ji hnn Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid-state welding technique that involves the joining of metals without filler materials. A cylindrical rotating tool plunges into a rigidly clamped
workpiece and moves along the joint to be welded. As the tool translates along the joint, heat is generated by friction between the tool shoulder and the workpiece.
Additional heat is generated by plastic deformation of the workpiece material. The generated heat results in thermal softening of the workpiece material. The translation of
the tool causes the softened workpiece material to flow from the front to the back of the tool where it consolidates. As cooling occurs, a solid continuous joint between the
two plates is formed. No melting occurs during the process, and the resulting temperature remains below the solidus temperature of the metals being joined. FSW offers
many advantages over conventional welding techniques, and has been successfully applied in the aerospace, automobile, and shipbuilding industries.
Problem Description
The model used in this example is a simplified version of the thermo-mechanical model and the tool pin is ignored.
The simulation is performed in three load steps, each representing a respective phase (plunge, dwell, and traverse) of the FSW process.
1. Plunge -- The tool plunges slowly into the workpiece
2. Dwell -- Friction between the rotating tool and workpiece generates heat at the initial tool position until the workpiece temperature reaches the value required for
the welding.
3. Traverse (or Traveling) -- The rotating tool mo Contact Pair Between Tool and Workpiece
Two real constants are specified to model friction-induced heat generation. The fraction of frictional dissipated energy converted into heat is modeled first; the FHTG real
constant is set to 1 to convert all frictional dissipated energy into heat. The factor for the distribution of heat between contact and target surfaces is defined next; the FWGT
real constant is set to 0.95, so that 95 percent of the heat generated from the friction flows into the workpiece and only five percent flows into the tool.
A low TCC value (10 W/m2 °C) is specified Rigid Surface Constraint
The workpiece remains fixed in all stages of the simulation. The tool rotates and moves along the weld line. A pilot node is created at the center of the top surface of the
tool in order to apply the rotation and translation on the tool. The motion of the pilot node controls the motion of the entire tool. A rigid surface constraint is defined
between the pilot node (TARGE170) and the nodes of the top surface of the tool (CONTA174). A multipoint constraint (MPC) algorithm with contact surface behavior
defined as bonded always is used to constrain the contact nodes to the rigid body motion defined by the pilot node.
The following contact settings are used for the CONTA174 elements:
· To include MPC contact algorithm: KEYOPT(2) = 2
· For a rigid surface constraint: KEYOPT(4) = 2
· To set the behavior of contact surface as bonded (always): KEYOPT(12) = 5
Boundary Conditions
For thermal Boundary Conditions, all external surfaces except the bottom surface, the value of the convection coefficient is 30 W/m2°C for workpiece and tool. A high overall
heat-transfer coefficient (about 10 times the convective coefficient) of 300 W/m2 °C is assumed for the conductive heat loss through the bottom surface of the workpiece.
An initial temperature of 25 °C is applied on the model. REFERENCES: Arnone, “High Performance Machining,” Hanser, 1998. “ASM
Handbook,” Vol. 16: “Machining,” ASM International, 1989. Brown, “Advanced
Machining Technology Handbook,” McGraw-Hill, 1998. El-Hofy, “Advanced
Machining Processes,” McGraw-Hill, 2005. Erdel, “High-Speed Machining,”
Society of Manufacturing Engineers, 2003. Kalpakjian and Schmid,
“Manufacturing Engineering and Technology,” 5th ed., Prentice-Hall, 2006. Krar,
“Grinding Technology,” 2d ed., Delmar, 1995. “Machining Data

© All Rights Reserved

8 views

ji hnn Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid-state welding technique that involves the joining of metals without filler materials. A cylindrical rotating tool plunges into a rigidly clamped
workpiece and moves along the joint to be welded. As the tool translates along the joint, heat is generated by friction between the tool shoulder and the workpiece.
Additional heat is generated by plastic deformation of the workpiece material. The generated heat results in thermal softening of the workpiece material. The translation of
the tool causes the softened workpiece material to flow from the front to the back of the tool where it consolidates. As cooling occurs, a solid continuous joint between the
two plates is formed. No melting occurs during the process, and the resulting temperature remains below the solidus temperature of the metals being joined. FSW offers
many advantages over conventional welding techniques, and has been successfully applied in the aerospace, automobile, and shipbuilding industries.
Problem Description
The model used in this example is a simplified version of the thermo-mechanical model and the tool pin is ignored.
The simulation is performed in three load steps, each representing a respective phase (plunge, dwell, and traverse) of the FSW process.
1. Plunge -- The tool plunges slowly into the workpiece
2. Dwell -- Friction between the rotating tool and workpiece generates heat at the initial tool position until the workpiece temperature reaches the value required for
the welding.
3. Traverse (or Traveling) -- The rotating tool mo Contact Pair Between Tool and Workpiece
Two real constants are specified to model friction-induced heat generation. The fraction of frictional dissipated energy converted into heat is modeled first; the FHTG real
constant is set to 1 to convert all frictional dissipated energy into heat. The factor for the distribution of heat between contact and target surfaces is defined next; the FWGT
real constant is set to 0.95, so that 95 percent of the heat generated from the friction flows into the workpiece and only five percent flows into the tool.
A low TCC value (10 W/m2 °C) is specified Rigid Surface Constraint
The workpiece remains fixed in all stages of the simulation. The tool rotates and moves along the weld line. A pilot node is created at the center of the top surface of the
tool in order to apply the rotation and translation on the tool. The motion of the pilot node controls the motion of the entire tool. A rigid surface constraint is defined
between the pilot node (TARGE170) and the nodes of the top surface of the tool (CONTA174). A multipoint constraint (MPC) algorithm with contact surface behavior
defined as bonded always is used to constrain the contact nodes to the rigid body motion defined by the pilot node.
The following contact settings are used for the CONTA174 elements:
· To include MPC contact algorithm: KEYOPT(2) = 2
· For a rigid surface constraint: KEYOPT(4) = 2
· To set the behavior of contact surface as bonded (always): KEYOPT(12) = 5
Boundary Conditions
For thermal Boundary Conditions, all external surfaces except the bottom surface, the value of the convection coefficient is 30 W/m2°C for workpiece and tool. A high overall
heat-transfer coefficient (about 10 times the convective coefficient) of 300 W/m2 °C is assumed for the conductive heat loss through the bottom surface of the workpiece.
An initial temperature of 25 °C is applied on the model. REFERENCES: Arnone, “High Performance Machining,” Hanser, 1998. “ASM
Handbook,” Vol. 16: “Machining,” ASM International, 1989. Brown, “Advanced
Machining Technology Handbook,” McGraw-Hill, 1998. El-Hofy, “Advanced
Machining Processes,” McGraw-Hill, 2005. Erdel, “High-Speed Machining,”
Society of Manufacturing Engineers, 2003. Kalpakjian and Schmid,
“Manufacturing Engineering and Technology,” 5th ed., Prentice-Hall, 2006. Krar,
“Grinding Technology,” 2d ed., Delmar, 1995. “Machining Data

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 2

Flow Analysis

M. M. Khan*, S. M. Salim

School of Engineering, Taylors University, Selangor, Malaysia

*Email: mohsenkhan82@yahoo.com

2. Research Methodology

simulate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models, with

respect to computing time, which can predict the flow conditions

in an Intake Manifold (IM) of naturally aspirated Spark ignition

(SI) engine by using flow analysis numerical model from ANSYS

CFD software (FLUENT 14.0). The simulations are carried out

by using different steady state Reynolds Averaged Navier Stoke

(RANS) turbulence models such as Standard k-epsilon (k-) ReNormalization Group k- (RNG), Realizable k-, k-omega (k-)

and Reynolds Stress Model (RSM). Initial Boundary conditions

and validation of simulation results based on experimental data

are used. It is observed that each model produces almost similar

results when it comes to pressure drop inside plenum and inlet

velocity. However, RNG k- accounts for swirl dominated flow,

predicting better flow conditions inside the manifold. Therefore,

RNG k- is best to capture intake manifold flow turbulent

conditions.

Keywords Fluent, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Intake

Manifold, Realizable k-, k-omega (k-), Re-Normalization Group

k- (RNG), Reynolds Stress Model (RSM), Turbulent flow.

al. [3] analyzed the steady flow inside the IM of a S.I engine using

STAR-CD but only considered Standard k- model to analyze

optimum flow conditions inside IM. David et al. [4] studied the flow

characteristic of flow inside the swirl helical IM port and concluded

that CFD has high tendency on providing ways to design high swirl

generating capacity intake ports which can help to reduce NOx

emissions. However, little research has been done regarding the

testing of CFD models which can analyze the flow inside IM

accurately.

A three dimensional (3-D) geometry of IM consisting inlet,

plenum and 4 outlet ports is developed. The mesh generated consists

of 348,730 numbers of tetrahedral cells. To verify the adequacy of

the grid, grid independent test was conducted [5]. Pressure based

boundary conditions (from experiment, Fig 2) are assigned to the

inlet and outlets of IM. 3-D, steady state numerical simulations are

carried out using Reynolds Averaged Navier Stoke (RANS) Standard

k-, RNG k-, Realizable k-, k- and RSM. It is noted that RNG

performed exceptionally well as it accounts for swirl dominated

flows [6]. RSM under relaxation factor also shows desirable results

but due to higher computing time (Table 1) and cost it is less feasible.

1. Introduction

The engine of a car needs air for the combustion process in the

cylinders. Air Intake Manifold (IM) has an important role in getting

desirable amount of air into automobile engine by improving the

combustion efficiency and reducing air pollution [1]. The main

purpose of an air IM is to provide the engine with constant amount of

required clean air to burn in the combustion chamber. The air enters

the combustion chambers through IM, in which plenum box

distributes the flow uniformly into the respective ports which goes to

the combustion chamber. To optimize the flow inside intake system,

thorough understanding of flows, inlet velocity and pressure drop

through the system is essential [2].

The main objective of this study is to analyze different Reynolds

Averaged Navier Stoke (RANS) turbulence models for better flow

prediction of Intake Manifold. The numerical model of Proton Satria

Neo 1.6L Air IM (Fig. 1) is used for the simulations. FLUENT is

used to analyze the internal flow of air intake manifold and to get the

results which are validated from the data collected from experiment.

Inlet

Models

Estimated Computational Time (Hour)

Standard k-

2.5

Realizable k-

3

RNG k-

3.5

k-

3

RSM

4.5

Experimental Setup (Fig. 2) is developed for the initial boundary

conditions and validation of CFD simulations. Pressure sensor is

placed at the exit of outlet ports and at the plenum of IM to measure

the pressure difference (Placement indicated in Fig. 1). The signals

from pressure sensor are recorded by Engine Control Unit (ECU) of

the car which is capable of data logging up to 200 Hz. The plots of

static pressure and velocity magnitude of each model and

experimental data are drawn and the difference in the discretization

of each model is shown in the Fig. 3.

1

2

3

4

5

Engine running at Wide

Open Throttle around 6000

RPM

Sensors Placement

for Experiment

Outlets

Fig 1: Computational Domain of Intake Manifold.

Temperature = 313K

93

EURECA 2013 Evaluation of CFD Sub-Models for the Intake Manifold Port Flow Analysis

3. Results and Discussion

observed that the experimental data gathered also have uncertainty

when it comes to sensor effectiveness and leakages. Furthermore, the

piston movement causes fluctuating backflow velocities and pressure

changes inside the ports, making it difficult to get accurate boundary

conditions which are used to predict the flow inside the manifold

using RANS steady state models.

The velocity vector and streamlines plots (Fig. 4a & Fig. 4b)

obtained from the analysis shows the better prediction of the high

turbulent flow inside the ports and plenum chamber of the IM, as

found in other literature reviews [2] [3] [4] [5]. Beside the graphical

results, vortices formed in RNG k- shows proper distribution of the

flow in all the ports and plenum chamber. Hence making it better

choice to analyze the flow inside intake manifold.

chamber of all the models are shown in Fig. 3a and Fig. 3b

respectively. It is observed that velocity magnitude discretization of

each model differs greatly while static pressure drop has almost the

4. Conclusion

The investigation of the flow regime, within the intake manifold,

using CFD analysis is possible. However, applying the correct

parameters and CFD models, which can provide economical

simulated results, is highly important. This study appraises different

CFD turbulent models and the importance of realistic parameters to

successfully predict the flow inside IM. It is noticed that each model

shows variation with the experimental results. While, RNG and RSM

shows promising results with lower margin of error compared to

standard k- and k- .

For future studies, it is important to analyze each model using

transient flow conditions for better accuracy and predictability of the

flow inside IM with part throttle conditions. Furthermore, for future

validations high calibrated sensors should be used to improve the

accuracy of experimental data obtained.

(a)

References

[1] R. Rajput, Internal Combustion Engine, Laxmi Publications, 2007.

[2] M. Safwan, "Pressure Drop Analysis of 1.6l Car Air Intake System,"

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang,

November 2009.

[3] S. Kale and V. Ganesan, "Investigation of the flow field in the," Indian

journals of Engineering and Material Sciences, 2004.

[4] D. R. Jebamani and T. M. N. Kumar, "Studies on Variable Swirl Intake

System for Di Diesel Engine Using Computational Fluid Dynamics,"

Thermal Science, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 25-32, 2008.

[5] B.M.Angadi, A. S. Malipatil, V.V.Nagathan and R.S.Kattimani.,

"Modelling and Analysis of Intake manifold of a Multi-cylinder SI

engine," in & 4th International Conference on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid

Poweer, Madras, Chennai, 2010.

(b)

inlet velocity (using the piston swept volume of 1.6L) is well

predicted by RNG k- and Standard k- with up to 5 percent error

while Realizable, k- and RSM shows discrepancies giving up to 10

percent error. For static pressure all model shows larger deviation in

Fluid Dynamics, The Finite Volume Method, Pearson Prentice Hall,

2007.

RNG k-

Standard k-

a) Velocity Vectors

(Plenum xy plane cut)

b)

3D Streamlines

Fig 4: Plenum Chamber XY Plane Cut Velocity Vectors and 3D Streamline Flow

94

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