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Table of contents

Introduction

--------------------------------------------------------------2

Procedure and Computation --------------------------------------------4

Preliminary data sheet ----------------------------------------------------5

Final data sheet -------------------------------------------------------------7

Pictures ----------------------------------------------------------------------9

Research and discussions ------------------------------------------------10

Conclusion -------------------------------------------------------------------12

Introduction

(Incremental chord and tangent offset method)

Occasions arise on location where the use of offsets from the semi-tangents

to intermediate points on a circular curve are mandatory. The accuracy of

points set by offsets is dependent upon the method used in setting them,

and the practice of placing curve points by lining in stakes by eye and

turning of right-angles by hand methods is unsatisfactory. Even though

tangent offsets are used, the field notes for the curve should be completed

showing the deflections in the normal manner.

The tangent offset method is used to establish the points by directly

measuring from the back or forward tangent. If desired, this can be done

accurately with only a chain, thus eliminating the need to measure the

angles.

Instead of measuring angles and distances along the arc of the curve like we

have done on our field work 1, the tangent offset method establishes the

desired stations with a direct measurement at a right angle from the curves

tangents.

(Incremental chord and tangent offset method)

Objectives:

1. To be able to lay a simple curve by using the tape alone.

Instruments:

Tape

Used to measure horizontal

distances as well as slopes. Usually

in 30m, 50m or 100m in length.

Chalk

A soft, white, porous sedimentary

carbonate rock, a form of

limestone composed of the mineral

calcite.

2 range poles

Straight round stalks, 3 to 4 cm thick

and about 2 m long. They are made

of wood or metal. They are used to

mark areas and to set out straight lines

on the field. They are also used to mark

points which must be seen from a

distance, in which case a flag may be

attached to improve the visibility.

Procedures:

3

(Incremental chord and tangent offset method)

1. The professor gives the following data:

I= ; R= ;

Station PC (preferably not on full station):

Adopt Full Chord length of

2. The professor assigns the location of PC in the field, together with the

direction of the backward tangent. (Note: Be very careful in assigning

the location of station PC and direction of the backward tangent so that

the curve will not be obstructed by any large permanent structure.)

3. The students:

3.1. Compute the cental incremental angle of the simple curve

assigned, Lc and Sta PT.

3.2. Compute the incremental tangent offset distances x and y

of each intermediate stations before going to the field.

3.3. Compute the first offset distances x and y using the

formula:

d

The tangent offset distance x1 must be solved using: x 1=c 1cos ( 1 )

2

d1

The tangent offset distance y1 must be solved using: y 1=c 1sin ( )

2

3.4. Compute the second offset distances x and y using the

formula:

d +D

The tangent offset distance x2 must be solved using: x 2=ccos ( 1

)

2

d +D

The tangent offset distance y2 must be solved using: y 2=csin ( 1

)

2

3.5. Compute the succeeding offset distances x and y using the

formula:

D+ D

)

The tangent offset distance x3 must be solved using: x 3=ccos (

2

or x 3=ccos(D)

D+ D

)

The tangent offset distance y3 must be solved using: y 3=csin (

2

or x 3=csin(D)

3.6. Compute the last offset distances x and y using the formula:

d +D

The tangent offset distance xn must be solved using: x n=ccos ( 2

)

2

d +D

The tangent offset distance yn must be solved using: y n=csin ( 2

)

2

1.7. Lay the curve in the field starting in the position of the PC.

The process explained below assumed that the total length

of the tape will not be exhausted.

2. Station A is now laid on the ground using the procedure below.

4

(Incremental chord and tangent offset method)

4.1. The front tapeman should hold the 0 mark of the tape at

station

PC.

4.2. The tangent offset tapeman (man at station A) should hold

and

locate the length x1 mark, and loop the tape and hold

also the next

full meter length.

4.3. The point A tape man should locate and hold the y1 length of

the

tape from the tangent offset tapeman and also loop

the tape and

hold the next full meter length of the

tape. The front tape man

while holding the zero mark of

the tape must also hold the c1 tape

length distance from

point A tape man.

4.4. The front tapeman and tangent offset tapeman should align

themselves in the direction of the back tangent of the

simple

curve.

4.5. The three tapeman should stretch the tape and the point A

tape

man should mark its exact position on the ground with

a marking

pink or a chalk if on pavement.

3. Station B is now laid on the ground using the procedure below.

5.1. The front tapeman holds the 0 mark of the tape at station A.

5.2. The tangent offset tapeman (man at station B) holds and

locates

the length x2 mark, loop the tape and hold also

the next full meter

length.

5.3. The point B tape man locates and holds the y2 length of the

tape

from the tangent offset tapeman; he also loops

the tape and holds

the next full meter length of the

tape. The front tape man while

holding the zero mark of

the tape also holds the c tape length

distance from

point B tape man.

5.4 The front tape man and tangent offset tape man align

themselves

in the direction along the prolongation of

line PC to A.

4. Station C and other full station are now laid on the ground using the

same procedures a to d.

5. Station PT is laid in the same manner as above but this time with a

chord length of only c2.

6. Determine the percentage of error bu using the formula:

computed long chord lengthmeasured longchord length

error =

computed long chord length

(Incremental chord and tangent offset method)

(Incremental chord and tangent offset method)

Field Work 2

Alone (Incremental Chord and Tangent

Offset Method)

Date: Oct 13, 2015

Group No.: 4

Time: 12:00pm

Location: Luneta Park

Weather: Cloudy

Professor: Engr. Ira Balmoris

A. Data Supplied:

I= 65

R= 80m

Station of the PC: 29 + 928

Adopt Full Chord Length of 20 m

STATION

CHORD

OCCUPIED OBSERVED

PC

12

20

20

20

20

PT

18.76

CENTRAL

ANGLE

0 48

41.89

14 25

6.22

14 21

20.83

15 52

14.3

15 52

14.3

15 52

26.61

OFFSET DISTANCES

X

Y

12

0.17

19.37

4.98

19.38

4.96

19.24

5.47

19.24

5.47

18.04

5.13

Actual Length of the Chord: not applicable

B. Computation:

Computed

C2 : Lc=( 65 ) ( 80 )

=90.737

180

PT= (29+ 940 ) + ( 0+090.757 )=30+018.76

C2 =18.76

( )

(Incremental chord and tangent offset method)

Measured

C1 =12.93m

C=24.5324.34=20.57 m

C=24.5324.34=20.19 m

C=46.3624.71=21.65 m

C=42.8224.71=21.11 m

C2 =41.3623.17=18.19 m

x 1=12cos

14.47

=12 m

17.4

y 1=12 sin

14.47

=0.17 m

17.4

14.47 +14.36

14.47+14.36

=19.36 m y 2=20 sin

=4.98 m

2

2

14.36+14.36

14.36+14.36

x 3=20 cos

=19.38 m y 3=20 sin

=4.96 m

2

2

17.4+14.36

17.4 +14.36

x 4=20 cos

=19.24 m y 4=20 sin

=5.47 m

2

2

17.4+14.36

17.4 +14.36

x 5=20 cos

=19.24 m y 5=20 sin

=5.47 m

2

2

x 2=20 cos

x 6=18.76 cos

17.4+14.36

17.4+14.36

=18.04 m y 6=18.76 sin

=5.13 m

2

2

PCPT =114.66 m

110.76114.66

100=3.52

110.76

error =

Pictures:

Point A to back tangent.

maintaining a right

angle from station A

having B as the right

angle.

using station B as guide.

Research and

Discussions

Conclusion:

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