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# Section 5.

## 5 • Multiple-Angle and Product-to-Sum Formulas 107

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Section 5.5 Multiple-Angle and Product-to-Sum Formulas

## Objective: In this lesson you learned how to use multiple-angle

formulas, power-reducing formulas, half-angle formulas, and
product-to-sum formulas to rewrite and evaluate
trigonometric functions.

## I. Multiple-Angle Formulas (Pages 407−409) What you should learn

How to use multiple-
The most commonly used multiple-angle formulas are the angle formulas to rewrite
double-angle formulas , which are listed below: and evaluate
trigonometric functions
sin 2u = 2 sin u cos u

= 2 cos2 u − 1
= 1 − 2 sin2 u

## To obtain other multiple-angle formulas, . . . use 4θ and 2θ

or 6θ and 3θ in place of 2θ and θ in the double-angle formulas or
using the double-angle formulas together with the appropriate
trigonometric sum formulas.

## Example 1: Use multiple-angle formulas to express cos 3x in

terms of cos x.

4 cos3 x − 3 cos x

## Larson/Hostetler Precalculus/Precalculus with Limits Notetaking Guide IAE

108 Chapter 5 • Analytic Trigonometry

## II. Power-Reducing Formulas (Page 410) What you should learn

How to use power-
Power-reducing formulas can be used to . . . write powers reducing formulas to
of trigonometric functions in a way that does not involve powers. rewrite and evaluate
trigonometric functions

## III. Half-Angle Formulas (Pages 410−411) What you should learn

How to use half-angle
List the half-angle formulas: formulas to rewrite and
evaluate trigonometric
u
sin = ± √(1 − cos u)/2 functions
2

u
cos = ± √(1 + cos u)/2
2

u
tan = (1 − cos u)/(sin u) = (sin u)/(1 + cos u)
2

2 − √3

## Larson/Hostetler Precalculus/Precalculus with Limits Notetaking Guide IAE

Section 5.5 • Multiple-Angle and Product-to-Sum Formulas 109
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IV. Product-to-Sum Formulas (Pages 411−413) What you should learn
How to use product-to-
The product-to-sum formulas can be used to . . . rewrite sum and sum-to-product
products of trigonometric functions as a sum or difference. formulas to rewrite and
evaluate trigonometric
functions
The product-to-sum formulas are:

## sin u sin v = 1/2[cos(u − v) − cos (u + v)]

cos u cos v= 1/2[cos(u − v) + cos (u + v)]
sin u cos v = 1/2[sin(u + v) + sin(u − v)]
cos u sin v = 1/2[sin(u + v) − sin(u − v)]

## The sum-to-product formulas can be used to . . . rewrite a

sum or difference of trigonometric functions as a product.

## Larson/Hostetler Precalculus/Precalculus with Limits Notetaking Guide IAE

110 Chapter 5 • Analytic Trigonometry

2 cos 3x cos x