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description and designs of cyclones

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ChE 132

Cyclones

Prepared by

Engr. Sandra Enn Bahinting

Cyclones

the separation of dust particles from an air/gas stream

separation is centrifugal force and the difference in

specific gravity between the particle and the carrier gas.

11/11/2015

Picture

cyclon

Mechanism of cyclone

the collection chamber tangentially in a rotation

motion.

which throws the particles radially toward the

wall

adjacent to the wall

spirals upwards in a smaller spiral in the center

of the cone and cylinder (double vortex)

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Assumed

terminal velocity

Stokes

Law:

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Design of Cyclone

cyclone is the inlet area

required volumetric rate; the other dimensions then are fixed

- Capacity and efficiency of the cyclone depend on the inlet velocity

and dimensions of the vessel.

range.

cyclone separators have efficiencies in the range of 7090 %

Considerations:

Particle

to greater force),

Force exerted on the dust particles

Time that the force is exerted on the particles

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that is removed to the extent of 50 %

V = inlet linear velocity, ft/sec

Nt = number of turns made by the gas in the vessel

width, the volumetric rate is

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Example:

Air

particles with density 75 lb/cuft. 50 % of the 10 mm

diameter particles are to be recovered. Find the sizes and

numbers of cyclones needed with

inlet velocities in the range of 50150 ft/sec. The inlet is

rectangular with width D/4 and height 2.5D/4, where D

is the diameter of the

vessel.

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50%, ,

the

number measurement of the efficiency of the cyclone

know

which has a 50% probability of appearing in the coarse

product.

sometimes

useful

expressed as a single number independent of the feed solid

size distribution,such as in scale-up calculation.

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Collection Efficiency

A very simple model can be used to determine the effects of both

cyclone design and operation on collection efficiency.

In this model, gas spins through a number N of revolutions in the

outer vortex. The value of N can be approximated as the sum of

revolutions inside the body and inside the cone:

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Example:

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10

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Vertical cyclone separators are

used to

remove 99% of free liquids and solids 5

microns and larger.

These separators are particularly

effective for the removal of solids, such

as iron sulphides. The high efficiency of

these separators is due to the unique

design which enables the separator to be

approximately 1/3 the diameter of a

conventional separator.

11

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Single-cyclone separators

separate course from fine dust.

The main vortex spirals

downward and carries most of

the coarser dust particles.

The inner vortex created near the

bottom of the cyclone, spirals

upward and carries finer dust

particles.

parallel and having a common gas

inlet and outlet, as shown in the

figure.

principle as cyclones--creating a

main downward vortex and an

ascending inner vortex.

single cyclones because they are

longer and smaller in diameter.

12

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