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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Berakoth Folio 2a

Until When May One Recite the Shema?

"Awake, my glory; awake, psaltery and harp;
I will awake the dawn." Tehillim 57.9
"Awake, O north wind" Shir HaShirim 4.16
David's Harp1 and the Wind of Mercy
A Drash for Shir Moshe "His Song"

Why does the tractate begin by a discussion of the Night-watches?

Our calendar is calculated by the appearance of the Moon and by it's phases and the stars in their
Because it is written, "And Evening and Morning, one day." Our day starts with the Evening rather
than with the Morning and, although a "favorable morning shall arise on those who fear My name"
Malachai 3.20 (the day of resurrection), during the night-watches is an optimal time to pray, for "His
Song (Shir Moshe) is with me." ("... in His Torah does he meditate day and night." Tehillim3 1.2)
This One is Praiseworthy. Tehillim 1 How is he praiseworthy? May we say he is praisworthy because
of his pious conduct? Or might we say that he praises the Holy One upon meditation day and night?
The verse could be read either way. But still, his positive conduct, meditation, negates the negative
traits of wickedness. "Happy is the man that hath not walked in the counsel of the wicked, {N} nor
stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the seat of the scornful." Why is he praiseworthy? Because he
rests assured that the path of wickedness shall one day perish off the earth. Tehillim 1.6 How does he
1 Kinnor David <> Click Here: <> to
listen to Voice of Israel Radio Interview of Michah and Shoshanna Harrari on the Midrash on Tehillim 144.9 'I will sing
a new song to You, O God; Upon a harp of ten strings I will sing praises to You, 10 Who gives salvation to kings, Who
rescues David His servant from the evil sword.' a new song Tehillim 96.1, 98.1, 33.3, 149.1, Isaiah 42.10. The
Midrash Tanchuma (on Beshalach 10.) describes ten examples of Shira in the history of Israel.All of these were
examples of the souls simply bursting into song. Spontaneous expressions formed out of a deep mixture of deep
yearning and thankfulness. The tenth song, says the Midrash, will be the shir chadash, the new song of the ultimate
redemption; (Psalm 96). Midrash Lamentations Rabbah
2.22, Shocher Tov 22 David then arose and began to study Torah .... A harp hung over David's bed2. A variation of
this legend suggest that ... Midrash Rabbah HaMevo'ar : Ekhah edited by Yaakov Yosef Reinman.
see also: <> David's Harp. Why does this writer begin the
discussion of the Tractate with David's Harp. So as to not arouse jealousy - if we begin with the priest's terumah this
might arouse the spirit of divisiveness or jealousy amongst the common people. It is better to ease a new student into the
discussion with an easy subject.
2 Berakhot, Chapter One, Mishnah One Introduction
Tractate Berakhot begins by discussing what time the Shema (only two paragraphs were recited at night, Deuteronomy 6:49 and 11:13-21) is recited in the evening. It probably begins by discussing the evening Shema because in rabbinic thought
the day begins at night. This is also the order reflected in Deuteronomy 6:7 and 11:19, Recite themwhen you lie down
and when you get up. In our mishnah the sages debate what the halakhic meaning of the words when you lie down really
are. (Since the day begins at Night so too our Mishneh for were it not for the piety of King David the people of Israel would
not pray at this time according to the Midrash.<>
See: Soundings in the Theology of Psalms, quoting Midrash Tehillim 22.8, 57.4.
3 It is the author's minhag to "open" his drashot from the Tehillim since many secrets of Torah are revealed through them.

become 'praiseworthy'? By meditation day and night. What is this meditation? "His Song is with me."
Which song is that? Shir Moshe? Devarim 32.44 This is none ot her than the whole Torah. "And
Moses came and spoke all the words of this song in the ears of the people, he, and Hoshea the son of
Nun." 31.19 "Now therefore write ye this song for you, and teach thou it the children of Israel; put it in
their mouths, that this song may be a witness for Me against the children of Israel." The Origins of
Jewish Music - (
"This alludes to the fact that Haazinu is connected to the whole Torah." We sing the entire Torah.
"As the fires burn on the altar into the evening, the darkness of night provides the stage for our ultimate
redemption." <>
UNTIL MIDNIGHT is to keep a man far from transgression.


Because of the matter of King David and Bath-sheba4. This occurred in the evening.
To draw our attention to the Tehillim Psalms of David. To teach us David's custom to meditate in
prayer, studying and singing (praise) during the Night Watches.
Because "of David, the Children of Israel sit down to study Torah ([at night])." (Midrash Tehillim
22.8, 57.4. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1959. 1:305.) Page 170, Soundings in the Theology of
Psalms: Perspectives and Methods in Contemporary Scholarship. Rolf A. Jacobson, Ed. Fortress Press,
Berakhot 3b David's Harp
David had a sign. For so said R. Aha b. Bizana in the name of R. Simeon the Pious: A harp was hanging
above David's bed. As soon as midnight arrived, a North wind came and blew upon it and it played of
itself. He arose immediately and studied ...."
Neh. 4.16 "That in the night they may be a guard to us, and may labour in the day."8 What might be a
guard to us? The Tehillim of David and the Shir Moshe, The Whole of the Torah. What is the whole of
the Torah but none other than the Shema, Devarim 6.4-9. Nechemiah (Nechemyah) does not need to tell
us "that in the night," for the passuk mentions the day being a time of labor. 16 "Likewise at the same
time said I unto the people: 'Let every one with his servant lodge within Jerusalem, that in the night
they may be a guard to us, and may labour in the day.'"
What is this labor in the day? It is the meditating in and studying Torah. Without delay one must be like
Joab, quick to dispatch his enemies through Pesukey DeZimrah, Praise. And in the Night "His Song is
with me!"
David's piety was so great that his prayers were able to bring things from heaven down to earth (ag.
12b). .... Similarly David must not be blamed for Uriah's death, since the latter had committed a capital
offense in refusing to obey the king's command (II Sam. xl. 8, 9; Shab. 56a; id. 43a). The episode
with Bath-sheba was also a punishment for David's overweening self-confidence, who thought himself
equal to the "three fathers," and besought God to subject him to a trial that he might be able to prove
the purity of his heart. God thereupon sent to him Satan in the shape of a bird; David threw an arrow at
4 The sages say that Batsheva was meant to be with David from the six days of creation, but that he took her prematurely.
In fact, the Torahs first word, In the beginning, ( )equals Bat sheva to King David, ( ) .
The Torahs first word is related in all other places in the Tanach to kingdom and sovereignty. So there is a distinct
connection here between Batsheva and the kingdom and between David and Batsheva. In spite of all .the evil inclination
involved in this act, David sensed their predestination and so did Batsheva.

the latter, hitting instead a beehive under which was Bath-sheba, and on beholding her the king was at
once violently enamored of her (Sanh. 107a)
Bath-Sheba- Who is she in the mind of this writer? A Comfort to the Daughters of Zion. See This
Week's Parshah Vayeitzei Shabbat, 9 Kislev, 5776, 21 November, 2015. (And, for David's Sake, This
Writer says David is Moshiach - How so? Because of the verses Tehillim 27.4, 5 "4 One thing have I
asked of the LORD, that will I seek after: {N} that I may dwell in the house of the LORD all the days
of my life, {N} to behold the graciousness of the LORD, and to visit early in His temple. For He
concealeth me in His pavilion in the day of evil; {N} He hideth me in the covert of His tent; He lifteth
me up upon a rock."
What is this "all the days of my life" of verse 4? It is the Night's too! (Pesach Machzor page 91,
Artscroll. Or according to the Sages it is the era of Moshiach)
How is David Moshiach? He has not risen from the dead and yet we still follow his ordinances of
Praise. E.g. Shir Shel Yom. He delivers each one of us each time we sing his Tehillim for we enthrone
the Holy One when we praise. How so? Is it not written, "Thou art enthroned on the praises of Israel"
and, "and David my servant shall be their prince forever." Ezekiel 37:21-28
27.4 "to behold the graciousness of the LORD, and to visit early5 in His temple." Here, David by
Prophesy saw the final Temple and by Divine Inspiration composed this Shir. How so? Is it not written,
27.6 "And now6 shall my head be lifted up above mine enemies round about me; and I will offer in His
tabernacle sacrifices with trumpet-sound; {N} I will sing, yea, I will sing praises unto the LORD." The
Psalm does not need to tell us to WHOM David will sing. The latter part of the Passuk comes to teach
that in the era of the resurrection, David has a share as well, there, in the world to come.
Moreover, we have the verses, 4 "For the sons of Israel will remain for many days without king or
prince, without sacrifice or sacred pillar and without ephod or household idols. Afterward the sons of
Israel will return and seek the LORD their God and David their king; and they will come trembling to
the LORD and to His goodness in the last days." and, "For He concealeth me in His pavilion in the day
of evil." and, "or sacred pillar" Hoshea 3.4
What is this day of evil from which David through singing this Psalm seeks refuge? None other than
but the day of death when a god-fearing, pious person's sins visit them. Here we see from the words of
our Mishneh, "Other than the matter of Uriah, you do not find any sin in David." And for this he was
forgiven because he did it through chance of war and through the third party of Joab, the son of Nahash
Why is David's nephew called herein Bar Nahash, the son of Nahash? For he was ruthlessly quick like
a serpent to dispatch his perceived enemies! Although he was in league with Uriah to take the throne or
kingdom, without any hesitation he follows David's orders in the letter David sent him and has Uriah's
compatriots in battle withdraw from him in the heat of the battle so that he were sure to die.
Most serpent's strike without notice. The western rattle snake and the cobra being exceptions.
And what of the verse, B'midbar 21.8? "And the LORD said unto Moses: 'Make thee a fiery serpent,
and set it upon a pole; and it shall come to pass, that every one that is bitten, when he seeth it, shall
live.'" It is a mitzvah to make a serpent and set it on a pole and make it a sign. Therefore he is called
Bar Nahash so that you would REMEMBER to be quick to cut away the evil forces that hinder proper
prayer. )
5 Malachai 3.20 On the morning of the resurrection.
6 Then the LORD will appear over them, And His arrow will go forth like lightning; And the Lord GOD will blow the
trumpet, Zechariah 9:14 Isaiah 27:13 "It will come about also in that day that a great trumpet will be blown, and those
who were perishing in the land of Assyria and who were scattered in the land of Egypt will come and worship the LORD
in the holy mountain at Jerusalem." "Blow a trumpet in Zion, And sound an alarm on My holy mountain! Let all the
inhabitants of the land tremble, For the day of the LORD is coming; Surely it is near," Joel 2.1

David and Bathsheba
1 "Then it happened in the spring, at the time when kings go out to battle, that David sent Joab and his
servants with him and all Israel, and they destroyed the sons of Ammon and besieged Rabbah. But
David stayed at Jerusalem. 2 Now when evening came David arose from his bed and walked around on
the roof of the king's house, and from the roof he saw a woman bathing; and the woman was very
beautiful in appearance."
2 Now when evening came David arose from his bed and walked around on the roof - pacing, like a
lion - for he heard from Divine Inspiration, of Joab and Uriah's plot.
Proverbs 28:1
The wicked flee when no one pursues, but the righteous are bold as a lion.
1 Kings 13:24-28
"And as he went away a lion met him on the road and killed him. And his body was thrown in the road,
and the donkey stood beside it; the lion also stood beside the body. And behold, men passed by and saw
the body thrown in the road and the lion standing by the body. And they came and told it in the city
where the old prophet lived. And when the prophet who had brought him back from the way heard of it,
he said, It is the man of God who disobeyed the word of the Lord; therefore the Lord has given him to
the lion, which has torn him and killed him, according to the word that the Lord spoke to him. And he
said to his sons, Saddle the donkey for me. And they saddled it. And he went and found his body
thrown in the road, and the donkey and the lion standing beside the body. The lion had not eaten the
body or torn the donkey." <>
Proverbs 19:12
"A king's wrath is like the growling of a lion, but his favor is like dew on the grass."
This (2 Sam. 11.2) comes to teach that a roof should provide some privacy. And a Mikvah should be
enclosed on all sides like a womb, with one opening and only used in the cover of the blackness of
Here, David was engaged in innocently walking on his roof engaged in meditation. Perhaps he forgot
his Tallit as it was still evening ("twilight")? (One is exempt from wearing a fringed garment at night.)
Here, David's innocently walking (meditation) comes to teach that it was his custom to rise in the
evening. Perhaps he wished to engage in worship (composing His song on his harp) but the matters of
war distracted him? Perhaps a North wind blew his Tallit uncovering his pious face?
Not only, but Bath-sheba was innocently engaged in a mitzvah (attending to her needs at the mikveh).
Perhaps Uriah was David's Quartermaster for he was placed in charge of a mess of foodstuff (or a gift
for Bat-Sheba)? 2 Samuel 11.8 Perhaps he became jealous of those who stayed in the camp and wanted
to see more warfare (action) to increase his status or prosperity amongst the thirty mighty men of
valour (war)? 1 Samuel 30:24 The Spoils are Divided
23 "Then David said, "You must not do so, my brothers, with what the LORD has given us, who has
kept us and delivered into our hand the band that came against us. 24 "And who will listen to you in
this matter? For as his share is who goes down to the battle, so shall his share be who stays by the
baggage; they shall share alike." 25 So it has been from that day forward, that he made it a statute and
an ordinance for Israel to this day."
Here, it is implied that Uriah knew he would need status as a warrior in order to have a following like
David for even Saul's jealousy was aroused at David's success. Hence the Tanak's introduction of David
as one who skillfully played the harp. David's pesonality at that juncture was that of a shepard who was
more skilled at music than he was as a warrior. Contrasted with Uriah the Hittite, David's success

surely caused some degree of jealousy in Uriah and apparently with some of Joab's servants whom
Uriah anonomously called the servants of "my lord Joab."
2 Samuel 11.11 "as thou livest, and as thy soul liveth," Here, Uriah swears or vows on the life of David.
He should have said, "As The Holy One Liveth." Yet in verse 13 we find Uriah drunk. 13 "And when
David had called him, he did eat and drink before him; and he made him drunk: and at even he went
out to lie on his bed with the servants of his lord, but went not down to his house."
Mishley - Proverbs 20.1, 2 "Wine is a mocker, strong drink a brawler, And whoever is intoxicated by it
is not wise. 2 The terror of a king is like the growling of a lion; He who provokes him to anger forfeits
his own life."
Did Uriah provoke David to anger? The text implies that is so.
Here, we find that Uriah's response to David's advice was to scorn7 it. Then he got drunk! But he stood
by his code of honor or pride. He scorned Bath-sheba (his marital duties towards her) according to our
dictionary definition of scorn. He also scorned the pious life-style of David. What was his expression of
scorn'fulness? "as thou livest, and as thy soul liveth, I will not do this thing." Perhaps, as the Midrash
relates, he heard rumors that David had taken Bath-sheba and therefore he scorned Bath-sheba and his
marital duties towards her? The text does not say she went through the proceedures of a Sotah
(suspected adulteress).
Moreover, he should not have associated the Mishkan with sexual activity. 2 Sam. 11.11 "You shall
reverence my sactuary" V'Yikrah 19.30 E.g. 1 Kings 1:29 "And the king swore and said: 'As the LORD
liveth, who hath redeemed my soul out of all adversity...." Devarim 6.13! Here, we see the
humbleness of David's wife Bath-Sheba. 1 Kings 1.31 "Then Bath-sheba bowed with her face to the
earth, and prostrated herself to the king, and said: 'Let my lord king David live for ever.' David's
swearing contrasted with the swearing of Uriah and; in verse 31, Bath-Sheba comforted King David!
"Let my lord king David live for ever." (Here, she said, "A prayer to the G-d of my life." that is, she
prayed in David's behalf that, as she had forgiven David in the matter of Uriah the Hittite, so should the
Holy One! Thus, she comforted David, as it were. How so? It was as if she taught David a lesson of
Torah concerning vows; that even though Uriah was punishable for rebelling against royal authority
and David erred in not trying him by the Sanhedrin, so too was he punishable for not vowing in the
Name of the Holy One, yet we see that he died in battle as punishment for his sins. 1 Samuel 26:10
As surely as the LORD lives," he said, "the LORD himself will strike him, or his time will come and he
will die, or he will go into battle and perish.)
KJV8 Dictionary Definition: scorn
1. Extreme contempt; that disdain which springs from a person's opinion of the meanness of an object, and a
consciousness or belief of his own superiority or worth.
He thought scorn to lay hands on Mordecai alone. Esther 3.
2. A subject of extreme contempt, disdain or derision; that which is treated with contempt.
Thou makest us a reproach to our neighbors, a scorn and a derision to them that are around us. Ps. 44.
To think scorn, to disdain; to despise. obs.
To laugh to scorn, to deride; to make a mock of; to ridicule as contemptible.
They laughed us to scorn. Neh. 2.
SCORN, v.t.
7 See our opening, Tehillim 1.1 "he does not walk in the counsel of the wicked, does not stand in the path of sinners and in
the seat of the scornful he does not sit." Here, two actions lead to scornfulness, walking and standing.

1. to hold in extreme contempt; to despise; to contemn; to disdain. job. 16.

Surely he scorneth the scorner; but he giveth grace to the lowly. Prov. 3.
2. to think unworth; to disdain.
3. To slight; to disregard; to neglect.
This my long suff'rance and my day of grace, those who neglect and scorn, shall never taste.
SCORN, v.i. To scorn at, to scoff at; to treat with contumely, derision or reproach. Obs.
SCORN'ED, pp. Extremely contemned or despised; disdained.
1. Contemptuous; disdainful; entertaining scorn; insolent.
3. In Scripture, holding religion in contempt; treating with disdain religion and the dispensations of God.
How long will the scorners delight in their scorning? Prov. 1. Ps. 123.
What does this come to teach? One should not scorn the advice of the king. One should not get drunk and mock the king!

Berakoth 3a9
UNTIL THE END OF THE FIRST WATCH. What opinion does R. Eliezer hold? If he holds that the
night has three watches, let him say: Till four hours [in the night]. And if he holds that the night has
four watches, let him say: Till three hours? He holds indeed, that the [Babylonian and Biblical]
night has three watches, but he wants to teach us that there are watches in heaven 8 as well as on
8 Among the ministering angels.
Berakoth 3b
Our Rabbis taught: The [Roman] night has four watches. ... Mishmarot. What are the mishmarot?
This is none other than the rotations of the night watches. The daf lecture 8 implies that Rabbi was
discussing the introduction of the Roman fourth watch which he was more familiar with than the
Babylonian night watches that his contemporaries wished to discuss. ([<>])
R. Zerika, in the name of R. Joshua b. Levi, says: One verse reads, At midnight do I rise to give thanks
unto Thee because of Thy righteous ordinances.5 And another verse reads: Mine eyes forestall the
watches.6 How is this?7 [This is possible only if] the night has four watches.
5 Tehillim 119.62 "At midnight I will rise to give thanks unto Thee because of Thy righteous
ordinances." Mechon Mamre JPS Translation <>
But did David know the exact time of midnight? Even our teacher Moses did not know it! For it is
written: About midnight I will go out into the midst of Egypt.17 Why 'about midnight'? Shall we say

that the Holy One, blessed be He, said to him: 'About midnight'? Can there be any doubt in the mind of
God?18 Hence we must say that God told him 'at midnight', and he came and said: 'About midnight'.
Hence he [Moses] was in doubt; can David then have known it? David had a sign. For so said R.
Aha b. Bizana in the name of R. Simeon the Pious: A harp was hanging above David's bed. As soon as
midnight arrived, a North wind came and blew upon it and it played of itself. He arose immediately
and studied ...."
at midnight, a 'ruach tzifonis,' a northerly wind, would blow across the harps strings,
producing a melody that roused King David. the Slonimer Rebbe of Yerushalyaim, shlita. He explained that the word used to describe this powerful wind 'tzifonis' is grounded in
the word tzofun, meaning veiled and hidden. This wind, he explains, was not necessarily a
physical wind current but rather reflected the concealed spirit and ruach that lies embedded in
the deepest recesses of every Jewish soul. It springs from deep within us, arousing our
spiritual yearnings and awakening us to return to our heavenly Source.
With the vigor of a lion, as it says, Berakoth 3b
But did David rise at midnight? [Surely] he rose with the evening dusk? For it is written: I rose with the
neshef and cried.11 And how do you know that this word neshef means the evening? It is written: In
the neshef, in the evening of the day, in the blackness of night and the darkness!12 R. Oshaia, in the
name of R. Aha, replies: David said: Midnight never passed me by in my sleep. R. Zera says: Till
midnight he used to slumber like a horse,13 from thence on he rose with the energy of a lion.
11 Tehillim 119.147
12 Prov. VII, 9.
One might read "I rose with the [whole-soul "with all your heart, with all your soul and all your might"]
the soul of a lion Ari- nefesh, interchanging the shin and phey in the word neshef.
And cried - Isaiah Chapter 21.8 And he cried as a lion: 'Upon the watch-tower, O Lord, I stand
continually in the daytime, and I am set in my ward all the nights.'
Why the wars against the 10Ammonites? It appears that David, through Ruth had become heir to the
Moabite throne. This perhaps was seen falsely through astrology and serpent worship, as an afront to
the Ammonites who thought that by taking the throne of the Moabites, David would expand his power
and yet David said in the Tehillim, "One thing have I desired, that I may dwell in the house of the
L-RD forever." 27.4
QUESTION: If David through Ruth was heir to the Moabite Throne; would he have accepted that
while Saul still lived and his kingdom in Eretz Yisrael was unsecure? In answer to this we must accept
Saul's own words, "Thou shalt prevail." 1 Samuel 26.25 Thus, we see from this verse David was sure
of his kingdom and prevailing in the three tests, of Bath-Sheba, Uriah and Joab.
(Assuming we read Bath-Sheba as a temptress and Uriah as wanting to slay David but ignoring the
rumors, did not; and Joab as being in conspiracy with Uriah a Hittite Convert!)
Additionally, Nahash the Ammonite King scorned the good intentions of King David when he had
David's servant's beards cut half off.
10 However some Rabbis argued that Shobi was in fact Hanun; in this argument Hanun must have fallen out with David
when they both took control of their respective thrones.[6]

As well, it explains the battle scene where Uriah gets close to the wall and, according to the Midrash,
over exposes himself to the on-slaught of the enemy. Perhaps in the heat of battle he thought to switch
sides and revert back to his Hittite serpent worship - Avodah Zarah and thus was slain with the sword
rather than with the arrows of the Ammonites. 2 Samuel 11.21

Bathsheba11 in rabbinical literature

Bathsheba was the granddaughter of Ahithophel, David's famous counselor. The Haggadah states that
Ahithophel, was misled by his knowledge of astrology into believing himself destined to become king
of Israel. He therefore induced Absalom to commit an unpardonable crime (II Sam. xvi. 21), which
sooner or later would have brought with it, according to Jewish law, the penalty of death; the motive for
this advice being to remove Absalom, and thus to make a way for himself to the throne. His astrological
information had been, however, misunderstood by him; for in reality it only predicted that his
granddaughter, Bathsheba, the daughter of his son Eliam, would become queen (Sanh. 101b, Yal.
Sam. 150).[5]
The Midrash portrays the influence of Satan bringing about the sinful relation of David and Bathsheba
as follows: Bathsheba was bathing, perhaps behind a screen of wickerwork. Satan is depicted as
coming in the disguise of a bird. David, shooting at the bird, strikes the screen, splitting it; thus
Bathsheba is revealed in her beauty to David (Sanhedrin 107a).
Berakoth 4b
In reality it is R. Gamaliel's view that they adopted, and their reason for saying, UNTIL MIDNIGHT is
to keep a man far from transgression. For so it has been taught: The Sages made a fence for their words
so that a man, on returning home from the field in the evening, should not say: I shall go home, eat a
little, drink a little, sleep a little, and then I shall recite the Shema' and the Tefillah, and meanwhile,
sleep may overpower him, and as a result he will sleep the whole night. Rather should a man, when
returning home from the field in the evening, go to the synagogue. If he is used to read the Bible, let
him read the Bible, and if he is used to repeat the Mishnah, let him repeat the Mishnah, and then let him
recite the Shema' and say the Tefillah, [go home] and eat his meal and say the Grace.
What is this north wind?
It was to remind David not to sin. A Gentle reminder. A Gentle "North Wind" out of Yam Kinnoreth
(sea of galilee) as opposed to Yam Melek (the Dead Sea, which bring's a South [warm or hot scorching]
Wind) to stir up the fragrant garden.
If it were a South (Judgmental) wind, scorching heat would come:
Psalm 32.4 For day and night Thy hand was heavy upon me; {N} my sap was turned as in the droughts
of summer. Selah
If it were a Judgmental North Wind, harsh, destructive rain would come.
Yet only enough of a North wind came to play David's Harp. A gentle wind ....
11 Who Was Bathsheba? She is identified according to her fathers lineage and as Uriahs wife. The name
Bathshebameans either seventh daughteror daughter of an oath.She is called by another term,Bathshua,in
1Chronicles 3:5. It could mean daughter of prosperity. Occurring only once, this might not be a name but a description. In
other words, perhaps Bathsheba was the daughter of a prosperous father, Eliam(2 Samuel 11:3).

A North wind brings a cloud and this is associated with the Divine Presence, Mercy and rain.
When do we begin to mention and pray for rain? (Prayer for rain in it's season means we pray for
righteousness to be in our midst!)
Here, the cloud ( ) is associated with the presence of God. It is interesting that looking at this verse
in Shemot / Exodus 34:5 it says and descended YHVH in the cloud and stood before with him there,
and proclaimed in the name of YHVH.
Based on the structure of the sentence, the one proclaiming the name is the Lord Himself. The context
indicates that the Lord God descended (His glory descended) and He proclaimed His own Name and
declared the kind of God that He is that is consistent with the promises that were made to the
Patriarchs. In Shemot / Exodus 34:6 God says 34:6 Then the Lord passed by in front of him and
proclaimed, The Lord, the Lord God, compassionate and gracious, slow to anger, and abounding in
lovingkindness (Grace, chesed) and truth;
Why does B'Anan have two nuns ( ) in this word for "in [a] cloud?" Because it is as if the Holy
One descended ("nefil") twice in order to "proclaim His Name, Adonai Adonai, EL Rachoom
v'Chanoon ...."
The Daily Miracles ....
The Song of Solomon 4:16!
Song of Solomon 4.16 Awake, O north wind; and come, thou south; blow upon my garden, that the
spices thereof may flow out. Let my beloved come into his garden, and eat his precious fruits.
Berakoth 4a
David called himself godly or pious. devoutly religious, God-fearing, a chasid!
A prayer of David Keep my soul, for I am pious.9 Levi and R. Isaac:10 The one says, Thus spoke
David before the Holy One, blessed be He; Master of the world, am I not pious? All the kings of the
East and the West sleep to the third hour [of the day], but I, at midnight I rise to give thanks unto
9. Psalms. LXXXVI, 1-2. 86.1-2 - ki chasid ani "like the godly am i"
11. Ibid. CXIX, 62. 119.62
Because his companions were pious
How do we know that his companions were pious?
Tehillim 30.5 Sing praise unto the LORD, O ye His godly ones, and give thanks to His holy name.
6 For His anger is but for a moment, His favour is for a life-time; {N}weeping may tarry for the night,
but joy cometh in the morning.
Tehillim 119.63 I am a companion of all them that fear Thee, and of them that observe Thy precepts.
Zechariah 12.8 In that day shall the LORD defend the inhabitants of Jerusalem; and he that stumbleth

among them at that day shall be as David; and the house of David shall be as a godlike being, as the
angel of the LORD before them.
How do we know He demonstrates His anger for a moment? ([and not more])
Because of the matter of Uriah and Bath Sheba - (II Shmuel 11:4, 15; 12:9) - Shabbath 56a
Shall we say a moment is seven days? 2 Samuel 12
Why does the Tanak make a point of telling us it was after one year at the time of war? 2 Samuel 11.1
This comes to teach that Uriah's rebellion was against a precept of the Torah, against G-D as it were, to
make thy wife rejoice. The text does not need to say David waited at Jerusalem either. It is teaching
that Uriah was tardy in fulfilling his marital obligations so he gave his wife a divorce rather than meet
with her and fulfill his marital obligations.
The Mishnah12 (1:5) states that a king may not go off to a discretionary war, such as the war
of conquest described in our story, without the consent of the high Sanhedrin of seventy-one
judges. The Gemara there (16a) states that the king also needs the permission of the Urim
Ve-tummim, the divine oracle associated with the high priest. The Bible, however, does not
portray David as operating under such constitutional restrictions. The story, therefore, cites
verses from Shmuel and Divrei Ha-yamim which describe Davids cabinet, reinterpreting them
to refer to the Sanhedrin and the Urim Ve-tummim.
Here, David "despised the word of the L-rd" 2 Samuel Chapter 12.9 and Uriah despised the word of
David his king (lord) (and calls Joab, rather than David, lord) 2 Samuel Chapter 11.9 - 11. (1 Samuel
15.23 For rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft, and stubbornness is as idolatry and teraphim.) The
Talmud says that David erred and should have had Uriah tried by the Sanhedrin.
It is as if David said about Uriah: Hosea 7:13 "Woe to [him] them, for they [Joab's servants] have
strayed from me! Destruction to them, for they have rebelled against me! I would redeem them, but
they speak lies13 against me." Like the Master in Heaven, Shmot 32.14 "And the LORD repented of the
evil which He said He would do unto His people." the servant (David) changed his mind of the Evil
that he thought to do.
But could David have learned this verse from Hosea? Did we not learn: The rabbis taught: Four
entered Pardes: Ben Azzai, Ben Zoma, Acher, and Rebi Akiva. Rebi Akiva told them, "When
you arrive at the Stones of Pure Marble, don't say, 'Water, water,' because it says, 'He who
speaks falsehood will not be established before My eyes.' (Tehillim 101:7)."
In the matter of Uriah, the Torah says the Hittites were to be wiped out upon entering the land of
Canaan: Devarim 20.17 "but thou shalt utterly destroy them: the Hittite, and the Amorite, the
Canaanite, and the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite; as the LORD thy God hath commanded thee;"
Apparently, Uriah was a descendant of Hittites. The Tanak makes it a point to say he was or became an
enemy of HaShem. 2 Samuel 12.14 "Howbeit, because by this deed thou hast greatly blasphemed the
12 Ein Yaakov - The World of Talmudic Aggada By Dr. Moshe Simon-Shoshan Lecture 9: Daf 3b-4a Blowin' in the Wind.

13 "That I am too afraid to go out to war with them against the Ammorites." on the passuk "they have
strayed from me."

enemies of the LORD, the child also that is born unto thee shall surely die.' "
Judges 3.8 "Therefore the anger of the L-RD was kindled against Israel," and the Talmud is uncertain
as to why he was called a Hittite.
Actually the Talmud states two opinions as to who Uriah was. 1) He was a convert to Judaism. 2) He
lived amongst Hittites and so is known as a Hittite despite his being born Jewish. Either way, he was
not actually part of the Hittite nation since he would have been forbidden to marry Bas Sheva had he
been a Gentile.
It makes better sense to say that he was a convert descended from Hittites than that he lived amongst
Hittites unless his home in Jerusalem was amonst Hittites. Perhaps he slew Hittites in the battle of
Rabbah which is why he was known as a Hittite or was slain by Hittite mercenaries fighting for the
Children of Ammon. Clearly, he could not give a get to Bath-sheba without being Jewish so it appears
he was a convert.
Either way David's conduct in having Uriah put in the heat of the battle was counted as if David's
actions caused the slaughter of the enemies of the L-RD and therefore it was seen as a great victory for
which the sword would not punish David but the sickness and death of the child would be punishment.
David's abstinance from the Battle of Rabbah might be seen as if he made light of the lives ([ thou hast
greatly blasphemed the enemies of the LORD]) not just of the Israelites who would die in battle but
made light of the lives of Uriah the Hittite and of the Ammonites who were at Rabbah. Measure for
Measure middah keneged middah it does not make sense that the punishment was the loss of the child
unless David sought to use the child to secure his kingdom without waiting on the Holy One to secure
it for him and thus he doubted his standing and failed in the test of Bath-sheba. Without more from the
text were can only make supposition as to why the child was part of the punishment for the whole
affair. The long lasting punishment was that the sword would not depart from the House of David. 2
Sam. 12.10. In fact it appears from the Tractate that the discussion of death14 is because of the verse,
Jeremiah 32:18 "Thou shewest lovingkindness unto thousands, and recompensest the iniquity of the
fathers into the bosom of their children after them...." What is meant by "after them?" After the sin has
Tractate Shabbath 56a R. Samuel b. Nahmani said in R. Jonathan's name: Whoever says that David sinned is merely erring,
for it is said, And David behaved himself wisely in all his ways: and the Lord was with him.9 Is it
possible that sin came to his hand, yet the Divine Presence was with him? Then how do I interpret,
Wherefore hast thou despised the word of the Lord, to do that which is evil in his sight?10 He wished
to do [evil], but did not. Rab observed: Rabbi, who is descended from David, seeks to defend him, and
expounds [the verse] in David's favour. [Thus:] The 'evil' [mentioned] here is unlike every other 'evil'
[mentioned] elsewhere in the Torah. For of every other evil [mentioned] in the Torah it is written, 'and
he did,' whereas here it is written, 'to do': [this means] that he desired to do, but did not. Thou hast
smitten Uriah the Hittite with the sword:11 thou shouldst have had him tried by the Sanhedrin,12 but
didst not. And hast taken his wife to be thy wife: thou hast marriage rights in her.13 For R. Samuel b.
Nahmani said in R. Jonathan's name: Every one who went out in the wars of the house of David
wrote a bill of divorcement for his wife, for it is said, and bring these ten cheeses unto the captain of
their thousand, and look how thy brethren fare, and take their pledge ['arubatham].14 What is meant
by 'arubatham? R. Joseph learned: The things which pledge man and woman [to one another].15 And
thou hast slain him with the sword of the children of Ammon:11 just as thou art not [to be] punished for
14 ("R. Zerika further said, in the name of R. Ammi in the name of R. Joshua b. Levi: One may discuss in the presence of a
dead body only things relating to the dead.

the sword of the Ammonites, so art thou not [to be] punished for [the death of] Uriah the Hittite. What
is the reason? He was rebellious against royal authority, saying to him, and my lord Joab, and the
servants of my lord, are encamped in the open field [etc].16
Rab said: When you examine [the life of] David, you find nought but 'save only in the matter of Uriah
the Hittite.'17
9 I Sam.XVIII, 14.
10 II Sam. XII, 9.
11 II Sam. XII, 9.
12 The great court; v. Sanh. 2a.
13 Lakah, the verb employed here, denotes marriage; cf. Deut. XXIV, 1.
14 I Sam. XVII, 18.
15 Lit., 'him and her', sc. the marriage. I.e., take away their marriage cancel it by means of a divorce.
The divorce was conditional, in the sense that it became retrospectively valid if the husband died.
Thus, since Uriah died, she was a free woman from the time he went out, and was not married when
David took her. (See Ketubot 9b
16 II Sam. XI, 11. Thus he disobeyed David's order to go home.
17 I Kings XV, 5. Rashi: his only sin lay in encompassing Uriah's death, but not in taking Bathsheba
(as explained above). From the context, however, it appears that Rab does not exculpate him from
adultery with Bathsheba, but means that David was guilty of no other sin save that in connection with
Uriah, which naturally includes his behaviour with Bathsheba. On that view Rab rejects Rabbi's
exegesis (That too appears from Rab's prefacing remark: 'Rabbi who is descended, etc.').
While teaching Torah, Rabbi Judah would often interrupt the lesson to recite the Shema prayer. He
passed his hand over his eyes as he said it. (Berachot 13b).
Here, it seems that Uriah's sin was his arrogance and if he were a convert it would would cancel his
conversion. Yet, the deeper significance of this story is that he vowed on the life of King David and
mocked David's piety and pious life-style, ultimately making a mockery of and mocking the Holy One
by his drunken conduct in the face of his marital duties and his vow. mitzvat 'onah' He had no problem according the the sparcity of our text getting
drunk but he refused to sleep with his wife. Was his code of honor a Hittite custom? It appears from our
text that David urged him twice to go sleep with his wife once when he returned and was sober and the
second time when he was drunk. Our text does say that Bath-Sheba was purified from her state of
uncleanness but perhaps Uriah did not know that. Moreover, his code goes against the general rule of
not being abstinant from sex except during a state of niddah.
That he rebelled against royal authority seems to imply that he had set a bad example to the other
soldiers and people who were dwelling in Jerusalem. We cannot ignore the verses which say "rebellion
is as the sin of witchcraft and stubborness is as idolatry", and which says "by the L-rd you shall vow
VeYikrah 19.12
David and HaShem tests Uriah by getting him drunk to see if he would keep his vow. "However, if you
refrain from vowing, it would not be sin in you." Devarim 23.22 Apparently he was tardy in performing
the mitzvah onah. For he did not go down to his house by morning so he was sent out to the battlefield.

Kethuboth 9b
Everyone who goes out into the war of the House of David writes for his wife a deed of divorce,1 for it
is written, And to thy brethren shalt thou bring greetings, and take their pledge.2 What [is the meaning
of], 'and take their pledge'? R. Joseph learnt: Things which are pledged between him and her.3

1 [So that in case he falls in battle his wife should be free to marry without the necessity of
halizah. The Get would in that case take effect retrospectively from the date of its writing
(Rashi). Tosaf.: He writes a Get without any conditions to take effect immediately]
2 I Sam. XVII, 15.
3 I.e., the betrothals, these thou shalt take from them by a deed of divorce (Rashi).
It should be noted that Joab's conspiracy was known to David from the beginning of his kingship! 2
Samuel 3.39 "And I am this day weak, and just anointed king; and these men the sons of Zeruiah are
too hard for me; the LORD reward the evildoer according to his wickedness."
Zeruiah /zruj/ (, sometime transliterated Tzruya or Zeruya) is a figure in the Hebrew Bible.
She was a sister of King David. According to 1 Chronicles 2:13-16 and also the Babylonian Talmud
(Shabbat 55), Zeruiah was a daughter of Jesse (called Nahash15 in another verse). Zeruiah had three
sons, Abishai, Joab, and Asahel, all of whom were soldiers in David's army (and also David's
nephews).Very little is told of her. However, her sons are invariably mentioned with the matronymic
"son of Zeruiah", in marked contrast to most other Biblical characters (and people in many other
cultures) who are known by a patronymic. This suggests that she was an exceptionally important
person, though the specific circumstances are not given.
From the following verse we can see that the kingdom being given to David was unsure to some of the
people 2 Samuel 16. 18 "And Hushai said unto Absalom: 'Nay; but whom the LORD, and this people, and all
the men of Israel have chosen, his will I be, and with him will I abide."
Tractate Shabbath 56a
"to do evil" 2 Sam. 12.9
What does this come to teach? David thought to do evil and slay Uriah with his own sword for his
rebellion when Uriah got drunk but changed his mind and thought it is better that he perish at the sword
of the Ammonites.
Despite Uriah's status as one of David's mighty men, British rabbi Jonathan Magonet observes that
Uriah refers to Joab, not David, as 'my lord (or commander)' (2 Samuel 11:11). Joab is, Magonet notes,
a kingmaker who despatches ruthlessly his own military rivals, Abner and Amasa. He is sufficiently
powerful that David, on his deathbed, advises Solomon to arrange his death (1 Kings 2:5 - 6). This
prompts Magonet to speculate that David saw some deeper political threat from Joab through his
entanglement with Uriah's wife.[1] Magonet, Jonathan (1992) Bible Lives London: SCM, 93 - 4.
to Joab's defense that Amasa was a traitor because he had failed to execute David's order (comp. II
Samuel xx. 4-5), the judges objected that Amasa, being occupied with the study of the Law, was not
bound to execute the king's order (Sanh. 49a).[1]
From this (Amasa's conduct) it might be derived that Uriah was a traitor, the evil-doer mentioned in 2
Samuel 3.39 for the Tanak does not say Uriah was exempt from the King's order to return to his own
house. Moreover, perhaps Uriah engaged in some Hittite sin of avodah zarah (which is why he should
have been tried by the Sanhedrin??? "rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft and stubborness as idolatry" 1
15 The word nahash means "serpent" in Hebrew.

Samuel 15.23)? Perhaps he was presumptuous against the King's order, and in his rebellion became that
evil-doer. Clearly, he refused to go spend time with his wife. 2 Samuel 11."And Uriah said unto David,
The ark, and Israel, and Judah, abide in tents; and my lord Joab, and the servants of my lord, are
encamped in the open fields; shall I then go into mine house, to eat and to drink, and to lie with my
wife? as thou livest, and as thy soul liveth, I will not do this thing."
Clearly, his drinking (mockery) aroused David's anger. 2 Samuel 11.20 "if the king's wrath arise," was
David known to have a quick temper? Joab seems to know David might become angry at how his
servants died in battle.
Here, Uriah's slip of the tounge (2 Sam. 11.11 "my lord Joab") sealed his own fate. The Unfriendly
Pursue Selfishness
20 "With the fruit of a man's mouth his stomach will be satisfied; He will be satisfied with the
product of his lips. 21 Death and life are in the power of the tongue, And those who love it will eat its
fruit. (suffer it's consequences) 22 He who finds a wife finds a good thing And obtains favor from the
Sexual absintance (a code of honor) before, or during war is a prohibited conduct or custom of a nonJew (you shall not follow after the customs of the people of the land.) because one who has taken a
wife is exempt from going out to war and he must make his wife rejoice. Devarim 24.5 5 "When a man
taketh "a new" wife, he shall not go out in the host, neither shall he be charged with any business; he
shall be free for his house one year, and shall cheer his wife whom he hath taken."
2 Samuel 11.1 "And it came to pass, after the year (returned) was expired, at the time when kings go
forth to battle, that David sent Joab, and his servants with him, and all Israel; and they destroyed the
children of Ammon, and besieged Rabbah." The Tanak (Nevi'im 2 Sam. 11) does not need to tell us that
a year had expired.
And he has slandered your servant to my lord the king. My lord the king is like an angel of God; so do
whatever you wish. 2 Samuel 19:27
"And now your servant says, 'May the word of my lord the king secure my inheritance, for my lord the
king is like an angel of God in discerning good and evil. May the LORD your God be with you.'"
2 Samuel 14:17
"Your servant Joab did this to change the present situation. My lord has wisdom like that of an angel of
God--he knows everything that happens in the land." 2 Samuel 14:20
Here, we see it is proper to address the king as "My Lord or Adonee;" Whereas Uriah refered to Joab as
his Lord!
For example, Adonee could be misunderstood therefore the Tehillim16 110.1 points out the difference
between the word YHVH and Adonee - "it is the word 'Adonee,' which means my master, or my lord
as in the lords and ladies of Englands nobility as the author of the King James translation would have
understood it. The better way to translate this phrase, then, would be 'G-d said to my master,' and would
have been written by a Psalmist other than King David, about King David, and for King David."
16 "A Psalm of David.
The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool."

Here, we see that perhaps Bath-sheba "loathed her Hittite Convert Husband, Uriah and the children she
would bring so perhaps she appealed to David or one of his ministers to provide her a way out of their
marriage" so they divorced willingly. Maybe Uriah feared becoming a Hittite prisoner of war and
refused to return to both the men camped in the field and to his own house. He was camped at David's
Door. Perhaps he was negligent in some item of food that he was charged with? 2 Samuel 11.8
Ezekiel 16: 44 "Behold, every one that useth proverbs shall use this proverb against thee, saying, As is
the mother, so is her daughter. 45 Thou art thy mother's daughter, that lotheth her husband and her
children; and thou art the sister of thy sisters, which lothed their husbands and their children."
Here, perhaps Bath-sheba was a prophetess for she saw what type of children she would have through
Uriah; Hittite Children who would follow the customs of the Hittites. A woman intimately knows the
minhagim of her husband which might not be known to the community at large.
Perhaps she realized he would revert to avodah zarah (and fear) the Hittite female deity, Arrina whom
he used to mock David (for staying in the rear, in his drunken state at David's House) and abandoned
his Judaism? 2 Samuel 11.1 "But David stayed at Jerusalem." The Tanak does not need to tell us that he
stayed at Jerusalem for it is apparent from the story of David, Joab, Uriah and Bath-sheba that David
stayed at Jerusalem. On the life-style of David he mocked David17 and caused David to be angry with
him resulting in David's letter to Joab. 2 Samuel 11.14 Here it was by his own hand that his fate is set.
Clearly, he refused to go back to the company of soldiers he was assigned to or over [as
How do we know Uriah was not wise (but as it is said, wine18 comes in, secrets go out)?
Because he gave away his and Joab's secret to take over the kingdom, when he said, "my lord Joab" 2
Sam. 11.11 Mishley Proverbs 18.21 Life and Death are in [the power of] the tounge. He also says, "and
my lord's servants" - twice sealing his fate - "let every matter be established at the mouth of two or
three witnesses." "Pride goeth before a fall." Mishley 16.18
How do we know that Uriah fell? Because he swore on the life of David, in his pride at abstinance
during a war and at night mocked David with the Hittite Female Deity, as implied herein.

A Hittite Female Deity

All male gods have a female counterpart. Arrina is the consort of the Storm God and the highest
ranking female deity, but is also addressed as "Sun God My Lord. Ishtar in the female form is the
goddess of love and sexuality but in the male form, the god of war. She/he has the power to change men
into women on the battlefield so that they cannot fight.
2 Samuel 17:10 New American Standard Bible (NASB)
10 "And even the one who is valiant, whose heart is like the heart of a lion, will completely [a] lose
heart; for all Israel knows that your father is a mighty man and those who are with him are valiant
men." Footnotes:
a. 2 Samuel 17:10 Lit melt
17 "as thou livest, and as thy soul liveth," meaning he was mocking not just David's piety, but mocking HaShem Himself,
rousing up, as it were His and David's Anger! he vowed on David's life, meaning he intended on slaying David which is
why he camped on David's doorstep!
18 Anyone who becomes settled through wine has the knowledge (da'as) of his Creator . . . has the knowledge
(da'as) of the Seventy Elders; wine was given with seventy letters (Rashi: the gematria of yai'in -- wine -- is
70), and the mystery (of Torah) was given with seventy letters (sod -- mystery -- also equals 70) -- when wine
goes in, secrets go out. (Eiruvin 65a)

2 Samuel 17.1 "Let me now choose out twelve thousand men, and I will arise and pursue after David
this night:
Here, in the matter of Uriah, Joab and his servants, conspiracies against the kingdom happen at night.
Here, in verse 1 Kings 1:29 (And the king swore and said: 'As the LORD liveth, who hath redeemed
my soul out of all adversity,) David is redeemed; past tense.
1 Kings 1:1-27
A North wind woke David and played the Harp to remind David of some wickedness (there is no rest
for the wicked) keeping David from having sleep during the night!
When Joab had smitten the male children of Edom, David inquired why he had done so; Joab
answered, "It is written, 'Thou shalt blot out the males (zachar) of Amalek'" (Deut. xxv. 19).[1] David
retorted, "But it is zecher ("remembrance"), not zachar!" Joab replied that his teacher had made him
read zachar (Bava Batra 21a, b).[1]
The cold north wind chilled him (David got no heat, 1 Kings 1.1 when he was aged .... so they made a
way for him)
A sword hung over Jerusalem - for but a moment - 1 Chronicles 21:16
Tehillim 57.5 My soul is among lions, I do lie down among them that are aflame; {N}
even the sons of men, whose teeth are spears and arrows, and their tongue a sharp sword.
One might say it (the north wind) is a backbiting (slanderer) tounge Prv. 25.23 Zeruiah or Nahash's
children (Joab) engaged in slander of King David in which he sought the kingdom.
or that it is the side of the altar (north) where slaughtering is done
( Thy life shall hang in the balances, at midnight....)
an idol of jealousy Ezekiel 8:5
Berakoth 4a
Which verse?4 Awake, my glory; awake, psaltery and harp; I will awake the dawn.5
4 May be cited in support of the story of David's harp.
5 Ps. LVII 57.9.
Exodus 34:14 Do not worship any other god, for the LORD, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God.
Deuteronomy 6:15 for the LORD your God, who is among you, is a jealous God and his anger will
burn against you, and he will destroy you from the face of the land.

It might be said that out of the North (Syria) a wind or euphism for a Hittite army that he feared might
one David might have feared would ruin his peaceful kingdom
David Plans a Temple 2 Samuel 7:1
1 Now it came about when the king lived in his house, and the LORD had given him rest on every side
from all his enemies, 2 that the king said to Nathan the prophet, "See now, I dwell in a house of cedar,
but the ark of God dwells within tent curtains."
or feared might come against the Kingdom because of some sin of the people.
or feared his own sin
Perhaps David thought - and thus he doubted Jeremiah
4.12 A wind too strong for this shall come for Me; now will I also utter judgments against them.
13 Behold, he cometh up as clouds, and his chariots are as the whirlwind; his horses are swifter than
eagles.--'Woe unto us! for we are undone.'-****
Psalm 94:1
The LORD is a God who avenges. O God who avenges, shine forth.
1 Samuel 26:10
As surely as the LORD lives," he said, "the LORD himself will strike him, or his time will come and he
will die, or he will go into battle and perish.
lule (Psalms 27.13) Berakoth 4a
But how could David call himself pious? It is not written: I am not sure [lule] to see the good reward of
the Lord in the land of the living;19 and a Tanna taught in the name of R. Jose: Why are there dots
upon the world 'lule'?20 David spoke before the Holy One, blessed be He: 'Master of the world, I am
sure that you will pay a good reward to the righteous in the world to come, but I do not know whether I
shall have a share in it'?21 [He was afraid that] some sin might cause [his exclusion].22 This conforms
to the following saying of R. Jacob b. Iddi. For R. Jacob b. Iddi pointed to a contradiction. One verse
reads: And behold, I am with thee, and will keep thee whithersoever thou goest,23 and the other verse
reads: Then Jacob was greatly afraid!24 [The answer is that] he thought that some sin might cause
[God's promise not to be fulfilled].
Psalms 27.13 If I had not believed to look upon the goodness of the LORD in the land of the living!- :- , "--.
By Divine Mercy (a daily miracle and a daily occurance) a wind blew out of the North to waken David.
David calls himself pious Tehillim 86.1-2, Berakoth 4a
A prayer of David Keep my soul, for I am pious. How so? Is it not written Psalms 25:1-22, David opens saying

A psalm of David. 25:1 To You, O Lord, I lift up my soul.

It is also written, 1 Samuel 26.25 "Then Saul said to David: 'Blessed be thou, my son David; thou shalt
both do mightily, and shalt surely prevail.' " Here, we have the assurances of the Tanak that David was
sure of his reward in the world to come.
How might he prevail? Proverbs Mishley 16.32 He that is slow to anger is better than the mighty; and
he that ruleth his spirit than he that taketh a city.
He would prevail in being secure in his kingdom. 2 Samuel 7:1
The North Job 26:7 "He stretches out the north over empty space And hangs the earth on nothing.
Psalms 48. 3 Fair in situation, the joy of the whole earth; {N} even mount Zion, the uttermost parts of
the north, the city of the great King. (the uttermost NORTHERN part of the tribe of Judah, exclusive of
Jerusalem; Mt Tzion is an out-croping of rock, a Mount, next to Har HaBayith, the Temple Mount.
why the joy of the whole earth? because, as the city of the great King - David Judged Israel as it is
written (2 Samuel 8:15) (15 And David reigned over all Israel; and David executed justice and
righteousness unto all his people.)
Berakoth 3b
David had a sign. For so said R. Aha b. Bizana in the name of R. Simeon the Pious: A harp was hanging
above David's bed. As soon as midnight arrived, a North wind came and blew upon it and it played of
itself. He arose immediately and studied the Torah till the break of dawn. After the break of dawn the
wise men of Israel came in to see him and said to him: Our lord, the King, Israel your people require
sustenance! He said to them: Let them go out and make a living one from the other.19 They said to
him: A handful cannot satisfy a lion,
19 Let the rich support the poor. ([e.g. with interest free loans, for this is gimiluth chassadim loving
Proverbs 25:23 23 The north wind bringeth forth rain, and a backbiting tongue an angry countenance.
O north wind; and come, thou south;
blow upon my garden, that the spices
thereof may flow out. Let my beloved come
into his garden, and eat his precious fruits."
Shir HaShirim 4.16
Leviticus 1:11 'He shall slay it on the side of the altar northward before the LORD, and Aaron's sons
the priests shall sprinkle its blood around on the altar.
Ezekiel 8:5 Then He said to me, "Son of man, raise your eyes now toward the north " So I raised my
eyes toward the north, and behold, to the north of the altar gate was this idol of jealousy at the entrance.
Midrash Rabbah Esther - Proem "Thy Life Shall Hang in the Balances" Deut 28.66

At Midnight - At the darkest of night Tehillim (Psalms) 48.13, 14 "Walk about Zion, and go round about her: tell the towers thereof. Mark ye
well her bulwarks, consider her palaces; that ye may tell it to the generation following."
Job 37:22 "Out of the north comes golden splendor; Around God is awesome majesty.
Tehillim 42.9 By day the LORD will command His lovingkindness, and in the night His song shall be
with me, {N} even a prayer unto the God of my life.
Tehillim 63.7 When I remember Thee upon my couch, and meditate on Thee in the night-watches.
Berakoth 3a
UNTIL THE END OF THE FIRST WATCH. What opinion does R. Eliezer hold? If he holds that the
night has three watches, let him say: Till four hours [in the night]. And if he holds that the night has
four watches, let him say: Till three hours? He holds indeed, that the night has three watches, but he
wants to teach us that there are watches in heaven as well as on earth. For it has been taught: R.
Eliezer says: The night has three watches, and at each watch the Holy One, blessed be He, sits
and roars like a lion. For it is written: The Lord does roar from on high, and raise His voice from
His holy habitation; 'roaring He doth roar' because of his fold.
Joel 3:16
The LORD will roar from Zion and thunder from Jerusalem; the earth and the heavens will tremble.
But the LORD will be a refuge for his people, a stronghold for the people of Israel.
Amos 1:2
He said: "The LORD roars from Zion and thunders from Jerusalem; the pastures of the shepherds dry
up, and the top of Carmel withers."

Jeremiah 25:30
30 Therefore prophesy thou against them all these words, and say unto them: The LORD doth roar
from on high, and utter His voice from His holy habitation; He doth mightily roar because of His fold;
He giveth a shout, as they that tread the grapes, against all the inhabitants of the earth.
He giveth a shout of joy and laughter - one who treads grapes shouts and laughs along with his fellows when he falls
while treading out the grapes

Ezekiel 40:35-37 - The Inner Courtyard: The North Gate

Then he brought me to the north gate; and he measured it according to those same measurements, with
its guardrooms, its side pillars and its porches And the gate had windows all around; the length was
fifty cubits and the width twenty-five cubits. Its side pillars were toward the outer court; and palm tree
ornaments were on its side pillars on each side, and its stairway had eight steps.

Ezekiel 40:20-23 - Measurement Of The North Gate

As for the gate of the outer court which faced the north, he measured its length and its width. It had
three guardrooms on each side; and its side pillars and its porches had the same measurement as the
first gate Its length was fifty cubits and the width twenty-five cubits. Its windows and its porches and
its palm tree ornaments had the same measurements as the gate which faced toward the east; and it was
reached by seven steps, and its porch was in front of them. The inner court had a gate opposite the gate
on the north as well as the gate on the east; and he measured a hundred cubits from gate to gate.

Numbers 2:25-31 - The Tribes On The North

"On the north side shall be the standard of the camp of Dan by their armies, and the leader of the sons
of Dan: Ahiezer the son of Ammishaddai, and his army, even their numbered men, 62,700. "Those who
camp next to him shall be the tribe of Asher, and the leader of the sons of Asher: Pagiel the son of
Ochran, and his army, even their numbered men, 41,500. "Then comes the tribe of Naphtali, and the
leader of the sons of Naphtali: Ahira the son of Enan, and his army, even their numbered men, 53,400.
"The total of the numbered men of the camp of Dan was 157,600. They shall set out last by their

Jeremiah 4:3-31 - The Lord Will Bring Destruction On Judah From The North

thus says the LORD to the men of Judah and to Jerusalem, "Break up your fallow ground, And do
not sow among thorns. 4 "Circumcise yourselves to the LORD And remove the foreskins of your heart,
Men of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem, Or else My wrath will go forth like fire And burn with
none to quench it, Because of the evil of your deeds."

Declare in Judah and proclaim in Jerusalem, and say, "Blow the trumpet in the land; Cry aloud
and say, 'Assemble yourselves, and let us go Into the fortified cities.' 6 "Lift up a standard toward
Zion! Seek refuge, do not stand still, For I am bringing evil from the north, And great destruction. 7
"A lion has gone up from his thicket,
Ezekiel 33:6 But if the watchman see the sword come, and blow not the horn, and the people be not
warned, and the sword do come, and take any person from among them, he is taken away in his
iniquity, but his blood will I require at the watchman's hand.
David's Repentance Spares Jerusalem
15And God sent an angel to Jerusalem to destroy it; but as he was about to destroy it, the LORD saw
and was sorry over the calamity, and said to the destroying angel, "It is enough; now relax your hand."
And the angel of the LORD was standing by the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite. 16Then David
lifted up his eyes and saw the angel of the LORD standing between earth and heaven, with his drawn
sword in his hand stretched out over Jerusalem. Then David and the elders, covered with sackcloth, fell
on their faces. 17David said to God, "Is it not I who commanded to count the people? Indeed, I am the
one who has sinned and done very wickedly, but these sheep, what have they done? O LORD my God,
please let Your hand be against me and my father's household, but not against Your people that they
should be plagued." 1 Chronicles 21:16 <>

Berakoth 3b
But did David rise at midnight? [Surely] he rose with the evening dusk? For it is written: I rose with the

neshef and cried.11 And how do you know that this word neshef means the evening? It is written: In
the neshef, in the evening of the day, in the blackness of night and the darkness!12 R. Oshaia, in the
name of R. Aha, replies: David said: Midnight never passed me by in my sleep. R. Zera says: Till
midnight he used to slumber like a horse,13 from thence on he rose with the energy of a lion.
12 Mishley (Proverbs) 7.9
13 That has a very light sleep, v. Suk. 26a.
Tehillim 139. 9 If I take the wings of the morning, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea;
10 Even there would Thy hand lead me, and Thy right hand would hold me.
11 And if I say: 'Surely the darkness shall envelop me, and the light about me shall be night';
12 Even the darkness is not too dark for Thee, {N} but the night shineth as the day; the darkness is even
as the light.
with the energy of a lion (to remind one of ) tribal affiliation Genesis 49. 9 Judah is a lion's whelp; from the prey, my son, thou art gone up. He stooped down, he
couched as a lion, and as a lioness; who shall rouse him up?
Deuteronomy 33.7 And this for Judah, and he said: Hear, LORD, the voice of Judah, and bring him in
unto his people; his hands shall contend for him, and Thou shalt be a help against his adversaries.
R. Oshaia, in the name of R. Aha, replies: David said: Midnight never passed me by in my sleep. R.
Zera says: Till midnight he used to slumber like a horse,13 from thence on he rose with the energy of a
lion. R. Ashi says: Till midnight he studied the Torah, from thence on he recited songs and praises.
Tehillim 25:4 Make me know Your ways, O Lord; Teach me Your paths.
25:5 Lead me in Your truth and teach me, For You are the God of my salvation; For You I wait
all the day.
For You I wait all the day. (And into the Night) Through dusk, that is Until the blackness of Night
(Mishley (Proverbs) 7.9). To keep far from transgression....
25:3 Indeed, none of those who wait for You will be ashamed; Those who deal treacherously without
cause will be ashamed.
Did Uriah act treacherously?
What does it mean to act treacherously without a cause? It is interesting that the phrase translates
literally treacherously empty handed (emptily), so this person who deals treacherously empty-handed
means that he acted deceitfully without a cause.
That is, he [the false accuser] has no proof in his hand when he comes to bring his cause.
or Perhaps, he did not wait on HaShem to vindicate him. he acted prematurely.
2 Kings 9.26 Surely I have seen yesterday the blood of Naboth, and the blood of his sons, saith the
LORD; and I will requite thee in this plot, saith the LORD. Now therefore take and cast him into the
plot of ground, according to the word of the LORD.'

Uriah was in a plot with Joab to take the kingdom therefore he said, "my lord Joab." He was not
requited by the LORD! 2 Samuel 3.39
David studied, prayed and praised all night.

Isaiah Chapter 21.8 And he cried as a lion: 'Upon the watch-tower, O Lord, I stand continually in
the daytime, and I am set in my ward all the nights.'

Tehillim 42.9 By day the LORD will command His lovingkindness, and in the night
His song shall be with me, {N} even a prayer unto the God of my life.
Psalm 16:7
I will praise the LORD, who counsels me; even at night my heart instructs me.
Psalm 63:6
On my bed I remember you; I think of you through the watches of the night.
Psalm 77:6
I remembered my songs in the night. My heart meditated and my spirit asked:
Psalm 63:6 When I remember you on my bed, and meditate on you in the night watches.
Psalm 119:55
In the night, LORD, I remember your name, that I may keep your law.
Psalm 149:5
Let his faithful people rejoice in this honor and sing for joy on their beds.
Tehillim 63.7 When I remember Thee upon my couch, and meditate on Thee in the night-watches.
Isaiah 30:29 "You will have songs as in the night when you keep the festival, And gladness of heart as
when one marches to the sound of the flute, To go to the mountain of the LORD, to the Rock of Israel."
the night-watches- plural not singular.

Isaiah Chapter 21
6 For thus hath the Lord said unto me: Go, set a watchman; let him declare what he seeth!
7 And when he seeth a troop, horsemen by pairs, a troop of asses, a troop of camels, he shall hearken
diligently with much heed.
8 And he cried as a lion: 'Upon the watch-tower, O Lord, I stand continually in the daytime, and I am
set in my ward all the nights.'
9 And, behold, there came a troop of men, horsemen by pairs. And he spoke and said: 'Fallen, fallen is
Babylon; and all the graven images of her gods are broken unto the ground.'
10 O thou my threshing, and the winnowing of my floor, that which I have heard from the LORD of
hosts, the God of Israel, have I declared unto you.
11 The burden of Dumah. One calleth unto me out of Seir: 'Watchman, what of the night? Watchman,
what of the night?'
12 The watchman said: 'The morning cometh, and also the night--if ye will inquire, inquire ye; return,

After alighting on a place for the night19 and, according to the sages, initiating the Maariv
prayer, Yaacov awakens and says:
"And Jacob awaked out of his sleep, and he said: 'Surely the LORD is in this place; and I
knew it not.'"
In the Hebrew the word " Anochi" is unnecessary. It would have been enough to say " VeLo
Yadati". Retaining the word "Anochi" means the sentence translates as: " And I, I did not
A unique Hassidic insight suggests that the meaning to the verse is: I did not know the I. Only
once a person is able to ignore the self does he become aware of God. Yaacov had prayed
the night before, and this had created a change in him as a person to the extent that he
was able to perceive God's presence in a way that he had been unable prior to that moment.
Prayer requires a willingness on our part to shift focus from the "I" to something beyond
ourselves, and to sublimate the "I" before something of greater significance.
Isaiah Chapter 21.11 Watchman, what of the night?'
Interestingly, in attempting to clarify the meaning of neshef in this verse, the Gemara
does not seek to read the verse in the context of the previous one, even though it has just
discussed that same verse. This illustrates how context is often irrelevant in midrashic
interpretation. In order to prove its point, the Gemara leaves Tehillim altogether to find a verse
in Mishlei in which neshef refers to the evening. Interestingly, in Mishlei, nighttime takes on a
very different coloring than it did just previously in the verses from Tehillim. Whereas in
Tehillim, the night is a time for study and prayer, in Mishlei, the cover of night is used for an
illicit sexual encounter.
Finally, R. Ashi suggests yet another solution. Like R. Oshaya, he agrees that David
never sleeps at all. However, he envisions a greater significance to David being awake at
midnight. The various verses cited from Tehillim 119 do not clearly specify what David does
when he is up in the middle of the night. Does he pray, or does he study Torah? The
relationship between prayer and Torah study appears throughout the first chapter of Berakhot.
Here, R. Ashi divides the night between the two. David devotes the first half of the night to
Torah, as we see from verse 147. We understand this verse as referring to David being up all
night, and its last words are, I hope for Your word, which is interpreted as Torah study. Here,
the context of the verse seems to be relevant to its interpretation. The previous verse, Mine
eyes forestall the watches concludes, to dwell on Your utterances," which unambiguously
refers to Torah study.
An image of King David emerges from this discussion who does not, or barely, sleeps,
but, rather, devotes his nighttime to study and prayer. David appears as a paradigm of
commitment to spiritual life.
How do we know this? Even after he erred in the matter of Uriah's death, he still sought HaShem's
2 Samuel 12.16 David therefore besought God for the child; and David fasted, and as often as he went
19 VayetzePraying in the Dark Rabbi Daniel Beller -Rabbi of Kehillat Shivtei Yisrael, Raanan.
<> and see: This Week's Parshah Vayeitzei Shabbat, 9 Kislev, 5776, 21 November, 2015.

in, he lay all night upon the earth. 20 Then David arose from the earth, and washed, and anointed
himself, and changed his apparel; and he came into the house of the LORD, and worshipped; then he
came to his own house; and when he required, they set bread before him, and he did eat.
23 But now he is dead, wherefore should I fast? can I bring him back again? I shall go to him, but he
will not return to me.' 24 And David comforted Bath-sheba his wife,...."
Here, we see that, David worshipped the Holy One after making Tshuvah20 (Tehillim 51, 2 Sameul
12.13 "And Nathan said unto David: 'The LORD also hath put away thy sin; ...."); he found assurance
through his worship 51.21 that good would come to Tzion 51.20 Jerusalem would be secure, "build
Thou the walls of Jerusalem" 51.20 must be understood to mean, fortify and, past tense, Bath-sheba
was comforted concerning the whole affair.
What does it mean that Bath-sheba was comforted? Do not read Comforted but Bath-sheba [shall be a]
comfort[ed]. How so? Didn't Bath-sheba conceive? David was comforted concerning the child,
And there was peace within the walls.... Shlomo fortified the walls of Tzion and found security in her
citadels as it is written. David was comforted, past tense, when he was told of the kingdom. 2 Samuel 7,
Psalm 145:13. It only stands to reason that David's t'shuvah and Bath-sheba's pregnancy comforted
him. Have we not learned, "do not read all thy sons banecha, but bonecha builders shall be taught of
the L-RD." Isaiah 54:13
Psalm 122:7 "May there be peace within your walls and security within your citadels."
Isaiah 51:3 The LORD will surely comfort Zion and will look with compassion on all her ruins; he will
make her deserts like Eden, her wastelands like the garden of the LORD. Joy and gladness will be
found in her, thanksgiving and the sound of singing.
She heard David playing and singing Tehillim 51. His worship comforted Bath-Sheba. Perhaps she
heard him even composing [singing] His Song, Shir Moshe. Devarim 32.44
32.44 "And Moses came and spoke all the words of this song in the ears of the people, he, and Hoshea
the son of Nun."
31.19 "Now therefore write ye this song for you, and teach thou it the children of Israel; put it in their
mouths, that this song may be a witness for Me against the children of Israel."
To put it in their mouth means none other than to teach it. Moshe taught it to Joshua and Joshua to the
elders and the elders to the princes and the princes to the common people.
Psalm 25:22 Redeem Israel, O God, out of all his troubles. Psalm 102:16 When the LORD shall build
up Zion, he shall appear in his glory. He appered in the Temple Shlomo Built. 2 Chronicles 7:1
Tehillim 42.9 By day the LORD will command His lovingkindness, and in the night His song shall be
with me, {N} even a prayer unto the God of my life."
Here David was redeemed, as that word Go'el implies from the avenger of blood. 1 Kings 1:29 (And
the king swore and said: 'As the LORD liveth, who hath redeemed my soul out of all adversity,) David
is redeemed; past tense.
Psalm 71:23 "My lips will shout for joy, when I sing praises to you; my soul also, which you have
redeemed."Psalm 103:4 "who redeems your life from the pit, who crowns you with steadfast love and
mercy," Psalm 34:22 The Lord redeems the life of his servants; none of those who take refuge in him
20 51.6 "Against Thee, Thee only, have I sinned, and done that which is evil in Thy sight; ...."

will be condemned. 2 Samuel 4:9 But David answered Rechab and Baanah his brother, the sons of
Rimmon the Beerothite, As the Lord lives, who has redeemed my life out of every adversity, Genesis
48:16 the angel who has redeemed me from all evil, bless the boys; and in them let my name be carried
on, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac; and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of
the earth.
Here, PERHAPS David acted as kinsman redeemer to Bath-sheba21. PERHAPS She was sold and
became the wife of Uriah. Perhaps Uriah was sleeping at David's door as the avenger of blood,
assuming he heard rumors that David had slept with Bath-sheba in his absence.
It would appear that the custom of the blood-avenger still existed in the time of David, as the woman of
Tekoah refers to it in her appeal to the king (II Sam. xiv. 11), but no further trace of it is found. Later
the concentration of the population in cities gave fuller power to the courts of justice to punish cases of
murder. The term "go'el" thus became entirely confined to the spiritual sense of "redeemer." It is
probably used in that way in the celebrated passage in Job xix. 25: "I know that my redeemer [go'el]
liveth." In the Talmud it is used exclusively in this manner.
Bathsheba was a daughter of Eliam, one of David's "thirty" (2 Sam. 23:34; cf 1 Chr. 3:5); Eliam was
the son of Ahitophel, one of David's chief advisors. Ahitophel was from Giloh (Josh. 15:51;cf 2 Sam.
15:12), a city of Judah, and thus Bathsheba was from David's own tribe and the granddaughter of one
of David's closest advisors (2 Sam.15:12)."[2] She was the mother of Solomon, who succeeded David
as king, making her the Queen Mother.
David's thirty - implying by the Lamed (Lamed in Gematria =30) they were taught the Song of Moshe!
How so? Note 4 to our opening - The Origins of Jewish Music
and Proper conduct during war! How so? It is written, "Vengance is mine I will repay!" Deuteronomy
Tehillim 63.7 "When I remember Thee upon my couch, and meditate on Thee in the night-watches."
Here, song (meditation) is "fragrant" prayer. From this it may be derived or deduced that David might
be Blessed, as it is written, "In every place that I cause My Name to be Remembered, there I will Come
to Bless You." Exodus 20.21 (To mention or remember the name of G-D means to worship Him.
Tehillim 20.8, Isaiah 26.13 Page 301 The Pentatuach and Haftorahs, JH Hertz, Soncino)
How so? A North Wind caused him, by playing on the Harp, to Remember HIM. The playing was a
blessing. The remembering was a blessing. It roused him from his slumber (he slept like a horse Isaiah's vision of a teamed up or pair of horses - the horse is associated with war [chariots] rather than
- it slumbers, always ready at a moments notice)
David kept the night watches and through song, by harp prophesied (kabbalah) practicing the mysteries
. Kalta nafshi my soul is obliterated Tehillim 84.3
How do we know he practiced kabbalah and prophesied?
Is it not written, Tehillim 57.5 "My soul is among lions, I do lie down among them that are aflame."
Who lay down amongst lions and were amidst the flames? Daniel and his companions. Here, (Tehillim

57.5) David, by divine inspiration - a vision, saw Daniel, the Angel and his companions in the Lion's
den, amidst the flames. (Rabbi Akivah says, "Do not say water, 22water ...." [The pure marble stones he
saw were of finest blue fire.] Is it not written, "... and a fire goes before His throne.")
Is it not written, Tehillim 16.10 "For Thou wilt not abandon my soul to the nether-world; neither wilt
Thou suffer Thy godly one to see the pit. ?" and also,
Tehillim 139. 9 If I take the wings of the morning, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea;
10 Even there would Thy hand lead me, and Thy right hand would hold me.
11 And if I say: 'Surely the darkness shall envelop me, and the light about me shall be night';
12 Even the darkness is not too dark for Thee, {N} but the night shineth as the day; the darkness is even
as the light.
And also, we find the passage in 1 Chronicles 25.1-3 1 "Moreover David and the captains of the host separated for the service certain of the sons of Asaph,
and of Heman, and of Jeduthun, who should prophesy with harps, with psalteries, and with cymbals;
and the number of them that did the work according to their service was: 2 of the sons of Asaph:
Zaccur, and Joseph, and Nethaniah, and Asarelah, the sons of Asaph; under the hand of Asaph, who
prophesied according to the direction of the king. 3 Of Jeduthun: the sons of Jeduthun: Gedaliah, and
Zeri, and Jeshaiah, Hashabiah, and Mattithiah, six; under the hands of their father Jeduthun with the
harp, who prophesied in giving thanks and praising the L-RD." {S}
Shir HaShirim 2.4 He hath brought me to the banqueting-house, and his banner over me is love.
Tehillim 42.9 and in the night His song shall be with me,
His Song - Shir Moshe - the Entire Torah23!
Song of Solomon 4.16 "that the spices thereof may flow out"
That is,"a prayer unto the God of my life."
"Which of these two systems did the Jews themselves employ? This difficult question exercises some
of the older Bible commentators, but we have fallen so far below their level that this 'one/two cockcrow' discrepancy has become a 'Bible contradiction.' The evidence of the Talmud is mixed: "Our
Rabbis taught: The night has four watches. These are the words of Rabbi. R. Nathan says: Three."
(Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berakoth 3b.) One suggestion:
"Watches of night. The Jews, like the Greeks and Romans, divided the night into military
watches instead of hours, each watch representing the period for which sentinels or pickets
remained on duty. The proper Jewish reckoning recognized only three such watches,
entitled the first or 'beginning of the watches,' Lam. 2:19, the middle watch, Judges 7:19,
22 Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Akiva warned them, "When you enter near the stone of pure marble, do not say 'water,
water,' since [there is actually no water there at all, and] it is written, 'He who speaks falsehood will not be
established before My eyes' (Psalms 101:7). <>
23 by day and also the night wherein "his song is with me even a prayer". What is His Song except "my life" (the time
freely given to me) being a prayer? Should we not pray in fear and trepidation, but without hesitation? Neh. 4.16 "That
in the night they may be a guard to us, and may labour in the day. Who is "they" but the words of the Shema. What is
"the labour in the day" but the study of Torah. Pirke Avot. "Where there is no flour...." "And at night His song is with
me." What does this come to teach but proper conduct in the night-watches? "And in it, (the entire Torah) doth he
meditate day and night!" This fragrant prayer where the Torah becomes the penitent's pious prayer (song) demonstrates
the power of song! It cuts away the forces of evil like a two edged sword. Tehillim 149.5-6 What sword is that but the
Shema? When I lay down and when I rise up. Lamentations 5.21 Return - "Restore us to You, O LORD, that we may be
restored; Renew our days as of old,"

and the morning watch, Ex. 14:24; 1 Sam. 11:11. These would last respectively from sunset
to 10 P.M.; from 10 P.M. to 2 A.M.; and from 2 A.M. to sunrise. After the establishment of
the Roman supremacy, the number of watches was increased to four, which were described
either according to their numerical order, as in the case of the 'fourth watch,' Matt. 14:25, or
by the terms 'even,' 'midnight,' 'cock-crowing' and 'morning.' Mark 13:35. These terminated
respectively at 9 P.M., midnight, 3 A.M. and 6 A.M." (Smith's Bible Dictionary)."
The midnight cock-crow reappears in the Zohar, a medieval revival of Jewish gnosticism: "At the time
of cock crow, whether it be at midnight or break of day, the Holy One is found in the Garden of Eden,
during which the defiled and impure are forbidden to pray or bless." (The Sepher Ha-Zohar, or Book of
Light, Introduction, Exposition of Bible Mysteries, p. 69); "After midnight when the cock crows and
birds begin to waken up, a wind from the northwest commences to blow, which is met by a current
from the south." (The Sepher Ha-Zohar, or Book of Light, On the Study of the Secret Doctrine, p. 370);
"As the voice ceased uttering these words a light flashed forth from the north, illumining the whole
world and falling on the wings of the cock caused it to crow at midnight. At that time no one rises
from his couch save those lovers of truth whose chief delight is in the study of the secret doctrine."
(The Sepher Ha-Zohar, or Book of Light, The Call of Abram, Chapter LXXX, p. 334)