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ChE 132
Cyclones
Prepared by
Engr. Sandra Enn Bahinting

Cyclones

The most commonly used equipment for


the separation of dust particles from an air/gas stream

Consist of a vertical cylinder with conical bottoms

As with centrifugation, the driving force behind cyclone


separation is centrifugal force and the difference in
specific gravity between the particle and the carrier gas.

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Picture

cyclon

Mechanism of cyclone

The dust-laden gas stream enters near the top of


the collection chamber tangentially in a rotation
motion.

The vortex formed develops centrifugal force


which throws the particles radially toward the
wall

The air in the cyclone flows downward in a spiral


adjacent to the wall

The air reaches near bottom of the cone, its


spirals upwards in a smaller spiral in the center
of the cone and cylinder (double vortex)

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Theory for Cyclone Separator


Assumed

that particles (small sizes ) reach directly their


terminal velocity

Stokes

Law:

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Design of Cyclone

Vatavuk (1990) pointed out that a key dimension in the sizing of a


cyclone is the inlet area

- The size of the inlet is selected at a specific inlet velocity and


required volumetric rate; the other dimensions then are fixed
- Capacity and efficiency of the cyclone depend on the inlet velocity
and dimensions of the vessel.

Properly designed cyclones can remove particle in the 2030 micron


range.
cyclone separators have efficiencies in the range of 7090 %

Cyclone Collector Design


Considerations:
Particle

size (particles with larger mass being subjected


to greater force),
Force exerted on the dust particles
Time that the force is exerted on the particles

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A key concept is the critical particle diameter which is one


that is removed to the extent of 50 %

where D = diameter of the vessel, ft


V = inlet linear velocity, ft/sec
Nt = number of turns made by the gas in the vessel

with V in ft/sec. With a height opening equal to 2.5 times the


width, the volumetric rate is

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Example:
Air

at 1000 cuft/sec and density of 0.075 lb/cuft contains


particles with density 75 lb/cuft. 50 % of the 10 mm
diameter particles are to be recovered. Find the sizes and
numbers of cyclones needed with
inlet velocities in the range of 50150 ft/sec. The inlet is
rectangular with width D/4 and height 2.5D/4, where D
is the diameter of the
vessel.

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Cyclone Grade Efficiency in Practice

50%, ,
the

particle size for which the grade is often used as a single


number measurement of the efficiency of the cyclone

know

as the equiprobable size since it is that size of particle


which has a 50% probability of appearing in the coarse
product.

sometimes

simply referred to as the cut size of the cyclone

useful

where the efficiency of a cyclone is to be


expressed as a single number independent of the feed solid
size distribution,such as in scale-up calculation.

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Collection Efficiency
A very simple model can be used to determine the effects of both
cyclone design and operation on collection efficiency.
In this model, gas spins through a number N of revolutions in the
outer vortex. The value of N can be approximated as the sum of
revolutions inside the body and inside the cone:

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Example:

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Vertical Cyclone Separator


Vertical cyclone separators are

used to
remove 99% of free liquids and solids 5
microns and larger.
These separators are particularly
effective for the removal of solids, such
as iron sulphides. The high efficiency of
these separators is due to the unique
design which enables the separator to be
approximately 1/3 the diameter of a
conventional separator.

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Single-cyclone separators

They create a dual vortex to


separate course from fine dust.
The main vortex spirals
downward and carries most of
the coarser dust particles.
The inner vortex created near the
bottom of the cyclone, spirals
upward and carries finer dust
particles.

Multi Cyclone separator

It consist of a number of smalldiameter cyclones, operating in


parallel and having a common gas
inlet and outlet, as shown in the
figure.

Multi-clones operate on the same


principle as cyclones--creating a
main downward vortex and an
ascending inner vortex.

Multi clones are more efficient than


single cyclones because they are
longer and smaller in diameter.

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