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ChE 132
Cyclones
Prepared by
Engr. Sandra Enn Bahinting

Cyclones

The most commonly used equipment for

the separation of dust particles from an air/gas stream

As with centrifugation, the driving force behind cyclone

separation is centrifugal force and the difference in
specific gravity between the particle and the carrier gas.

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Picture

cyclon

Mechanism of cyclone

The dust-laden gas stream enters near the top of

the collection chamber tangentially in a rotation
motion.

The vortex formed develops centrifugal force

which throws the particles radially toward the
wall

The air reaches near bottom of the cone, its

spirals upwards in a smaller spiral in the center
of the cone and cylinder (double vortex)

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Assumed

that particles (small sizes ) reach directly their

terminal velocity

Stokes

Law:

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Design of Cyclone

Vatavuk (1990) pointed out that a key dimension in the sizing of a

cyclone is the inlet area

- The size of the inlet is selected at a specific inlet velocity and

required volumetric rate; the other dimensions then are fixed
- Capacity and efficiency of the cyclone depend on the inlet velocity
and dimensions of the vessel.

Properly designed cyclones can remove particle in the 2030 micron

range.
cyclone separators have efficiencies in the range of 7090 %

Considerations:
Particle

size (particles with larger mass being subjected

to greater force),
Force exerted on the dust particles
Time that the force is exerted on the particles

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A key concept is the critical particle diameter which is one

that is removed to the extent of 50 %

where D = diameter of the vessel, ft

V = inlet linear velocity, ft/sec
Nt = number of turns made by the gas in the vessel

with V in ft/sec. With a height opening equal to 2.5 times the

width, the volumetric rate is

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Example:
Air

at 1000 cuft/sec and density of 0.075 lb/cuft contains

particles with density 75 lb/cuft. 50 % of the 10 mm
diameter particles are to be recovered. Find the sizes and
numbers of cyclones needed with
inlet velocities in the range of 50150 ft/sec. The inlet is
rectangular with width D/4 and height 2.5D/4, where D
is the diameter of the
vessel.

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50%, ,
the

particle size for which the grade is often used as a single

number measurement of the efficiency of the cyclone

know

as the equiprobable size since it is that size of particle

which has a 50% probability of appearing in the coarse
product.

sometimes

useful

where the efficiency of a cyclone is to be

expressed as a single number independent of the feed solid
size distribution,such as in scale-up calculation.

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Collection Efficiency
A very simple model can be used to determine the effects of both
cyclone design and operation on collection efficiency.
In this model, gas spins through a number N of revolutions in the
outer vortex. The value of N can be approximated as the sum of
revolutions inside the body and inside the cone:

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Example:

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Vertical Cyclone Separator

Vertical cyclone separators are

used to
remove 99% of free liquids and solids 5
microns and larger.
These separators are particularly
effective for the removal of solids, such
as iron sulphides. The high efficiency of
these separators is due to the unique
design which enables the separator to be
approximately 1/3 the diameter of a
conventional separator.

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Single-cyclone separators

They create a dual vortex to

separate course from fine dust.
The main vortex spirals
downward and carries most of
the coarser dust particles.
The inner vortex created near the
bottom of the cyclone, spirals
upward and carries finer dust
particles.

It consist of a number of smalldiameter cyclones, operating in

parallel and having a common gas
inlet and outlet, as shown in the
figure.

Multi-clones operate on the same

principle as cyclones--creating a
main downward vortex and an
ascending inner vortex.

Multi clones are more efficient than

single cyclones because they are
longer and smaller in diameter.

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