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Unconscious mind - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Unconscious mind
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The unconscious mind (or the unconscious) consists of the processes in the mind that occur automatically and
are not available to introspection, and include thought processes, memory, affect, and motivation.[1] Even though
these processes exist well under the surface of conscious awareness they are theorized to exert an impact on
behavior. The term was coined by the 18th-century German Romantic philosopher Friedrich Schelling and later
introduced into English by the poet and essayist Samuel Taylor Coleridge.[2][3] The concept was developed and
popularized by the Austrian neurologist and psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud. Empirical evidence suggests that
unconscious phenomena include repressed feelings, automatic skills, subliminal perceptions, thoughts, habits, and
automatic reactions,[1] and possibly also complexes, hidden phobias and desires. In psychoanalytic theory,
unconscious processes are understood to be expressed in dreams in a symbolical form, as well as in slips of the
tongue and jokes. Thus the unconscious mind can be seen as the source of dreams and automatic thoughts (those
that appear without any apparent cause), the repository of forgotten memories (that may still be accessible to
consciousness at some later time), and the locus of implicit knowledge (the things that we have learned so well that
we do them without thinking).
It has been argued that consciousness is influenced by other parts of the mind. These include unconsciousness as a
personal habit, being unaware, and intuition. Terms related to semi-consciousness include: awakening, implicit
memory, subliminal messages, trances, hypnagogia, and hypnosis. While sleep, sleepwalking, dreaming, delirium,
and comas may signal the presence of unconscious processes, these processes are not the unconscious mind itself,
but rather symptoms.
Some critics have doubted the existence of the unconscious.[4][5][6]

Contents
1 Historical overview
2 Freud's view of the unconscious
3 Jung's view of the unconscious
4 Controversy
5 Dreams
5.1 Freud
5.2 Opposing theories
6 Unconscious mind in contemporary cognitive psychology
6.1 Research
6.2 Unconscious processing of information about frequency
7 See also
8 Notes
9 References
10 External links

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Historical overview
The term "unconscious" (German: Unbewusste) was coined by the 18th-century German Romantic philosopher
Friedrich Schelling (in his System of Transcendental Idealism, ch. 6, 3
(http://www.zeno.org/Philosophie/M/Schelling,+Friedrich+Wilhelm+Joseph/System+des+transzendenten+Idealism
us/6.+Hauptabschnitt.+Deduktion+eines+allgemeinen+Organs+der+Philosophie,+oder+Haupts%C3%A4tze+der+
Philosophie+der+Kunst+nach+Grunds%C3%A4tzen+des+transzendentalen+Idealismus/%C2%A7+3.+Folges%C
3%A4tze)) and later introduced into English by the poet and essayist Samuel Taylor Coleridge (in his Biographia
Literaria).[2][3] Some rare earlier instances of the term "unconsciousness" (Unbewutseyn) can be found in the
work of the 18th-century German physician and philosopher Ernst Platner.[7][8]
Influences on thinking that originate from outside of an individual's consciousness were reflected in the ancient ideas
of temptation, divine inspiration, and the predominant role of the gods in affecting motives and actions. The idea of
internalised unconscious processes in the mind was also instigated in antiquity and has been explored across a wide
variety of cultures. Unconscious aspects of mentality were referred to between 2500 and 600 BC in the Hindu texts
known as the Vedas, found today in Ayurvedic medicine.[9][10][11][12]
Paracelsus is credited as the first to make mention of an unconscious aspect of cognition in his work Von den
Krankheiten (translates as "About illnesses", 1567), and his clinical methodology created a cogent system that is
regarded by some as the beginning of modern scientific psychology.[13] William Shakespeare explored the role of
the unconscious[14] in many of his plays, without naming it as such.[15][16][17] In addition, Western philosophers
such as Arthur Schopenhauer,[18][19] Baruch Spinoza, Gottfried Leibniz, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm
Friedrich Hegel, Sren Kierkegaard, and Friedrich Nietzsche developed a western view of the mind which
foreshadowed Freud's theories. Psychologist Jacques Van Rillaer points out that, "the unconscious was not
discovered by Freud. In 1890, when psychoanalysis was still unheard of, William James, in his monumental treatise
on psychology (The Principles of Psychology), examined the way Schopenhauer, von Hartmann, Janet, Binet and
others had used the term 'unconscious' and 'subconscious'".[20] Historian of psychology Mark Altschule observes
that, "It is difficultor perhaps impossibleto find a nineteenth-century psychologist or psychiatrist who did not
recognize unconscious cerebration as not only real but of the highest importance."[21]

Freud's view of the unconscious


Sigmund Freud and his followers developed an account of the unconscious mind. It plays an important role in
psychoanalysis.
Freud divided the mind into the conscious mind (or the ego) and the unconscious mind. The latter was then further
divided into the id (or instincts and drive) and the superego (or conscience). In this theory, the unconscious refers to
the mental processes of which individuals make themselves unaware.[22] Freud proposed a vertical and hierarchical
architecture of human consciousness: the conscious mind, the preconscious, and the unconscious mindeach lying
beneath the other. He believed that significant psychic events take place "below the surface" in the unconscious
mind,[23] like hidden messages from the unconscious. He interpreted such events as having both symbolic and
actual significance.

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In psychoanalytic terms, the unconscious does not include all that is not conscious, but rather what is actively
repressed from conscious thought or what a person is averse to knowing consciously. Freud viewed the
unconscious as a repository for socially unacceptable ideas, wishes or desires, traumatic memories, and painful
emotions put out of mind by the mechanism of psychological repression. However, the contents did not necessarily
have to be solely negative. In the psychoanalytic view, the unconscious is a force that can only be recognized by its
effectsit expresses itself in the symptom. In a sense, this view places the conscious self as an adversary to its
unconscious, warring to keep the unconscious hidden. Unconscious thoughts are not directly accessible to ordinary
introspection, but are supposed to be capable of being "tapped" and "interpreted" by special methods and
techniques such as meditation, free association (a method largely introduced by Freud), dream analysis, and verbal
slips (commonly known as a Freudian slip), examined and conducted during psychoanalysis. Seeing as these
unconscious thoughts are normally cryptic, psychoanalysts are considered experts in interpreting their messages.
Freud based his concept of the unconscious on a variety of observations. For example, he considered "slips of the
tongue" to be related to the unconscious in that they often appeared to
show a person's true feelings on a subject. For example, "I decided to
take a summer curse". This example shows a slip of the word
"course" where the speaker accidentally used the word curse which
would show that they have negative feelings about having to do this.
Freud noticed that also his patient's dreams expressed important
feelings they were unaware of. After these observations, he came to
the conclusion that psychological disturbances are largely caused by
personal conflicts existing at the unconscious level. His psychoanalytic
theory acts to explain personality, motivation and mental disorders by
focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior.[24]
Freud later used his notion of the unconscious in order to explain
certain kinds of neurotic behavior.[25] The theory of the unconscious
was substantially transformed by later psychiatrists, among them Carl
Jung and Jacques Lacan.

Jung's view of the unconscious

An iceberg is often (though misleadingly)


used to provide a visual representation of
Freud's theory that most of the human
mind operates unconsciously.

Carl Gustav Jung, a Swiss psychiatrist, developed the concept further.


He agreed with Freud that the unconscious is a determinant of
personality, but he proposed that the unconscious be divided into two layers: the personal unconscious and the
collective unconscious. The personal unconscious is a reservoir of material that was once conscious but has been
forgotten or suppressed, much like Freud's notion. The collective unconscious, however, is the deepest level of the
psyche, containing the accumulation of inherited psychic structures and archetypal experiences. Archetypes are not
memories but images with universal meanings that are apparent in the culture's use of symbols. The collective
unconscious is therefore said to be inherited and contain material of an entire species rather than of an individual.[26]
Every person shares the collective unconscious with the entire human race, as Jung puts it: [the] "whole spiritual
heritage of mankind's evolution, born anew in the brain structure of every individual".[27]
In addition to the structure of the unconscious, Jung differed from Freud in that he did not believe that sexuality was
at the base of all unconscious thoughts.[28]

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Controversy
The notion that the unconscious mind exists at all has been disputed.
Franz Brentano rejected the concept of the unconscious in his 1874 book Psychology from an Empirical
Standpoint, although his rejection followed largely from his definitions of consciousness and unconsciousness.[29]
Jean-Paul Sartre offers a critique of Freud's theory of the unconscious in Being and Nothingness, based on the
claim that consciousness is essentially self-conscious. Sartre also argues that Freud's theory of repression is
internally flawed. Philosopher Thomas Baldwin argues that Sartre's argument is based on a misunderstanding of
Freud.[4]
Erich Fromm contends that, "The term 'the unconscious' is actually a mystification (even though one might use it for
reasons of convenience, as I am guilty of doing in these pages). There is no such thing as the unconscious; there are
only experiences of which we are aware, and others of which we are not aware, that is, of which we are
unconscious. If I hate a man because I am afraid of him, and if I am aware of my hate but not of my fear, we may
say that my hate is conscious and that my fear is unconscious; still my fear does not lie in that mysterious place: 'the'
unconscious."[30]
John Searle has offered a critique of the Freudian unconscious. He contends that the very notion of a collection of
"thoughts" that exist in a privileged region of the mind such that they are in principle never accessible to conscious
awareness, is incoherent. This is not to imply that there are not "nonconscious" processes that form the basis of
much of conscious life. Rather, Searle simply claims that to posit the existence of something that is like a "thought" in
every way except for the fact that no one can ever be aware of it (can never, indeed, "think" it) is an incoherent
concept. To speak of "something" as a "thought" either implies that it is being thought by a thinker or that it could be
thought by a thinker. Processes that are not causally related to the phenomenon called thinking are more
appropriately called the nonconscious processes of the brain.[31]
Other critics of the Freudian unconscious include David Stannard,[5] Richard Webster,[6] Ethan Watters,[32]
Richard Ofshe,[32] and Eric Thomas Weber.[33]
David Holmes[34] examined sixty years of research about the Freudian concept of "repression", and concluded that
there is no positive evidence for this concept. Given the lack of evidence for many Freudian hypotheses, some
scientific researchers proposed the existence of unconscious mechanisms that are very different from the Freudian
ones. They speak of a "cognitive unconscious" (John Kihlstrom),[35][36] an "adaptive unconscious" (Timothy
Wilson),[37] or a "dumb unconscious" (Loftus & Klinger),[38] which executes automatic processes but lacks the
complex mechanisms of repression and symbolic return of the repressed.
In modern cognitive psychology, many researchers have sought to strip the notion of the unconscious from its
Freudian heritage, and alternative terms such as "implicit" or "automatic" have come into currency. These traditions
emphasize the degree to which cognitive processing happens outside the scope of cognitive awareness, and show
that things we are unaware of can nonetheless influence other cognitive processes as well as
behavior.[39][40][41][42][43] Active research traditions related to the unconscious include implicit memory (see
priming, implicit attitudes), and nonconscious acquisition of knowledge (see Lewicki, see also the section on
cognitive perspective, below).
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Dreams
Freud
In terms of the unconscious, the purpose of dreams, as stated by Freud, is to look in to unconscious urges and
unmet needs and seek to fulfill these wishes subconsciously. People seek to fulfill these urges through the process of
dreaming since they cannot fulfill them in real life. For example, if someone was to rob a store and feel guilty about
it, they might dream about a scenario in which their actions were justified and renders them blameless. Freud
asserted that the wish-fulfilling aspect of the dream may be disguised due to the difficulty in distinguishing between
manifest content and latent content. The manifest content consists of the plot of a dream at the surface level. The
latent content refers to the hidden or disguised meaning of the events in the plot. The latent content of the dream is
what supports the idea of wish fulfillment. It represents the intimate information in the dreamer's current issues and
childhood conflict.[44]

Opposing theories
In response to Freud's theory on dreams, other psychologists have come up with theories to counter his argument.
Theorist Rosalind Cartwright proposed that dreams provide people with the opportunity to act out and work
through everyday problems and emotional issues in a non real setting with no consequences. According to her
cognitive problem solving view, a large amount of continuity exists between our waking thought and the thoughts
that exist in dreams. Proponents of this view believe that dreams allow participation in creative thinking and
alternate ways to handle situations when dealing with personal issues because dreams are not restrained by logic or
realism.[44]
In addition to this, Allan Hobson and colleagues came up with the activation-synthesis hypothesis which proposes
that dreams are simply the side effects of the neural activity in the brain that produces beta brain waves during REM
sleep that are associated with wakefulness. According to this hypothesis, neurons fire periodically during sleep in
the lower brain levels and thus send random signals to the cortex. The cortex then synthesizes a dream in reaction to
these signals in order to try and make sense of why the brain is sending them. However, the hypothesis does not
state that dreams are meaningless, it just downplays the role that emotional factors play in determining dreams.[44]

Unconscious mind in contemporary cognitive psychology


Research
While, historically, the psychoanalytic research tradition was the first to focus on the phenomenon of unconscious
mental activity, there is an extensive body of conclusive research and knowledge in contemporary cognitive
psychology devoted to the mental activity that is not mediated by conscious awareness.
Most of that (cognitive) research on unconscious processes has been done in the mainstream, academic tradition of
the information processing paradigm. As opposed to the psychoanalytic tradition, driven by the relatively
speculative (in the sense of being hard to empirically verify) theoretical concepts such as the Oedipus complex or
Electra complex, the cognitive tradition of research on unconscious processes is based on relatively few theoretical
assumptions and is very empirically oriented (i.e., it is mostly data driven). Cognitive research has revealed that

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automatically, and clearly outside of conscious awareness, individuals register and acquire more information than
what they can experience through their conscious thoughts. (See Augusto, 2010, for a recent comprehensive
survey.)[45]

Unconscious processing of information about frequency


For example, an extensive line of research conducted by Hasher and Zacks[46] has demonstrated that individuals
register information about the frequency of events automatically (i.e., outside of conscious awareness and without
engaging conscious information processing resources). Moreover, perceivers do this unintentionally, truly
"automatically," regardless of the instructions they receive, and regardless of the information processing goals they
have. Interestingly, the ability to unconsciously and relatively accurately tally the frequency of events appears to
have little or no relation to the individual's age,[47] education, intelligence, or personality, thus it may represent one
of the fundamental building blocks of human orientation in the environment and possibly the acquisition of
procedural knowledge and experience, in general.

See also
Adaptive unconscious
Consciousness
Ernst Platner
Introspection illusion
List of thought processes
Mind's eye
Minimally conscious state
Neuroscience of free will
Philosophy of mind
Preconscious
Transpersonal psychology
Unconscious cognition
Unconscious communication
Instinct
Books
Psyche (1846)
The Philosophy of the Unconscious (1869)

Notes
1. Westen, Drew (1999). "The Scientific Status of Unconscious Processes: Is Freud Really Dead?"
(http://apa.sagepub.com/content/47/4/1061). Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 47 (4): 1061
1106. doi:10.1177/000306519904700404 (https://dx.doi.org/10.1177%2F000306519904700404). Retrieved June 1,
2012.
2. Bynum; Browne; Porter (1981). The Macmillan Dictionary of the History of Science. London. p. 292.
3. Christopher John Murray, Encyclopedia of the Romantic Era, 1760-1850 (Taylor & Francis, 2004: ISBN 1-57958422-5), pp. 100102.
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4. Thomas Baldwin (1995). Ted Honderich, ed. The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University
Press. p. 792. ISBN 0-19-866132-0.
5. See "The Problem of Logic", Chapter 3 of Shrinking History: On Freud and the Failure of Psychohistory,
published by Oxford University Press, 1980
6. See "Exploring the Unconscious: Self-Analysis and Oedipus", Chapter 11 of Why Freud Was Wrong: Sin, Science
and Psychoanalysis, published by The Orwell Press, 2005
7. Ernst Platner, Philosophische Aphorismen nebst einigen Anleitungen zur philosophischen Geschichte
(http://books.google.com/books?id=4748AAAAYAAJ&vq=Unbewu%C3%9Ftseyn), Vol. 1 (Leipzig:
Schwickertscher Verlag, 1793 [1776]), p. 86.
8. Angus Nicholls and Martin Liebscher, Thinking the Unconscious: Nineteenth-Century German Thought
(http://books.google.com/books/about/Thinking_the_Unconscious.html?id=MCJzE-SxDUgC&redir_esc=y) (2010),
Cambridge University Press, 2010, p. 9.
9. Alexander, C. N. 1990. Growth of Higher Stages of Consciousness: Maharishi's Vedic Psychology of Human
Development. C. N. Alexander and E.J. Langer (eds.). Higher Stages of Human Development. Perspectives on
Human Growth. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press
10. Meyer-Dinkgrfe, D. (1996). Consciousness and the Actor. A Reassessment of Western and Indian Approaches to
the Actor's Emotional Involvement from the Perspective of Vedic Psychology. Peter Lang. ISBN 0-8204-3180-X.
11. Haney, W.S. II (1991). "Unity in Vedic aesthetics: the self-interacting dynamics of the knower, the known, and the
process of knowing". Analecta Husserliana 233: 295319.
12. Geraldine Coster 'Yoga and Western Psychology: A comparison' 1934
13. Harms, Ernest., Origins of Modern Psychiatry, Thomas 1967 ASIN: B000NR852U, p. 20
14. The Design Within: Psychoanalytic Approaches to Shakespeare: Edited by M. D. Faber. New York: Science House.
1970 An anthology of 33 papers on Shakespearean plays by psychoanalysts and literary critics whose work has
been influenced by psychoanalysis
15. Meyer-Dinkgrfe, Daniel "Hamlet's Procrastination: A Parallel to the Bhagavad-Gita, in Hamlet East West, edited by.
Marta Gibinska and Jerzy Limon. Gdansk: Theatrum Gedanese Foundation, 1998e, pp. 187-195
16. Meyer-Dinkgrfe, Daniel 'Consciousness and the Actor: A Reassessment of Western and Indian Approaches to the
Actor's Emotional Involvement from the Perspective of Vedic Psychology.' Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1996a.
(Series 30: Theatre, Film and Television, Vol. 67)
17. Yarrow, Ralph (JulyDecember 1997). "Identity and Consciousness East and West: the case of Russell Hoban".
Journal of Literature & Aesthetics 5 (2): 1926.
18. Ellenberger, H. (1970) The Discovery of the Unconscious: The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry New
York: Basic Books, p. 542
19. Young, Christopher and Brook, Andrew (1994) Schopenhauer and Freud (http://httpserver.carleton.ca/~abrook/SCHOPENY.htm) quotation:
Ellenberger, in his classic 1970 history of dynamic psychology. He remarks on Schopenhauer's
psychological doctrines several times, crediting him for example with recognizing parapraxes,
and urges that Schopenhauer "was definitely among the ancestors of modern dynamic
psychiatry." (1970, p. 205). He also cites with approval Foerster's interesting claim that "no one
should deal with psychoanalysis before having thoroughly studied Schopenhauer." (1970, p.
542). In general, he views Schopenhauer as the first and most important of the many
nineteenth-century philosophers of the unconscious, and concludes that "there cannot be the
slightest doubt that Freud's thought echoes theirs." (1970, p. 542).
20. Meyer, Catherine (edited by). Le livre noir de la psychanalyse: Vivre, penser et aller mieux sans Freud. Paris: Les
Arnes, 2005, p.217
21. Altschule, Mark. Origins of Concepts in Human Behavior. New York: Wiley, 1977, p.199

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22. Geraskov, Emil Asenov (November 1, 1994). "The internal contradiction and the unconscious sources of activity"
(http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-16528826.html). Journal of Psychology. "This article is an attempt to give
new meaning to well-known experimental studies, analysis of which may allow us to discover unconscious
behavior that has so far remained unnoticed by researchers. Those studies confirm many of the statements by
Freud, but they also reveal new aspects of the unconscious psychic. The first global psychological concept of the
internal contradiction as an unconscious factor influencing human behavior was developed by Sigmund Freud. In
his opinion, this contradiction is expressed in the struggle between the biological instincts and the self."
23. For example, dreaming: Freud called dream symbols the "royal road to the unconscious"
24. Wayne Weiten (2011). Psychology: Themes and Variations (http://books.google.se/books?
id=Wnr7vEjB7NAC&pg=PA6&lpg=PA6&dq=After+these+observations,+he+came+to+the+conclusion+that+psych
ological+disturbances+are+largely+caused+by+personal+conflicts&source=bl&ots=NO9hC_TkTb&sig=xvc5BDhhYll9BZjtd-pCfqhmCo&hl=sv&sa=X&ei=1zqjUdmeG-Kn4AT9IC4CQ&ved=0CD0Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=After%20these%20observations%2C%20he%20came%20to%20t
he%20conclusion%20that%20psychological%20disturbances%20are%20largely%20caused%20by%20personal%2
0conflicts&f=false). Cengage Learning. p. 6. ISBN 9780495813101.
25. Jung, Carl et al. (1964). "Man and His Symbols". "Sigmund Freud was the pioneer who first tried to explore
empirically the unconscious background of consciousness. He worked on the general assumption that dreams are
not a matter of chance but are associated with conscious thoughts and problems. This assumption was not in the
least arbitrary. It was based upon the conclusion of eminent neurologists (for instance, Pierre Janet) that neurotic
symptoms are related to some conscious experience. They even appear to be split-off areas of the conscious mind,
which, at another time and under different conditions, can be conscious."
26. "collective unconscious (psychology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online
Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Dec. 2011. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/125572/collectiveunconscious>.
27. Campbell, J. (1971). Hero with a thousand faces. New York, NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich
28. "Jung, Carl Gustav." The Columbia encyclopedia. 6th. ed. Columbia: Columbia University Press, 2000. 1490. Print.
29. Vitz, Paul C. (1988). Sigmund Freud's Christian Unconscious. New York: The Guilford Press. pp. 5354. ISBN 089862-673-0.
30. Fromm, Erich. Beyond the Chains of Illusion: My Encounter with Marx & Freud. London: Sphere Books, 1980, p.
93
31. Searle, John. The Rediscovery of the Mind. MIT Press, 1994, pp. 151-173
32. See "A Profession in Crisis", Chapter 1 of Therapy's Delusions: The Myth of the Unconscious and the Exploitation
of Today's Walking Worried, published by Scribner, 1999
33. Weber, Eric Thomas (2012) "James's Critiques of the Freudian Unconscious 25 Years Earlier,"
(http://williamjamesstudies.org/9.1/weber.pdf) William James Studies 9, 94119.
34. List of his publications at [1]
(https://web.archive.org/web/20070325061139/http://www.geocities.com/psydic/DH_WEB/publicat.html) retrieved
April 18, 2007
35. Kihlstrom, J.F. (2002). "The unconscious". In Ramachandran, V.S. Encyclopedia of the Human Brain 4. San
Diego CA: Academic. pp. 635646.
36. Kihlstrom, J.F.; Beer, J.S.; Klein, S.B. (2002). "Self and identity as memory". In Leary, M.R.; Tangney, J.
Handbook of self and identity. New York: Guilford Press. pp. 6890.
37. Wilson T D Strangers to Ourselves Discovering the Adaptive Unconscious
38. Loftus EF, Klinger MR (June 1992). "Is the unconscious smart or dumb?"
(http://content.apa.org/journals/amp/47/6/761). Am Psychol 47 (6): 7615. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.47.6.761
(https://dx.doi.org/10.1037%2F0003-066X.47.6.761). PMID 1616173
(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1616173).
39. Greenwald AG, Draine SC, Abrams RL (September 1996). "Three cognitive markers of unconscious semantic
activation" (http://www.sciencemag.org/content/273/5282/1699.long). Science 273 (5282): 1699702.
doi:10.1126/science.273.5282.1699 (https://dx.doi.org/10.1126%2Fscience.273.5282.1699). PMID 8781230
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40. Gaillard R, Del Cul A, Naccache L, Vinckier F, Cohen L, Dehaene S (May 2006). "Nonconscious semantic
processing of emotional words modulates conscious access" (http://www.pnas.org/content/102/21/7713.long).
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103 (19): 75249. doi:10.1073/pnas.0600584103
(https://dx.doi.org/10.1073%2Fpnas.0600584103). PMC 1464371
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41. Kiefer M, Brendel D (February 2006). "Attentional modulation of unconscious "automatic" processes: evidence
from event-related potentials in a masked priming paradigm"
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References
Jon Mills, Underworlds: Philosophies of the Unconscious from Psychoanalysis to Metaphysics.
(http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415660525/) Routledge, 2014
Matt Ffytche, The Foundation of the Unconscious: Schelling, Freud and the Birth of the Modern
Psyche (http://books.google.com/books/about/The_Foundation_of_the_Unconscious.html?
id=1bsGIr_YyiEC&redir_esc=y), Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Jon Mills, The Unconscious Abyss: Hegel's Anticipation of Psychoanalysis
(http://books.google.com/books/about/The_Unconscious_Abyss.html?
id=k92QmWYmzsMC&redir_esc=y), SUNY Press, 2002.
S. J. McGrath, The Dark Ground of Spirit: Schelling and the Unconscious
(http://books.google.com/books?id=G4HabwAACAAJ&dq=), Taylor & Francis Group, 2012.

External links
Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind, "Implicit Memory"
(http://philosophy.uwaterloo.ca/MindDict/implicitmem.html)
Nonconscious Acquisition of Information (a reprint from American Psychologist, 1992)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unconscious_mind

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Unconscious mind - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(http://cogprints.org/722/)
The Rediscovery of the Unconscious (http://ist-socrates.berkeley.edu/~kihlstrm/rediscovery.htm)
Nonconscious Acquisition of Information (a reprint from American Psychologist, 1992)
(http://cogprints.org/722/)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Unconscious_mind&oldid=662891199"
Categories: Unconscious Analytical psychology Neuropsychology Central nervous system Hypnosis
Mental processes Psychoanalytic terminology Freudian psychology
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