Training Material (B Licence General) (ver. 1.

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Crosswind Landings

Crosswind landing explained A crosswind landing is any landing where the winds are not aligned with the runway. The winds could be at any angle to the runway from a direct headwind to ninety degrees to the left or right of the runway heading. To land an airplane on the runway in a crosswind, it is important that the airplane longitudinal axis is over the centre line of the runway and not drifting left or right when the main gear wheels touchdown. To accomplish this there are two methods in IL2 the most effective on is explained below. This method commonly called the Crab method is done on final approach by turning the airplane into the wind so that the longitudinal axis of the aircraft is pointed into the wind, but the flight path of the airplane is maintaining its path along the extended centreline of the runway. Just as the airplane is then in roundout or flare, the airplane is turned to align the longitudinal axis of the airplane with the centreline of the runway. It is a little bit tricky in that all of the turning and aligning is happening in the last few seconds before the airplane touches down.

Navigation
Abbreviations

IAS Indicated airspeed (IAS) is the airspeed read directly from the airspeed indicator on an aircraft, driven by the pitot-static system. At low altitude the IAS is very close if not the same to the Ground speed. If you climb to a high altitude your IAS will be much lower than your ground speed. This happens because the air at high altitude is much thinner then at low altitude causing the airspeed indicator to indicate a much lower speed than what you are actually flying with. TAS True airspeed (TAS) is the speed of an aircraft relative to the air mass in which it flies. Under zero wind conditions and in horizontal flight, this is equal to the speed over the ground. This means if you know your true airspeed, and the direction and velocity of the wind, you can calculate you ground speed. Angels Angels is a different name for 1000 ft For example: ‘I’m at angels 23’, Means he is at 23 000 ft Kilo Usually referred to as K is a different name for 1000 meters so 8 K is 8 000 meters.

Bombsight Table 2

The bombsight table is a program that you can use to calculate your TAS, and the time it will take to fly a certain distance. The bombsight table is a must have if you want to make good flight plans. Download Locations on Forum

Different types of navigation
VFR Navigation - Visual flight rules (VFR) are a set of aviation regulations under which a pilot may operate an aircraft, in a specific airspace, with meteorological conditions better than Basic VFR Weather Minimums. For example, weather conditions sufficient to allow the pilot, by visual reference to the environment outside the cockpit, to control the aircraft's attitude, navigate, and maintain safe separation from obstacles such as terrain, buildings, and other aircraft.

IFR Navigation - Instrument flight rules (IFR) are a set of regulations and procedures for flying aircraft whereby navigation and obstacle clearance is maintained with reference to aircraft instruments only, while separation from other aircraft is provided by Air Traffic Control. In layman's terms, a pilot who is rated for IFR can keep a plane in controlled flight solely on the data provided by his instruments, even if that pilot cannot see anything (useful) out the cockpit windows; indeed, one of the benefits of these regulations is the ability to fly through clouds, which is otherwise not allowed.

VFR and IFR in IL2 In il2 we usually fly VFR, this sometimes means you can fly without even having to look at your heading or making any kind of flight plan. You will be able to, for example follow a road or a river to your target and back. But usually we fly using both, we use our instruments to give us the direction we are flying in and use landmarks to confirm our position. Though if we fly over a landscape without landmarks like a sea, we use IFR. How to make a flight plan and do basic navigation is explained below.

Basic navigation and Flight planning The Basics
The First thing you need to know is what direction you need to fly in, you can find this out using a printed out compass, a geometric triangle or protractor or if the distance is small and the conditions are good you can just guess the heading. If you want to guess you’re heading you will need to know what North East South and West are in headings so here we go: North = 0° North East = 45° East = 90° South East = 135° South = 180° South West = 225° West = 270° North West = 315°

VFR Flight plan
Using the "Paper Compass" First, Determine the base you want to fly from and put the middle of your compass over that position. Second, Align the Compass North to South with the Vertical lines on the map, these lines show you north and south and your Compass always needs to be aligned with these. Third, Read the heading from the compass to the first place you want to go to. Repeat this action from waypoint to waypoint while noting down the headings, until you have finished your flight plan. Fourth, Make a small Note of what headings you have and make a logical plan like so Home --> Waypoint 1 : HDG 240° until you see the city of Smolensk Waypoint 1 --> target : HDG 270° until you see the target (Tanks) Target --> Home base : HDG 080° Direct home

IFR Flight plan
Using "Paper Compass", and a stopwatch

Here is the paper compass that you may print out and use. It’s also available on the forum. First, determine the base you want to fly from and put the middle of your compass over that position. Second, Align the Compass North to South with the Vertical lines on the map, these lines show you north and south and your Compass always needs to be aligned with these. Third, Read the heading from the compass to the first place you want to go to. Repeat this action from waypoint to waypoint while noting down the headings. Fourth, try to read or determine how many Kilometres there is between these waypoints. 1 Grid square = 10 Kilometres. You can do this by either doing some Geometry or by measuring the distance of 1 square on your screen. And then measuring the distance between your waypoints. Fifth, Repeat Action three and four until you know the distance and headings of all your waypoints. Sixth, determine the altitude you have fly or want to fly on and the cruise speed you want to fly with. Seventh, calculate your TAS for your cruise altitude and speed using the Bombsight Table 2 Eight, use this TAS to calculate how long it takes to go from waypoint to waypoint again using Bomb sight table 2.

Ninth, Take the IAS Cruise speed, altitude, time to waypoint and the heading and make your flight plan like so : Waypoint 1 to 2 ---> HDG 220°, Angels 20 at 200 MPH IAS for 7 Minutes Waypoint 2 to 3 ---> HDG 270°, Angels 20 at 200 MPH IAS for 10 Minutes Waypoint 3 to Target ---> HDG 0°, Angels 20 at 200 MPH IAS for 5 minutes Waypoint Target to Home ---> HDG 090°, Angels 20 at 200 MPH IAS for 15 Minutes This will enable you to navigate without the need of landmarks or in bad weather. Note that your IAS and Altitude need to be constant. Therefore you will need to be at altitude and speed before you start following your flight plan. Otherwise your flight plan will be inaccurate. If you have a VFR weather situation you can make your first waypoint away from the airbase so you have time enough to climb to altitude. In IFR Weather conditions this is not an option and you will have to climb to altitude above your base.

Wind Correction

If there is wind with a velocity higher than 3 m/s and you are flying long distances in an IFR situation you are going to have to use the E6B Emulator. The E6B is a very handy instrument designed for navigation purposes in World War 2. The E6B which we are using is available for download available on the forum. Words to Know GS: Ground Speed WCA: Wind Correction Angle Before starting to use the E6B you will need to know what heading the wind is coming from and the velocity of the current wind in knots, and the TAS you will be flying with in knots. How to use the E6B First, start up the Virtual E6B Second, and choose "Winds" from the menu. Third, enter the wind direction, wind speed in knots, the heading/course you want to fly on and the TAS you wish to fly with. Fifth, hit Compute and you are finished.

---Result: This gives you your ground speed with the wind component added to it. It gives you your heading with the wind correction added to it, and the wind correction angle. When flying long distances from waypoint to waypoint you will have to use this calculator at every waypoint if there are moderate or heavy winds.

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