by competitors and registered under the patent office.

5.3 Toyota
It shares all of these attributes and in some cases provides
better quality than Mercedes, so why isnt it seen as a
direct competitor? Toyota isnt positioned as a premium
brand in the minds of consumers. What did they do to
compete in this market segment? They created a premium
Source: Google
brand: Lexus. Both Toyota and Lexus brands share engineering, chassis, design elements
the brand is what differs in the minds of the consumer. The branding goes beyond the
vehicle you find branding in everything that Lexus does:

the way the salesperson first approaches you in the showroom

how he/she is dressed (in a suit vs. Volkswagen salespeople in polos)

the layout of the showroom

the choice of building materials and interiorsslate floors, leather chairs

the waiting areas

the cleanliness of service areas

the branding of Lexus continues after the sale

Lexus has received JD Powers highest customer satisfaction rating for years. Now, this isnt
simply because Lexus has so many fewer problems than BMW or Audi or Mercedes, but it is
due to the level of customer service this is how Lexus extends its brand through a brand
experience.

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5.4 Case study Diesel - Brand Identity Prism

6. How brand name can become a problem


Names can also get a company into trouble. Steve Jobs, when he formed Apple, the computer
company, is reputed to have chosen the name because he was a Beatles fan and loved the
Apple recording label used by the four Liverpool lads. Since the two companies were in
completely different markets, there was no conflict and both companies could trade happily
under the same name. He was not to know that 30 years later he would see the recording
company in court about the name. The original Apple computer company has become big in
iPods and iTunes and potential confusion exists around the two companies names.
So, what is there in a name? Absolutely everything. It is one of the most important assets we
have, providing instant recognition and a shorthand for our brand values. If we dont
understand the importance of our name, if we dont nurture and cultivate it, and if we dont
manage it throughout the growth of the company, we are missing a very important trick and
we could be in big trouble. The twenty most common brand problems are as follows
(VanAuken, 2014):

No one in the organization has a solid understanding of the brands consumers or their
needs.
The brand does not stand for anything and it does not promise anything. It is just a
name and a logo.

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The brand touts a clichd, unsubstantiated, meaningless point of difference (such as,
we are the quality leader or the service leader or the innovation leader or, worst of all,
just the leader).
Brand messaging is helter-skelter. That is, it varies by audience, message vehicle,
campaign, etc.
A crisis occurs that reinforces that the brand was never really serious about its
promise.
The brand becomes a whipping boy for some social issue. Special interest groups
that disagree with the brands policies target the brand for attack.
There is little to no awareness of the brand in the marketplace. This could be because
it is a start-up brand or because it is new to the specific geographic market.
The brands less than stellar perceptions are due to product problems. The product
may have quality problems or be inferior to its competitors products in other ways.
Internal politics and organizational dysfunction lead to brand and customer service
dysfunction.
The brand and the organization behind it have rested on their laurels for far too long,
not keeping up with consumer needs and industry innovations. (VanAuken, 2014)

7. Brand name-Possibilities of innovation


A theory is meant to describe reality; hence, there will always be a need for new theories
since the society and reality perpetually change. The branding theories we have today
originate in the need to understand the processes and phenomena present in the society. For
instance, at the end of the 1980s, many relationship marketing theories were developed, and
this was due to the fact that there was a need to understand how relationships could benefit
both a company and its customers. Several researchers investigated this topic, and new
theories and models were designed, which were then compared and compiled. If existing
theories are insufficient, they can be used to bring out new modified theories through
academic studies; otherwise the theories are implemented and tested in the society. Once the
theories have been implemented, researchers get feedback, and, depending on the success,
they could use the results to carry out new research studies. In our example above, this was
what happened to relationship marketing when the existing theory was used to develop a new
theory in relational branding, which, in turn, enabled researchers to pay more attention to the
role of brands in relationships. (Lindberg, 2011)
In the literature review, it was shown that the development of the society influences the
development of marketing. Hence, to predict the future of branding, we have to look into the
projected development of the society. A distinct development in most western societies is the
emergence of even stronger consumer and civil right movements, greater supervision of
companys commitments, and a faster information flow. There are no indications that this
development will slow down, and it will be of great magnitude for companies to consider20
their influence on society and environment. In other words, CSR will be a concept that all
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companies will try to be associated with. Future brands will not be able to enjoy the full
advantage of their products if they neglect the importance of CSR. Theories developed during
the past decades have primarily emphasized the emotional component of the relationship
between brand and consumer. (Lindberg, 2011)
The development in the society goes in the same direction with powerful consumers willing
to remind corporations of their struggle to achieve a fair business world. Due to the present
economic meltdown, the consumer movement will become even stronger and more
conscious, and suspicious-looking companies will get noticed by both media and consumers.
Alert companies will try to achieve a citizen brand status by emphasizing CSR theories and
then communicate their own willingness to aid the society. In doing so, the aim is to achieve
the desired brand identity to become sustainably competitive.
However, it is not all about becoming a citizen brand; companies have to be able to produce
products that enable an increased quality of life. No one said it was going to be easy, but, in a
competitive world, companies can afford to neglect neither the consumers nor the society.
Companies must, therefore, acknowledge the difficulties and embrace a holistic thinking
about the variables that affect brand identity. Every single aspect that builds up the brand
identity is important, but working well together, they become a competitive advantage that is
hard to duplicate. Due to its many variables, brand identity is a very difficult and
timeconsuming concept to influence; yet, to be able to compete, future brands should spare
no pains in attaining their desired identity. (Lindberg, 2011)

8. Conclusion
In order to benefit from the consumer relationship allowed by branding, a company must
painstakingly strive to earn brand loyalty. The company must gain name recognition for its
product, get the consumer to actually try its brand, and then convince him that the brand is
acceptable. Only after those triumphs can the company hope to secure some degree of
preference for its brand. Indeed, name awareness is the most critical factor in achieving
success. Companies may spend vast sums of money and effort just to attain recognition of a
new brand. To penetrate a market with established brands, moreover, they may resort to
giving a branded product away for free just to get people to try it. Even if the product
outperforms its competitors, however, consumers may adhere to their traditional buying
patterns simply because of their comfort with those competitive products.
An easier way to quickly establish a brand is to be the first company to offer a product or
service. But there are also simpler methods of penetrating existing niches, namely product
line extension and brand franchise extension. Product line extension entails the use of an
established brand name on a new, related product. For example, the Wonder Bread name
could be applied to a whole-wheat bread to penetrate that market. Brand franchise extension
refers to the application of an old brand to a completely new product line. For example, CocaAcademic paper/Priyanka Kumari

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Cola could elect to apply its name to a line of candy products. One of the risks of brand and
product extensions is that the name will be diluted or damaged by the new product.
Besides offering ways to enter new markets, product line and brand franchise extension are
two ways in which a company can capitalize on a brand's "equity," or its intangible value.
Three major uses of brand equity include family branding, individual branding, and
combination branding. Family branding entails using a brand for an entire product mix. The
Kraft brand, for example, is used on a large number of dairy products and other food items.
Individual branding occurs when the name is applied to a single product, such as Budweiser
beer. Combination branding means that individual brand names are associated with a
company name. For example, General Motors markets a variety of brands associated with the
GM name.
Brand extension enjoyed a great deal of popularity during the late 1990s. As product
development and advertising costs increased, many companies sought to leverage the equity
in their existing brands rather than attempting to launch new brands. In fact, a 1998 Ernst and
Young study showed that 78 percent of product launches in that year were line extensions.
But businesses must be careful not to go too far with line extensions, at the risk of damaging
their brand name or diluting its meaning in the eyes of customers. "The corporate landscape
is littered with examples of companies that have tried to extend their brand franchise too far,"
Jane Simms wrote in Marketing. "At the same time, other unlikely sounding brand extensions
are proving very successful." Just because extending an existing brand involved lower costs,
it was no guarantee of success. The Ernst and Young study showed that 47 percent of new
brand launches were successful compared with only 28 percent of line extensions. Simms
noted that a brand extension is more likely to be successful when the mother brand is strong,
the extension supports and adds value to mother brand, and the extension is valuable to
consumers. She recommended that companies considering a launch gauge consumer response
by developing new ideas in three ways: as a brand extension; as a new brand; and as a
halfway measure, using such language as "from the makers of."
Once a company establishes brand loyalty, it must constantly work to maintain its presence
with consistent quality and competitive responses to new market entrants and existing
competitors. The science of sustaining and increasing brand loyalty and maximizing brand
equity is called "brand management." Large companies often hire brand managers whose sole
purpose is to foster and promote an individual brand. In many ways, the job of a brand
manager in a large company is similar to that of an entrepreneur who seeks to enter and
maintain a presence in a market with a branded product or service.
This paper has several managerial implications that could be used by both academics and
practitioners. The literature review holds its own academic value due to its originality in
presenting the origin of branding. Furthermore, we reveal how these concepts are
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interconnected and together build the foundation that branding stands on today. Due to the
lack of similar studies in the current literature, it was important to elaborate on the evolution
of branding to find the cause and effect in that process, as well as discuss what the future of
branding will look like. The conclusions from this study could be used in future research, and
by introducing the academic life cycle. The business implications derived from this study are
chiefly the explanation and the understanding of the complex construction of branding. I have
illustrated that the majority of the concepts are interconnected. Hence, when changing the
strategy for one concept, often another concept is influenced. The brand identity prism gives
marketers an important tool to pay attention to when working with a companys or a brands
identity. (Lindberg, 2011)

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